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Sample records for base na teoria

  1. Campo de velocidade peculiar na teoria linear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, N.

    2003-08-01

    Aglomerados e superaglomerados de galáxias são responsáveis pela chamada velocidade peculiar (movimentos relativos à expansão pura do universo) das galáxias. A amplitude destas perturbações depende da densidade de matéria do universo e do contraste de densidade no interior do volume onde está localizada a galáxia. Em 1980, Peebles introduziu o fator "f", que relaciona a amplitude das perturbações da velocidade com o campo gravitacional peculiar, no contexto da teoria linear. No presente trabalho obtemos uma solução geral analítica para o fator "f" de Peebles do campo de velocidades peculiares, em termos de funções hipergeométricas, válida para qualquer geometria do universo. Como um teste de nossa solução, os resultados encontrados originalmente por Peebles em 1980 e os resultados mais gerais encontrados por O. Lahav e colaboradores em 1991, são reobtidos.

  2. Study on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities based on Odin/OSIRIS Na density data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jorg; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational data sets obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  3. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  4. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  5. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material nearmore » an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  6. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form. PMID:26027504

  7. Synthesis of NaYF4 and NaLuF4 Based Upconversion Nanocrystals and Comparison of Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Juan; Yin, Dongguang; Song, Kailin; Wang, Chengcheng; Liu, Bing; Wu, Minghong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, four kinds of upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The morphology, crystalline phase, composition, grain size, upconversion luminescence and cell image of the UCNs were investigated. The properties of the NaLuF4-based UCNs were compared with the counterparts of NaYF4-based UCNs. It is found that the NaLuF4-based UCNs are apt to form hexagonal phase structures, while NaYF4-based UCNs of NaYF4:Yb, Er and NaYF4:Gd, Yb, Er are cubic and hexagonal phases respectively. The upconversion emission intensities of the NaLuF4-based UCNs are higher than that of NaYF4-based UCNs, and Gd3+ presented UCNs are higher than that of Gd3+ absented UCNs. The bioimaging application of NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er shows that bright upconversion luminescence can be observed when UCNs-labeled HeLa cells are excited with 980 nm light. PMID:26353495

  8. Synthesis of NaYF4 and NaLuF4 Based Upconversion Nanocrystals and Comparison of Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Juan; Yin, Dongguang; Song, Kailin; Wang, Chengcheng; Liu, Bing; Wu, Minghong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, four kinds of upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The morphology, crystalline phase, composition, grain size, upconversion luminescence and cell image of the UCNs were investigated. The properties of the NaLuF4-based UCNs were compared with the counterparts of NaYF4-based UCNs. It is found that the NaLuF4-based UCNs are apt to form hexagonal phase structures, while NaYF4-based UCNs of NaYF4:Yb, Er and NaYF4:Gd, Yb, Er are cubic and hexagonal phases respectively. The upconversion emission intensities of the NaLuF4-based UCNs are higher than that of NaYF4-based UCNs, and Gd3+ presented UCNs are higher than that of Gd3+ absented UCNs. The bioimaging application of NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er shows that bright upconversion luminescence can be observed when UCNs-labeled HeLa cells are excited with 980 nm light.

  9. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  10. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  11. New-concept Batteries Based on Aqueous Li+/Na+ Mixed-ion Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Gu, Qingwen; Zhou, Xufeng; Lee, Saixi; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage. Sodium-ion battery is considered as a potential alternative of current lithium-ion battery. As sodium-intercalation compounds suitable for aqueous batteries are limited, we adopt a novel concept of Li+/Na+ mixed-ion electrolytes to create two batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7), which relies on two electrochemical processes. One involves Li+ insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na+ extraction/insertion reaction. Two batteries exhibit specific energy of 17 Wh kg−1 and 25 Wh kg−1 based on the total weight of active electrode materials, respectively. As well, aqueous LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery is capable of separating Li+ and Na+ due to its specific mechanism unlike the traditional “rocking-chair” lithium-ion batteries. Hence, the Li+/Na+ mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li+/Na+ separation. PMID:23736113

  12. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshear, D. William; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Bunting, Bruce G; Howe, Janet E

    2012-01-01

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  13. Microstructural evolution in NaNbO3-based antiferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Randall, Clive A.

    2015-11-01

    Our recent study found that CaZrO3 doping can effectively enhance the antiferroelectric P phase in NaNbO3 ceramics, leading to a double polarization hysteresis loop characteristic of a reversible antiferroelectric ↔ ferroelectric phase transition [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015)]. Here, a thorough transmission electron microscope study was performed to illustrate the CaZrO3 doping-assisted antiferroelectricity stabilization. In parallel to the bright-field imaging and selected area electron diffraction from multiple zone axes, detailed dark-field imaging was utilized to determine the superlattice structural origins, from either oxygen octahedral tilting or antiparallel cation displacements. By analogy with Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 and rare-earth doped BiFeO3 systems, the chemical substitutions are such as to an induced polar-to-antipolar transition that is consistent with a tolerance factor reduction. The resultant chemical pressure has a similar effect to the compressive hydrostatic pressure where the antiferroelectric state is favored over the ferroelectric state.

  14. Magnetic and charge transport properties of the Na-based Os oxide pyrochlore

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.G.; Belik, A.A.; Tachibana, M.; Tanaka, M.; Katsuya, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2009-04-15

    The Na-based osmium oxide pyrochlore was synthesized for the first time by an ion-exchange method using KOs{sub 2}O{sub 6} as a host. The composition was identified as Na{sub 1.4}Os{sub 2}O{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O by electron probe micro-analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Na{sub 1.4}Os{sub 2}O{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O crystallizes in a regular pyrochlore structure with some defects (space group: Fd-3m, a=10.16851(1) A). Electrical resistivity, heat capacity, and magnetization measurements clearly showed absence of superconductivity down to 2 K, being in large contrast to what was found for the beta-type pyrochlore superconductor AOs{sub 2}O{sub 6} (A=Cs, Rb, and K). The Sommerfeld coefficient is 22 mJ K{sup -2} mol{sup -1}, being the smallest among AOs{sub 2}O{sub 6}. A magnetic anomaly at {approx}57 K and associated magneto-resistance (+3.7% at 2 K in 70 kOe) were found. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of the Na-based Os oxide pyrochlore Na{sub 1.4}Os{sub 2}O{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O.

  15. NaNet-10: a 10GbE network interface card for the GPU-based low-level trigger of the NA62 RICH detector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2016-03-01

    A GPU-based low level (L0) trigger is currently integrated in the experimental setup of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment to assess the feasibility of building more refined physics-related trigger primitives and thus improve the trigger discriminating power. To ensure the real-time operation of the system, a dedicated data transport mechanism has been implemented: an FPGA-based Network Interface Card (NaNet-10) receives data from detectors and forwards them with low, predictable latency to the memory of the GPU performing the trigger algorithms. Results of the ring-shaped hit patterns reconstruction will be reported and discussed.

  16. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  17. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  18. Field Tests of a NaI(Tl)-Based Vehicle Portal Monitor at Border Crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, David C.; Darkoch, Justin; Ely, James H.; Hansen, Randy R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Runkle, Robert C.; Sliger, William A.; Smart, John E.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2004-10-01

    Radiation portal monitors are commonly used at international border crossings to detect illicit transport of radioactive material. Most monitors use plastic scintillators to detect gamma rays, but next-generation monitors may contain NaI(Tl). In order to directly compare the performance of the two types of detectors, a prototype NaI(Tl) monitor was tested at two international border crossings adjacent to a comparable plastic scintillator monitor. The NaI(Tl) monitor housed four large detectors, each 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm x 41 cm. The empirical data set from the two field tests contains approximately 3800 passages with known cargo loads for each vehicle For a small subset of the vehicles, high purity germanium detector spectra were also collected. During the survey period several vehicles containing commercial products with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) passed through the monitor. Typical NORM cargo included pottery, large granite slabs, rock-based floor tiles, construction stone blocks, abrasive material, and fertilizer. Non-NORM sources encountered during the field tests included a large source of 60Co (200,000 GBq) and a shipment of uranium oxide, both items being legally transported. The information obtained during the tests provides a good empirical data set to compare the effectiveness of NaI(Tl) and plastic-scintillator portal monitors. The capability to be sensitive to illicit materials, but not alarm on NORM, is a key figure of merit for portal monitors. (PIET-43741-TM-210)

  19. Fluoride gastrointestinal absorption from Na2FPO3/CaCO3- and NaF/SiO2-based toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Falcão, A; Tenuta, L M A; Cury, J A

    2013-01-01

    Depending on toothpaste formulation, part of the fluoride is insoluble and would not be totally absorbable in the gastrointestinal tract, thus changing dental fluorosis risk estimation. This hypothesis was tested with formulations with either all fluoride in a soluble form (NaF/SiO2-based toothpaste, 1,100 µg F/g as labeled, 1,129.7 ± 49.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed) or with around 20% of insoluble fluoride (Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste, 1,450 µg F/g as labeled, 1,122.4 ± 76.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed). Toothpastes were evaluated either fresh or after accelerated aging, which increased insoluble fluoride to 40% in the Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste. In a blind, crossover clinical trial conducted in five legs, 20 adult volunteers ingested 49.5 µg of total fluoride/kg body weight from each formulation or purified water (control). Whole saliva and urine were collected as bioavailability indicators, and pharmacokinetics parameters calculated showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower fluoride bioavailability for Na2FPO3/CaCO3 toothpaste, which was reduced further after aging. A significant correlation between the amount of soluble fluoride ingested, but not total fluoride, and fluoride bioavailability was found (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). The findings suggest that the estimated fluorosis risk as a result of ingestion of Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpastes should be calculated based on the toothpaste's soluble rather than total fluoride concentration. PMID:23295625

  20. Characterization of the synchrotron-based 0.3-NA EUV microexposuretool at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Dean,Kim; Denham, Paul; Cain, Jason P.; Hoef, Brian; Jackson, Keith

    2005-06-01

    Synchrotron-based EUV exposure tools continue to play a crucial roll in the development of EUV lithography. Utilizing a programmable-pupil-fill illuminator, the 0.3-NA microexposure tool at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility provides the highest resolution EUV projection printing capabilities available today. This makes it ideal for the characterization of advanced resist and mask processes. The Berkeley tool also serves as a good benchmarking platform for commercial implementations of 0.3-NA EUV microsteppers because its illuminator can be programmed to emulate the coherence conditions of the commercial tools. Here we present the latest resist and tool characterization results from the Berkeley EUV exposure station.

  1. RobiNA: a user-friendly, integrated software solution for RNA-Seq-based transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Marc; Bolger, Anthony M; Nagel, Axel; Fernie, Alisdair R; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Usadel, Björn

    2012-07-01

    Recent rapid advances in next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based provide researchers with unprecedentedly large data sets and open new perspectives in transcriptomics. Furthermore, RNA-Seq-based transcript profiling can be applied to non-model and newly discovered organisms because it does not require a predefined measuring platform (like e.g. microarrays). However, these novel technologies pose new challenges: the raw data need to be rigorously quality checked and filtered prior to analysis, and proper statistical methods have to be applied to extract biologically relevant information. Given the sheer volume of data, this is no trivial task and requires a combination of considerable technical resources along with bioinformatics expertise. To aid the individual researcher, we have developed RobiNA as an integrated solution that consolidates all steps of RNA-Seq-based differential gene-expression analysis in one user-friendly cross-platform application featuring a rich graphical user interface. RobiNA accepts raw FastQ files, SAM/BAM alignment files and counts tables as input. It supports quality checking, flexible filtering and statistical analysis of differential gene expression based on state-of-the art biostatistical methods developed in the R/Bioconductor projects. In-line help and a step-by-step manual guide users through the analysis. Installer packages for Mac OS X, Windows and Linux are available under the LGPL licence from http://mapman.gabipd.org/web/guest/robin.

  2. A study on (K, Na) NbO3 based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics micro speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Renlong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Huan, Yu; Sun, Yiming; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-10-01

    A flat panel micro speaker was fabricated from (K, Na) NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics by a tape casting and cofiring process using Ag-Pd alloys as an inner electrode. The interface between ceramic and electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The acoustic response was characterized by a standard audio test system. We found that the micro speaker with dimensions of 23 × 27 × 0.6 mm3, using three layers of 30 μm thickness KNN-based ceramic, has a high average sound pressure level (SPL) of 87 dB, between 100 Hz-20 kHz under five voltage. This result was even better than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics under the same conditions. The experimental results show that the KNN-based multilayer ceramics could be used as lead free piezoelectric micro speakers.

  3. Virtualised data production infrastructure for NA61/SHINE based on CernVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppe Larsen, Dag; Na61/Shine Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the NA61/SHINE data production is performed by manually submitting jobs to the CERN batch system. An effort is now under way to migrate the data production to an automatic system, on top of a virtualised platform based on CernVM. This will make it easier to both initiate new data productions, and to utilise computing resources available outside CERN. In addition, there is a data preservation perspective. CernVM is a Linux distribution created by CERN specifically for the needs of virtual machines. Data production software and calibration data are distributed globally via the HTTP-based CernVM file system. The NA61/SHINE data production software has been adapted to run under CernVM through CernVM file system. Databases are used to keep track of the data. This will allow the system to present lists of both raw and produced data. If a new data production is needed, the privileged user may choose the data, software versions, and calibrations to be used. Finished jobs will be scanned for errors, and automatically resubmitted for processing if needed. A web-based, graphical user interface for the data production will be available. Finally, the relevant databases will be updated to reflect the freshly produced data.

  4. NaNet: a flexible and configurable low-latency NIC for real-time trigger systems based on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pantaleo, F.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-02-01

    NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34 Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modular architecture. Benchmarks for latency and bandwidth for GbE and APElink channels are presented, followed by a performance analysis on the case study of the GPU-based low level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 CERN experiment, using either the NaNet GbE and APElink channels. Finally, we give an outline of project future activities.

  5. NaNet: a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Fantechi, Riccardo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-06-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCIe Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  6. K-teoria de operadores pseudodiferenciais na reta com simbolos semiperiodicos (in Portuguese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cintia C.

    2005-05-01

    Let A denote the smallest C*-subalgebra of the algebra of all bounded operators on L^2(R) containing: (i) all multiplications a(M) by functions a in C[-infty,+infty], (ii) all multiplications e^{ijM}, j in Z, and (iii) all operators of the form F^{-1}b(M)F, where F denotes the Fourier transform and b is in C[-infty,+infty]. It is known that the principal symbol mapping extends to a surjective C*-homomorphism sigma from A into C(M), where M is a certain compactification of two copies of R. It is also known that E, the kernel of sigma, contains the compact ideal K and that the quotient of E by K, is isomorphic to the direct sum of two copies of C(S^1,K). Using the explicit form of these two isomorphisms, we are able to compute the connecting mappings in the cyclic exact sequence in K-theory associated to the homomorphism sigma and to proof that K_0(A) is isomorphic to Z and that K_1(A) is isomorphic to Z^2. The isomorphism from E/K into C(S^1,K) can be to extended to a C*-homomorphism γ from A into the direct sum of two copies of C(S^1,B), where B denotes the algebra of all bounded operators on L^2(Z). We prove that the image of γ is isomorphic to the direct sum of two copies of the crossed product of C[-infty,+infty] by the translation-by-one automorphism. Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu exact sequence, we then compute the K-theory of the image of γ. That leads to a second proof that K_0(A) is isomorphic to Z and that K_1(A) is isomorphic to Z^2.

  7. NaBH4 generator integrated with energy conversion device based on hydrogen combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netskina, O. V.; Fursenko, R. V.; Komova, O. V.; Odintsov, E. S.; Simagina, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device operating on the heat generated by a hydrogen diffusion microflame has been developed. For the first time, a NaBH4 hydrogen generator has been employed as a source of fuel for such type of power generator. A 1%Ru-3%Co/Sibunit catalyst ensures hydrogen generation at a rate of 3 cm3 s-1 during 3 h. Power and efficiency characteristics of the integrated system consisting of a hydrogen generator and an energy converter based on combustion technologies have been studied experimentally. The total efficiency and the generated power of the system were measured to achieve values of up to 1.23% and 0.25 W, respectively. Ways to further improve the system's power output and efficiency characteristics have been discussed.

  8. In Vitro Priming of Naı̈ve T-cells with p-Phenylenediamine and Bandrowski's Base.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Andrew; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Faulkner, Lee; Evely, Jane; Pirmohamed, Munir; Park, Kevin B; Naisbitt, Dean J

    2015-10-19

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a component of hair dye formulations that is associated with T-cell mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Antigen-specific T-cells from allergic contact dermatitis patients are activated with either PPD or the oxidation product, Bandrowski's base. In nonallergic individuals, T-cells that are activated by Bandrowski's base, but not by PPD, are readily detectable. The aim of the current study was to use an in vitro T-cell priming assay to assess the activation of memory and naı̈ve T-cells from healthy donors with PPD and Bandrowski's base, and to compare these responses to those observed from allergic patients. Both PPD and Bandrowski's base-responsive clones were generated from allergic patients. The majority of Bandrowski's base-responsive clones were CD4+ and displayed a lack of PPD reactivity. In contrast, CD4+ and CD8+ clones displaying PPD reactivity were detected. Approximately 25% of these displayed low levels of reactivity to Bandrowski's base. Clones from the allergic patients secreted a range of cytokines including IFN-γ, Il-13, and Il-22. In healthy donors, Bandrowski's base-specific T-cell proliferative responses and cytokine secretion were detected with both naı̈ve and memory T-cells. T-cell clones generated from the Bandrowski's base-responsive cultures responded to Bandrowski's base but not PPD. PPD-specific naı̈ve and memory T-cell responses were not detected from healthy donors. These data show that Bandrowski's base stimulates pre-existing memory T-cells isolated from healthy donors and primes naı̈ve T-cells when the chemical is bound to autologous dendritic cells. Priming naı̈ve T-cells against PPD failed, suggesting an important individual susceptibility factor is missing from the in vitro T-cell priming assay. PMID:26355666

  9. The first Fe-based Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kan, W. H.; Huq, A.; Manthiram, A.

    2015-05-15

    We report the synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry of the first Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19. The Fe-based cathode has a reversible capacity of ca. 70 mAh g-1; ca. 1.7 Na+ ions per formula can be inserted/extracted at an average voltage of 2.5 V versus Na+/Na.

  10. Studies on the acid-base properties of the AIBr sub 3 -NaBr melts

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H. ); Hayashi, N.; Takehara, Z. ); Katagiri, A. )

    1989-09-01

    Recently, a lot of work has been performed on the acid-base properties of Lewis acidic molten salts. One of the most extensively investigated melt systems is the sodium chloroaluminate melt (175{degrees}-220{degrees}C) in which the chloride ion activity is dependent upon the composition of the melt. It is well known that unusual higher oxidation state ionic species, such as S(IV) or lower oxidation state cluster compounds, such as W{sub 6}CI{sub 8}{sup 4 +}, can be stable in the chloroaluminate melts because of the strong Lewis acidity of these solvents. These melts are now one of the potential solvents. These melts are now one of the potential materials for use in low-temperature molten salt batteries or as solvents for organic syntheses. The aluminum bromide-sodium bromide melts also show the variable Lewis acidity. Some physical properties of the haloaluminate melts are dependent on the halide species. Therefore, the acid-base properties of the melts also may vary with the anion component, even with the same cationic constituent. The authors discuss how they investigated the acid-base properties of the AIBr{sub 3}-NaBr melts and compared their characteristics with those of the chloroaluminate melts.

  11. Corrosion Performance Based on the Microstructural Array of Al-Based Monotectic Alloys in a NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Freitas, Emmanuelle S.; Garcia, Amauri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the electrochemical behavior of three monotectic Al-based alloys (Al-Pb, Al-Bi, and Al-In) in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Two distinct microstructure arrays were experimentally obtained for each Al monotectic alloy by using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and impedance parameters obtained by an equivalent circuit analysis are discussed. It was found that the Al-Pb alloy has lower corrosion current density, higher polarization resistance, lower relative weight, and cost than the corresponding values of Al-Bi and Al-In alloys. It is also shown that the electrochemical behavior of the three alloys examined are intimately correlated with the scale of the corresponding microstructure, with smaller droplets and spacings (i.e., cell and interphase spacings) being associated with a decrease in the corrosion resistance.

  12. Meditation-based treatment yielding immediate relief for meditation-naïve migraineurs.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Makenzie E; Wachholtz, Amy B

    2014-03-01

    Meditation is gaining popularity as an effective means of managing and attenuating pain and has been particularly effective for migraines. Meditation additionally addresses the negative emotional states known to exist with migraines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of meditation as an immediate intervention for reducing migraine pain as well as alleviating emotional tension, examined herein as a negative affect hypothesized to be correlated with pain. Twenty-seven migraineurs, with two to ten migraines per month, reported migraine-related pain and emotional tension ratings on a Likert scale (ranging from 0 to 10) before and after exposure to a brief meditation-based treatment. All participants were meditation- naïve, and attended one 20-minute guided meditation session based on the Buddhist "loving kindness" approach. After the session, participants reported a 33% decrease in pain and a 43% decrease in emotional tension. The data suggest that a single exposure to a brief meditative technique can significantly reduce pain and tension, as well as offer several clinical implications. It can be concluded that single exposure to a meditative technique can significantly reduce pain and tension. The effectiveness and immediacy of this intervention offers several implications for nurses.

  13. (Na, K)NbO3-Based Ceramics for Self-Powered Energy Harvesting Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhwan; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Self-powered energy harvesting technologies have been intensively investigated by employ- ing Pb-free piezoelectric materials. One such Pb-free piezoelectric material, the ceramic 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3, was prepared by employing the conventional mixed oxide method. 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were prepared and the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were system- atically investigated for energy harvesting applications. The crystal structure of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3- 0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3 Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics, sintered at temperatures between 1080 °C and 1160 °C, was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were measured from 1 kHz to 1 MHz for the various sintering temperatures. We expect that optimization of sintering parameters can improve the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.97 (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics for energy harvesting. PMID:26413668

  14. CORROSION OF AMORPHOUS AND NANOCRYSTALLINE Fe-BASED ALLOYS IN NaCl AND H2SO4 SOLUTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Yan, Biao; Pan, Deng

    2013-07-01

    Corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy was investigated and compared to its amorphous counterpart. Low-temperature crystallization occurred during the annealing of amorphous tapes was used to obtain a nanocrystalline structure. The influence of annealing condition on the structure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in NaCl and H2SO4 solutions was investigated. Based on the testing results, it was found that nanocrystalline tapes have higher corrosion resistance than amorphous counterpart and H2SO4 can promote the occurrence of corrosion compared with NaCl.

  15. Lithium insertion processes of orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2}-based electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Richardson, T.J.; Kepley, L.

    1996-08-01

    Electrochemical, thermal, and structural characterization of lithium insertion processes into orthorhombic Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2}-based materials is presented. Chimie douce oxidation, reduction, and/or exchange reactions of the precursor Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} can be used to prepare high capacity (180 mAh/g), high potential compounds for use in secondary lithium batteries. Lithiated Na{sub x}MnO{sub 2} is quite stable; formation of spinel phases occurs only under conditions of prolonged severe abuse during cycling in electrochemical cells, or upon heating to 500 C. The lithium-ion intercalation process is considerably more complex than that for sodium ions; features are seen in the electrochemical potential-step experiments that may be attributed to several phase transitions. These results are interpreted in terms of the unusual structure, and implications for future use of these materials in lithium batteries are discussed.

  16. Mechanism of corrosion of Ni base superalloys by molten Na2MoO4 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Stearns, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of nickel base superalloy, U-700, by molten Na2MoO4 was studied in the temperature range of 750 deg to 950 deg C. After an induction period, the rate of corrosion is linear and catastrophic corrosion is observed. It is shown that the induction period is associated with the attainment of a minimum MoO3 activity in the melt, which corresponds to the equilibrium MoO3 activity for the reaction, 2MoO3(l) + Mo = 3MoO2(s). A mechanism is proposed to describe the catastrophic nature of corrosion, which involves transport of Ni++ through the melt resulting in formulation of NiO at the melt gas interface and basic fluxing of Cr2O3. The effect of the amount of Na2MoO4 on the corrosion kinetics was also studied. It is found that evaporation and the thermodynamic calculations for the Na2MoO4 - MoO3 system the activity of MoO3 is reduced considerably when dissolved in Na2MoO4, which causes a sharp decrease in the rate of evaporation of MoO3 from a Na2MoO4 - MoO3 melt.

  17. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for lactational transfer of Na-131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Anita Loretta

    The excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after administration of radiopharmaceuticals is a concern as a radiation risk to nursing infants. It is not uncommon to administer radiopharmaceuticals to lactating patients due to emergency nuclear medicine investigations such as thyroid complications, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. There is a need to quantify the amount of radioactivity translocated into breast milk in cases of ingestion by a breast-fed infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) and a modified International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model have been developed to predict iodine concentrations in breast milk after ingestion of radioiodine by the mother. In the PBPK model, all compartments are interconnected by blood flow and represent real anatomic tissue regions in the body. All parameters involved are measurable values with physiological or physiochemical meaning such as tissue masses, blood flow rates, partition coefficients and cardiac output. However, some of the parameters such as the partition coefficients and metabolic constants are not available for iodine and had to be inferred from other information. The structure of the PBPK model for the mother consists of the following tissue compartments: gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, thyroid, milk, and other tissues. With the exception of the milk compartment, the model for the nursing infant is structured similarly to the mother. The ICRP model describing iodine metabolism in a standard 70-kg man was modified to represent iodine metabolism in a lactating woman and nursing infant. The parameters involved in this model are transfer rates and biological half-lives which are based on experimental observations. The results of the PBPK model and the modified ICRP model describing the lactational transfer of iodine were compared. When administering 1 mCi of Na131I to the lactating mother, the concentration reaches a maximum of 0.1 mCi/liter in 24

  18. Na+/D-glucose cotransporter based bilayer lipid membrane sensor for D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Sugao, N; Sugawara, M; Minami, H; Uto, M; Umezawa, Y

    1993-02-15

    A new type of amperometric blosensor for glucose was fabricated using a Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as the signal-transducing sensory element that exploits the D-glucose-triggered Na+ ion current through bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The planar BLM was formed by the folding method across a small aperture of a thin Teflon film. The Na+/D-glucose cotransporter, isolated and purified from small intestinal brush border membrane of guinea pigs, was embedded into BLMs through proteoliposomes. The number of the protein molecules thus incorporated in the present sensing membrane was estimated to be ca. 10(7). The sensor response was measured as an ionic current through the BLM arising from cotransported Na+ ion flux under a constant applied potential and was only induced by D-glucose above 10(-9) M, but not by the other monosaccharides except for D-galactose. The effect of applied potentials, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations, and the addition of a competitive inhibitor, phlorizin, were scrutinized to characterize the sensor output. The results were briefly discussed in terms of the potential use of the Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as a sensory element for D-glucose.

  19. Constraints on Mercury's Na Exosphere: Combined MESSENGER and Ground-Based Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouawad, Nelly; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Potter, Andrew E.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Benna, Mehdi; Naidu, Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    We have used observations of sodium emission obtained with the McMath-Pierce solar telescope and MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) to constrain models of Mercury's sodium exosphere, The distribution of sodium in Mercury's exosphere during the period January 12-15. 2008. was mapped using the McMath-Pierce solar telescope with the 5" X 5" image slicer to observe the D-line emission. On January 14, 2008, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel on MASCS sampled the sodium in Mercury's anti-sunward tail region. We find that the bound exosphere has an equivalent temperature of 900-1200 K, and that this temperature can be achieved if the sodium is ejected either by photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) with a 1200 K Maxwellian velocity distribution, or by thermal accommodation of a hotter source. We were not able to discriminate between the two assumed velocity distributions of the ejected particles for the PSD. but the velocity distributions require different values of the thermal accommodation coefficient and result in different upper limits on impact vaporization, We were able to place a strong constraint on the impact vaporization rate that results in the release of neutral Na atoms with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10(exp 6) sq cm/s, The variability of the week-long ground-based observations can be explained by variations in the sources, including both PSD and ion-enhanced PSD, as well as possible temporal enhancements in meteoroid vaporization. Knowledge of both dayside and anti-sunward tail morphologies and radiances are necessary to correctly deduce the exospheric source rates, processes, velocity distribution, and surface interaction.

  20. Energetic aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery based on Na2 CuFe(CN)6 -NaTi2 (PO4 )3 intercalation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Yong; Sun, Meng-Ying; Shen, Yi-Fei; Qian, Jiang-Feng; Cao, Yu-Liang; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2014-02-01

    Aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have the potential to meet growing demand for grid-scale electric energy storage because of the widespread availability and low cost of sodium resources. In this study, we synthesized a Na-rich copper hexacyanoferrate(II) Na2 CuFe(CN)6 as a high potential cathode and used NaTi2 (PO4 )3 as a Na-deficient anode to assemble an aqueous sodium ion battery. This battery works very well with a high average discharge voltage of 1.4 V, a specific energy of 48 Wh kg(-1) , and an excellent high-rate cycle stability with approximately 90 % capacity retention over 1000 cycles, achieving a new record in the electrochemical performance of aqueous Na-ion batteries. Moreover, all the anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are low cost and naturally abundant and are affordable for widespread applications. PMID:24464957

  1. The natural product domain seeker NaPDoS: a phylogeny based bioinformatic tool to classify secondary metabolite gene diversity.

    PubMed

    Ziemert, Nadine; Podell, Sheila; Penn, Kevin; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Eric; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    New bioinformatic tools are needed to analyze the growing volume of DNA sequence data. This is especially true in the case of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the highly repetitive nature of the associated genes creates major challenges for accurate sequence assembly and analysis. Here we introduce the web tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS), which provides an automated method to assess the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and novelty of strains or environments. NaPDoS analyses are based on the phylogenetic relationships of sequence tags derived from polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, respectively. The sequence tags correspond to PKS-derived ketosynthase domains and NRPS-derived condensation domains and are compared to an internal database of experimentally characterized biosynthetic genes. NaPDoS provides a rapid mechanism to extract and classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from PCR products, genomes, and metagenomic datasets. Close database matches provide a mechanism to infer the generalized structures of secondary metabolites while new phylogenetic lineages provide targets for the discovery of new enzyme architectures or mechanisms of secondary metabolite assembly. Here we outline the main features of NaPDoS and test it on four draft genome sequences and two metagenomic datasets. The results provide a rapid method to assess secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and richness in organisms or environments and a mechanism to identify genes that may be associated with uncharacterized biochemistry.

  2. The Natural Product Domain Seeker NaPDoS: A Phylogeny Based Bioinformatic Tool to Classify Secondary Metabolite Gene Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ziemert, Nadine; Podell, Sheila; Penn, Kevin; Badger, Jonathan H.; Allen, Eric; Jensen, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    New bioinformatic tools are needed to analyze the growing volume of DNA sequence data. This is especially true in the case of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the highly repetitive nature of the associated genes creates major challenges for accurate sequence assembly and analysis. Here we introduce the web tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS), which provides an automated method to assess the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and novelty of strains or environments. NaPDoS analyses are based on the phylogenetic relationships of sequence tags derived from polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, respectively. The sequence tags correspond to PKS-derived ketosynthase domains and NRPS-derived condensation domains and are compared to an internal database of experimentally characterized biosynthetic genes. NaPDoS provides a rapid mechanism to extract and classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from PCR products, genomes, and metagenomic datasets. Close database matches provide a mechanism to infer the generalized structures of secondary metabolites while new phylogenetic lineages provide targets for the discovery of new enzyme architectures or mechanisms of secondary metabolite assembly. Here we outline the main features of NaPDoS and test it on four draft genome sequences and two metagenomic datasets. The results provide a rapid method to assess secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and richness in organisms or environments and a mechanism to identify genes that may be associated with uncharacterized biochemistry. PMID:22479523

  3. Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youting

    Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment Youting Song*, Wanchun Chen, Xiaolong Chen Institute of Physics and Beijing National Lab-oratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing, 100080 P. R. China ytsong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn The progress in ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under micro-gravity environment was reported. (a) A new apparatus used for growth of large size of LiIO3 crystals by the evaporation method has been developed, in which the hydrophobic poly-terafluorothytene micro-filtration (PEFT) film was used to resist the leakage of LiIO3 solution and control the growth rate of LiIO3 crystals along with CaCl2 adsorbent. The pore diameters of PEFT film should be between 0.1-1.0m, and the optimal weight of the adsorbent should be as three times as that of the solvent H2O evaporated. During crystal growth, the solution is re-plenished by a creeping pump to avoid separating the growing crystal from the solution. Using this technique we have obtained good quality LiIO3 crystals in the ground-based experiments. (b) The nucleating experiment of NaClO3 seed-induction was carried out in a ground-based en-vironment, and experimental results showed that seed-induction of NaClO3 played certainly a role of increasing crystal chiral enantiomer excess (cee), which will become the basis of contrast experiment under microgravity environment.

  4. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-06-07

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  5. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO3 Piezoelectric Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO3 piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO3 sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO3 nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H3O+ groups in the absorbed H2O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential. PMID:27338376

  6. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential. PMID:27338376

  7. The atom-surface interaction potential for He-NaCl: A model based on pairwise additivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.; Fowler, P. W.

    1986-08-01

    The recently developed semi-empirical model of Fowler and Hutson is applied to the He-NaCl atom-surface interaction potential. Ab initio self-consistent field calculations of the repulsive interactions between He atoms and in-crystal Cl - and Na + ions are performed. Dispersion coefficients involving in-crystal ions are also calculated. The atom-surface potential is constructed using a model based on pairwise additivity of atom-ion forces. With a small adjustment of the repulsive part, this potential gives good agreement with the experimental bound state energies obtained from selective adsorption resonances in low-energy atom scattering experiments. Close-coupling calculations of the resonant scattering are performed, and good agreement with the experimental peak positions and intensity patterns is obtained. It is concluded that there are no bound states deeper than those observed in the selective adsorption experiments, and that the well depth of the He-NaCl potential is 6.0 ± 0.2 meV.

  8. Research on micro-blog character analysis based on Naïve Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Tong; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    With the development of Information Technology, people have entered the era of Big Data, and the demand for intelligent information is more intense. How to make computer provide more personalized and efficient service for all walks of life, is something worth exploring. In this paper, we aim to predict user's character by analyzing the textual content of his/her micro-blog, which is the foundation of Personalized Service. Our study describes the method of creating a prediction model about user's character by using Bayesian algorithms. Experimental results show that the Naïve Bayes approach is a valid and promoted analytic method in micro-blog character analysis.

  9. A low cost, all-organic Na-ion Battery Based on Polymeric Cathode and Anode

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenwen; Liang, Xinmiao; Wu, Xianyong; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Feng, Jiwen; Yang, Hanxi

    2013-01-01

    Current battery systems have severe cost and resource restrictions, difficultly to meet the large scale electric storage applications. Herein, we report an all-organic Na-ion battery using p-dopable polytriphenylamine as cathode and n-type redox-active poly(anthraquinonyl sulphide) as anode, excluding the use of transition-metals as in conventional electrochemical batteries. Such a Na-ion battery can work well with a voltage output of 1.8 V and realize a considerable specific energy of 92 Wh kg−1. Due to the structural flexibility and stability of the redox-active polymers, this battery has a superior rate capability with 60% capacity released at a very high rate of 16 C (3200 mA g−1) and also exhibit an excellent cycling stability with 85% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 8 C rate. Most significantly, this type of all-organic batteries could be made from renewable and earth-abundant materials, thus offering a new possibility for widespread energy storage applications. PMID:24036973

  10. Computer analysis of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of cryolite based systems: 1. The AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, M.L.; Lin, P.I.; Cerisier, P.; Pelton, A.D.

    1980-09-01

    Calculations of the phase diagram of the AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system up to 35 mol pct AlF/sub 3/ and of the binary subsystems are presented. For the binary LiF-NaF, AlF/sub 3/-NaF, AlF/sub 3/-LiF, and the quasibinary Li/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/-Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/ systems, thermodynamic properties of the unary and binary phases are used to numerically generate the corresponding phase diagram. The calculated and measured values are in good agreement. The broad data base thus constructed is used with equations from the conformal ionic solution theory to derive a priori phase equilibria of the AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system. Ternary liquidus temperatures are calculated covering compositions outside the range of measurements. 47 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  12. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  13. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  14. Identification of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress responsive proteins in tomato roots using iTRAQ-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Biao; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Xiu; Wen, Dan; Wang, Shuoshuo; Shi, Qinghua; Wang, Xiufeng

    2014-03-28

    Soil salinity and alkalinity are common constraints to crop productivity in low rainfall regions of the world. However, the physiological difference of plant response to these two stresses was short of deep investigation. This study has identified a set of differentially expressed proteins of tomato root exploring to NaCl and NaHCO3 stress by iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) assay. A total of 313 proteins responsive to NaCl and NaHCO3 were observed. Among these proteins, 70 and 114 proteins were up-regulated by salt and alkali stress, respectively. While down-regulated proteins were 80 in salt treatment and 83 in alkali treatment. Only 39 up-regulated proteins and 30 down-regulated proteins were shared by salt and alkali stresses. The majority of the down-regulated proteins accounted for metabolism and energy conversion, and the up-regulated proteins were involved in signaling or transport. Compared with salt stress, alkali stress down-regulated proteins related with the respiratory metabolism, fatty acid oxidative metabolism and nitrogenous metabolism of tomato roots, and up-regulated protein with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and ion transport. This study provides a novel insight into tomato roots response to salt and alkali stress at a large translation level. PMID:24613841

  15. Description of brain injury in the amnesic patient N.A. based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Amaral, D G; Zola-Morgan, S; Kritchevsky, M; Press, G

    1989-07-01

    N.A. has been amnesic since 1960 when at the age of 22 years he sustained a penetrating brain injury with a miniature fencing foil. The amnesia primarily affects verbal material and occurs in the absence of other detectable cognitive deficits. Previous CT scans demonstrated a lucency in the region of the left mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, but no additional damage was revealed. Beginning in 1986 when he was 48 years old, N.A. was evaluated with a series of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies. Three major areas of damage were identified. In the left thalamus there is a prominent 3- to 4-mm-wide linear lesion that approximates the position and orientation of the internal medullary lamina. The defect extends for approximately 20 mm anteroposteriorly and likely involves the rostral group of intralaminar nuclei (central medial, paracentral, central lateral, rhomboid, and reuniens nuclei), the caudal group of intralaminar nuclei (centrum medianum and parafascicular nuclei), the ventral aspect of the mediodorsal nucleus, and the ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei. It also likely interrupts the trajectories of the mammillothalamic tract and postcommissural fornix. The posterior hypothalamus is markedly disrupted and the mammillary nuclei appear to be missing bilaterally. Finally, the right anterior temporal lobe is damaged for a distance of about 3.5 cm from the pole to midway through the amygdaloid complex. This damage probably occurred during exploratory neurosurgery done at the time of N.A.'s injury. The hippocampal formation appears intact on both sides. A comparison of these findings with those from other patients with diencephalic amnesia suggests that amnesia can result when several diencephalic structures are damaged conjointly, including the internal medullary lamina, the intralaminar nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, and the mammillothalamic tract. Whether amnesia as severe as N.A.'s would result from selective damage to any one of these structures

  16. Investigation and optimisation of mobile NaI(Tl) and 3He-based neutron detectors for finding point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Jonas M. C.; Finck, Robert R.; Rääf, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Neutron radiation produces high-energy gamma radiation through (n,γ) reactions in matter. This can be used to detect neutron sources indirectly using gamma spectrometers. The sensitivity of a gamma spectrometer to neutrons can be amplified by surrounding it with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The hydrogen in the PVC acts as a moderator and the chlorine emits prompt gammas when a neutron is captured. A 4.7-l 3He-based mobile neutron detector was compared to a 4-l NaI(Tl)-detector covered with PVC using this principle. Methods were also developed to optimise the measurement parameters of the systems. The detector systems were compared with regard to their ability to find 241AmBe, 252Cf and 238Pu-13C neutron sources. Results from stationary measurements were used to calculate optimal integration times as well as minimum detectable neutron emission rates. It was found that the 3He-based detector was more sensitive to 252Cf sources whereas the NaI(Tl) detector was more sensitive to 241AmBe and 238Pu-13C sources. The results also indicated that the sensitivity of the detectors to sources at known distances could theoretically be improved by 60% by changing from fixed integration times to list mode in mobile surveys.

  17. Direct evidence of an incommensurate phase in NaNbO{sub 3} and its implication in NaNbO{sub 3}-based lead-free antiferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hanzheng; Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-14

    Hot-stage in situ transmission electron microscopy was employed to investigate the temperature-induced complex sequence of phase transitions in NaNbO{sub 3} polycrystalline. In addition to the commonly recognized P (Pbma) → R (Pmnm) → S (Pnmm) phase transitions, incommensurate phases were observed to exist in P and R phase regions. The former (in the P → R transition region) is coincident with a diffused dielectric peak appearing at ∼170 °C, and the latter (in the R → S transition region) serves as an intermediate structure to bridge the two sub-phases in the R phase region. The incommensurate phase in the P phase region can be inferred from the polarization current density and differential dielectric permittivity anomalies, and it provides the bridge structure during the electric field-induced polarization reversal and antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric transition in NaNbO{sub 3} solid solutions.

  18. Effects of saxitoxin (STX) and veratridine on bacterial Na+ -K+ fluxes: a prokaryote-based STX bioassay.

    PubMed

    Pomati, Francesco; Rossetti, Carlo; Calamari, Davide; Neilan, Brett A

    2003-12-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent natural sodium channel blocker and represents a significant health concern worldwide. We describe here the antagonistic effects of STX and veratridine (VTD), an Na+ channel activator, on three gram-negative bacteria and their application to an STX bioassay. STX reduced the total cellular levels of both Na+ and K+, as measured by flame photometry, whereas VTD increased the cellular concentrations relative to control ion fluxes in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii AWT205. Endogenous STX production in toxic cyanobacterial strains of C. raciborskii and Anabaena circinalis prevented cell lysis induced by VTD stress. Microscopic cell counts showed that non-STX producing cyanobacteria displayed complete cell lysis and trichome fragmentation 5 to 8 h after addition of VTD and vanadate (VAN), an inhibitor of sodium pumps. The addition of STX, or its analogue neoSTX, prior to treatment with VTD plus VAN prevented complete lysis in non-STX-producing cyanobacteria. VTD also affected cyanobacterial metabolism, and the presence of exogenous STX in the sample also ameliorated this decrease in metabolic activity, as measured by the cellular conversion of tetrazolium into formazan. Reduced primary metabolism was also recorded as a decrease in the light emissions of Vibrio fischeri exposed to VTD. Addition of STX prior to VTD resulted in a rapid and dose-dependent response to the presence of the channel blocker, with samples exhibiting resistance to the VTD effect. Our findings demonstrate that STX and VTD influence bacterial Na+ and K+ fluxes in opposite ways, and these principles can be applied to the development of a prokaryote-based STX bioassay.

  19. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells. PMID:14741598

  20. Microstructural evolution in NaNbO{sub 3}-based antiferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hanzheng Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-07

    Our recent study found that CaZrO{sub 3} doping can effectively enhance the antiferroelectric P phase in NaNbO{sub 3} ceramics, leading to a double polarization hysteresis loop characteristic of a reversible antiferroelectric ↔ ferroelectric phase transition [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015)]. Here, a thorough transmission electron microscope study was performed to illustrate the CaZrO{sub 3} doping-assisted antiferroelectricity stabilization. In parallel to the bright-field imaging and selected area electron diffraction from multiple zone axes, detailed dark-field imaging was utilized to determine the superlattice structural origins, from either oxygen octahedral tilting or antiparallel cation displacements. By analogy with Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} and rare-earth doped BiFeO{sub 3} systems, the chemical substitutions are such as to an induced polar-to-antipolar transition that is consistent with a tolerance factor reduction. The resultant chemical pressure has a similar effect to the compressive hydrostatic pressure where the antiferroelectric state is favored over the ferroelectric state.

  1. Structure based identification of inhibitors for the SLC13 family of Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporters

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M.; Schlessinger, Avner

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, citric acid cycle intermediates play a key role in regulating various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Members of the sodium dependent SLC13 transporter family mediate the transport of di and tricarboxylates into cells. SLC13 members have been implicated in lifespan extension and resistance to high fat diets, thus, they are emerging drug targets for aging and metabolic disorders. We previously characterized key structural determinants of substrate and cation binding for the human NaDC3/SLC13A3 transporter using a homology model. Here, we combine computational modeling and virtual screening with functional and biochemical testing, to identify 9 previously unknown inhibitors for multiple members of the SLC13 family from human and mouse. Our results reveal previously unknown substrate selectivity determinants for the SLC13 family, including key residues that mediate ligand binding and transport, as well as promiscuous and specific SLC13 small molecule ligands. The newly discovered ligands can serve as chemical tools to further characterize the SLC13 family or as lead molecules for future development of potent inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases and aging. Our results improve our understanding of the structural components that are important for substrate specificity in this physiologically important family as well as in other structurally related transport systems. PMID:26176240

  2. Development and bioactivity evaluation of bioglasses with low Na2O content based on the system Na 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5-SiO 2.

    PubMed

    El-Meliegy, Emad; Hamzawy, Esmat M A; El-Kady, Abeer M; Salama, Aida; El-Rashedi, Ahalam

    2012-09-01

    Osteoconductive bioglasses, free of K(2)O and Al(2)O(3) and with content of Na(2)O lower than 10 mol%, were designed based on the ratio (SiO(2) + MgO)/(P(2)O(5) + CaO + Na(2)O) in the system Na(2)O-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2). The developed glasses have shown a strong potential for the formation of hydroxycarbonated apatite (HCA) in vitro. The particles of HCA aggregates tend to be of finer size with increasing the ratio of (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) in the glass chemical composition indicating significant bioactivity. Critical size bone defects created in the femurs of albino adult female rats, and grafted with the glass particles for 12 weeks post implantation, were completely healed by filling with mineralized bone matrix without infection showing a strong potential for new bone formation in vivo. Osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed close to the surface of the granular implants with active areas of bone deposition, resorption and remodelling. The bioglass with lowest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) ratio has shown the highest bioactivity while the bioglass with the highest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) has shown the lowest bioactivity. The newly formed bone in vivo has shown a similar structure to that of the original bone as indicated by the histology and microstructural results. In addition, Ca/P molar ratio of the newly formed bone was found to be (~1.67), which is similar to that of the original bone.

  3. Development and bioactivity evaluation of bioglasses with low Na2O content based on the system Na 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5-SiO 2.

    PubMed

    El-Meliegy, Emad; Hamzawy, Esmat M A; El-Kady, Abeer M; Salama, Aida; El-Rashedi, Ahalam

    2012-09-01

    Osteoconductive bioglasses, free of K(2)O and Al(2)O(3) and with content of Na(2)O lower than 10 mol%, were designed based on the ratio (SiO(2) + MgO)/(P(2)O(5) + CaO + Na(2)O) in the system Na(2)O-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2). The developed glasses have shown a strong potential for the formation of hydroxycarbonated apatite (HCA) in vitro. The particles of HCA aggregates tend to be of finer size with increasing the ratio of (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) in the glass chemical composition indicating significant bioactivity. Critical size bone defects created in the femurs of albino adult female rats, and grafted with the glass particles for 12 weeks post implantation, were completely healed by filling with mineralized bone matrix without infection showing a strong potential for new bone formation in vivo. Osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed close to the surface of the granular implants with active areas of bone deposition, resorption and remodelling. The bioglass with lowest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) ratio has shown the highest bioactivity while the bioglass with the highest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) has shown the lowest bioactivity. The newly formed bone in vivo has shown a similar structure to that of the original bone as indicated by the histology and microstructural results. In addition, Ca/P molar ratio of the newly formed bone was found to be (~1.67), which is similar to that of the original bone. PMID:22648420

  4. Seven novel modulators of the analgesic target NaV 1.7 uncovered using a high-throughput venom-based discovery approach

    PubMed Central

    Klint, Julie K; Smith, Jennifer J; Vetter, Irina; Rupasinghe, Darshani B; Er, Sing Yan; Senff, Sebastian; Herzig, Volker; Mobli, Mehdi; Lewis, Richard J; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic pain is a serious worldwide health issue, with current analgesics having limited efficacy and dose-limiting side effects. Humans with loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 (hNaV1.7) are indifferent to pain, making hNaV1.7 a promising target for analgesic development. Since spider venoms are replete with NaV channel modulators, we examined their potential as a source of hNaV1.7 inhibitors. Experimental Approach We developed a high-throughput fluorescent-based assay to screen spider venoms against hNaV1.7 and isolate ‘hit’ peptides. To examine the binding site of these peptides, we constructed a panel of chimeric channels in which the S3b-S4 paddle motif from each voltage sensor domain of hNaV1.7 was transplanted into the homotetrameric KV2.1 channel. Key Results We screened 205 spider venoms and found that 40% contain at least one inhibitor of hNaV1.7. By deconvoluting ‘hit’ venoms, we discovered seven novel members of the NaSpTx family 1. One of these peptides, Hd1a (peptide μ-TRTX-Hd1a from venom of the spider Haplopelma doriae), inhibited hNaV1.7 with a high level of selectivity over all other subtypes, except hNaV1.1. We showed that Hd1a is a gating modifier that inhibits hNaV1.7 by interacting with the S3b-S4 paddle motif in channel domain II. The structure of Hd1a, determined using heteronuclear NMR, contains an inhibitor cystine knot motif that is likely to confer high levels of chemical, thermal and biological stability. Conclusion and Implications Our data indicate that spider venoms are a rich natural source of hNaV1.7 inhibitors that might be useful leads for the development of novel analgesics. PMID:25754331

  5. A mixed iron-manganese based pyrophosphate cathode, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Rana A; Park, Chan Sun; Raja, Arsalan A; Shin, Jaeho; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2016-02-01

    The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs.

  6. Electronic absorption spectra of rare earth (III) species in NaCl-2CsCl eutectic based melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Ivanov, A. B.; Yakimov, S. M.; Tsarevskii, D. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Sukhikh, V. V.; Griffiths, T. R.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of ions of trivalent rare earth elements were measured in the melts based on NaCl-2CsCl eutectic in the wavelength ranges of 190-1350 and 1450-1700 nm. The measurements were performed at 550-850 °C. The EAS of Y, La, Ce and Lu containing melts have no absorption bands in the studied regions. For the remaining REEs (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) the absorption bands in the EAS were assigned to the corresponding f-f electron transitions. The Stark effect was observed for Yb(III) F5/2 excited state. Increasing temperature leads to decreasing intensity of the absorption bands, except for the bands resulting from hypersensitive transitions. Beer's law was confirmed up to 0.4 M solutions of REE.

  7. The Influence of Na2O on the Solidification and Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinxing; Wen, Guanghua; Sun, Qihao; Tang, Ping; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The reaction between [Al] and SiO2 sharply increased the Al2O3 and decreased SiO2 contents in mold flux during the continuous casting of high-Al steels. These changes converted original CaO-SiO2-based flux into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux, promoting the crystallization and deteriorating the mold lubrication. Therefore, study on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux, with the applicable fluidizers, is of importance. The effect of Na2O, predominantly used as the fluidizer in mold flux, on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux needs to be investigated. In this study, a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O was designed; the effect of Na2O on the solidification and crystallization behavior of these mold fluxes was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) and the double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT). Moreover, the slag film obtained by a heat flux simulator was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the solid fraction of molten slag (Fs) and the crystalline fraction of solid slag (Fc) in the mold slag films decrease with increasing Na2O content from 0 to 2 wt pct. However, Fs and Fc increased when the Na2O content increased from 2 to 6 wt pct. The critical cooling rates initially decreases and then increases with increasing Na2O content. The XRD analysis results show that LiAlO2 and CaF2 were the basic crystals for all the mold fluxes. Increasing the Na2O content both inhibits the Ca2Al2SiO7 formation and promotes the production of Ca12Al14O33, indicating that the mold lubrication deteriorated because of the high melting-point phase formation of Ca2Al2SiO7 in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O, without Na2O. The strong crystallization tendency also deteriorated the mold lubrication for the mold flux with a higher Na2O content. Therefore, the addition of Na2O was less than 2 wt pct in

  8. Optic nerve: separating compartments based on 23Na TQF spectra and TQF-diffusion anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Eliav, Uzi; Xu, Xiang; Jerschow, Alexej; Navon, Gil

    2013-06-01

    We present a triple quantum filtered (TQF) sodium spectroscopy study of an excised bovine optic nerve. By choosing proper experimental parameters, this technique allowed us to independently observe the satellite transitions originating from the various compartments in the tissue. TQF-based diffusion experiments provided further characterization of the compartments in terms of their geometry. As a result, the peak that exhibited the smallest residual quadrupolar splitting, and the largest diffusion anisotropy was assigned to axons. Two other pairs of satellite peaks were assigned to extra-cellular compartments on the basis of either the size of their quadrupolar splitting or the diffusion properties.

  9. O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2-based electrode for symmetric sodium ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Kuan; Yang, Jianhua; He, Shiyang

    2016-10-01

    Layered materials Na0.67+3xNi0.33LixTi0.67-xO2 with Li-substitution as x = 0, 0.05 and 0.11 have been synthesized and investigated as "bi-functional" electrodes for symmetric sodium ion cells. The samples with lithium substitution up to 0.11 are confirmed to be a single phase without impurities and introducing lithium into the transition metal layer increases the interlayer space of the layered materials. It is found that O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2 exhibits two electrochemical working windows, 0.4-0.8 V and 3.1-3.75 V, for sodium ion storage. The as-proposed material thus can be employed as both positive and negative electrodes. As positive electrode, it shows a high working voltage of ca. 3.75 V versus Na+/Na and an initial capacity of 91 mAh g-1 with 19% capacity loss after 100 cycles. When utilized as negative electrode, it delivers a low average voltage of ca. 0.65 V versus Na+/Na, along with a reversible capacity of 125 mAh g-1 and 76% capacity retention after 200 cycles. A symmetric full cell based on the O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2 "bi-functional" electrode has been developed. The cell exhibits a high voltage of 3.1 V and an energy density of 100 W h kg-1 based on the total mass of active electrode materials.

  10. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  11. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS) Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Wang, Kai; Sun, Yongmei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2013-01-01

    The body area network (BAN) is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB) channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU) in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS) measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  12. Large decrease of characteristic frequency of dielectric relaxation associated with domain-wall motion in Sb5+-modified (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialiang; Hao, Wentao; Gao, Yong; Qin, Yalin; Tan, Yongqiang; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-12-01

    The (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics have drawn considerable attention as a type of promising lead-free piezoelectric materials in recent years. However, investigations on the dielectric dispersion spectra in the microwave range have rarely been conducted so far. Dielectric dispersion spectra of several representative (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics were measured and compared in this study. An interesting physical phenomenon that the Sb5+-modified (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics differ distinctly from those without Sb5+-modification in the aspect of characteristic frequency fp of dielectric relaxation associated with the domain-wall motion has been found. The former group shows the fp values in several tens of MHz at room temperature, whereas the latter group has generally the fp values of several GHz at least. For the Sb5+-modified (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics, the change of fp with temperature follows roughly a thermally activated character. In contrast, the ones without Sb5+-modification exhibit a temperature-insensitive character in fp. Analysis showed that the results could be understood from the viewpoint of domain-wall vibration. It is speculated that a large change occurring in the damping constant due to the incorporation of Sb5+ is possibly the origin.

  13. Effects of pHs on properties of bio-nanocomposite based on tilapia skin gelatin and Cloisite Na+.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muralidharan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2015-04-01

    Effects of various pHs (4-8) of film forming suspensions (FFS) on the properties of nanocomposite film based on tilapia skin gelatin and hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+)) were investigated. Intercalated/exfoliated structure of nanocomposite films was revealed by WAXD analysis. Young's Modulus (YM) and tensile strength (TS) of nanocomposite films increased up to pH 6 (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the further increases in pH levels resulted in the decreases in both YM and TS (P<0.05). The highest water vapour barrier property of the film was observed when the pH of FFS was 6 (P<0.05). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of nanocomposite films generally increased with increasing pH levels. Transparency of nanocomposite films was affected to some extent by pHs. Homogeneity and smoothness of film surface were obtained for nanocomposite films with pH 6 as confirmed by SEM micrographs. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses indicated that thermal stability of nanocomposite films varied with different pH levels. In general, mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of nanocomposite films were improved when FFS having pH 6 was used. Thus, the pH of FFS directly affected the properties of nanocomposite gelatin films incorporated with hydrophilic nanoclay. PMID:25677177

  14. Effects of pHs on properties of bio-nanocomposite based on tilapia skin gelatin and Cloisite Na+.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muralidharan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2015-04-01

    Effects of various pHs (4-8) of film forming suspensions (FFS) on the properties of nanocomposite film based on tilapia skin gelatin and hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+)) were investigated. Intercalated/exfoliated structure of nanocomposite films was revealed by WAXD analysis. Young's Modulus (YM) and tensile strength (TS) of nanocomposite films increased up to pH 6 (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the further increases in pH levels resulted in the decreases in both YM and TS (P<0.05). The highest water vapour barrier property of the film was observed when the pH of FFS was 6 (P<0.05). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of nanocomposite films generally increased with increasing pH levels. Transparency of nanocomposite films was affected to some extent by pHs. Homogeneity and smoothness of film surface were obtained for nanocomposite films with pH 6 as confirmed by SEM micrographs. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses indicated that thermal stability of nanocomposite films varied with different pH levels. In general, mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of nanocomposite films were improved when FFS having pH 6 was used. Thus, the pH of FFS directly affected the properties of nanocomposite gelatin films incorporated with hydrophilic nanoclay.

  15. Domain configuration changes under electric field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions in NaNbO3-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed a feasible crystal chemistry strategy to stabilize the antiferroelectricity in NaNbO3 through a chemical substitution to decrease the tolerance factor and increase the average electronegativity of the system [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015) and Guo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 214103 (2015)]. Two novel lead-free antiferroelectric (AFE) solid solutions, (1-x)NaNbO3-xCaZrO3 and (1-x)NaNbO3-xSrZrO3, have been found to exhibit the double polarization hysteresis typical of a reversible AFE ↔ ferroelectric (FE) phase transition. In this study, as demonstrated by (1-x)NaNbO3-xCaZrO3 system, the influence of chemical modification and electrical poling on the AFE/FE phase stability was investigated, primarily focusing on the microstructural and crystallographic evolutions. Together with the macroscopic polarization hysteresis measurements, a well-demonstrated structure-property relationship was presented. It was found that the CaZrO3 substitution into NaNbO3 can effectively destabilize the FE Q phase and correspondingly lead to a spontaneous reverting to AFE P phase. In contrast to the reversible AFE ↔ FE phase transition, the domain morphology evolution exhibits irreversible nature with a growing process of the orientational domains after applying electric field. Moreover, a multiple-zone axes electron diffraction map of P and Q phases has been summarized and is believed to be an efficient diagram to determine the AFE/FE nature of the NaNbO3-based systems.

  16. Domain configuration changes under electric field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions in NaNbO{sub 3}-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hanzheng Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youichi

    2015-08-07

    We recently developed a feasible crystal chemistry strategy to stabilize the antiferroelectricity in NaNbO{sub 3} through a chemical substitution to decrease the tolerance factor and increase the average electronegativity of the system [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015) and Guo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 214103 (2015)]. Two novel lead-free antiferroelectric (AFE) solid solutions, (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xCaZrO{sub 3} and (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xSrZrO{sub 3}, have been found to exhibit the double polarization hysteresis typical of a reversible AFE ↔ ferroelectric (FE) phase transition. In this study, as demonstrated by (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xCaZrO{sub 3} system, the influence of chemical modification and electrical poling on the AFE/FE phase stability was investigated, primarily focusing on the microstructural and crystallographic evolutions. Together with the macroscopic polarization hysteresis measurements, a well-demonstrated structure-property relationship was presented. It was found that the CaZrO{sub 3} substitution into NaNbO{sub 3} can effectively destabilize the FE Q phase and correspondingly lead to a spontaneous reverting to AFE P phase. In contrast to the reversible AFE ↔ FE phase transition, the domain morphology evolution exhibits irreversible nature with a growing process of the orientational domains after applying electric field. Moreover, a multiple-zone axes electron diffraction map of P and Q phases has been summarized and is believed to be an efficient diagram to determine the AFE/FE nature of the NaNbO{sub 3}-based systems.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance.

  18. Comparison of efavirenz and protease inhibitor based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Charlotte; McFaul, Katie; Kabagambe, Samuel; Sonecha, Sonali; Jones, Rachael; Asboe, David; Pozniak, Anton; Nwokolo, Nneka; Boffito, Marta

    2016-07-17

    A retrospective cohort analysis comparing the efficacy of boosted protease inhibitor-based and efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance found that efavirenz-based treatment led to a shorter mean time to undetectable viral load. A higher proportion of patients with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor related baseline resistance mutations in the efavirenz-treatment group achieved an undetectable viral load at both 6 and 12 months post-treatment initiation, compared with the boosted protease-inhibitor-treatment group.Supplementary content: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A930. PMID:27139315

  19. The first Fe-based Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, W. H.; Huq, A.; Manthiram, A.

    2015-05-15

    We report the synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry of the first Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19. The Fe-based cathode has a reversible capacity of ca. 70 mAh g-1; ca. 1.7 Na+ ions per formula can be inserted/extracted at an average voltage of 2.5 V versus Na+/Na.

  20. Comparison between Earth-based Na observations of Mercury's exosphere by THEMIS and in-situ magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; Orsini, Stefano; Rispoli, Rosanna; Leblanc, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is being studied since its discovery in mid '80s from Earth-based telescopes, and it has revealed a high dynamicity and variability. Though the processes and inter-relations at the basis of the Hermean exosphere dynamics are not still clearly understood, there is no doubt that a connection exists among the surface, the exosphere, the intrinsic magnetic field of the body and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), which drives the Solar Wind ions into the Mercury's magnetosphere and surface, via the magnetic reconnection. In this work we analyze our dataset of images of the exospheric Na emission, collected from 2009 to 2013 by the THEMIS ground-based telescope, to perform a comprehensive statistical study of the recurrent patterns, and their relationship with the variability of the IMF. For this purpose, we take advantage of a subset (years 2011-2013) of contemporary in situ measurements of the IMF obtained by the MAG instrument onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft. We found that the mid-high latitude double peaks is the most common Na emission pattern, supporting the view that the solar wind ion precipitation through the polar cusps has an important role in the generation of the observed Na exospheric emission. Moreover, the lack of a statistically significant North-South asymmetry seems to disfavour the idea of an asymmetric and/or shifted magnetic dipole. By analysing a subset of quasi-full disk images, we found that most of the Na emission patterns seems to occur in the pre-noon sector (53%), about 1/3 is roughly aligned along the noon meridian (36%), while only 11% takes place in the post-noon sector. Finally, the comparison with the IMF data indicates that the contribution of the IMF Bx component to the magnetic reconnection is generally weak, even if we found a noticeable correlation between positive IMB Bx and symmetric double peaks pattern. Negative IMF Bz values are usually connected with double peaks emission (likely by widening

  1. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of a structured lipid-based emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol and citric acid: influence of pH and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Osborn-Barnes, Hannah T; Akoh, Casimir C

    2003-11-01

    The effects of salt and pH on copper-catalyzed lipid oxidation in structured lipid-based emulsions were evaluated. Ten percent oil-in-water emulsions were formulated with a canola oil/caprylic acid structured lipid and stabilized with 0.5% whey protein isolate. alpha-Tocopherol and citric acid were added to the emulsions to determine how changes in pH or the addition of NaCl affected their antioxidant activity. The peroxide values and anisidine values of emulsions stored at 50 degrees C were measured over an 8-day period. Increased lipid oxidation occurred in the pH 7.0 emulsions and when 0.5 M NaCl was added to the pH 3.0 samples. Adding alpha-tocopherol, citric acid, or a combination of the two compounds slowed the formation of hydroperoxides and their subsequent decomposition products in pH 3.0 emulsions.

  2. Characterization and humidity sensing properties of the sensor based on Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yupeng; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shenping

    2014-06-01

    Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes was synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then the material was coated on Al2O3 ceramic substrate to fabricate humidity sensors using Ag-Pd as interdigitated electrodes. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity and quick response-recovery time. The impedance changes about five orders of magnitude within humidity range from 11% to 95% relative humidity (RH). At the frequency of 100 Hz, the response time is 2 s and recovery time is 4 s, and the maximum hysteresis is less than 3% RH. Moreover, complex impedance property at different RH was investigated to study sensing mechanism. The results indicate the potential applications of Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes for fabricating high-performance humidity sensors.

  3. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  4. Multifilament Fibers Based on Dissolution of Cellulose in NaOH/Urea Aqueous Solution: Structure and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cai,J.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, J.; Qi, H.; Chen, H.; Kondo, T.; Chen, X.; Chu, B.

    2007-01-01

    High-quality cellulose multifilaments are spun using a preliminary pilot apparatus, from the cellulose dope in an NaOH and urea aqueous solution precooled to -12 {sup o}C, by using a low-cost, simple, and environmentally friendly process. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns indicate that the orientation of the multifilaments increase with a drawing process, leading to the improvement of their tensile strength.

  5. Investigation of displacement property and electric reliability of (Li,Na,K)NbO3-based multilayer piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Asa; Kishimoto, Sumiaki; Doshida, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lead-free multilayer piezoceramics with Pd inner electrodes were fabricated, and their displacement properties and electric reliabilities were investigated. The Li0.06Na0.52K0.42NbO3 multilayer piezoceramic exhibited a high displacement (S max/E max = 350 pm/V at 5 kV/mm) but a low resistivity (1.3 × 108 Ω·cm at 100 °C). On the other hand, the additive-modified Li0.06Na0.52K0.42NbO3 multilayer piezoceramic exhibited both high displacement (S max/E max = 330 pm/V at 5 kV/mm) and high resistivity (1.2 × 1012 at 100 °C), and the breakdown voltages of the two piezoceramics were 4 and 16 kV/mm, respectively, at 100 °C. The observed improvement in electric reliability can be attributed to the refinement of the microstructure of Li0.06Na0.52K0.42NbO3 after the use of additives. Furthermore, the additive-modified Li0.06Na0.52K0.42NbO3 multilayer piezoceramic also showed a markedly higher resistivity than previously reported multilayer piezoceramics with Ag/Pd, Cu, and Ni inner electrodes, since the dispersion of elemental Ag and the generation of oxygen vacancies during the sintering process was prevented in the former case.

  6. Electrochemical and structural characterization of titanium-substituted manganese oxides based on Na0.44MnO2

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Hwang, Kwang-Taek

    2004-03-01

    A series of titanium-substituted manganese oxides, Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y = 0.11, 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, and 0.55) with the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} structure were prepared from Na{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.44) precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of these compounds, which retain the unique double-tunnel structure during ion exchange, were examined in lithium/polymer electrolyte cells operating at 85 C. All of the substituted cathode materials intercalated lithium reversibly, with Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.78}O{sub 2} exhibiting the highest capacity in polymer cells, about 10-20% greater than that of unsubstituted Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} made from Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2}. In common with Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2}, the Ti-substituted materials exhibited good capacity retention over one hundred or more cycles, with some compositions exhibiting a fade rate of less than 0.03% per cycle.

  7. Tin phosphide-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries: synthesis via solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and phase-dependent Na storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Jong-Won

    2016-05-01

    There is a great deal of current interest in the development of rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries (SIBs) for low-cost, large-scale stationary energy storage systems. For the commercial success of this technology, significant progress should be made in developing robust anode (negative electrode) materials with high capacity and long cycle life. Sn-P compounds are considered promising anode materials that have considerable potential to meet the required performance of SIBs, and they have been typically prepared by high-energy mechanical milling. Here, we report Sn-P-based anodes synthesised through solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and their electrochemical Na storage properties. The temperature and time period used for solvothermal treatment play a crucial role in determining the phase, microstructure, and composition of the Sn-P compound and thus its electrochemical performance. The Sn-P compound prepared under an optimised solvothermal condition shows excellent electrochemical performance as an SIB anode, as evidenced by a high reversible capacity of ~560 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and cycling stability for 100 cycles. The solvothermal route provides an effective approach to synthesising Sn-P anodes with controlled phases and compositions, thus tailoring their Na storage behaviour.

  8. Tin phosphide-based anodes for sodium-ion batteries: synthesis via solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and phase-dependent Na storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Jong-Won

    2016-01-01

    There is a great deal of current interest in the development of rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries (SIBs) for low-cost, large-scale stationary energy storage systems. For the commercial success of this technology, significant progress should be made in developing robust anode (negative electrode) materials with high capacity and long cycle life. Sn-P compounds are considered promising anode materials that have considerable potential to meet the required performance of SIBs, and they have been typically prepared by high-energy mechanical milling. Here, we report Sn-P-based anodes synthesised through solvothermal transformation of Sn metal and their electrochemical Na storage properties. The temperature and time period used for solvothermal treatment play a crucial role in determining the phase, microstructure, and composition of the Sn-P compound and thus its electrochemical performance. The Sn-P compound prepared under an optimised solvothermal condition shows excellent electrochemical performance as an SIB anode, as evidenced by a high reversible capacity of ~560 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 and cycling stability for 100 cycles. The solvothermal route provides an effective approach to synthesising Sn-P anodes with controlled phases and compositions, thus tailoring their Na storage behaviour. PMID:27189834

  9. Studies on solid solutions based on layered honeycomb-ordered phases P2-Na2M2TeO6 (M=Co, Ni, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, Romain; Schmidt, Whitney; Sleight, A. W.; Subramanian, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Three complete solid solutions between the layered phases P2-Na2M2TeO6 (M=Co, Ni, Zn) have been prepared by conventional solid state method and investigated through X-ray diffraction, magnetism and optical measurements. All compositions are characterized by a M2+/X6+ honeycomb ordering within the slabs and crystallize in a hexagonal unit cell. However, a structural transition based on a different stacking is observed as nickel (space group P63/mcm) is substituted by zinc or cobalt (space group P6322). All compositions exhibit a paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperatures; and the magnetic moment values confirm the presence of Ni2+ and/or Co2+ cations. The low-temperature antiferromagnetic order of Na2Ni2TeO6 and Na2Co2TeO6 is suppressed by zinc substitution. The color of the obtained compositions varies from pink, to light green and white when M=Co, Ni, Zn, respectively.

  10. Na+ dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Henriette L.; Nguyen, An T.; Pedersen, Fredrik D.; Damkier, Helle H.

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na+ dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na+:HCO3− cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na+:HCO3− cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

  11. Highly sensitive fluorescent probe for clenbuterol hydrochloride detection based on its catalytic oxidation of eosine Y by NaIO4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaming; Liu, Zhen-bo; Huang, Qitong; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive fluorescent probe for clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) detection has been first designed based on its catalytic effect on NaIO4 oxidating eosine Y (R). And this environment-friendly, simple, rapid, selective and sensitive fluorescent probe has been utilized to detect CLB in the practical samples with the results consisting with those obtained by GC/MS. The structures of R and CLB were characterized by infrared spectra. The mechanism of the proposed assay for the detection of CLB was also discussed.

  12. Structure-function relationships based on ATP binding and cation occlusion at equilibrium in Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, P L; Nielsen, J M; Rasmussen, J H; Pedersen, P A

    1998-08-01

    This work evaluates the results of measurements of equilibrium binding of ATP and cations in lethal or partially active mutations of Na,K-ATPase that were expressed at high yield in yeast cells. ATP binding studies allowed estimation of the expense in free energy required to position the gamma-phosphate in proximity of the carboxylate groups of the phosphorylated residue Asp369 and the role of this residue in governing long range E1-E2 transitions. An arginine residue (Arg546) appearing to be involved in ATP binding has been identified. Wild type yeast enzyme was capable of occluding two T1(+)-ions per ouabain binding site or alpha 1 beta 1 unit with high apparent affinity (Kd(T1+) = 7 +/- 2 microM), like the purified Na,K-ATPase from pig kidney. The substitutions to Glu327(Gln,Asp), Asp804(Asn,Glu), Asp808(Asn,Glu) and Glu779(Asp) completely abolished occlusion or severely reduced the affinity for T1+ ions. The substitution of Glu779 for Gln reduced the occlusion capacity to one T1+ ion per alpha 1 beta 1 unit with a 3-fold decrease of the apparent affinity for the ion (Kd(T1+) = 24 +/- 8 mM). These carboxylate groups in transmembrane segments 4, 5, and 6 therefore appear to be essential for high affinity occlusion of K(+)-ions.

  13. Nanocube-based hematite photoanode produced in the presence of Na2HPO4 for efficient solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Hongyan; Wu, Quanping; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-06-01

    A thin film of α-Fe2O3 on FTO substrate has been synthesized from hydrothermal process in an aqueous solution of FeCl3 and Na2HPO4. A nanocube structure of α-Fe2O3 is observed within the formed hematite films and coated with phosphate ions on the surface. For comparison, another phosphate modified hematite film has been prepared by soaking the bare hematite film in Na2HPO4 solution. A negative electrostatic field can be built up on the surface of both phosphate modified hematite which will promote charge separation and extraction of photoexcited holes to the electrode surface. It is found that different types of phosphate complex exist in the hematite films, which has been determined by the isoelectric point (IEP) of the hematite films, and consequently influences the formation and strength of the electrostatic field. The effects of phosphate ions on the morphology, surface characteristics and the photoelectrochemical properties of the hematite thin films are investigated and the mechanism is proposed.

  14. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle.

  15. Determination of depolarization temperature of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-based lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Eva-Maria; Jo, Wook; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rödel, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The depolarization temperature Td of piezoelectric materials is an important figure of merit for their application at elevated temperatures. Until now, there are several methods proposed in the literature to determine the depolarization temperature of piezoelectrics, which are based on different physical origins. Their validity and inter-correlation have not been clearly manifested. This paper applies the definition of depolarization temperature as the temperature of the steepest decrease of remanent polarization and evaluates currently used methods, both in terms of this definition and practical applicability. For the investigations, the lead-free piezoceramics (1-y)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-xBi1/2K1/2TiO3)-yK0.5Na0.5NbO3 in a wide compositional range were chosen. Results were then compared to those for BaTiO3 and a commercial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based material as references. Thermally stimulated depolarization current and in situ temperature-dependent piezoelectric coefficient d33 are recommended to determine Td according to the proposed definition. Methods based on inflection point of the real part of permittivity or the peak in dielectric loss give consistently higher temperature values.

  16. High temperature (NaBi)0.48□0.04Bi2Nb2O9-based piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Lei; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zang, Guo-Zhong; Ming, Bao-Quan; Qi, Peng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of (LiCe) substitution for A site on the properties of (NaBi)0.48◻0.04Bi2Nb2O9 (NB◻N)-based ceramics was investigated. The coercive fields (EC) of NB◻N)-based ceramics were significantly decreased from 61.0to32.5kV/cm and the Curie temperature (TC) gradually decreases from 820to803°C with increasing the (LiCe) modification. The piezoelectric coefficient d33, planar coupling factor kp, and mechanical quality factor Q of (NaBi)0.38(LiCe)0.05◻0.14Bi2Nb2O9 ceramic were found to be 27pC/N, 11.2%, and 2600, respectively, together with the high TC (˜809°C) and stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the (LiCe) modified NB◻N-based material a promising candidate for high temperature applications.

  17. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle. PMID:27334673

  18. Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Yawen; Zhang, Guanjun; Li, Na; Zhu, Qianqian; Chang, Hongyun; Han, Qunying; Lv, Yi; Liu, Zhengwen

    2014-08-01

    Sofosbuvir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor, is a new direct-acting antiviral for chronic HCV infection. This systematic review and proportional meta-analysis examined the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy for chronic HCV infection in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Clinical trials examining sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon-α (peg-IFN) or sofosbuvir plus RBV among adults with chronic HCV infection were included. Data were extracted on virological responses including sustained virological response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12), relapse, treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event (AE), virological breakthrough during treatment, and AEs. One trial and 13 treatment arms/cohorts from seven studies met the criteria for analysis in treatment-naïve patients who were treated with sofosbuvir, RBV and peg-IFN; the SVR12 was 89% (95% CI 85-92%), relapse was 5% and the serious adverse event (SAE) rate was 4%. Six treatment arms/cohorts met the criteria for analysis in treatment-naïve patients who were treated with sofosbuvir and RBV; the SVR12 was 72% (95% CI 60-81%), relapse was 27% and the SAE rate was 3%. Three treatment arms/cohorts met the criteria for analysis in treatment-experienced patients who were treated with sofosbuvir and RBV; the SVR12 was 51% (95% CI 27-75%), relapse was 46% and the SAE rate was 4%. In conclusion, sofosbuvir-based treatment is effective and safe in treating chronic HCV infection, although the SVR12 of its combination with RBV, especially in treatment-experienced patients, requires improvement.

  19. Zr and Sn substituted (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -based solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.; Sobolev, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The paper attempts to investigate the phase formation of a Zr- and Sn-substituted [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy)O3 system during its solid state synthesis. The synthesis was found to be a multi-step process associated with the formation of a number of intermediate phases which however depended on the compositions and sintering temperatures. Single phase solid solutions were obtained when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 °C-1100 °C. Increase in the concentration of substituting ions, on the one hand, tends to linearly increase the crystal cell size whereas the tolerance factor, on the other hand, gets reduced bolstering the stability of anti-ferroelectric phase as compared to that of ferroelectric phase’.

  20. Strong domain configuration dependence of the nonlinear dielectric response in (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui Li, Longtu; Koruza, Jurij

    2015-11-16

    The nonlinear dielectric response in (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.4425}Li{sub 0.0375})(Nb{sub 0.92−x}Ta{sub x}Sb{sub 0.08})O{sub 3} ceramics with different amounts of Ta was measured using subcoercive electric fields and quantified by the Rayleigh model. The irreversible extrinsic contribution, mainly caused by the irreversible domain wall translation, was strongly dependent on the domain configuration. The irreversible extrinsic contributions remained approximately the same within the single-phase regions, either orthorhombic or tetragonal, due to the similar domain morphology. However, in the polymorphic phase transition region, the domain wall density was increased by minimized domain size, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. This resulted in constrained domain wall motion due to self-clamping and reduced the irreversible extrinsic contribution.

  1. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2014-07-28

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48−x})(Nb{sub 0.95−x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x = 0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  2. Tribocorrosion Behavior of Fe-Based Amorphous Composite Coating Reinforced by Al2O3 in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Although corrosion and friction/wear behavior of Fe-based amorphous coatings and their composites has been extensively studied during the past decade, there is very limited work related to tribocorrosion behavior. In this paper, the tribocorrosion behavior of a Fe-based amorphous composite coating reinforced with 20 wt.% Al2O3 particles was investigated in a 3.5% NaCl solution on a ball-on-disk tester and was compared to the monolithic amorphous coating and 316L stainless steel (SS). The results showed that the amorphous composite coating exhibited the highest tribocorrosion resistance among the three materials tested, as evidenced by the lowest coefficient of friction (~0.3) and tribocorrosion wear rate (~1.2 × 10-5 mm3/N·m). In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements before and during tribocorrosion testing demonstrated that corrosion resistance of the amorphous composite coating was not influenced so much by mechanical loading compared to the amorphous coating and the 316L SS. Observations on the worn surface revealed a corrosion-wear- and oxidational-wear-dominated tribocorrosion mechanism for the composite coatings. The excellent tribocorrosion resistance of the composite coating results from the effect of chemically stable Al2O3 phase which resists oxidation and delamination during sliding, along with poor wettability with corrosive NaCl droplets.

  3. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  4. Radiolabeling of DOTA-like conjugated peptides with generator-produced (68)Ga and using NaCl-based cationic elution method.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dirk; Breeman, Wouter A P; Klette, Ingo; Gottschaldt, Michael; Odparlik, Andreas; Baehre, Manfred; Tworowska, Izabela; Schultz, Michael K

    2016-06-01

    Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t½ = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging. By working in a lead-shielded hot-cell system,(68)Ga(3+) of the generator eluate is trapped on a cation exchanger cartridge (100 mg, ∼8 mm long and 5 mm diameter) and then eluted with acidified 5 M NaCl solution directly into a sodium acetate-buffered solution containing a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or DOTA-like chelator-modified peptide. The main advantages of this procedure are the high efficiency and the absence of organic solvents. It can be applied to a variety of peptides, which are stable in 1 M NaCl solution at a pH value of 3-4 during reaction. After labeling, neutralization, sterile filtration and quality control (instant thin-layer chromatography (iTLC), HPLC and pH), the radiopharmaceutical can be directly administered to patients, without determination of organic solvents, which reduces the overall synthesis-to-release time. This procedure has been adapted easily to automated synthesis modules, which leads to a rapid preparation of (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals (12-16 min). PMID:27172166

  5. Radiolabeling of DOTA-like conjugated peptides with generator-produced (68)Ga and using NaCl-based cationic elution method.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dirk; Breeman, Wouter A P; Klette, Ingo; Gottschaldt, Michael; Odparlik, Andreas; Baehre, Manfred; Tworowska, Izabela; Schultz, Michael K

    2016-06-01

    Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) is a generator-produced radionuclide with a short half-life (t½ = 68 min) that is particularly well suited for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Methods have been developed to synthesize (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents possessing certain drawbacks, such as longer synthesis time because of a required final purification step, the use of organic solvents or concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). In our manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol for the use of an advantageous sodium chloride (NaCl)-based method for radiolabeling of chelator-modified peptides for molecular imaging. By working in a lead-shielded hot-cell system,(68)Ga(3+) of the generator eluate is trapped on a cation exchanger cartridge (100 mg, ∼8 mm long and 5 mm diameter) and then eluted with acidified 5 M NaCl solution directly into a sodium acetate-buffered solution containing a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or DOTA-like chelator-modified peptide. The main advantages of this procedure are the high efficiency and the absence of organic solvents. It can be applied to a variety of peptides, which are stable in 1 M NaCl solution at a pH value of 3-4 during reaction. After labeling, neutralization, sterile filtration and quality control (instant thin-layer chromatography (iTLC), HPLC and pH), the radiopharmaceutical can be directly administered to patients, without determination of organic solvents, which reduces the overall synthesis-to-release time. This procedure has been adapted easily to automated synthesis modules, which leads to a rapid preparation of (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals (12-16 min).

  6. Lunar regolith dynamics based on analysis of the cosmogenic radionuclides Na-22, Al-26, and Mn-53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Rancitelli, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Perkins, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Depth profiles of Na-22 and Al-26 in the upper portions of five lunar cores are analyzed. From the analyses, it is concluded that the natural gardening processes on the lunar surface result in mixing of the regolith to a depth of 2-3 cm over a time period which is short compared with the half-life of Al-26 (0.73 m.y.). It is also concluded that the rotary drill processes which were used to obtain the deep drill samples generally resulted in loss and/or mixing of the upper portions of the cores. In contrast, the near-surface regions of the drive tube cores appear to have a well-preserved stratigraphy. Analysis of Mn-53 in samples of six lunar rocks helps substantiate the accuracy of age date estimates by other means, and provides definite information that the total lunar surface exposure of two of these rocks has occurred during a single surface event which continued to their collection.

  7. An Automatic Multidocument Text Summarization Approach Based on Naïve Bayesian Classifier Using Timestamp Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Nedunchelian; Kaliappan, Manivannan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, automatic multidocument text summarization systems can successfully retrieve the summary sentences from the input documents. But, it has many limitations such as inaccurate extraction to essential sentences, low coverage, poor coherence among the sentences, and redundancy. This paper introduces a new concept of timestamp approach with Naïve Bayesian Classification approach for multidocument text summarization. The timestamp provides the summary an ordered look, which achieves the coherent looking summary. It extracts the more relevant information from the multiple documents. Here, scoring strategy is also used to calculate the score for the words to obtain the word frequency. The higher linguistic quality is estimated in terms of readability and comprehensibility. In order to show the efficiency of the proposed method, this paper presents the comparison between the proposed methods with the existing MEAD algorithm. The timestamp procedure is also applied on the MEAD algorithm and the results are examined with the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method results in lesser time than the existing MEAD algorithm to execute the summarization process. Moreover, the proposed method results in better precision, recall, and F-score than the existing clustering with lexical chaining approach. PMID:27034971

  8. Acid base reactions, phosphate and arsenate complexation, and their competitive adsorption at the surface of goethite in 0.7 M NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Mucci, Alfonso

    2001-07-01

    Potentiometric titrations of the goethite-water interface were carried out at 25°C in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 M NaCl solutions. The acid/base properties of goethite at pH > 4 in a 0.7 M NaCl solution can be reproduced successfully using either the Constant Capacitance (CCM), the Basic Stern (BSM) or the Triple Layer models (TLM) when two surface acidity constants are considered. Phosphate and arsenate complexation at the surface of goethite was studied in batch adsorption experiments. The experiments were conducted in 0.7 mol/L NaCl solutions at 25°C in the pH range of 3.0 to 10.0. Phosphate shows a strong affinity for the goethite surface and the amount of phosphate adsorbed decreases with increasing pH. Phosphate complexation is described using a model consisting of three monodentate surface complexes. Arsenate shows a similar adsorption pattern on goethite but a higher affinity than phosphate. A model including three surface complexation constants describes the arsenate adsorption at [AsO 4] init = 23 and 34 μmol/L. The model prediction, however, overestimates arsenate adsorption at [AsO 4] init = 8.8 μmol/L. The goethite surface acidity constants as well as the preceding phosphate and arsenate surface complexation constants were evaluated by the CCM and BSM with the aid of the computer program FITEQL, version 2.0. The experimental investigation of phosphate and arsenate competitive adsorption in 0.7 mol/L NaCl was performed at [PO 4]/[AsO 4] ratios of 1:1, 2.5:1 and 5:1 with [AsO 4] init = 9.0 μmol/L and at a [PO 4]/[AsO 4] ratio of 1:1 with [AsO 4] init = 22 μmol/L. The surface complexation of arsenate decreases significantly in competitive adsorption experiments and the decrease is proportional to the amount of phosphate present. Phosphate adsorption is also reduced but less drastically in competitive adsorption and is not affected significantly by incremental additions of arsenate at pH > 7. The equilibrium model derived by combining the single oxyanion

  9. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties in (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with two-phase co-existing state

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H. Matsuoka, T.; Kozuka, H.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.; Ida, T.

    2015-06-07

    Two phases of (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) co-exist in a KNN-based composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic 0.910(K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}){sub 0.86}Ca{sub 0.04}Li{sub 0.02}Nb{sub 0.85}O{sub 3−δ}–0.042K{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 1.15}O{sub 5} –0.036BaZrO{sub 3}–0.0016Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}– 0.0025Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.0069ZnO system, over a wide range of Na fractions, where 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. The crystal systems of the two KNN phases are identified to tetragonal and orthorhombic by analyzing the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAD). In the range 0.33 ≤ x ≤ 0.50, the main component of the composite system is found to be single-phase KNN with a tetragonal structure. Granular nanodomains of the orthorhombic phase dispersed in the tetragonal matrix have been identified by HR-TEM and SAD for 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. Only a trace amount of the orthorhombic phase has been found in the SAD patterns at the composition x = 0.56. However, the number of orthorhombic nanodomains gradually increases with increasing Na content up to x < 0.75, as observed from the HR-TEM images. An abrupt increase and agglomeration of the nanodomains are observed at x = 0.75, where weak diffraction peaks of the orthorhombic phase have also become detectable from the XRD data. The maximum value of the electromechanical coupling coefficient, k{sub p} = 0.56, has been observed at the composition x = 0.56.

  10. Gain Characteristics of Polymer Waveguide Amplifiers Based on NaYF4:Ybl+, Er3+ Nanocrystals at 0.54 µm Wavelength.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Yin, Jiao; Jia, Zhixu; Song, Weiye; Wang, Xibin; Qin, Guanshi; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Weiping; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Gain characteristics of polymer waveguide amplifiers based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals (NCs) at 0.54 µm wavelength were investigated through numerical simulations. NaYF4:18%Yb3+, 1 0%Er3+ NCs were doped into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix as the core of a polymer waveguide. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of the NCs were recorded and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were achieved by means of Judd-Ofelt theory: Ω2 = 6.302 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω4 = 0.69 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω6 =7.572 x 10(-20) cm2. We simulated the gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifier at 0.54 µm wavelength by combining the atomic rate equations with power propaga- tion equations. The gain curves had the saturation effects. A maximum gain -4.3 dB for the 5 cm waveguide with the Er3+ concentration of ~7.5 x 1025 m-3 was obtained.

  11. Evaluation of Static Thermophysical Properties of the Ternary Molten Salt System Li, Na and Be/F Based on the Modified Peng-Robinson Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dalin; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Jia, Dounan

    The static thermophysical properties of the molten salt system like LiF-NaF-BeF2 influence the design and construction of the fuel salt and coolant in the Molten Salt Reactor for the new generation. In this paper, the equation of state of the ternary system 0.15LiF-0.58NaF-0.27BeF2, over the temperature range from 873.15K to 1073.15K at one atmosphere pressure, is described by using modified Peng-Robinson equation. The density of the ternary system is evaluated by this equation directly, and compared with the experimental data. Base on the equation of state, the other static thermophysical properties such as the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity at constant pressure are evaluated by the fugacity coefficient and residual function methods respectively. The density calculated by Peng-Robinson equation is in highly agreement with the experimental data, and the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity evaluated by such two different methods are consistent with each other. It could be concluded that the modified Peng-Robinson equation could be applicable to estimate the density of the molten salt system, and the Peng-Robinson equation is recommended to be as the fundamental to evaluate the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of the molten salt system.

  12. Gain Characteristics of Polymer Waveguide Amplifiers Based on NaYF4:Ybl+, Er3+ Nanocrystals at 0.54 µm Wavelength.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Yin, Jiao; Jia, Zhixu; Song, Weiye; Wang, Xibin; Qin, Guanshi; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Weiping; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Gain characteristics of polymer waveguide amplifiers based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals (NCs) at 0.54 µm wavelength were investigated through numerical simulations. NaYF4:18%Yb3+, 1 0%Er3+ NCs were doped into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix as the core of a polymer waveguide. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of the NCs were recorded and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were achieved by means of Judd-Ofelt theory: Ω2 = 6.302 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω4 = 0.69 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω6 =7.572 x 10(-20) cm2. We simulated the gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifier at 0.54 µm wavelength by combining the atomic rate equations with power propaga- tion equations. The gain curves had the saturation effects. A maximum gain -4.3 dB for the 5 cm waveguide with the Er3+ concentration of ~7.5 x 1025 m-3 was obtained. PMID:27451666

  13. Relative Stability of FE and AFE States in (Na0,5Bi0,5) TiO3-based Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. L.; Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.

    2015-03-01

    Changes of the relative stability of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases in the [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80 Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy) O3 system of solid solutions with the B-site ion substitutions have been studied. Ions of zirconium and tin along some ions complexes such as (InNb), (FeNb) and several others were used for substitutions. The increase in the substituent ion content leads to nearly linear variation of the crystal cell size along with changes of the relative stability of the AFE and FE phases according to the tolerance factor variation. Substituent ions with ionic radii larger than the ionic radius of original ion evoke a decrease of the FE-AFE phase transition temperature. The substituent ions with smaller ionic radii have the opposite effect. Our results demonstrate that the size of the substituent ion causes a predominant influence on the relative stability of the FE and AFE states in (Na0.5Bi0.5) TiO3-based solid solutions. Our studies also indicate the way to raise the FE-AFE phase transition temperature.

  14. Leakage current phenomena in Mn-doped Bi(Na,K)TiO3-based ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walenza-Slabe, J.; Gibbons, B. J.

    2016-08-01

    Mn-doped 80(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-20(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 thin films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates. Steady state and time-dependent leakage current were investigated from room temperature to 180 °C. Undoped and low-doped films showed space-charge-limited current (SCLC) at high temperatures. The electric field marking the transition from Ohmic to trap-filling-limited current increased monotonically with Mn-doping. With 2 mol. % Mn, the current was Ohmic up to 430 kV/cm, even at 180 °C. Modeling of the SCLC showed that all films exhibited shallow trap levels and high trap concentrations. In the regime of steady state leakage, there were also observations of negative differential resistivity and positive temperature coefficient of resistivity near room temperature. Both of these phenomena were confined to relatively low temperatures (below ˜60 °C). Transient currents were observed in the time-dependent leakage data, which was measured out to several hundred seconds. In the undoped films, these were found to be a consequence of oxygen vacancy migration modulating the electronic conductivity. The mobility and thermal activation energy for oxygen vacancies was extracted as μion ≈ 1.7 × 10-12 cm2 V-1 s-1 and EA,ion ≈ 0.92 eV, respectively. The transient current displayed different characteristics in the 1 mol. % Mn-doped films which were not readily explained by oxygen vacancy migration.

  15. Intracellular Na+ regulates epithelial Na+ channel maturation.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Elisa; Carattino, Marcelo D; Hughey, Rebecca P; Pilewski, Joseph M; Kleyman, Thomas R; Myerburg, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function is regulated by the intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]i) through a process known as Na(+) feedback inhibition. Although this process is known to decrease the expression of proteolytically processed active channels on the cell surface, it is unknown how [Na(+)]i alters ENaC cleavage. We show here that [Na(+)]i regulates the posttranslational processing of ENaC subunits during channel biogenesis. At times when [Na(+)]i is low, ENaC subunits develop mature N-glycans and are processed by proteases. Conversely, glycan maturation and sensitivity to proteolysis are reduced when [Na(+)]i is relatively high. Surface channels with immature N-glycans were not processed by endogenous channel activating proteases, nor were they sensitive to cleavage by exogenous trypsin. Biotin chase experiments revealed that the immature surface channels were not converted into mature cleaved channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. The hypothesis that [Na(+)]i regulates ENaC maturation within the biosynthetic pathways is further supported by the finding that Brefeldin A prevented the accumulation of processed surface channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. Therefore, increased [Na(+)]i interferes with ENaC N-glycan maturation and prevents the channel from entering a state that allows proteolytic processing. PMID:25767115

  16. Effects of (Bi1/2,Na1/2)TiO3 on the electrical properties of BiFeO3-based thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Hong; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-10-01

    (100)-oriented (1 - x)BiFeO3-x(Bi1/2,Na1/2)TiO3 (BF-BNT) thin films with x = 0.05 were grown on LaNiO3/Si substrate by co-sputter method. It was found that BF-BNT films show better ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties than the BiFeO3 films deposited under the same condition, especially at the deposition temperature of 450 °C. The addition of small amount of BNT (x = 0.05) to BF films increases the dielectric constant to 480. The BF-BNT film piezoelectric coefficient (d 33(AFM)) of the BF-BNT film deposited at 450 °C is ˜100 pm/V, which is comparable to the best value of BF-based films with substitutions of other perovskite or rare-earth elements.

  17. A highly-sensitive NaCl concentration sensor based on a compact silicon-on-insulator micro-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Yiqun; Feng, Junbo; Guo, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Silicon photonics circuit has been widely investigated in recent years, due to its advantage in the small footprint, high density integration and compatible with CMOS pilot line. In this paper, a compact, highly-sensitivity NaCl concentration sensor is experimentally demonstrated, based on the micro-ring resonators. The sensor circuit is composed of grating couplers, bus waveguide and micro-ring resonators. The width of optical waveguides is 450nm, with a thickness of 220nm. The chip was fabricated in imec through the ePIXfab multi-project wafer service supported by our group, which is compatible with the CMOS process line. The chip shows high sensitivity, as high as of more than 80nm/RIU, which corresponding to a detection limit of 1.6e-4 by using optical spectrum analyzer.

  18. Inverted electro-mechanical behaviour induced by the irreversible domain configuration transformation in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui; Koruza, Jurij; Wang, Ke; Webber, Kyle G.; Hao, Yanan; Li, Longtu

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturization of domains to the nanometer scale has been previously reported in many piezoelectrics with two-phase coexistence. Despite the observation of nanoscale domain configuration near the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) regionin virgin (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) based ceramics, it remains unclear how this domain state responds to external loads and influences the macroscopic electro-mechanical properties. To this end, the electric-field-induced and stress-induced strain curves of KNN-based ceramics over a wide compositional range across PPT were characterized. It was found that the coercive field of the virgin samples was highest in PPT region, which was related to the inhibited domain wall motion due to the presence of nanodomains. However, the coercive field was found to be the lowest in the PPT region after electrical poling. This was related to the irreversible transformation of the nanodomains into micron-sized domains during the poling process. With the similar micron-sized domain configuration for all poled ceramics, the domains in the PPT region move more easily due to the additional polarization vectors. The results demonstrate that the poling process can give rise to the irreversible domain configuration transformation and then account for the inverted macroscopic piezoelectricity in the PPT region of KNN-based ceramics. PMID:26915972

  19. Aircraft accident report: NASA 712, Convair 990, N712NA, March Air Force Base, California, July 17, 1985, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.; Mccarthy, G. T.; Hannah, Michael; Hogan, Robert J.; Marlow, Frank J.; Reynard, William D.; Stoklosa, Janis H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    On July 17, l985, NASA 712, a Convair 990 aircraft, was destroyed by fire during an aborted takeoff at March Air Force Base in California. Material ejected from a blowout in the tires of the right main landing gear penetrated the right-wing fuel tank. The leaking fuel ignited. Fire engulfed the right wing and fuselage as the aircraft stopped its forward motion. The crew of four and the 15 scientists and technicians aboard escaped without serious injury.

  20. Homogenous detection of fumonisin B(1) with a molecular beacon based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between NaYF4: Yb, Ho upconversion nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Li, Xiangli; Tan, Guiliang; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Wang, Zhouping; Wang, Hongxin

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we presented a new aptasensor for fumonisin B1 (FB1) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4: Yb, Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenchers (AuNPs) were attached to the 5' end of the molecular beacon (MB), and the donors (UCNPs) were attached to the 3' end of the MB. In the absence of target DNA (DNA complementary to FB1 aptamers), the energy donors and acceptors were placed in close proximity, leading to quenching of the fluorescence of the UCNPs. Due to the combination of FB1 and FB1-specific aptamers, this caused some complementary DNA dissociating from the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In the presence of the complementary DNA, the MBs underwent spontaneous conformational change and caused the UCNPs and AuNPs to detach from each other, resulting in restoration of the upconversion fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence of UCNPs was restored in a FB1 concentration-dependent manner, which was the basis of the FB1 quantification. The aptasensors showed a linear relationship from 0.01 to 100 ng mL(-1) for FB1 with a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) in an aqueous buffer. As a practical application, the aptasensor was used to monitor FB1 levels in naturally contaminated maize samples. The results were consistent with that of a classic ELISA method, indicating that the UCNPs-FRET aptasensor, which benefited from the near infrared excitation of NaYF4: Yb, Ho UCNPs, was effective for directly sensing FB1 in foodstuff samples without optical interference. This work also created the opportunity to develop aptasensors for other targets using this FRET system.

  1. Essential role of the electroneutral Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid-base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-04-15

    Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid-base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3(-) secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3(-) uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3(-)-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon.

  2. Monte Carlo based approach to the LS–NaI 4πβ–γ anticoincidence extrapolation and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    The 4πβ–γ anticoincidence method is used for the primary standardization of β−, β+, electron capture (EC), α, and mixed-mode radionuclides. Efficiency extrapolation using one or more γ ray coincidence gates is typically carried out by a low-order polynomial fit. The approach presented here is to use a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system to analyze the efficiency extrapolation. New code was developed to account for detector resolution, direct γ ray interaction with the PMT, and implementation of experimental β-decay shape factors. The simulation was tuned to 57Co and 60Co data, then tested with 99mTc data, and used in measurements of 18F, 129I, and 124I. The analysis method described here offers a more realistic activity value and uncertainty than those indicated from a least-squares fit alone.

  3. Monte Carlo based approach to the LS–NaI 4πβ–γ anticoincidence extrapolation and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    The 4πβ–γ anticoincidence method is used for the primary standardization of β−, β+, electron capture (EC), α, and mixed-mode radionuclides. Efficiency extrapolation using one or more γ ray coincidence gates is typically carried out by a low-order polynomial fit. The approach presented here is to use a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system to analyze the efficiency extrapolation. New code was developed to account for detector resolution, direct γ ray interaction with the PMT, and implementation of experimental β-decay shape factors. The simulation was tuned to 57Co and 60Co data, then tested with 99mTc data, and used in measurements of 18F, 129I, and 124I. The analysis method described here offers a more realistic activity value and uncertainty than those indicated from a least-squares fit alone. PMID:27358944

  4. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  5. NA22 Model Cities Project - LL244T An Intelligent Transportation System-Based Radiation Alert and Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S

    2004-02-24

    The purpose of this project was twofold: first, provide an understanding of the technical foundation and planning required for deployment of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)-based system architectures for the protection of New York City from a terrorist attack using a vehicle-deployed nuclear device; second, work with stakeholders to develop mutual understanding of the technologies and tactics required for threat detection/identification and establish guidelines for designing operational systems and procedures. During the course of this project we interviewed and coordinated analysis with people from the New Jersey State Attorney General's office, the New Jersey State Police, the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey, the Counterterrorism Division of the New York City Police Department, the New Jersey Transit Authority, the State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, TRANSCOM and a number of contractors involved with state and federal intelligent transportation development and implementation. The basic system architecture is shown in the figure below. In an actual system deployment, radiation sensors would be co-located with existing ITS elements and the data will be sent to the Traffic Operations Center. A key element of successful system operation is the integration of vehicle data, such as license plate, EZ pass ID, vehicle type/color and radiation signature. A threat data base can also be implemented and utilized in cases where there is a suspect vehicle identified from other intelligence sources or a mobile detector system. Another key aspect of an operational architecture is the procedures used to verify the threat and plan interdiction. This was a major focus of our work and discussed later in detail. In support of the operational analysis, we developed a detailed traffic simulation model that is described extensively in the body of the report.

  6. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model. PMID:26785562

  7. Understanding the Size-Dependent Sodium Storage Properties of Na2C6O6-Based Organic Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Ye; Yue, Zhuanghao; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2016-05-11

    Organic electroactive materials represent a new generation of sustainable energy storage technology due to their unique features including environmental benignity, material sustainability, and highly tailorable properties. Here a carbonyl-based organic salt Na2C6O6, sodium rhodizonate (SR) dibasic, is systematically investigated for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. A combination of structural control, electrochemical analysis, and computational simulation show that rational morphological control can lead to significantly improved sodium storage performance. A facile antisolvent method was developed to synthesize microbulk, microrod, and nanorod structured SRs, which exhibit strong size-dependent sodium ion storage properties. The SR nanorod exhibited the best performance to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C with over 90% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 10 C, 50% of the capacity can be obtained due to enhanced reaction kinetics, and such high electrochemical activity maintains even at 80 °C. These results demonstrate a generic design route toward high-performance organic-based electrode materials for beyond Li-ion batteries. Using such a biomass-derived organic electrode material enables access to sustainable energy storage devices with low cost, high electrochemical performance and thermal stability.

  8. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment. PMID:17206513

  9. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  10. Semiconductor/relaxor 0-3 type composites without thermal depolarization in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Pan, Zhao; Guo, Fei-Fei; Liu, Wen-Chao; Ning, Huanpo; Chen, Y. B.; Lu, Ming-Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Xing, Xianran; Rödel, Jürgen; Cao, Wenwu; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Commercial lead-based piezoelectric materials raised worldwide environmental concerns in the past decade. Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based solid solution is among the most promising lead-free piezoelectric candidates; however, depolarization of these solid solutions is a longstanding obstacle for their practical applications. Here we use a strategy to defer the thermal depolarization, even render depolarization-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based 0-3-type composites. This is achieved by introducing semiconducting ZnO particles into the relaxor ferroelectric 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 matrix. The depolarization temperature increases with increasing ZnO concentration until depolarization disappears at 30 mol% ZnO. The semiconducting nature of ZnO provides charges to partially compensate the ferroelectric depolarization field. These results not only pave the way for applications of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoceramics, but also have great impact on the understanding of the mechanism of depolarization so as to provide a new design to optimize the performance of lead-free piezoelectrics.

  11. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R.; Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.; Daly, L.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating

  12. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision.

  13. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15-based ferroelectrics under blue light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xing-an; Jiang, Xiang-ping; Chen, Chao; Tu, Na; Chen, Yun-jing; Zhang, Ban-chao

    2016-03-01

    Na0.5Bi4.5- x Eu x Ti4O15 (NBT- x Eu3+) ceramics with x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.40 were prepared by conventional ceramics processing. NBT-0.25Eu3+ ceramics show the strongest red and orange emissions corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 (617 nm) and 5D0 → 7F1 (596 nm) transitions, respectively. The strongest excitation band around 465 nm matches well with the emission wavelength of commercial InGaN-based blue LED chip, indicating that Eu3+-doped NBT ceramics may be used as potential environmental friendly red-orange phosphor for W-LEDs application. As an inherent ferroelectric and piezoelectric material, the electrical properties of this potentially multifunctional electro-optical material have been also studied. The introduction of Eu3+ distinctly increased the Curie temperature ( T C ) of NBT- x Eu3+ ceramics from 640°C to 711°C as x ranges from 0 to 0.40. For higher temperature applications, the electrical conductivity was also investigated. The conduction of charge carriers in high-temperature range originates from the conducting electrons from the ionization of oxygen vacancies. High T C and low tan δ makes Eu3+-doped NBTceramic also suitable for high temperature piezoelectric sensor applications and electro-optical integration.

  14. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision. PMID:27498015

  15. Mechanism of Na2SO4-induced corrosion of molybdenum containing nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. I - Corrosion in atmospheres containing O2 only. II - Corrosion in O2 + SO2 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of the Na2SO4-induced corrosion of the molybdenum-containing nickel-base superalloys, B-1900 and Udimet 700, coated with Na2MoO4, has been studied in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 C. Because the gas turbine atmosphere always contains some SO2 and SO3, the effect of atmospheric SO2 content on corrosion of Udimet-700 has also been studied. It was found that in the O2 atmosphere the melt in the catastrophic corrosion phase consists of Na2MoO4 plus MoO3, with the onset of the catastrophic corrosion coinciding with the appearance of MoO3. In the presence of low levels of atmospheric SO2 (below 0.24 percent), the melt during catastrophic corrosion contains, in addition to Na2MoO4 and MoO3, some quantities of Na2SO4. At the levels of SO2 above 1 percent, no catastrophic corrosion was observed. At these SO2 levels, internal sulfidation appears to be the primary mode of degradation.

  16. NaHCO3 and NaC1 tolerance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Husted, F C; Nolph, K D; Maher, J F

    1975-08-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).

  17. Development in a naturally acidified environment: Na+/H+-exchanger 3-based proton secretion leads to CO2 tolerance in cephalopod embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of pH homeostasis is a central feature of all animals to cope with acid–base disturbances caused by respiratory CO2. Although a large body of knowledge is available for vertebrate and mammalian pH regulatory systems, the mechanisms of pH regulation in marine invertebrates remain largely unexplored. Results We used squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana), which are known as powerful acid–base regulators to investigate the pH regulatory machinery with a special focus on proton secretion pathways during environmental hypercapnia. We cloned a Rhesus protein (slRhP), V-type H+-ATPase (slVHA) and the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (slNHE3) from S. lessoniana, which are hypothesized to represent key players in proton secretion pathways among different animal taxa. Specifically designed antibodies for S. lessoniana demonstrated the sub-cellular localization of NKA, VHA (basolateral) and NHE3 (apical) in epidermal ionocytes of early life stages. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that slNHE3, slVHA and slRhP are up regulated in response to environmental hypercapnia (pH 7.31; 0.46 kPa pCO2) in body and yolk tissues compared to control conditions (pH 8.1; 0.045 kPa pCO2). This observation is supported by H+ selective electrode measurements, which detected increased proton gradients in CO2 treated embryos. This compensatory proton secretion is EIPA sensitive and thus confirms the central role of NHE based proton secretion in cephalopods. Conclusion The present work shows that in convergence to teleosts and mammalian pH regulatory systems, cephalopod early life stages have evolved a unique acid–base regulatory machinery located in epidermal ionocytes. Using cephalopod molluscs as an invertebrate model this work provides important insights regarding the unifying evolutionary principles of pH regulation in different animal taxa that enables them to cope with CO2 induced acid–base disturbances. PMID:23988184

  18. Assessment of Impact of the Rheological Parameters Change on Sensitivity of the Asphalt Strain Based on the Test Results / Ocena Wpływu Zmiany Parametrów Reologicznych Na Wrażliwość Deformacji Mieszanek Mineralno - Asfaltowych Na Podstawie Wyników Badań

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpiel, Artur; Wysokowski, Adam

    2015-03-01

    The creep test under the static loading, that allows to determine rheological properties of asphalt based on the creep curve, is the most effective test nowadays. Applied loads are non-destructive and allow to observe the course of the strain after the test load. The test can be carried out on compressing, shearing, bending as well as on triaxial test, that depends on the applied apparatus implementing different intensity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Based on the creep test, the stress of different properties can be specified. Among them there are valuable rheological properties based on selected viscoelascity models [1]. The properties of the viscoelascity models are relevant indexes depicting resistance to deformation. They can be used to forecast the wheel-truck in the accepted rheological model [1]. In this article it is shown the impact of different rheological properties of the viscoelacity model on the wheel-truck as well as the impact of different properties on shape and the course of the creep curve. The asphalt mixtures presented in this article are characterized by variable rheological properties. It is therefore difficult to determine which property mostly affects the size of the strain. However, the authors of this article attempted to analyse the change of the asphalt strain value of the different variables in particular rheological model, called Bürgers's model. Badanie pełzania pod obciążeniem statycznym jest obecnie najbardziej efektywnym badaniem pozwalającym na określenie reologicznych parametrów mieszanek mineralno - asfaltowych na podstawie krzywej pełzania. Stosowane obciążenia mają poziom nieniszczący i pozwalają na obserwację przebiegu odkształceń w czasie również po odciążeniu. Badanie może być realizowane przy ściskaniu, ścinaniu, rozciąganiu i zginaniu, a także w zakresie trójosiowym, w zależności od stosowanego aparatu realizującego zadany schemat naprężeń [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Na podstawie badania pełzania można

  19. Application of accelerated carbonation with a combination of Na2CO3 and CO2 in cement-based solidification/stabilization of heavy metal-bearing sediment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanyuan; Ke, Yujuan; Zhang, Lina; Tyrer, Mark; Hills, Colin D; Xue, Gang

    2009-07-15

    The efficient remediation of heavy metal-bearing sediment has been one of top priorities of ecosystem protection. Cement-based solidification/stabilization (s/s) is an option for reducing the mobility of heavy metals in the sediment and the subsequent hazard for human beings and animals. This work uses sodium carbonate as an internal carbon source of accelerated carbonation and gaseous CO(2) as an external carbon source to overcome deleterious effects of heavy metals on strength development and improve the effectiveness of s/s of heavy metal-bearing sediment. In addition to the compressive strength and porosity measurements, leaching tests followed the Chinese solid waste extraction procedure for leaching toxicity - sulfuric acid and nitric acid method (HJ/T299-2007), German leaching procedure (DIN38414-S4) and US toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP) have been conducted. The experimental results indicated that the solidified sediment by accelerated carbonation was capable of reaching all performance criteria for the disposal at a Portland cement dosage of 10 wt.% and a solid/water ratio of 1:1. The concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals in the leachates were below 0.10mg/L and 5mg/L, respectively, complying with Chinese regulatory level (GB5085-2007). Compared to the hydration, accelerated carbonation improved the compressive strength of the solidified sediment by more than 100% and reduced leaching concentrations of heavy metals significantly. It is considered that accelerated carbonation technology with a combination of Na(2)CO(3) and CO(2) may practically apply to cement-based s/s of heavy metal-bearing sediment. PMID:19128876

  20. Feasibility study of activity measurement of positron emitters based on gamma-gamma coincident detection by two NaI(Tl) detectors.

    PubMed

    Volkovitsky, Peter; Unterweger, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Detection of two and more γ-rays in coincidence by two NaI(Tl) detectors with almost 4π geometry allows absolute characterization of radionuclides emitting coincidence gammas. The method is a generalization of the Eldridge-Crowther method developed originally for x-rays and low energy γ-rays. This method is applied to the case of (94)Nb decay with two coincident gamma-rays emitted in one cascade. The application of this method for the case of coincident positron-gamma emission ((22)Na and (26)Al sources) meets some difficulties. In these decays, two 511 keV gamma quanta produced in positron annihilation are strongly correlated. Despite the fact that the third gamma emitted in (22)Na and (26)Al decays is not correlated with two annihilation quanta, the number of independent observables for (22)Na and (26)Al decays is less than the number of unknowns. The small parameter ω(00), the probability that both annihilation quanta escape detection in both NaI(Tl) detectors, cannot be determined. However, if this parameter is defined from experimental data for one source with known activity ((22)Na), the activity of the other source ((26)Al) can be calculated from experimental data for (26)Al decay.

  1. Comparative measurements of the external radiation exposure in a 137Cs contaminated village in Belarus based on optically stimulated luminescence in NaCl and thermoluminescence in LiF.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, Christian; Matskevich, Svetlana; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory studies have shown that ordinary household salt (NaCl) exhibits several promising properties for retrospective dosimetry; e.g., a linear dose response and a low detection limit, down to a few mGy or even less. In an attempt to test NaCl as a dosimeter outside the laboratory, the first results from the use of NaCl as a dosimeter under normal environmental conditions are reported here. For this purpose, special dosimeter kits with NaCl and lithium fluoride (LiF) chips were designed. The dosimeter kits were positioned at different locations in a Chernobyl Cs-contaminated village in Belarus during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2010. The results from the two luminescent detectors were also compared with those of measurements carried out with a handheld 75 cm NaI(Tl) detector and with a 8 dm high pressure ionization chamber. The radiation level in the village was inhomogeneous, and depending on the type of house and countermeasures carried out, the ambient dose rate inside and around the houses varied between 0.05 μSv h and 0.50 μSv h. Based on the different measurements, the annual external effective dose to a hypothetical adult population in the village was estimated as 1-1.5 mSv y. Detector readings from the two luminescent materials correlated relatively strongly to that of the ambient survey NaI(Tl) detector. After three repeated surveys using similar dosimeter kits for prospective dosimetry, the potential use of ordinary household salt as a complement to other techniques for retrospective dose estimations is more evident, and shortcomings of the technique have been identified. PMID:23111521

  2. Comparative measurements of the external radiation exposure in a 137Cs contaminated village in Belarus based on optically stimulated luminescence in NaCl and thermoluminescence in LiF.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, Christian; Matskevich, Svetlana; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory studies have shown that ordinary household salt (NaCl) exhibits several promising properties for retrospective dosimetry; e.g., a linear dose response and a low detection limit, down to a few mGy or even less. In an attempt to test NaCl as a dosimeter outside the laboratory, the first results from the use of NaCl as a dosimeter under normal environmental conditions are reported here. For this purpose, special dosimeter kits with NaCl and lithium fluoride (LiF) chips were designed. The dosimeter kits were positioned at different locations in a Chernobyl Cs-contaminated village in Belarus during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2010. The results from the two luminescent detectors were also compared with those of measurements carried out with a handheld 75 cm NaI(Tl) detector and with a 8 dm high pressure ionization chamber. The radiation level in the village was inhomogeneous, and depending on the type of house and countermeasures carried out, the ambient dose rate inside and around the houses varied between 0.05 μSv h and 0.50 μSv h. Based on the different measurements, the annual external effective dose to a hypothetical adult population in the village was estimated as 1-1.5 mSv y. Detector readings from the two luminescent materials correlated relatively strongly to that of the ambient survey NaI(Tl) detector. After three repeated surveys using similar dosimeter kits for prospective dosimetry, the potential use of ordinary household salt as a complement to other techniques for retrospective dose estimations is more evident, and shortcomings of the technique have been identified.

  3. Studies on solid solutions based on layered honeycomb-ordered phases P2-Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn)

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelot, Romain; Schmidt, Whitney; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2012-12-15

    Three complete solid solutions between the layered phases P2-Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn) have been prepared by conventional solid state method and investigated through X-ray diffraction, magnetism and optical measurements. All compositions are characterized by a M{sup 2+}/X{sup 6+} honeycomb ordering within the slabs and crystallize in a hexagonal unit cell. However, a structural transition based on a different stacking is observed as nickel (space group P6{sub 3}/mcm) is substituted by zinc or cobalt (space group P6{sub 3}22). All compositions exhibit a paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperatures; and the magnetic moment values confirm the presence of Ni{sup 2+} and/or Co{sup 2+} cations. The low-temperature antiferromagnetic order of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Co{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is suppressed by zinc substitution. The color of the obtained compositions varies from pink, to light green and white when M=Co, Ni, Zn, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The comparison between the structure of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (left) and Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Zn) (right) evidences the stacking difference with distinct atom sequences along the hexagonal c-axis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solutions between lamellar phases Na{sub 2}M{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni, Zn) are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A M{sup 2+}/X{sup 6+} honeycomb ordering characterized all the compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural transition is shown when Ni is replaced by Co or Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low-temperature AFM ordering of Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Co{sub 2}TeO{sub 6} is suppressed by zinc substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Color changes from pink to light green and white when M=Co, Ni, Zn, respectively.

  4. One-Step Catalytic Synthesis of CuO/Cu2O in a Graphitized Porous C Matrix Derived from the Cu-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Cho, Keumnam; Woo, Jae-Young; Lee, Yongho; Han, Sung-Hwan; Byun, Dongjin; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Joong Kee

    2016-08-01

    The hybrid composite electrode comprising CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles in a highly graphitized porous C matrix (CuO/Cu2O-GPC) has a rational design and is a favorable approach to increasing the rate capability and reversible capacity of metal oxide negative materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries. CuO/Cu2O-GPC is synthesized through a Cu-based metal-organic framework via a one-step thermal transformation process. The electrochemical performances of the CuO/Cu2O-GPC negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries are systematically studied and exhibit excellent capacities of 887.3 mAh g(-1) at 60 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Li-ion battery and 302.9 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Na-ion battery. The high electrochemical stability was obtained via the rational strategy, mainly owing to the synergy effect of the CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles and highly graphitized porous C formed by catalytic graphitization of Cu nanoparticles. Owing to the simple one-step thermal transformation process and resulting high electrochemical performance, CuO/Cu2O-GPC is one of the prospective negative active materials for rechargeable Li- and Na-ion batteries. PMID:27398693

  5. One-Step Catalytic Synthesis of CuO/Cu2O in a Graphitized Porous C Matrix Derived from the Cu-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Cho, Keumnam; Woo, Jae-Young; Lee, Yongho; Han, Sung-Hwan; Byun, Dongjin; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Joong Kee

    2016-08-01

    The hybrid composite electrode comprising CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles in a highly graphitized porous C matrix (CuO/Cu2O-GPC) has a rational design and is a favorable approach to increasing the rate capability and reversible capacity of metal oxide negative materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries. CuO/Cu2O-GPC is synthesized through a Cu-based metal-organic framework via a one-step thermal transformation process. The electrochemical performances of the CuO/Cu2O-GPC negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries are systematically studied and exhibit excellent capacities of 887.3 mAh g(-1) at 60 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Li-ion battery and 302.9 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Na-ion battery. The high electrochemical stability was obtained via the rational strategy, mainly owing to the synergy effect of the CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles and highly graphitized porous C formed by catalytic graphitization of Cu nanoparticles. Owing to the simple one-step thermal transformation process and resulting high electrochemical performance, CuO/Cu2O-GPC is one of the prospective negative active materials for rechargeable Li- and Na-ion batteries.

  6. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  7. Modeling solubility, acid-base properties and activity coefficients of amoxicillin, ampicillin and (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid, in NaCl(aq) at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Cucinotta, Daniela; De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio; Vianelli, Giuseppina

    2012-11-20

    The total solubility of three penicillin derivatives was determined, in pure water and NaCl aqueous solutions at different salt concentrations (from ∼0.15 to 1.0 mol L(-1) for ampicillin and amoxicillin, and from ∼0.05 to 2.0 mol L(-1) for (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid), using the shake-flask method for generating the saturated solutions, followed by potentiometric analysis. The knowledge of the pH of solubilization and of the protonation constants determined in the same experimental conditions, allowed us to calculate, by means of the mass balance equations, the solubility of the neutral species at different ionic strength values, to model its dependence on the salt concentration and to determine the corresponding values at infinite dilution. The salting parameter and the activity coefficients of the neutral species were calculated by the Setschenow equation. The protonation constants of ampicillin and amoxicillin, determined at different temperatures (from T=288.15 to 318.15K), from potentiometric and spectrophotometric measurements, were used to calculate, by means of the Van't Hoff equation, the temperature coefficients at different ionic strength values and the corresponding protonation entropies. The protonation enthalpies of the (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid were determined by isoperibol calorimetric titrations at T=298.15K and up to I=2.0 mol L(-1). The dependence of the protonation constants on ionic strength was modeled by means of the Debye-Hückel and SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approaches, and the specific interaction parameters of the ionic species were determined. The hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring was studied by spectrophotometric and H NMR investigations as a function of pH, ionic strength and time. Potentiometric measurements carried out on the hydrolyzed (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid allowed us to highlight that the opened and the closed β-lactam forms of the (+)6-aminopenicillanic acid have quite different acid-base properties. An

  8. Development of an absorbance-based response model for monitoring the growth rates of Arcobacter butzleri as a function of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth of Arcobacter butzleri in poultry was evaluated as a function of storage temperature (5, 22.5, and 40°C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and NaCl concentration (0, 4, and 8%). A predictive model was developed using the absorbance-based response surface methodology to describe the growth rate. The primary model was obtained to predict a growth rate with a good fit (R2≥0.95), and the secondary model was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis and calculated as follows: Growth rate=-2.267274-0.024181 (Temp)+0.6459384 (pH)+0.1926227 (NaCl)+0.0024661 (Temp×pH)-0.001312 (Temp×NaCl)-0.018802 (pH×NaCl)+0.000467 (Temp2)-0.041711 (pH2)- 0.007426 (NaCl2). Our data showed that the growth of A. butzleri can be completely inhibited at a pH of 5 (in the absence of NaCl, at 5°C) and at a pH of 9 (in the presence of 8% NaCl, at 5°C). The surface response model was statistically significant, with P<0.0001, as evident from the Fisher F test and from coefficient determination (R2, 0.95). This model was also verified by the bias factor (Bf, 0.839), accuracy factor (Af, 1.343), and mean square error (MSE, 0.0138). The newly developed secondary models of growth rate for A. butzleri could possibly be incorporated into a tertiary modeling program such as Pathogen Modeling Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]) and Food Micro Model (in the United Kingdom). As a result, they could be used to predict the growth kinetics of A. butzleri as a function of a combination of environmental factors. Ultimately, the developed model can be used to reduce A. butzleri in poultry production, processing, and distribution, thereby enhancing food safety.

  9. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, na62.web.cern.ch/NA62/Documents/TD_Full_doc_v1.pdf> [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  10. Regulation of Na+ fluxes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Maathuis, Frans J. M.; Ahmad, Izhar; Patishtan, Juan

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to salt, every plant takes up Na+ from the environment. Once in the symplast, Na+ is distributed within cells and between different tissues and organs. There it can help to lower the cellular water potential but also exert potentially toxic effects. Control of Na+ fluxes is therefore crucial and indeed, research shows that the divergence between salt tolerant and salt sensitive plants is not due to a variation in transporter types but rather originates in the control of uptake and internal Na+ fluxes. A number of regulatory mechanisms has been identified based on signaling of Ca2+, cyclic nucleotides, reactive oxygen species, hormones, or on transcriptional and post translational changes of gene and protein expression. This review will give an overview of intra- and intercellular movement of Na+ in plants and will summarize our current ideas of how these fluxes are controlled and regulated in the early stages of salt stress. PMID:25278946

  11. Hybrid aqueous battery based on Na3V2(PO4)3/C cathode and zinc anode for potential large-scale energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guolong; Yang, Ze; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Wuxing; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid aqueous rechargeable battery with Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode and metal Zn as anode has been proposed. Na3V2(PO4)3 is co-incorporated by carbon and reduced graphene oxide. The battery delivers a capacity of 92 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 with a high and flat operating voltage of 1.42 V. It exhibits a capacity of 60 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1, indicative of excellent rate capability. Such inexpensive and safe battery shows an energy density as high as 112 Wh kg-1, demonstrating that it is potential for future application in large-scale energy storage.

  12. Na(+) doping induced changes in the reduction and charge transport characteristics of Al2O3-stabilized, CuO-based materials for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Q; Abdala, P M; Kierzkowska, A M; van Beek, W; Schweiger, S; Rupp, J L M; Müller, C R

    2016-04-28

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging CO2 capture technologies that could reduce appreciably the costs associated with the capture of CO2. In CLC and CLOU, the oxygen required to combust a hydrocarbon is provided by a solid oxygen carrier. Among the transition metal oxides typically considered for CLC and CLOU, copper oxide (CuO) stands out owing to its high oxygen carrying capacity, exothermic reduction reactions and fast reduction kinetics. However, the low Tammann (sintering) temperature of CuO is a serious drawback. In this context, it has been proposed to support CuO on high Tammann temperature and low cost alumina (Al2O3), thus, reducing the morphological changes occurring over multiple CLC or CLOU redox cycles and stabilizing, in turn, the high activity of CuO. However, in CuO-Al2O3 systems, phase stabilization and avoiding the formation of the CuAl2O4 spinel is key to obtaining a material with a high redox stability and activity. Here, we report a Na(+) doping strategy to phase stabilize Al2O3-supported CuO, yielding in turn an inexpensive material with a high redox stability and CO2 capture efficiency. We also demonstrate that doping CuO-Al2O3 with Na(+) improves the oxygen uncoupling characteristics and coke resistance of the oxygen carriers. Utilizing in situ and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the local structure of Cu and the reduction pathways of CuO were determined as a function of the Na(+) content and cycle number. Finally, using 4-point conductivity measurements, we confirm that doping of Al2O3-supported CuO with Na(+) lowers the activation energy for charge transport explaining conclusively the improved redox characteristics of the new oxygen carriers developed. PMID:27080470

  13. Na(+) doping induced changes in the reduction and charge transport characteristics of Al2O3-stabilized, CuO-based materials for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Q; Abdala, P M; Kierzkowska, A M; van Beek, W; Schweiger, S; Rupp, J L M; Müller, C R

    2016-04-28

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging CO2 capture technologies that could reduce appreciably the costs associated with the capture of CO2. In CLC and CLOU, the oxygen required to combust a hydrocarbon is provided by a solid oxygen carrier. Among the transition metal oxides typically considered for CLC and CLOU, copper oxide (CuO) stands out owing to its high oxygen carrying capacity, exothermic reduction reactions and fast reduction kinetics. However, the low Tammann (sintering) temperature of CuO is a serious drawback. In this context, it has been proposed to support CuO on high Tammann temperature and low cost alumina (Al2O3), thus, reducing the morphological changes occurring over multiple CLC or CLOU redox cycles and stabilizing, in turn, the high activity of CuO. However, in CuO-Al2O3 systems, phase stabilization and avoiding the formation of the CuAl2O4 spinel is key to obtaining a material with a high redox stability and activity. Here, we report a Na(+) doping strategy to phase stabilize Al2O3-supported CuO, yielding in turn an inexpensive material with a high redox stability and CO2 capture efficiency. We also demonstrate that doping CuO-Al2O3 with Na(+) improves the oxygen uncoupling characteristics and coke resistance of the oxygen carriers. Utilizing in situ and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the local structure of Cu and the reduction pathways of CuO were determined as a function of the Na(+) content and cycle number. Finally, using 4-point conductivity measurements, we confirm that doping of Al2O3-supported CuO with Na(+) lowers the activation energy for charge transport explaining conclusively the improved redox characteristics of the new oxygen carriers developed.

  14. Dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and reaction mechanisms of reversible hydrogen storage material based on nanoconfined MgH2-NaAlH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plerdsranoy, Praphatsorn; Meethom, Sukanya; Utke, Rapee

    2015-12-01

    Studies of dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and reaction mechanisms during de/rehydrogenation of nanoconfined MgH2-NaAlH4 into carbon aerogel scaffold (CAS) for reversible hydrogen storage material are for the first time proposed. Two different MgH2:NaAlH4 molar ratios (1:1 and 2:1) of hydride composite are melt infiltrated into CAS under 1:1 (CAS:hydride composite) weight ratio. Successful nanoconfinement is confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption. Multiple-step dehydrogenation of milled samples is reduced to two-step reaction due to nanoconfinement. Peak temperatures corresponding to main dehydrogenation of nanoconfined samples significantly reduce as compared with those of milled samples, i.e., ∆T=up to 50 and 34 °C for nanoconfined sample with 1:1 and 2:1 (MgH2:NaAlH4) molar ratios, respectively. Hydrogen content released (the 1st cycle) and reproduced (the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cycles) of nanoconfined samples enhance up to 80% and 68% with respect to theoretical hydrogen storage capacity, respectively, while those of milled samples are 71% and 38%, respectively. Remarkable hydrogen content reproduced after nanoconfinement is due to the fact that metallic Al obtained after dehydrogenation (T=300 °C under vacuum) of nanoconfined samples prefer to react with MgH2 and produces Al12Mg17, favorable for reversibility of MgH2-NaAlH4 system, whereas that of milled samples stays in the form of unreacted Al under the same temperature and pressure condition.

  15. Luminescence energy transfer detection of PSA in red region based on Mn2+-enhanced NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaozhen; Gao, Ni; Feng, Dexiang; Wang, Lun; Chen, Hongqi

    2015-10-15

    A new turn-on luminescence energy transfer (LET) system has been designed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA, a cancer marker) that utilizes Mn(2+)-enhanced long wavelength luminescence NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods as the donor and gold nanorods as the acceptor. The Mn(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion luminescence nanorods with an emission peak located in the red region were synthesized. The presence of Mn(2+) markedly increased the luminescence intensity over that of the NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanomaterials (excited by a 980 nm continuous wavelength laser). The surfaces of Mn(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanorods were modified with poly(acrylic acid). Antibodies against prostate specific antigen were bound to the surface of the carboxyl-functionalized upconversion nanorods, which acted as the energy donor in this LET system. Gold nanorods with an absorption band at ~666 nm were synthesized by the seed growth method, acted as the energy acceptor. The emission band of the upconversion nanorods overlapped well with the absorption band of the gold nanorods. The luminescence was quenched because of the electrostatic interactions that shortened the distance between the donor (negatively charged) and the accepter (positively charged).When the PSA antigen was added into the system, the energy acceptor and the energy donors were separated because the binding affinity between PSA and anti-PSA was greater than the electrostatic interactions, and thereby the luminescence was recovered. The linear range of detecting PSA was from 0.1172 to 18.75 ng/mL (R=0.995), with a limit of detection for PSA as low as 0.1129 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the sensing of PSA in human serum samples. PMID:25996781

  16. Dechlorination of hazardous wastes Ca/NH{sub 3}, Na/NH{sub 3} and borohydride reductions and by thermolysis over solid bases

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, C.U. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The dechlorination of PCBs, pentachlorophenol, CAHs, and pesticides has been carried out at 35{degrees}C by Ca/NH{sub 3} or Na/NH{sub 3} and at 68{degrees}C by NaBH{sub 2}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}/NiX{sub 2} salts in THF. Remarkably, PCB-contaminated soils (clay, sandy loam) are remediated within one min at 35{degrees}C (99.9+% PCB destruction) by solvated electrons present in soil/Ca/NH{sub 3} slurries. Wet soils (>25% H{sub 2}O) are decontaminated using Ca stoichiometries far lower than the H{sub 2}O present. Alternatively, PCBs, for example, can be dechlorinated to polyhydroxylatedbiphenols by heating at 250-400{degrees}C over solid CaO/Ca(OH){sub 2}, MgO/Mg(OH){sub 2}, BaO/Ba(OH){sub 2}, KOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The benzyne mechanism was implicated at 375{degrees}C. More highly chlorinated congeners are destroyed more rapidly while the 2,2{prime}-dichloro- and 2-chloro-congeners are most resistant.

  17. A novel Ni/Na - Containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule based on polyoxometalate and EDTA with ultraviolet-visible light photochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han-Xi; Teng, Chun-Lin; Cai, Qing; Sun, Su-Qin; Cai, Tie-Jun; Deng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    A novel Ni/Na - containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule {(PW12O40)·[Na2(NiH2EDTA·H2O)(H4EDTA)·2H2O]·2H2O·H3O}n (short for NiEDTA-PW12) has been successfully synthesized by solution method, and investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). NiEDTA-PW12 exhibits intriguing infinite supramolecular structure with Na+ ions as linker. Furthermore, NiEDTA-PW12 displays a fast-responsive reversible photochromism under ultraviolet or visible light. The photochromic property of NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated by techniques of UV-vis DRS and PL, and the impact of the O2 on fading of the colored NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated.

  18. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  19. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  20. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV. PMID:27119150

  1. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T.; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007–2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5–10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV. PMID:27119150

  2. Determination of ammonia in water based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between peroxymonocarbonate and branched NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-10-16

    The ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and carbonate is strongly enhanced by the branched NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanoparticle (NP) in the presence of aqueous ammonia. It was explained that ammonia catalyzes the decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate, which is the product of hydrogen peroxide mixing with bicarbonate, making the formation of (CO(2))(2)*, (O(2))(2)*, and (1)O(2). The excitation energy, carried by these emitter intermediates, can be transferred to NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) NP. The CL intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of ammonia present in the solution. A flow-injection CL system with high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility is proposed for the determination of aqueous ammonia. The proposed method exhibited advantages in a larger linear range from 0.5 μmol L(-1) to 50 μmol L(-1) and a lower detection limit of 1.1 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of ammonia in water samples with recoveries from 95% to 108%. The relative standard deviations are 1.8% and 4.1% for intra-assay and inter-assay precision, respectively.

  3. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) in concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.; Fulton, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    Chromium is a major component of the Hanford waste tank sludges, and the presence of Cr in the sludges is a significant concern in the disposal of these sludges because Cr can interfere with the formation of waste glasses. One of the current pretreatment strategies for removing constituents that can interfere with glass formation, such as P and Cr, is to wash/dissolve the sludges in basic NaOH solutions. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was measured in concentrated NaOH ranging in concentration from 0.1M to 6.0M and in NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions with fixed NaOH concentration and variable NaNO{sub 3} concentration at room temperature (22--23 C). Equilibrium between solids and solutions was approached relatively slowly and required approximately 60--70 days before steady-state concentrations were reached. A thermodynamic model, based upon the Pitzer equations, was developed from the solubility data in NaOH, which includes only two aqueous Cr species (Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NaCr(OH){sub 4}(aq)) and ion-interaction parameters for Na{sup +} with Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}}. This model was then tested in the mixed NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions and found to be reliable.

  4. A Superior Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 -Based Nanocomposite Enhanced by Both N-Doped Coating Carbon and Graphene as the Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Zhi; Wu, Xing-Long; Wan, Fang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Rong-Shun

    2015-11-23

    A superior Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 -based nanocomposite (NVP/C/rGO) has been successfully developed by a facile carbothermal reduction method using one most-common chelator, disodium ethylenediamintetraacetate [Na2 (C10 H16 N2 O8 )], as both sodium and nitrogen-doped carbon sources for the first time. 2D-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets are also employed as highly conductive additives to facilitate the electrical conductivity and limit the growth of NVP nanoparticles. When used as the cathode material for sodium-ion batteries, the NVP/C/rGO nanocomposite exhibits the highest discharge capacity, the best high-rate capabilities and prolonged cycling life compared to the pristine NVP and single-carbon-modified NVP/C. Specifically, the 0.1 C discharge capacity delivered by the NVP/C/rGO is 116.8 mAh g(-1) , which is obviously higher than 106 and 112.3 mAh g(-1) for the NVP/C and pristine NVP respectively; it can still deliver a specific capacity of about 80 mAh g(-1) even at a high rate up to 30 C; and its capacity decay is as low as 0.0355 % per cycle when cycled at 0.2 C. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also implemented to compare the electrode kinetics of all three NVP-based cathodes including the apparent Na diffusion coefficients and charge-transfer resistances.

  5. Thermomechanical and electrophysical properties of a solid electrolyte based on Na-β"-Al2O3 with t-ZrO2 additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, A. I.; Tel'nova, G. B.; Baikin, A. S.; Solntsev, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    The strength, the fracture toughness, the thermal shock resistance, and the electrical conductivity of a ceramic Na-β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte modified by t-ZrO2 additions are studied. The influence of the reverse t-ZrO2 → m-ZrO2 transformation on the mechanical and functional properties of the ceramics is discussed. The ZrO2 addition concentration is found to affect the sodium-ion conductivity of the solid electrolyte and its activation energy. The degree of defect accumulation in the ceramics modified by 8.5 wt % t-ZrO2 is shown to decrease during a thermal shock.

  6. Automated quantitative analysis of in-situ NaI measured spectra in the marine environment using a wavelet-based smoothing technique.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, Christos; Prospathopoulos, Aristides

    2011-10-01

    An algorithm for automated analysis of in-situ NaI γ-ray spectra in the marine environment is presented. A standard wavelet denoising technique is implemented for obtaining a smoothed spectrum, while the stability of the energy spectrum is achieved by taking advantage of the permanent presence of two energy lines in the marine environment. The automated analysis provides peak detection, net area calculation, energy autocalibration, radionuclide identification and activity calculation. The results of the algorithm performance, presented for two different cases, show that analysis of short-term spectra with poor statistical information is considerably improved and that incorporation of further advancements could allow the use of the algorithm in early-warning marine radioactivity systems. PMID:21742510

  7. Short range polar state transitions and deviation from Rayleigh-type behaviour in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Giuseppe; Tan, Yongqiang; McKinnon, Ruth Agnes; Wei, Xiaoyong; Yan, Haixue; Reece, Michael John

    2014-09-01

    The polarization response of 0.95[0.94(Bi0.5Na(0.45)Li0.05)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3]-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics was studied under weak applied cyclic electric fields with different amplitudes and frequency. The analysis of the polarization signals showed that in the ferroelectric phase the non-linearity is dominated by a Rayleigh-type dynamics, while in the ergodic relaxor phase the polarization response deviates from the Rayleigh-type behaviour due to the occurrence of short range electric field-induced transitions, evidenced by the presence of four distinct frequency independent current broad peaks in the current-electric field loops, which gives rise to a characteristic non-linear polarization-electric field loop with reduced hysteresis and weak frequency dependence.

  8. Undernutrition and anaemia among HAART-naïve HIV infected children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a case-controlled, hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Nigeria is very sparse. This will help to formulate nutritional programs among these children. Methods Seventy HAART naive HIV infected children aged 18 months and above were as well as seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were recruited from August 2007 to January 2009 at Paediatric Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their bio data, WHO clinical stage, anthropometric measurements, haematocrit, serum albumin and CD4 counts were taken with other parameters according to a study proforma. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the HIV infected subjects were 48. 6%,58. 6% and 31. 4% respectively which as significantly higher than 28. 1%, 7. 1% and 28. 1% among the HIV negative controls. 20. 1% of the HIV infected children were marasmic compared to 2. 3% of the controls. Triple anthropometric failure was found in 7. 1% of the subjects as compared to none among the controls. Anaemia is significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (70. 0% vs 31. 4%; p<0. 001). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in the HIV infected subjects with undernutrition. Low socioeconomic status, hypoalbuminemia and severe immunosuppression are significantly associated with higher undernutrition prevalence. Conclusion Several years after availability of HAART, undernutrition and anaemia remain widely prevalent among newly presenting HAART naïve HIV infected Nigerian children. Nutritional supplementation and evaluation for anaemia still need close attention in the management of these children. PMID:25400844

  9. Development and validation of a thallium flux-based functional assay for the sodium channel NaV1.7 and its utility for lead discovery and compound profiling.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Days, Emily; Romaine, Ian; Abney, Kris K; Kaufmann, Kristian; Sulikowski, Gary; Stauffer, Shaun; Lindsley, Craig W; Weaver, C David

    2015-06-17

    Ion channels are critical for life, and they are targets of numerous drugs. The sequencing of the human genome has revealed the existence of hundreds of different ion channel subunits capable of forming thousands of ion channels. In the face of this diversity, we only have a few selective small-molecule tools to aid in our understanding of the role specific ion channels in physiology which may in turn help illuminate their therapeutic potential. Although the advent of automated electrophysiology has increased the rate at which we can screen for and characterize ion channel modulators, the technique's high per-measurement cost and moderate throughput compared to other high-throughput screening approaches limit its utility for large-scale high-throughput screening. Therefore, lower cost, more rapid techniques are needed. While ion channel types capable of fluxing calcium are well-served by low cost, very high-throughput fluorescence-based assays, other channel types such as sodium channels remain underserved by present functional assay techniques. In order to address this shortcoming, we have developed a thallium flux-based assay for sodium channels using the NaV1.7 channel as a model target. We show that the assay is able to rapidly and cost-effectively identify NaV1.7 inhibitors thus providing a new method useful for the discovery and profiling of sodium channel modulators.

  10. Reversible sequential transfer of two electrons at the same potential in bis(1,3,5-triketonato)dicopper(II) complexes and their diamine Schiff bases. Effect of Na/sup +/ and similar ions on the cyclic voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lintvedt, R.L.; Kramer, L.S.

    1983-03-02

    The cyclic voltammetry of four binuclear Cu(II) 1,3,5-triketonates and their diamine Schiff-base derivatives has been investigated in DMF with (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/ as the supporting electrolyte. Addition of simple cations such as Na/sup +/ to these solutions has a profound effect on the reduction potentials of the Cu(II) ions and on the stability of the reduced product. In the presence of a sufficient concentration of Na/sup +/ ions, the complexes exhibit one CV wave due to the coppers with peak separations of 42-44 mV and cathodic half-peak widths of 42-44 mV also. These results may be obtaned with no instrumental iR compensation, providing a high concentration of the supporting electrolyte is present. The process is reversible with use of the criteria of scan rate dependence of the cathodic peak current and width and the equivalence of the cathodic and anodic peak heights. Controlled-potential electrolysis results prove that the process involves the transfer of two electrons. All of the experimental facts may be explained by the reversible, sequential transfer of two electrons at the same potential. Although the two Cu(II) ions in the diamine Schiff bases are in much different coordination environments within the same molecule, they give rise to the same CV wave shapes as the triketonates; i,e., ..delta..E/sub p/ and E/sub pc/ - E/sub p///sub 2/ both are very nearly 42 mV. Thus, they also undergo two-electron transfer at the same potential. The only significant difference between the simpler binuclear Cu(II) triketonates and the diamine Schiff-base derivatives is that E/sub 1///sub 2/ values for the Schiff bases are about 0.1V more negative than for their triketonate analogues.

  11. Interaction of cyclic cytosine-, guanine-, thymine-, uracil- and mixed guanine-cytosine base tetrads with K+, Na+ and Li+ ions -- a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2003-02-01

    We have carried out B3LYP hybrid density functional studies of complexes formed by cyclic cytosine-, guanine-, thymine-, uracil- and mixed guanine cytosine-tetrads with Li+, Na+ and K+ ions to determine their structures and interaction energies. The conformations studied have been restricted to a hydrogen bond pattern closely related to the tetrads observed in experimental nucleic acid structures. A comparison of the alkali metal ion/tetrad complexes with the tetrads without cations indicates that alkali metal ions modulate the tetrad structures significantly and that even the hydrogen bond pattern may change. Guanine-tetrad cation complexes show the strongest interaction energy compared to other tetrads that occur less frequently in experimental structures. The most stable G-tetrad/metal ion structure adopts a nearly planar geometry that is especially suitable for tetraplex formation, which requires approximately parallel tetrad planes. In the cytosine-tetrad there is a very large central cavity suitable for cation recognition, but the complexes adopt a non-planar structure unsuitable for stacking, except possibly for ions with very large radii. Uracil and thymine tetrads show a significant different characteristics which may contribute to the differences between DNA and RNA PMID:12529150

  12. Effects of Combined CCR5/Integrase Inhibitors-Based Regimen on Mucosal Immunity in HIV-Infected Patients Naïve to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Min; Utay, Netanya S.; Wook-Chun, Tae; Mann, Surinder; Kashuba, Angela D.; Siewe, Basile; Albanese, Anthony; Troia-Cancio, Paolo; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Somasunderam, Anoma; Yotter, Tammy; Deeks, Steven G.; Landay, Alan; Pollard, Richard B.; Miller, Christopher J.; Moreno, Santiago; Asmuth, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens aimed at achieving greater concentrations within gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) impacts the level of mucosal immune reconstitution, inflammatory markers and the viral reservoir remains unknown. We included 12 HIV- controls and 32 ART-naïve HIV patients who were randomized to efavirenz, maraviroc or maraviroc+raltegravir, each with fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Rectal and duodenal biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 9 months of ART. We performed a comprehensive assay of T-cell subsets by flow cytometry, T-cell density in intestinal biopsies, plasma and tissue concentrations of antiretroviral drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and zonulin-1 each measured by ELISA. Total cell-associated HIV DNA was measured in PBMC and rectal and duodenal mononuclear cells. Twenty-six HIV-infected patients completed the follow-up. In the duodenum, the quadruple regimen resulted in greater CD8+ T-cell density decline, greater normalization of mucosal CCR5+CD4+ T-cells and increase of the naïve/memory CD8+ T-cell ratio, and a greater decline of sCD14 levels and duodenal HIV DNA levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.067, respectively), with no changes in HIV RNA in plasma or tissue. Maraviroc showed the highest drug distribution to the gut tissue, and duodenal concentrations correlated well with other T-cell markers in duodenum, i.e., the CD4/CD8 ratio, %CD4+ and %CD8+ HLA-DR+CD38+ T-cells. Maraviroc use elicited greater activation of the mucosal naïve CD8+ T-cell subset, ameliorated the distribution of the CD8+ T-cell maturational subsets and induced higher improvement of zonulin-1 levels. These data suggest that combined CCR5 and integrase inhibitor based combination therapy in ART treatment naïve patients might more effectively reconstitute duodenal immunity, decrease inflammatory

  13. Effects of Combined CCR5/Integrase Inhibitors-Based Regimen on Mucosal Immunity in HIV-Infected Patients Naïve to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Sainz, Talia; Ma, Zhong-Min; Utay, Netanya S; Chun, Tae-Wook; Wook-Chun, Tae; Mann, Surinder; Kashuba, Angela D; Siewe, Basile; Albanese, Anthony; Troia-Cancio, Paolo; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Somasunderam, Anoma; Yotter, Tammy; Deeks, Steven G; Landay, Alan; Pollard, Richard B; Miller, Christopher J; Moreno, Santiago; Asmuth, David M

    2016-01-01

    Whether initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens aimed at achieving greater concentrations within gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) impacts the level of mucosal immune reconstitution, inflammatory markers and the viral reservoir remains unknown. We included 12 HIV- controls and 32 ART-naïve HIV patients who were randomized to efavirenz, maraviroc or maraviroc+raltegravir, each with fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Rectal and duodenal biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 9 months of ART. We performed a comprehensive assay of T-cell subsets by flow cytometry, T-cell density in intestinal biopsies, plasma and tissue concentrations of antiretroviral drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and zonulin-1 each measured by ELISA. Total cell-associated HIV DNA was measured in PBMC and rectal and duodenal mononuclear cells. Twenty-six HIV-infected patients completed the follow-up. In the duodenum, the quadruple regimen resulted in greater CD8+ T-cell density decline, greater normalization of mucosal CCR5+CD4+ T-cells and increase of the naïve/memory CD8+ T-cell ratio, and a greater decline of sCD14 levels and duodenal HIV DNA levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.067, respectively), with no changes in HIV RNA in plasma or tissue. Maraviroc showed the highest drug distribution to the gut tissue, and duodenal concentrations correlated well with other T-cell markers in duodenum, i.e., the CD4/CD8 ratio, %CD4+ and %CD8+ HLA-DR+CD38+ T-cells. Maraviroc use elicited greater activation of the mucosal naïve CD8+ T-cell subset, ameliorated the distribution of the CD8+ T-cell maturational subsets and induced higher improvement of zonulin-1 levels. These data suggest that combined CCR5 and integrase inhibitor based combination therapy in ART treatment naïve patients might more effectively reconstitute duodenal immunity, decrease inflammatory

  14. NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals and TiO2 inverse opal composite films: a novel device for upconversion enhancement and solid-based sensing of avidin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Shuang; Zhu, Yongsheng; Tao, Li; Xia, Lei; Zhou, Pingwei; Song, Hongwei

    2014-06-01

    Upconversion luminescence (UCL) detection based on rare-earth doped upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) as probes has been proved to exhibit a large anti-Stokes shift, no autofluorescence from biological samples, and no photobleaching. However, it is still a challenge to achieve a stable, reproducible solid-based UCL biosensor because of ineffective UCL of the UCNCs. In this work, we fabricated TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs)/NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) (Er(3+)) UCNC composite films, which can tremendously improve the overall UCL of Tm(3+) as high as 43-fold. Based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the specific interaction between biotin and avidin, a novel solid-based UC biosensor is presented for sensing avidin. This solid-based detection system is convenient for detection, and also can offer two parameters for detecting trace amounts of avidin, namely, the emission intensity and the fluorescence decay time. The sensor has a high sensitivity of 34 pmol(-1), a good linear relationship of 0.996 and a low detection limit of 48 pmol. It also exhibits excellent long-time photostability, and the absence of autofluorescence, and thus may have great potential for versatile applications in biodetection. PMID:24752220

  15. Decreased gray matter volume is associated with the subtypes of psychotic symptoms in patients with antipsychotic-naïve mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Min; Chung, Young-In; Park, Je-Min; Lee, Byung-Dae; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Mun, Chi-Woong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between brain regional gray matter volume and two subtypes of psychotic symptoms, namely paranoid and misidentification subtypes, in antipsychotic-naïve mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty AD patients with psychotic symptoms and 25 AD patients without psychotic symptoms were assessed for cognitive and functional impairment. Presence and subtype of psychotic symptoms were assessed by using the delusion and hallucination subscale of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI). Structural MRI images were acquired on a 3 T scanner, and were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for automated analysis. The misidentification subtype is associated with more severe gray matter atrophy, and paranoid subtype is associated with less severe gray matter atrophy compared to non-psychosis group. These results suggest that the misidentification, the paranoid subtype and the non-psychosis group have a distinct neural correlation. PMID:27000306

  16. Effects of altering the ATP/ADP ratio on pump-mediated Na/K and Na/Na exchanges in resealed human red blood cell ghosts

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Resealed human red blood cell ghosts were prepared to contain a range of ADP concentrations at fixed ATP concentrations and vice versa. ATP/ADP ratios ranging from approximately 0.2 to 50 were set and maintained (for up to 45 min) in this system. ATP and ADP concentrations were controlled by the addition of either a phosphoarginine- or phosphocreatine-based regenerating system. Ouabain- sensitive unidirectional Na efflux was determined in the presence and absence of 15 mM external K as a function of the nucleotide composition. Na/K exchange was found to increase to saturation with ATP (K 1/2 approximately equal to 250 microM), whereas Na/Na exchange (measured in K-free solutions) was a saturating function of ADP (K 1/2 approximately equal to 350 microM). The elevation of ATP from approximately 100 to 1,800 microM did not appreciably affect Na/Na exchange. In the presence of external Na and a saturating concentration of external K, increasing the ADP concentration at constant ATP was found to decrease ouabain-sensitive Na/K exchange. The decreased Na/K exchange that still remained when the ADP/ATP ratio was high was stimulated by removal of external Na. Assuming that under normal substrate conditions the reaction cycle of the Na/K pump is rate- limited by the conformational change associated with the release of occluded K [E2 X (K) X ATP----E1 X ATP + K], increasing ADP inhibits the rate of these transformations by competition with ATP for the E2(K) form. A less likely alternative is that inhibition is due to competition with ATP at the high-affinity site (E1). The acceleration of the Na/K pump that occurs upon removing external Na at high levels of ADP evidently results from a shift in the forward direction of the transformation of the intermediates involved with the release of occluded Na from E1P X (Na). Thus, the nucleotide composition and the Na gradient can modulate the rate at which the Na/K pump operates. PMID:3950576

  17. High-NA HPCS optical fibers for medical diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.

    2010-02-01

    Hard Plastic Clad Silica (HPCS) optical fibers with pure silica cores have been developed which are robust and have NA(Numerical Aperture)>0.50. Improved clad only HPCS fibers have been produced for both new 'standard' and 'high' NA versions. Based on new cladding formulations, the 'standard' NA fiber has an NA of 0.41, while the new ultrahigh NA fiber has an NA of 0.54. Mechanical strength and preliminary fatigue data are presented along with spectral characterization data. For the first time significant results were obtained for clad only high NA fibers, The fibers are useful for diagnostic and surgical applications. Short to medium length time to failure results, indicate that the static fatigue parameters of the new high numerical aperture (NA) optical fibers are at least as good as those for former standard NA (0.37) HPCS fibers, which is an advance from previous results on the older formulation high NA fibers.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone 18F-NaF Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Czernin, Johannes; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Schiepers, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    There is renewed interest in 18F-NaF bone imaging with PET or PET/CT. The current brief discussion focuses on the molecular mechanisms of 18F-NaF deposition in bone and presents model-based approaches to quantifying bone perfusion and metabolism in the context of preclinical and clinical applications of bone imaging with PET. PMID:21078790

  19. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification. PMID:27429967

  20. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage. PMID:27255748

  1. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-09-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid-the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis-with a 2 Na(+): 1 I(-) stoichiometry. The two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I(-) binding site interact allosterically: when Na(+) binds to a Na(+) site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na(+) and for I(-) increases significantly. In all Na(+)-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na(+) ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues-S66, D191, Q194, and Q263-are also involved in Na(+) coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I(-) These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance.

  2. Study of B1 (NaCl-type) to B2 (CsCl-type) pressure-induced structural phase transition in BaS, BaSe and BaTe using first-principles computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Sanjay; Zhou, Xiuquan; Roehl, Jason L.; Lind, Cora

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the pressure-induced phase transitions from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in BaS, BaSe and BaTe by using ab initio density functional theory computations in the local density approximation. The Buerger and WTM[2] mechanisms were explored by mapping the enthalpy contours in two and four dimensional configuration space for the two mechanisms, respectively. Transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe were determined to be 5.5 GPa, 4.9 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively. From these configuration space landscapes, a low enthalpy barrier path was constructed for the transitions to proceed at three different pressures. We obtained barriers of 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 eV/pair (17.4, 15.4 and 14.5 kJ/mol) for the Buerger mechanism and 0.13, 0.13 and 0.12 eV/pair (12.5, 12.5 and 11.6 kJ/mol) for the WTM mechanism at the transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe, respectively, indicating that the WTM mechanism is slightly more favorable in these compounds. We describe the difference of the two mechanisms by differences in their symmetry and atomic coordination. National Science Foundation (#DMR 1005911, #DMR 0705464, #CMMI 1234777 and CNS 0855134), Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).

  3. Study of B1 (NaCl-type) to B2 (CsCl-type) pressure-induced structural phase transition in BaS, BaSe and BaTe using ab initio computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Roehl, J. L.; Lind, C.; Khare, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    We have studied the pressure-induced phase transitions from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in BaS, BaSe and BaTe by using ab initio density functional theory computations in the local density approximation. The Buerger and WTM mechanisms were explored by mapping the enthalpy contours in two- and four-dimensional configuration space for the two mechanisms, respectively. Transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe were determined to be 5.5 GPa, 4.9 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively. From these configuration space landscapes, a low enthalpy barrier path was constructed for the transitions to proceed at three different pressures. We obtained barriers of 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 eV/pair (17.4, 15.4 and 14.5 kJ mol-1) for the Buerger mechanism and 0.13, 0.13 and 0.12 eV/pair (12.5, 12.5 and 11.6 kJ mol-1) for the WTM mechanism at the transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe, respectively, indicating that the WTM mechanism is slightly more favorable in these compounds. We describe the difference between the two mechanisms by differences in their symmetry and atomic coordination.

  4. ENBFS+kNN: Hybrid ensemble classifier using entropy-based naïve Bayes with feature selection and k-nearest neighbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Alfred, Rayner; Ahmad, Faudziah

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid ensemble classifier which combines the entropy based naive Bayes (ENB) classifier strategy and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) is examined. The classifiers are joined in light of the fact that naive Bayes gives prior estimations taking into account entropy while k-NN gives neighborhood estimate to model for a deferred characterization. While original NB utilizes the probabilities, this study utilizes the entropy as priors for class estimations. The result of the hybrid ensemble classifier demonstrates that by consolidating the classifiers, the proposed technique accomplishes promising execution on several benchmark datasets.

  5. Proteomic profiling of naïve multiple myeloma patient plasma cells identifies pathways associated with favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Dominik; Rosebeck, Shaun; Kandarpa, Malathi; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Alonge, Mattina M; Ngoka, Lambert; Jasielec, Jagoda; Richardson, Paul G; Volchenboum, Samuel; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Sreekumar, Arun; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J

    2015-07-01

    Toward our goal of personalized medicine, we comprehensively profiled pre-treatment malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients and prospectively identified pathways predictive of favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens. We utilized two complementary quantitative proteomics platforms to identify differentially-regulated proteins indicative of at least a very good partial response (VGPR) or complete response/near complete response (CR/nCR) to two treatment regimens containing either bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VDD), or lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD). Our results suggest enrichment of 'universal response' pathways that are common to both treatment regimens and are probable predictors of favourable response to bortezomib, including a subset of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. The data also implicate pathways unique to each regimen that may predict sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunomodulatory drugs, which was associated with acute phase response signalling. Overall, we identified patterns of tumour characteristics that may predict response to bortezomib-based regimens and their components. These results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the protein profiles identified herein for targeted selection of anti-myeloma therapy to increase the likelihood of improved treatment outcome of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma. PMID:25824111

  6. Proteomic profiling of naïve multiple myeloma patient plasma cells identifies pathways associated with favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Dominik; Rosebeck, Shaun; Kandarpa, Malathi; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Alonge, Mattina M; Ngoka, Lambert; Jasielec, Jagoda; Richardson, Paul G; Volchenboum, Samuel; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Sreekumar, Arun; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J

    2015-07-01

    Toward our goal of personalized medicine, we comprehensively profiled pre-treatment malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients and prospectively identified pathways predictive of favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens. We utilized two complementary quantitative proteomics platforms to identify differentially-regulated proteins indicative of at least a very good partial response (VGPR) or complete response/near complete response (CR/nCR) to two treatment regimens containing either bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VDD), or lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD). Our results suggest enrichment of 'universal response' pathways that are common to both treatment regimens and are probable predictors of favourable response to bortezomib, including a subset of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. The data also implicate pathways unique to each regimen that may predict sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunomodulatory drugs, which was associated with acute phase response signalling. Overall, we identified patterns of tumour characteristics that may predict response to bortezomib-based regimens and their components. These results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the protein profiles identified herein for targeted selection of anti-myeloma therapy to increase the likelihood of improved treatment outcome of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma.

  7. Experimental and first-principles study of photoluminescent and optical properties of Na-doped CuAlO2: the role of the NaAl-2Na i complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruijian; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhanhui; Deng, Rui; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We report that a band-tail emission at 3.08 eV, lower than near-band-edge energy, is observed in photoluminescence measurements of bulk Na-doped CuAlO2. The band-tail emission is attributed to Na-related defects. Electronic structure calculations based on the first-principles method demonstrate that the donor-acceptor compensated complex of NaAl-2Na i in Na-doped CuAlO2 plays a key role in leading to the band-tail emission and bandgap narrowing. Furthermore, Hall effect measurements indicates that the hole concentration in CuAlO2 is independent on Na doping, which is well understood by the donor-acceptor compensation effect of NaAl-2Na i complex.

  8. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  9. Aircraft accident report: NASA 712, Convair 990, N712NA, March Air Force Base, California, July 17, 1985, facts and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.; Mccarthy, G. T.; Hannah, Michael; Hogan, Robert J.; Marlow, Frank J.; Reynard, William D.; Stoklosa, Janis H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    On July 17, l985, at 1810 P.d.t., NASA 712, a Convair 990 aircraft, was destroyed by fire at March Air Force Base, California. The fire started during the rollout after the pilot rejected the takeoff on runway 32. The rejected takeoff was initiated during the takeoff roll because of blown tires on the right landing gear. During the rollout, fragments of either the blown tires or the wheel/brake assemblies penetrated a right-wing fuel tank forward of the right main landing gear. Leaking fuel ignited while the aircraft was rolling, and fire engulfed the right wing and the fuselage after the aircraft was stopped on the runway. The 4-man flightcrew and the 15 scientists and technicians seated in the cabin evacuated the aircraft without serious injury. The fire was not extinguished by crash/rescue efforts and the aircraft was destroyed.

  10. Crystal structure of (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, a sodium-, iron- and manganese-based vanadate with the alluaudite-type structure

    PubMed Central

    Benhsina, Elhassan; Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, sodium (sodium,manganese) triiron(II,III) tris[vana­date(V)], (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. It crystallizes in an alluaudite-like structure, characterized by a partial cationic disorder. In the structure, four of the 12 sites in the asymmetric unit are located on special positions, three on a twofold rotation axis (Wyckoff position 4e) and one on an inversion centre (4b). Two sites on the twofold rotation axis are entirely filled by Fe2+ and V5+, whereas the third site has a partial occupancy of 70% by Na+. The site on the inversion centre is occupied by Na+ and Mn2+ cations in a 0.7:0.3 ratio. The remaining Fe2+ and Fe3+ atoms are statistically distributed on a general position. The three-dimensional framework of this structure is made up of kinked chains of edge-sharing [FeO6] octa­hedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. These chains are held together by VO4 tetra­hedral groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. Within this framework, two types of channels extending along [001] are present. One is occupied by (Na+/Mn2+) while the second is partially occupied by Na+. The mixed site containing (Na+/Mn2+) has an octa­hedral coordination sphere, while the Na+ cations in the second channel are coordinated by eight O atoms. PMID:26958392

  11. Flexible High-Performance Lead-Free Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 Microcube-Structure-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-27

    Lead-free piezoelectric nano- and microstructure-based generators have recently attracted much attention due to the continuous demand of self-powered body implantable devices. We report the fabrication of a high-performance flexible piezoelectric microgenerator based on lead-free inorganic piezoelectric Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 (NKLN) microcubes for the first time. The composite generator is fabricated using NKLN microcubes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer on a flexible substrate. The flexible device exhibits excellent performance with a large recordable piezoelectric output voltage of 48 V and output current density of 0.43 μA/cm(2) under vertical compressive force of 2 kgf, for which an energy conversion efficiency of about 11% has been achieved. Piezoresponse and ferroelectric studies reveal that NKLN microcubes exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) as high as 460 pC/N and a well-defined hysteresis loops with remnant polarization and coercive field of 13.66 μC/cm(2) and 19.45 kV/cm, respectively. The piezoelectric charge generation mechanism from NKLN microgenerator are discussed in the light of the high d33 and alignment of electric dipoles in polymer matrix and dielectric constant of NKLN microcubes. It has been demonstrated that the developed power generator has the potential to generate high electric output power under mechanical vibration for powering biomedical devices in the near future.

  12. Flexible High-Performance Lead-Free Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 Microcube-Structure-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-27

    Lead-free piezoelectric nano- and microstructure-based generators have recently attracted much attention due to the continuous demand of self-powered body implantable devices. We report the fabrication of a high-performance flexible piezoelectric microgenerator based on lead-free inorganic piezoelectric Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 (NKLN) microcubes for the first time. The composite generator is fabricated using NKLN microcubes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer on a flexible substrate. The flexible device exhibits excellent performance with a large recordable piezoelectric output voltage of 48 V and output current density of 0.43 μA/cm(2) under vertical compressive force of 2 kgf, for which an energy conversion efficiency of about 11% has been achieved. Piezoresponse and ferroelectric studies reveal that NKLN microcubes exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) as high as 460 pC/N and a well-defined hysteresis loops with remnant polarization and coercive field of 13.66 μC/cm(2) and 19.45 kV/cm, respectively. The piezoelectric charge generation mechanism from NKLN microgenerator are discussed in the light of the high d33 and alignment of electric dipoles in polymer matrix and dielectric constant of NKLN microcubes. It has been demonstrated that the developed power generator has the potential to generate high electric output power under mechanical vibration for powering biomedical devices in the near future. PMID:26735739

  13. Comparative analysis of immunization schedules using a novel adenovirus-based immunotherapeutic targeting hepatitis B in naïve and tolerant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Boukhebza, Houda; Dubois, Clarisse; Koerper, Véronique; Evlachev, Alexei; Schlesinger, Yasmine; Menguy, Thierry; Silvestre, Nathalie; Riedl, Petra; Inchauspé, Geneviève; Martin, Perrine

    2014-05-30

    Development of active targeted immunotherapeutics is a rapid developing field in the arena of chronic infectious diseases. The question of repeated, closely spaced administration of immunotherapeutics to achieve a rapid impact on the replicating agent is an important one. We analyzed here, using a prototype adenovirus-based immunotherapeutic encoding Core and Polymerase from the hepatitis B virus (Ad-HBV), the influence of closely spaced repeated immunizations on the level and quality of induced HBV-specific and vector-specific immune responses in various mouse models. Ad-HBV, whether injected once or multiple times, was able to induce HBV- and adeno-specific T cells both in HBV-free mice and in a HBV tolerant mouse model. Adenovirus-specific T cell responses and titers of neutralizing anti-Ad5 antibodies increased from time of the 3rd injection. Interestingly, single or multiple Ad-HBV injections resulted in detection of Polymerase-specific functional T cells in HBV tolerant mice. Overall no modulation of the levels of HBV-specific cytokine-producing (IFNγ/TNFα) and cytolytic T cells was observed following repeated administrations (3 or 6 weekly injections) when compared with levels detected after a single injection with the exception of two markers: 1. the proportion of HBV-specific IFNγ-producing cells bearing the CD27+/CD43+ phenotype appeared to be sustained in C57BL/6J mice following 6 weekly injections; 2. the percentage of IFNγ/TNFα Core-specific producing cells observed in spleens of HLA-A2 mice as well as of that specific of Polymerase observed in livers of HBV tolerant mice was maintained. In addition, percentage of HBV-specific T cells expressing PD-1 was not increased by multiple injections. Overall these data show that, under experimental conditions used, rapid, closely spaced administrations of an adenovirus-based HBV immunotherapeutics does not inhibit induced T-cell responses including in a HBV-tolerant environment. PMID:24726690

  14. A NaBH₄ Coupled Ninhydrin-Based Assay for the Quantification of Protein/Enzymes During the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yiu Ki; Arantes, Valdeir; Saddler, Jack N

    2015-07-01

    Accurate protein quantification is necessary in many of the steps during the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, from the fundamental determination of enzyme kinetics to techno-economic assessments, such as the use of enzyme recycling strategies, evaluation of enzyme costs, and the optimization of various process steps. In the work described here, a modified, more rapid ninhydrin-based protein quantification assay was developed to better quantify enzyme levels in the presence of lignocellulosic biomass derived compounds. The addition of sodium borohydride followed by acid hydrolysis at 130 °C greatly reduced interference from monosaccharides and oligosaccharides and decreased the assay time 6-fold. The modified ninhydrin assay was shown to be more accurate as compared to various traditional colorimetric protein assays when commercial cellulase enzyme mixtures were quantified under typical pretreated lignocellulosic biomass enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. The relatively short assay time and microplate-reading capability of the modified assay indicated that the method could likely be used for high-throughput protein determination. PMID:25987134

  15. Long-Term Efficacy, Tolerability, and Renal Safety of Atazanavir/Ritonavir-based Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of Treatment-Naïve Patients with HIV-1 Infection: the REMAIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Teófilo, Eugénio; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Kuhlmann, Birger; Antela, Antonio; Knechten, Heribert; Santos, Jesús; Jiménez-Expósito, Maria Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Background: Boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), including ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), are a recommended option for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection based upon clinical trial data; however, long-term real-life clinical data are limited. Objective: We evaluated the long-term use of ATV/r as a component of antiretroviral combination therapy in the real-life setting in the REMAIN study. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted at sites across Germany, Portugal, and Spain. Retrospective historical and prospective longitudinal follow-up data were extracted every six months from medical records of HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients aged ≥ 18 years initiating a first-line ATV/r-containing regimen. Results: Eligible patients (n = 517) were followed up for a median of 3.4 years. The proportion remaining on ATV/r at 5 years was 51.5% with an estimated Kaplan-Meier median time to treatment discontinuation of 4.9 years. Principal reasons for discontinuation were adverse events (15.9%; 8.9% due to hyperbilirubinemia) and virologic failure (6.8%). The Kaplan-Meier probability of not having virologic failure (HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.83) at five years. No treatment-emergent major PI resistance occurred. ATV/r was generally well tolerated during long-term treatment with no significant changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate over five years. Conclusions: In a real-life clinical setting over five years, treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection initiating an ATV/r-based regimen showed sustained virologic suppression, an overall treatment persistence rate of 51.5%, an absence of treatment-emergent major PI resistance mutations at virologic failure, a long-term safety profile consistent with that observed in clinical trials, and no significant decline in renal function. PMID:26899539

  16. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  17. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  18. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  19. Estimating the hydrogen ion concentration in concentrated NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.; Felmy, A.R.; Juracich, S.P.; Rao, F.

    1995-06-01

    Combination glass electrodes were tested for determining H{sup +} concentrations in concentrated pure and mixed NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, as well as natural brine systems. NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and mixtures of NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were analyzed. Correction factors for estimating pC{sub H}{sup +} (negative logarithm of H{sup +} concentration) were determined from measured/observed pH values. Required Gran-type titrations were done with HCl and/or NaOH. The titration method is described and a step-by-step procedure provided; it has been used previously for determining pC{sub H}{sup +} values of synthetic chloride-dominated brines. Precautions are required to determine correction factors for electrolytes that react with H{sup +} or OH{sup {minus}} [sulfate brines for titration with acid; magnesium brines for titration with base because of precipitation of Mg(OH)2]. Correction factors A (pC{sub H}{sup +} = pH{sub ob} + A) from HCl titrations were similar to those from NaOH titrations where the concentration of free H{sup +} was calculated using a thermodynamic model. These values should be applicable to solns with a very large range in measured pH values (2 to 12). Because a large number of solns were titrated with HCl and the A values are similar for HCl and NaOH titrations, the A values for NaCl and Na2SO4 solns were fit as a function of molality to allow extrapolation. For NaCl solns 0 to 6.0 M, A can be obtained by multiplying the molality by 0.159. For Na2SO4 solns 0 to 2.0 M, the values of A can be obtained from (0.221 {minus} 0.549X + 0.201X{sup 2}), where X is the molality of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Orion-Ross electrode evaluations indicated that the A values did not differ significantly for different electrodes. Results suggest that the data in this report can be used to estimate A values for different NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solns even for noncalibrated electrodes.

  20. Lead-free Mn-doped (K0.5,Na0.5)NbO3 piezoelectric thin films for MEMS-based vibrational energy harvester applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Sung Sik; Lee, Joonhee; Venugopal, Vineeth; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Jinkee; Kim, Ill Won; Kingon, Angus I.; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Lead-free Mn-doped (K0.5, Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) thin films were fabricated by the chemical solution deposition method. The addition of small concentration of Mn dopant effectively reduced the leakage current density and enhanced the piezoelectric properties of the films. The leakage current density of 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped KNN film showed the lowest value of ˜10-7 A/cm2 at 10 V compared to the films with other doping concentrations and the piezoelectric d33 and e31 coefficients of this film were ˜90 pm/V and -8.5 C/m2, respectively. The maximum power and power density of the lead-free thin film-based vibrational energy harvesting device were 3.62 μW and 1800 μW/cm3 at the resonance frequency of 132 Hz and the acceleration of 1.0 G. The results prove that the 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped KNN film is an attractive candidate transducer layer for the piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesting device applications with a small volume and a long-lasting power source.

  1. Defect dipole induced large recoverable strain and high energy-storage density in lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenping; Li, Weili; Feng, Yu; Bai, Terigele; Qiao, Yulong; Hou, Yafei; Zhang, Tiandong; Yu, Yang; Fei, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, we propose an effective route to obtain large recoverable strain, purely electrostrictive effects and high energy-storage density by inducing defect dipoles into Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT)-based relaxor ferroelectrics. It has been found that pinched and double polarization hysteresis loops with high maximum polarization (Pmax) and negligible remanent polarization (Pr) can be observed due to the presence of acceptor-induced defect dipoles. A large recoverable strain of 0.24% with very little hysteresis and high electrostriction coefficient of 0.022 m4 C2 with purely electrostrictive characteristics were acquired when 11 mol. ‰ Mn-doped. Meanwhile, a high recoverable energy density of 1.06 J/cm3 with excellent temperature stability was obtained at the same composition owing to the enlarged value of Pmax-Pr (36.8 μC/cm2) and relatively high electric field (95 kV/cm). Our achievement can open up the exciting opportunities for ferroelectric materials in high-precision positioning devices and high electric power pulse energy storage applications.

  2. Regulation of the epithelial Na(+) channel by intracellular Na(+).

    PubMed

    Awayda, M S

    1999-08-01

    The hypothesis that the intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) is a regulator of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) was tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system by utilizing a dual-electrode voltage clamp. [Na(+)](i) averaged 48.1 +/- 2.2 meq (n = 27) and was estimated from the amiloride-sensitive reversal potential. [Na(+)](i) was increased by direct injection of 27.6 nl of 0.25 or 0.5 M Na(2)SO(4). Within minutes of injection, [Na(+)](i) stabilized and remained elevated at 97.8 +/- 6.5 meq (n = 9) and 64. 9 +/- 4.4 (n = 5) meq 30 min after the initial injection of 0.5 and 0.25 M Na(2)SO(4), respectively. This increase of [Na(+)](i) caused a biphasic inhibition of ENaC currents. In oocytes injected with 0.5 M Na(2)SO(4) (n = 9), a rapid decrease of inward amiloride-sensitive slope conductance (g(Na)) to 0.681 +/- 0.030 of control within the first 3 min and a secondary, slower decrease to 0.304 +/- 0.043 of control at 30 min were observed. Similar but smaller inhibitions were also observed with the injection of 0.25 M Na(2)SO(4). Injection of isotonic K(2)SO(4) (70 mM) or isotonic K(2)SO(4) made hypertonic with sucrose (70 mM K(2)SO(4)-1.2 M sucrose) was without effect. Injection of a 0.5 M concentration of either K(2)SO(4), N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) sulfate, or 0.75 M NMDG gluconate resulted in a much smaller initial inhibition (<14%) and little or no secondary decrease. Thus increases of [Na(+)](i) have multiple specific inhibitory effects on ENaC that can be temporally separated into a rapid phase that was complete within 2-3 min and a delayed slow phase that was observed between 5 and 30 min. PMID:10444397

  3. Transepithelial Na+ transport and the intracellular fluids: a computer study.

    PubMed

    Civan, M M; Bookman, R J

    1982-01-01

    Computer simulations of tight epithelia under three experimental conditions have been carried out, using the rheogenic nonlinear model of Lew, Ferreira and Moura (Proc. Roy. Soc. London. B 206:53-83, 1979) based largely on the formulation of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing (Acta Physiol. Scand. 42: 298-308. 1958). First, analysis of the transition between the short-circuited and open-circuited states has indicated that (i) apical Cl- permeability is a critical parameter requiring experimental definition in order to analyze cell volume regulation, and (ii) contrary to certain experimental reports, intracellular Na+ concentration (ccNa) is expected to be a strong function of transepithelial clamping voltage. Second, analysis of the effects of lowering serosal K+ concentration (csK) indicates that the basic model cannot simulate several well-documented observations; these defects can be overcome, at least qualitatively, by modifying the model to take account of the negative feedback interaction likely to exist between the apical Na+ permeability and ccNa. Third, analysis of the strongly supports the concept that osmotically induced permeability changes in the apical intercellular junctions play a physiological role in conserving the body's stores of NaCl. The analyses also demonstrate that the importance of Na+ entry across the basolateral membrane is strongly dependent upon transepithelial potential, cmNa and csK; under certain conditions, net Na+ entry could be appreciably greater across the basolateral than across the apical membrane.

  4. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2003-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants.

  5. Discovery and biological evaluation of potent, selective, orally bioavailable, pyrazine-based blockers of the Na(v)1.8 sodium channel with efficacy in a model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Scanio, Marc J C; Shi, Lei; Drizin, Irene; Gregg, Robert J; Atkinson, Robert N; Thomas, James B; Johnson, Matthew S; Chapman, Mark L; Liu, Dong; Krambis, Michael J; Liu, Yi; Shieh, Char-Chang; Zhang, Xufeng; Simler, Gricelda H; Joshi, Shailen; Honore, Prisca; Marsh, Kennan C; Knox, Alison; Werness, Stephen; Antonio, Brett; Krafte, Douglas S; Jarvis, Michael F; Faltynek, Connie R; Marron, Brian E; Kort, Michael E

    2010-11-15

    Na(v)1.8 (also known as PN3) is a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTx-r) voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) that is highly expressed on small diameter sensory neurons. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and we envisioned that selective blockade of Na(v)1.8 would be analgesic, while reducing adverse events typically associated with non-selective VGSC blocking therapeutic agents. Herein, we describe the preparation and characterization of a series of 6-aryl-2-pyrazinecarboxamides, which are potent blockers of the human Na(v)1.8 channel and also block TTx-r sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Selected derivatives display selectivity versus human Na(v)1.2. We further demonstrate that an example from this series is orally bioavailable and produces antinociceptive activity in vivo in a rodent model of neuropathic pain following oral administration. PMID:20965738

  6. Comparison of the Na(4p) + H2 and Na(3p) + H2 reactive/quenching systems studied with CARS, resonance-enhanced CARS, and DFWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motzkus, M.; Pichler, G.; Kompa, K. L.; Hering, P.

    1997-06-01

    Three different nonlinear optical techniques, CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), resonance-enhanced CARS, and DFWM (degenerate four-wave mixing), were used to compare the reactive and quenching behavior of the two different electronically excited sodium atoms, Na(3p) and Na(4p), in a collision with H2. In the chemical reaction channel both excited sodium states produce NaH molecules, but in the case of Na(3p) it is shown that the reaction is not a direct formation process and involves more than one step. Both sodium states induce a population of the vibrational levels v″=0-3 of NaH. For the Na(3p) excitation the population of the NaH molecules is concentrated at v″=0, whereas for the excitation of the Na(4p) state NaH has its maximum population in the v″=1 level. The differences are attributed to different potential energy surfaces. The quenching investigations were focused on the behavior of the Na(4p) state and the results were compared with the well-known behavior of the Na(3p) state. Because no quenching products were detected in the CARS spectra with Na(4p) excitation, the upper limit for the integrated quenching cross section was estimated to be less than 5×10-17 cm2, as based on the detection sensitivity of the CARS apparatus.

  7. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

  8. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  9. Optical properties of NaCl-NaF eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far-field infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelength is known. Experimental data are in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  10. Composition- and temperature-driven phase transition characteristics and associated electromechanical properties in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wangfeng; Chen, Daqin; Zheng, Peng; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Ji, Zhenguo

    2016-05-17

    In this study, a lead-free ceramic system comprising (0.94 - x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BNT-BT-BZT) was designed and prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of the addition of BZT on the phase transition characteristics and associated electromechanical properties of BNT-BT was systematically discussed and a schematic phase diagram was established. The addition of BZT had a strong impact on the phase transition as well as the strain and piezoelectric activity. The phase coexistence, which involves ferroelectric rhombohedral-relaxor pseudocubic phases, can be driven by modification with BZT and increases in temperature and can be confirmed by XRD measurements, analysis of Raman spectra and temperature-dependent changes in polarization and strain hysteresis loops. Accompanied by a shift in the ferroelectric-to-relaxor temperature TF-R to below room temperature on the addition of BZT, a compositionally induced ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition occurred, which gave rise to a large strain of 0.33% with a normalized strain Smax/Emax of 550 pm V(-1) at the critical BZT content x of 0.0275. The results were closely correlated with the composition and dependence on temperature of the phase transition, which significantly influenced the electromechanical properties, and the origin of the large strain observed in the present system was also addressed in detail. As a result, the design principles provided in this study open the possibility of obtaining BNT-based lead-free ceramics with enhanced electromechanical properties for actuator applications.

  11. Na double-edge magneto-optic filter for Na lidar profiling of wind and temperature in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wentao; Chu, Xinzhao; Williams, B P; Harrell, S D; Wiig, Johannes; She, C-Y

    2009-01-15

    A Na double-edge magneto-optic filter is proposed for incorporation into the receiver of a three-frequency Na Doppler lidar to extend its wind and temperature measurements into the lower atmosphere. Two prototypes based on cold- and hot-cell designs were constructed and tested with laser scanning and quantum mechanics modeling. The hot-cell filter exhibits superior performances over the cold-cell filter containing buffer gas. Lidar simulations, metrics, and error analyses show that simultaneous wind and temperature measurements are feasible in the altitude range of 20-50 km using the hot-cell filter and reasonable Na lidar parameters. PMID:19148254

  12. Self-biased large magnetoelectric coupling in co-sintered Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based piezoelectric and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} based magnetostrictive bilayered composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Amrita; Chatterjee, Ratnamala E-mail: ratnamalac@gmail.com; Gupta, Arti; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-12-28

    In this work, magnetoelectric properties of a co-sintered bilayered composite of non-lead based piezoelectric 0.97(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3})–0.03(K{sub 0.47}Na{sub 0.47}Li{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.74}Sb{sub 0.06}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}) and magnetostrictive Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} are presented. Similar optimal sintering conditions of the individual components lead to a very clean interface as evidenced in the scanning electron microscopy, angle dispersive X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results. Clean interface results in strong intimate mechanical coupling between both components and causes a maximum transfer of induced strain, leading to a large magnetoelectric coupling ∼142 mV/cm·Oe measured in longitudinally magnetized-transversely polarized configuration (L-T mode). Remnant polarization ∼32 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization ∼0.50 emu/g, and sufficiently high self biased magnetoelectricity ∼135 mV/cm Oe (L-T mode) were observed for this composite.

  13. The influence of salt (NaCl) on ochratoxin A biosynthetic genes, growth and ochratoxin A production by three strains of Penicillium nordicum on a dry-cured ham-based medium.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2014-05-16

    Iberian dry-cured ham is colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The environmental conditions occurring during the process including the salt content predisposes the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum which can contaminate the curing ham with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of NaCl (10% and 22%=0.94 and 0.87 water activity (aw)) on the activation of two genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for OTA production, otapksPN and otanpsPN, relative growth and phenotypic OTA production by three strains of P. nordicum (CBS 110.769, FHSCC1 and FHSCC2) on a ham-based medium over a period of 12days at 25°C. Growth of the three strains was faster at 0.87 than 0.94 aw on the ham-based media. However, some intra- and inter-strain differences were observed. Of the three strains, only two (CBS 110.789; FHSCC2) were able to express the two genes involved in the biosynthesis of OTA in the two salt treatments. RT-qPCR showed that the temporal expression of the two genes (otapksPN and otanpsPN) was relatively similar for the wild type strain (FHSCC2) at both 0.94 and 0.87 aw over the 12day period. However, in the type strain (CBS 110.769) expression increased rapidly at 0.94 aw but was significantly lower at 0.87 aw. Expression of these two genes occurred after 3day incubation, while phenotypic OTA production was observed only after 6days in the two toxigenic strains. The other strain did not produce any OTA. The OTA concentrations confirmed the results observed with the molecular tools. This suggests that the RT-qPCR gene expression of these two genes may be a good early indicator of potential contamination of dry-cured ham with OTA during dry-cured ham ripening.

  14. Extending 3-Frequency Na Doppler Lidar Wind and Temperature Measurements into Lower Atmosphere with Na Double-Edge Magneto-Optic Filters (Na-DEMOF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Chu, X.; Wiig, J.; Williams, B. P.; Harrell, S.; She, C.

    2008-12-01

    An important atmospheric process is the wave coupling among different layers. It is crucial to trace waves from their source regions in the lower atmosphere to their dissipation regions in the middle and upper atmosphere. This requires the profiling of wind and temperature simultaneously from the lower to the upper atmosphere. Utilizing Doppler shift and Doppler broadening effects, various types of Doppler lidars can measure wind and temperature in different atmospheric regions. However, none of the single lidars is able to profile both variables throughout the atmosphere. Resonance fluorescence Na Doppler lidars measure wind and temperature simultaneously in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. They have made significant contributions to the study of wave dynamics. Unfortunately, their measurements are limited to 80-105 km where the trace gas Na atoms are available. We proposed to incorporate a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter (Na-DEMOF) into the receiver of a 3-frequency Na Doppler lidar to extend its wind and temperature measurements into the lower atmosphere. Two prototypes based on cold- and hot-cell designs were constructed and characterized with laboratory tests. The hot-cell filter showed superior performances than the cold-cell containing buffer gas. The hot-cell Na-DEMOF was also successfully modeled by quantum mechanics calculations. Lidar simulations were conducted for analysis of measurement errors in the altitude range of 15-50 km with the hot-cell filter developed. Field test using the hot-cell Na-DEMOF with the Colorado State University Na lidar is under its way and the initial results will be reported and compared to lidar simulation.

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (NaCl, NaFo, CMA)-effect on terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Delisle, C E

    2001-02-01

    The use of chemical deicers such as sodium chloride (NaCl) has increased significantly during the past three decades. Deicers induce metal corrosion and alter the physicochemical properties of soils and water. Environmental damage caused by the use of NaCl has prompted government agencies to find alternative deicers. This article presents a comparative ecotoxicological study of three deicers on soil organisms. Sodium formiate (NaFo) and calcium-magnesium acetate (CMA) are the most interesting commercially available deicers based upon their characteristics and potential toxicity. Organisms used in this study were four species of macrophytes (cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Ordeum vulgare), red fescue grass (Festuca rubra), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)) and an invertebrate (Eisenia fetida). Using standardized and modified methods, the relative toxicity of deicers was CMA < NaFo congruent with NaCl. The results demonstrate that these chemicals could have similar impacts in terrestrial environments since similar quantities of NaFo and greater amounts of CMA are necessary to achieve the same efficiency as NaCl. The toxicity of the tested substances was lower in natural composted soil than in artificial substrate (silica or OECD soil), indicating decreased environmental bioavailability. The response of the organisms changed according to endpoint, species, and soil characteristics (artificial substrate as compared to natural organic soil). The most sensitive endpoint measured was macrophyte growth with Kentucky bluegrass being the most sensitive species.

  16. Preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of C-NaTaO3 and C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyong; Yin, Shu; Dong, Qiang; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-21

    A nice visible light responsive C-doped NaTaO3 (C-NaTaO3) particle has been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal method using water-ethylene glycol mixed solutions as solvent. The results presented that the carbon could be easily incorporated in NaTaO3 from ethylene glycol during a solvothermal reaction, finally leading to excellent visible light absorption. The as-synthesized C-NaTaO3 showed excellent visible light induced photocatalytic activity superior to those of pure NaTaO3 and commercial P25. In addition, in order to further improve the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of C-NaTaO3, a new C-doped NaTaO3-Cl-doped TiO2 (C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2) core-shell type of composite was also fabricated. After coupling C-NaTaO3 with Cl-TiO2, the visible light induced NOx gas destruction ability of C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite was significantly enhanced as compared to those of sole C-NaTaO3 and Cl-TiO2, probably due to the hindrance of the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The C-NaTaO3 particle and C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite prepared in this work would probably provide a new way to prepare high performance of visible light induced perovskite-type NaTaO3 based photocatalysts.

  17. Light-driven Na(+) pump from Gillisia limnaea: a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is formed transiently in the photocycle.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Dioumaev, Andrei K; Wang, Jennifer M; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2014-12-01

    A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na(+). The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na(+) at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na(+) cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a "Na(+)-independent" to a "Na(+)-dependent" photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ∼60 μM Na(+). The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na(+) concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na(+) binding site is created transiently after photoexcitation, and entry of Na(+) from the bulk to this site redirects the course of events in the remainder of the cycle. A greater concentration of Na(+) is needed for switching the reaction path at lower pH. The data suggest therefore competition between H(+) and Na(+) to determine the two alternative pathways. The idea that a Na(+) binding site can be created at the Schiff base counterion is supported by the finding that upon perturbation of this region in the D251E mutant, Na(+) binds without photoexcitation. Binding of Na(+) to the mutant shifts the chromophore maximum to the red like that of H(+), which occurs in the photocycle of the wild type.

  18. 915 nm Light-Triggered Photodynamic Therapy and MR/CT Dual-Modal Imaging of Tumor Based on the Nonstoichiometric Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er Upconversion Nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanan; Xiao, Qingbo; Hu, Huishan; Zhang, Kunchi; Feng, Yamin; Li, Fujin; Wang, Jian; Ding, Xianguang; Jiang, Jiang; Li, Yanfang; Shi, Liyi; Lin, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Lanthanide (Ln(3+) )-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as a new generation of multimodal bioprobes have attracted great interest for theranostic purpose. Herein, red emitting nonstoichiometric Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er UCNPs of high luminescence intensity and color purity are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The red UC emission from the present nanophosphors is three times more intense than the well-known green emission from the ≈30 nm sized hexagonal-phase NaYF4 :Yb,Er UCNPs. By utilizing Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er@SrF2 UCNPs as multifunctional nanoplatforms, highly efficient in vitro and in vivo 915 nm light-triggered photodynamic therapies are realized for the first time, with dramatically diminished overheating yet similar therapeutic effects in comparison to those triggered by 980 nm light. Moreover, by virtue of the high transverse relaxivity (r 2 ) and the strong X-ray attenuation ability of Yb(3+) ions, these UCNPs also demonstrate good performances as contrast agents for high contrast magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography dual-modal imaging. Our research shows the great potential of the red emitting Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er UCNPs for multimodal imaging-guided photodynamic therapy of tumors.

  19. 915 nm Light-Triggered Photodynamic Therapy and MR/CT Dual-Modal Imaging of Tumor Based on the Nonstoichiometric Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er Upconversion Nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanan; Xiao, Qingbo; Hu, Huishan; Zhang, Kunchi; Feng, Yamin; Li, Fujin; Wang, Jian; Ding, Xianguang; Jiang, Jiang; Li, Yanfang; Shi, Liyi; Lin, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Lanthanide (Ln(3+) )-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as a new generation of multimodal bioprobes have attracted great interest for theranostic purpose. Herein, red emitting nonstoichiometric Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er UCNPs of high luminescence intensity and color purity are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The red UC emission from the present nanophosphors is three times more intense than the well-known green emission from the ≈30 nm sized hexagonal-phase NaYF4 :Yb,Er UCNPs. By utilizing Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er@SrF2 UCNPs as multifunctional nanoplatforms, highly efficient in vitro and in vivo 915 nm light-triggered photodynamic therapies are realized for the first time, with dramatically diminished overheating yet similar therapeutic effects in comparison to those triggered by 980 nm light. Moreover, by virtue of the high transverse relaxivity (r 2 ) and the strong X-ray attenuation ability of Yb(3+) ions, these UCNPs also demonstrate good performances as contrast agents for high contrast magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography dual-modal imaging. Our research shows the great potential of the red emitting Na0.52 YbF3.52 :Er UCNPs for multimodal imaging-guided photodynamic therapy of tumors. PMID:27337610

  20. Drugs preventing Na+ and Ca2+ overload.

    PubMed

    Ravens, U; Himmel, H M

    1999-03-01

    Cardiac intracellular Na+and Ca2+homeostasis is regulated by the concerted action of ion channels, pumps and exchangers. The Na+, K+-ATPase produces the electrochemical concentration gradient for Na+, which is the driving force for Ca2+removal from the cytosol via the Na+/Ca2+exchange. Reduction of this gradient by increased intracellular Na+concentration leads to cellular Ca2+overload resulting in arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Na+and Ca2+overload-associated arrhythmias can be produced experimentally by inhibition of Na+efflux (digitalis-induced intoxication) and by abnormal Na+influx via modulated Na+channels (veratridine, DPI 201-106; hypoxia) or via the Na+, H+exchanger. Theoretically, blockers of Na+and Ca2+channels, inhibitors of abnormal oscillatory release of Ca2+from internal stores or modulators of the Na+, Ca2+and Na+, H+exchanger activities could protect against cellular Na+and Ca2+overload. Three exemplary drugs that prevent Na+and Ca2+overload, i.e. the benzothiazolamine R56865, the methylenephenoxydioxy-derivative CP-060S, and the benzoyl-guanidine Hoe 642, a Na+, H+exchange blocker, are briefly reviewed with respect to their efficacy on digitalis-, veratridine- and ischaemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. PMID:10094840

  1. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  2. Simultaneous optical excitation of Na electronic and CF{sub 4} vibrational modes in Na+CF{sub 4} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, V. A.; Grosser, J.; Hoffmann, O.; Rebentrost, F.

    2008-11-28

    We report on the ultraviolet excitation of Na(3s)+CF{sub 4} collision pairs in a crossed molecular beam experiment. We observe Na(3d) collision products originating from the process Na(3s)+CF{sub 4}({nu}{sub 3}=0)+h{nu}{yields}Na(3d)+CF{sub 4}({nu}{sub 3}=1). The spectral intensity distribution of the collision products and the prevailing small angle scattering confirm a previously proposed long range dipole-dipole mechanism. We report velocity-resolved spectra and a comparison to preliminary numerical results based on collisional broadening theory. Polarization experiments suggest future potential for the observation of collision geometries.

  3. Types of Moulding and Methods of Eliminating Dry Rot in Historic Buildings: Example of Sobiescy Palace in Lublin (Based on Study by Mirosław Zaród)/ Zagrzybienia I Metody Odgrzybiania Obiektów Zabytkowych Na Przykładzie Pałacu Sobieskich W Lublinie (Na Podstawie Opracowania Dokonanego Przez M. Zaróda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrana, Jan; Jarocka-Mikrut, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    By presenting Sobiescy Palace in Lublin as well as results of mycological research conducted in the said premises, the authors describe hazards and dangers arising from damp present in historic buildings for a long time. Results of mycological research quoted in this article indicate that differences in levels of damp depend on the cardinal direction a specific wall faces. The authors also pay attention to reasons for which the described premises suffer from damp and provide programmes of treatment and prevention. Furthermore, the article gives the reader a detailed insight into multiple opportunities for improving technical conditions of historic buildings and, at the same time, raising their functional standards. However, one must not forget to treat such premises with proper respect. W artykule przedstawiono zagrożenia tkwiące w długotrwałym narażeniu zabudowań historycznych na wilgoć na podstawie Pałacu Sobieskich w Lublinie oraz ekspertyzy mykologicznej. Zwrócono uwagę na różnice w wilgotności ścian oraz zależności wynikające z orientacji budowli względem stron świata. Opisano przyczyny występowania wilgoci w opisywanym założeniu jak również wskazano możliwości ich przeciwdziałaniu. Poprzez przedstawienie możliwych do zastosowania metod ochrony przed wspomnianymi czynnikami dowiedziono, iż możliwości poprawy stanu technicznego, a tym samym standardów funkcjonalnych obiektów zabytkowych jest wiele przy czym należy zachować szczególny szacunek do substancji zabytkowej

  4. Measurement and Modeling of Mean Activity Coefficients of NaCl in an Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution Containing Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Paniz; Dehghani, M. R.; Safahieh, Tina

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical cell with two ion-selective electrodes (Na+ glass) and (Cl- solid state) was used to measure the mean ionic activity coefficient of NaCl in an aqueous mixture containing NaCl, glycine, and NaNO3 at 308.15 K. The experiments were conducted at fixed molality of NaNO3 (0.1 m) and various molalities of glycine (0-1 m) and NaCl (up to 0.8 m). The experimental data were modeled using a modified version of the Pitzer equation. Finally the activity coefficient ratio of glycine was determined based on the Maxwell equation.

  5. β decay of Na32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Koopmans, K. A.; Leslie, J. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Washbrook, B.; Zganjar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The β-decay of Na32 has been studied using β-γ coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of Mg32 from an analysis of γ-γ and β-γ-γ coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in Mg32 removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in Mg32 is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of Na32.

  6. Interactions of external and internal H+ and Na+ with Na+/Na+ and Na+/H+ exchange of rabbit red cells: evidence for a common pathway.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K; Canessa, M

    1990-12-01

    We have studied the kinetic properties of rabbit red cell (RRBC) Na+/Na+ and Na+/H+ exchanges (EXC) in order to define whether or not both transport functions are conducted by the same molecule. The strategy has been to determine the interactions of Na+ and H+ at the internal (i) and external (o) sites for both exchanges modes. RRBC containing varying Nai and Hi were prepared by nystatin and DIDS treatment of acid-loaded cells. Na+/Na+ EXC was measured as Nao-stimulated Na+ efflux and Na+/H+ EXC as Nao-stimulated H+ efflux and delta pHo-stimulated Na+ influx into acid-loaded cells. The activation of Na+/Na+ EXC by Nao at pHi 7.4 did not follow simple hyperbolic kinetics. Testing of different kinetic models to obtain the best fit for the experimental data indicated the presence of high (Km 2.2 mM) and low affinity (Km 108 mM) sites for a single- or two-carrier system. The activation of Na+/H+ EXC by Nao (pHi 6.6, Nai less than 1 mM) also showed high (Km 11 mM) and low (Km 248 mM) affinity sites. External H+ competitively inhibited Na+/Na+ EXC at the low affinity Nao site (KH 52 nM) while internally H+ were competitive inhibitors (pK 6.7) at low Nai and allosteric activators (pK 7.0) at high Nai. Na+/H+ EXC was also inhibited by acid pHo and allosterically activated by Hi (pK 6.4). We also established the presence of a Nai regulatory site which activates Na+/H+ and Na+/Na+ EXC modifying the affinity for Nao of both pathways. At low Nai, Na+/Na+ EXC was inhibited by acid pHi and Na+/H+ stimulated but at high Nai, Na+/Na+ EXC was stimulated and Na+/H+ inhibited being the sum of both pathways kept constant. Both exchange modes were activated by two classes of Nao sites, cis-inhibited by external Ho, allosterically modified by the binding of H+ to a Hi regulatory site and regulated by Nai. These findings are consistent with Na+/Na+ EXC being a mode of operation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. Na+/H+ EXC was partially inhibited (80-100%) by dimethyl-amiloride (DMA) but basal or

  7. On the structure and chemical bonding of Si62- and Si62- in NaSi6- upon Na+ coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, Dmitry Yu.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Cui, Li-Feng; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy was combined with ab initio calculations to elucidate the structure and bonding in Si62- and NaSi6-. Well-resolved electronic transitions were observed in the photoelectron spectra of Si6- and NaSi6- at three photon energies (355, 266, and 193nm). The spectra of NaSi6- were observed to be similar to those of Si6- except that the electron binding energies of the former are lower, suggesting that the Si6 motif in NaSi6- is structurally and electronically similar to that in Si6-. The electron affinities of Si6 and NaSi6 were measured fairly accurately to be 2.23±0.03eV and 1.80±0.05eV, respectively. Global minimum structure searches for Si62- and NaSi6- were performed using gradient embedded genetic algorithm followed by B3LYP, MP2, and CCSD(T) calculations. Vertical electron detachment energies were calculated for the lowest Si6- and NaSi6- structures at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(2df ), ROVGF/6-311+G(2df), UOVGF/6-311+G(2d), and time-dependent B3LYP/6-311+G(2df) levels of theory. Experimental vertical detachment energies were used to verify the global minimum structure for NaSi6-. Though the octahedral Si62-, analogous to the closo form of borane B6H62-, is the most stable form for the bare hexasilicon dianion, it is not the kernel for the NaSi6- global minimum. The most stable isomer of NaSi6- is based on a Si62- motif, which is distorted into C2v symmetry similar to the ground state structure of Si6-. The octahedral Si62- coordinated by a Na+ is a low-lying isomer and was also observed experimentally. The chemical bonding in Si62- and NaSi6- was understood using natural bond orbital, molecular orbital, and electron localization function analyses.

  8. Spectrophotometric assay of renal ouabain-resistant Na(+)-ATPase and its regulation by leptin and dietary-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Nazar, Jarosław; Wójcicka, Grazyna

    2004-01-01

    Apart from Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, a second sodium pump, Na(+)-stimulated, K(+)-independent ATPase (Na(+)-ATPase) is expressed in proximal convoluted tubule of the mammalian kidney. The aim of this study was to develop a method of Na(+)-ATPase assay based on the method previously used by us to measure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The ATPase activity was assayed as the amount of inorganic phosphate liberated from ATP by isolated microsomal fraction. Na(+)-ATPase activity was calculated as the difference between the activities measured in the presence and in the absence of 50 mM NaCl. Na(+)-ATPase activity was detected in the renal cortex (3.5 +/- 0.2 mumol phosphate/h per mg protein), but not in the renal medulla. Na(+)-ATPase was not inhibited by ouabain or an H(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, Sch 28080, but was almost completely blocked by 2 mM furosemide. Leptin administered intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg) decreased the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla at 0.5 and 1 h by 22.1% and 27.1%, respectively, but had no effect on Na(+)-ATPase in the renal cortex. Chronic hyperleptinemia induced by repeated subcutaneous leptin injections (0.25 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) increased cortical Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, medullary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and cortical Na(+)-ATPase by 32.4%, 84.2% and 62.9%, respectively. In rats with dietary-induced obesity, the Na(+),K(+)- ATPase activity was higher in the renal cortex and medulla by 19.7% and 34.3%, respectively, but Na(+)-ATPase was not different from control. These data indicate that both renal Na(+)-dependent ATPases are separately regulated and that up-regulation of Na(+)-ATPase may contribute to Na(+) retention and arterial hypertension induced by chronic hyperleptinemia.

  9. High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Kovarik, Libor; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A new SnSb/C nanocomposite based on Na alloying reactions is demonstrated as anode for Na-ion battery applications. The electrode can achieve an exceptionally high capacity (544 mA h g-1, almost double that of intercalation carbon materials), good rate capacity and cyclability (80% capacity retention over 50 cycles) for Na-ion storage.

  10. Band gap modification and ferroelectric properties of Bi{sub 0.5}(Na,K){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-based by Li substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Ngo Duc; Hung, Vu Ngoc; Quyet, Nguyen Van; Chung, Hoang Vu; Dung, Dang Duc

    2014-01-15

    We report on the reduction of band gap in Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.82-x}Li{sub x}K{sub 0.18}){sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} from 2.99 eV to 2.84 eV due to the substitutions of Li{sup +} ions to Na{sup +} sites. In addition, the lithium substitution samples exhibit an increasing of the maximal polarizations from 21.8 to 25.7 μC/cm{sup 2}. The polarization enhancement of ferroelectric and reduction of the band gaps are strongly related to the Li substitution concentration as evaluated via the electronegative between A-site and oxygen and tolerance factor. The results are promising for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  11. An empirical NaKCa geothermometer for natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical method of estimating the last temperature of water-rock interaction has been devised. It is based upon molar Na, K and Ca concentrations in natural waters from temperature environments ranging from 4 to 340??C. The data for most geothermal waters cluster near a straight line when plotted as the function log ( Na K) + ?? log [ ??? (Ca) Na] vs reciprocal of absolute temperature, where ?? is either 1 3 or 4 3 depending upon whether the water equilibrated above or below 100??C. For most waters tested, the method gives better results than the Na K methods suggested by other workers. The ratio Na K should not be used to estimate temperature if ??? ( MCa) MNa is greater than 1. The Na K values of such waters generally yield calculated temperatures much higher than the actual temperature at which water interacted with the rock. A comparison of the composition of boiling hot-spring water with that obtained from a nearby well (170??C) in Yellowstone Park shows that continued water-rock reactions may occur during ascent of water even though that ascent is so rapid that little or no heat is lost to the country rock, i.e. the water cools adiabatically. As a result of such continued reaction, waters which dissolve additional Ca as they ascend from the aquifer to the surface will yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too low. On the other hand, waters initially having enough Ca to deposit calcium carbonate during ascent may yield estimated aquifer temperatures that are too high if aqueous Na and K are prevented from further reaction with country rock owing to armoring by calcite or silica minerals. The Na-K-Ca geothermometer is of particular interest to those prospecting for geothermal energy. The method also may be of use in interpreting compositions of fluid inclusions. ?? 1973.

  12. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  13. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  14. Ionic regulation of Na absorption in proximal colon: cation inhibition of electroneutral Na absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Soignie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Active Na absorption (J/sub net//sup NA/) in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is paradoxically stimulated as (Na) in the bathing media is lowered with constant osmolarity. J/sub m..-->..s//sup Na/ increases almost linearly from 0 to 50 mM (Na)/sub 0/ but then plateaus and actually decreases from 50 to 140 mM (Na)/sub 0/, consistent with inhibition of an active transport process. Both lithium and Na are equally effective inhibitors of J/sub net//sup Na/, whereas choline and mannitol do not block the high rate of J/sub net//sup Na/ observed in decreased (Na)/sub 0/. Either gluconate or proprionate replacement of Cl inhibits J/sub net//sup Na/. J/sub net//sup Na/ at lowered (Na)/sub 0/ is electrically silent and is accompanied by increased Cl absorption; it is inhibited by 10/sup -3/ M amiloride and 10/sup -3/ theophylline but not by 10/sup -4/ M bumetanide. Epinephrine is equally effective at stimulating Na absorption at 50 and 140 mM (Na). Na gradient experiments are consistent with a predominantly serosal effect of the decreased (Na)/sub 0/. These results suggest that 1) Na absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is stimulated by decreased (Na); 2) the effect is cation specific, both Na and Li blocking the stimulatory effect; 3) the transport is mediated by Na-H exchange and is Cl dependent but 4) is under different regulatory mechanisms than the epinephrine-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport previously described in proximal colon. Under the appropriate conditions, proximal colon absorbs Na extremely efficiently. Na-H exchange in this epithelium is cation inhibitable, either directly or by a secondary regulatory process.

  15. Single crystal growth of type I Na-Si clathrate by using Na-Sn flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Haruhiko; Shimoda, Masashi; Yamane, Hisanori

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of type I Na-Si clathrate, Na8Si46, were synthesized by heating Na, Na4Si4, and Na15Sn4 at 723 K under an Ar gas pressure of 104 Pa for 12 h. The single crystals having {110} habit planes grew up to 1.5 mm in size due to Na evaporation from a Na-Si-Sn melt with a starting compositional molar ratio of Na/Si/Sn=5.75:2:1.

  16. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

    2003-12-29

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

  17. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    PubMed

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  18. Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals: from synthesis, growth mechanism to analysis of Na-ion intercalation/deintercalation abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Dehua; Zhu, Kongjun; Wu, Qingliu; Wang, Yifeng; Tai, Guoan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements.Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements. Electronic supplementary

  19. Modeling solubility and acid-base properties of some amino acids in aqueous NaCl and (CH3)4NCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bretti, Clemente; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Lando, Gabriele; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    New potentiometric experiments have been performed in NaCl and in (CH3)4NCl media, to determine the protonation constants, the protonation enthalpy changes and the solubility of six natural α-amino acids, namely Glycine (Gly), Alanine (Ala), Valine (Val), Leucine (Leu), Serine (Ser) and Phenylalanine (Phe). The aim of the work is the rationalization of the protonation thermodynamics (log [Formula: see text], solubility and [Formula: see text]) in NaCl, determining recommended, tentative or provisional values in selected experimental conditions and to report, for the first time, data in a weak interacting medium, as (CH3)4NCl. Literature data analysis was performed selecting the most reliable values, analyzed together with new data here reported. Significant trends and similarities were observed in the behavior of the six amino acids, and in some cases it was possible to determine common parameters for the ionic strength and temperature dependence. In general, the first protonation step, relative to the amino group, is significantly exothermic (average value is [Formula: see text] = -44.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) at infinite dilution and T = 298.15 K), and the second, relative to the carboxylate group, is fairly close to zero ([Formula: see text] = -2.5 ± 1.6, same conditions). In both cases, the main contribution to the proton binding reaction is mainly entropic in nature. For phenylalanine and leucine, solubility measurements at different concentrations of supporting electrolyte allowed to determine total and specific solubility values, then used to obtain the Setschenow and the activity coefficients of all the species involved in the protonation equilibria. The values of the first protonation constant in (CH3)4NCl are lower than the corresponding values in NaCl, due to the weak interaction between the deprotonated amino group and (CH3)4N(+). In this light, differences between the protonation functions in NaCl and (CH3)4NCl were used for the quantification

  20. Modeling solubility and acid-base properties of some amino acids in aqueous NaCl and (CH3)4NCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bretti, Clemente; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Lando, Gabriele; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    New potentiometric experiments have been performed in NaCl and in (CH3)4NCl media, to determine the protonation constants, the protonation enthalpy changes and the solubility of six natural α-amino acids, namely Glycine (Gly), Alanine (Ala), Valine (Val), Leucine (Leu), Serine (Ser) and Phenylalanine (Phe). The aim of the work is the rationalization of the protonation thermodynamics (log [Formula: see text], solubility and [Formula: see text]) in NaCl, determining recommended, tentative or provisional values in selected experimental conditions and to report, for the first time, data in a weak interacting medium, as (CH3)4NCl. Literature data analysis was performed selecting the most reliable values, analyzed together with new data here reported. Significant trends and similarities were observed in the behavior of the six amino acids, and in some cases it was possible to determine common parameters for the ionic strength and temperature dependence. In general, the first protonation step, relative to the amino group, is significantly exothermic (average value is [Formula: see text] = -44.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) at infinite dilution and T = 298.15 K), and the second, relative to the carboxylate group, is fairly close to zero ([Formula: see text] = -2.5 ± 1.6, same conditions). In both cases, the main contribution to the proton binding reaction is mainly entropic in nature. For phenylalanine and leucine, solubility measurements at different concentrations of supporting electrolyte allowed to determine total and specific solubility values, then used to obtain the Setschenow and the activity coefficients of all the species involved in the protonation equilibria. The values of the first protonation constant in (CH3)4NCl are lower than the corresponding values in NaCl, due to the weak interaction between the deprotonated amino group and (CH3)4N(+). In this light, differences between the protonation functions in NaCl and (CH3)4NCl were used for the quantification

  1. A New Na(+)-Dependent RNA-Cleaving DNAzyme with over 1000-fold Rate Acceleration by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Saran, Runjhun; Chen, Qingyun; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes working in organic solvents are important for analytical chemistry, catalysis, and mechanistic studies. Although a few protein enzymes are highly active in organic solvents, little is known regarding nucleic acid-based enzymes. Herein, we report the first RNA-cleaving DNAzyme, named EtNa, that works optimally in concentrated organic solvents containing only monovalent Na(+). The EtNa DNAzyme has a rate of 2.0 h(-1) in 54% ethanol (with 120 mM NaCl and no divalent metal ions), and a Kd of 21 mm Na(+). It retains activity even in 72% ethanol as well as in DMSO. With 4 mm Na(+), the rate in 54% ethanol is >1000-fold higher than that in water. We also demonstrated the use of EtNa to measuring the ethanol content in alcoholic drinks. In total, this DNAzyme has three unique features: divalent metal independent activity, Na(+) selectivity among monovalent metals, and acceleration by organic solvents.

  2. Fluid dilution and efficiency of Na(+) transport in a mathematical model of a thick ascending limb cell.

    PubMed

    Nieves-González, Aniel; Clausen, Chris; Marcano, Mariano; Layton, Anita T; Layton, Harold E; Moore, Leon C

    2013-03-15

    Thick ascending limb (TAL) cells are capable of reducing tubular fluid Na(+) concentration to as low as ~25 mM, and yet they are thought to transport Na(+) efficiently owing to passive paracellular Na(+) absorption. Transport efficiency in the TAL is of particular importance in the outer medulla where O(2) availability is limited by low blood flow. We used a mathematical model of a TAL cell to estimate the efficiency of Na(+) transport and to examine how tubular dilution and cell volume regulation influence transport efficiency. The TAL cell model represents 13 major solutes and the associated transporters and channels; model equations are based on mass conservation and electroneutrality constraints. We analyzed TAL transport in cells with conditions relevant to the inner stripe of the outer medulla, the cortico-medullary junction, and the distal cortical TAL. At each location Na(+) transport efficiency was computed as functions of changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl]), [K(+)], [NH(4)(+)], junctional Na(+) permeability, and apical K(+) permeability. Na(+) transport efficiency was calculated as the ratio of total net Na(+) transport to transcellular Na(+) transport. Transport efficiency is predicted to be highest at the cortico-medullary boundary where the transepithelial Na(+) gradient is the smallest. Transport efficiency is lowest in the cortex where luminal [NaCl] approaches static head.

  3. Naïve point estimation.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The capacity of short-term memory is a key constraint when people make online judgments requiring them to rely on samples retrieved from memory (e.g., Dougherty & Hunter, 2003). In this article, the authors compare 2 accounts of how people use knowledge of statistical distributions to make point estimates: either by retrieving precomputed large-sample representations or by retrieving small samples of similar observations post hoc at the time of judgment, as constrained by short-term memory capacity (the naïve sampling model: Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2007). Results from four experiments support the predictions by the naïve sampling model, including that participants sometimes guess values that they, when probed, demonstrably know have the lowest probability of occurring. Experiment 1 also demonstrated the operations of an unpredicted recognition-based inference. Computational modeling also incorporating this process demonstrated that the data from all 4 experiments were better predicted by assuming a post hoc sampling process constrained by short-term memory capacity than by assuming abstraction of large-sample representations of the distribution. PMID:22905935

  4. Effect of cation substitution on structural transition: synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Su, Xin; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-10-21

    Single crystals of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6 have been successfully synthesized through conventional high-temperature solid-state reactions. They are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional crystal structures consisting of isolated planar BO3 as fundamental building blocks. Interestingly, for the centrosymmetric crystal structure of NaCaBO3 (Na3Ca3B3O9), as 2/3 of the Na(+) ions are substituted by Ca(2+) ions, NaCa4B3O9 is obtained and crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Ama2 (crystal class mm2). A second harmonic generation (SHG) test of the title compound by the Kurtz-Perry method shows that NaCa4B3O9 can be phase matchable with an effective SHG coefficient approximately one-half that of KH2PO4 (KDP). Studies of their optical properties as well as band structure calculations based on density functional theory methods have been also performed. NaCa4B3O9 possesses a moderate birefringence of about 0.05 at 1064 nm. To explain the difference in optical nonlinearity we compared the electronic structures of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals, in particular at the bottom of the conduction band (CB) and the top of the valence band (VB), since they are known to play a primary role in SHG. These electronic structures are responsible for the optical-nonlinearity of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals. PMID:26387438

  5. Compensatory regulation of Na+ absorption by Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-Cl- cotransporter in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In mammals, internal Na+ homeostasis is maintained through Na+ reabsorption via a variety of Na+ transport proteins with mutually compensating functions, which are expressed in different segments of the nephrons. In zebrafish, Na+ homeostasis is achieved mainly through the skin/gill ionocytes, namely Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3b)-expressing H+-ATPase rich (HR) cells and Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC)-expressing NCC cells, which are functionally homologous to mammalian proximal and distal convoluted tubular cells, respectively. The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the functions of HR and NCC ionocytes are differentially regulated to compensate for disruptions of internal Na+ homeostasis and if the cell differentiation of the ionocytes is involved in this regulation pathway. Results Translational knockdown of ncc caused an increase in HR cell number and a resulting augmentation of Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae, while NHE3b loss-of-function caused an increase in NCC cell number with a concomitant recovery of Na+ absorption. Environmental acid stress suppressed nhe3b expression in HR cells and decreased Na+ content, which was followed by up-regulation of NCC cells accompanied by recovery of Na+ content. Moreover, knockdown of ncc resulted in a significant decrease of Na+ content in acid-acclimated zebrafish. Conclusions These results provide evidence that HR and NCC cells exhibit functional redundancy in Na+ absorption, similar to the regulatory mechanisms in mammalian kidney, and suggest this functional redundancy is a critical strategy used by zebrafish to survive in a harsh environment that disturbs body fluid Na+ homeostasis. PMID:23924428

  6. Kinetic comparisons of heart and kidney Na+,K(+)-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Rasmussen, Helge H; Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Clarke, Ronald J

    2012-08-22

    Most kinetic measurements of the partial reactions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have been conducted on enzyme from mammalian kidney. Here we present a kinetic model that is based on the available equilibrium and kinetic parameters of purified kidney enzyme, and allows predictions of its steady-state turnover and pump current in intact cells as a function of ion and ATP concentrations and the membrane voltage. Using this model, we calculated the expected dependence of the pump current on voltage and extracellular Na(+) concentration. The simulations indicate a lower voltage dependence at negative potentials of the kidney enzyme in comparison with heart muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, in agreement with experimental results. The voltage dependence is enhanced at high extracellular Na(+) concentrations. This effect can be explained by a voltage-dependent depopulation of extracellular K(+) ion binding sites on the E2P state and an increase in the proportion of enzyme in the E1P(Na(+))(3) state in the steady state. This causes a decrease in the effective rate constant for occlusion of K(+) by the E2P state and hence a drop in turnover. Around a membrane potential of zero, negligible voltage dependence is observed because the voltage-independent E2(K(+))(2) → E1 + 2K(+) transition is the major rate-determining step. PMID:22947929

  7. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  8. Multiferroism and Magnetoelectric Coupling in Nano-Microscale Lead-Free Composite by 0.3Co-FERRITE and 0.7(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-BASED Ferroelectric Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun; Wang, Xinyan; Li, Li; Su, Yuling; Zhang, Jincang; Cao, Shixun

    Nontoxic lead-free multiferroic composites are synthesized by incorporating the dispersed 0.3CoFe2O4 (CFO) ferromagnetic nanoparticles into 0.7(K0.5Na0.5) NbO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LS5.2) ferroelectric micromatrix. The multiferroicity of the composite can be verified by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop and magnetic hysteresis loop. The composite exhibits excellent magnetic properties. A dilution effect is observed in magnetic hysteresis loops. The field dependence of ME voltage coefficient is given as a function of magnetic field from -4 kOe to 4 kOe with a maximum magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 10.7 mVṡcm-1ṡOe-1 at the frequency of 1 kHz. It is a very high value in the lead-free magnetoelectric composites system for the potential use on multifunctional devices.

  9. Dielectric, ferroelectrics properties and impedance spectroscopy analysis of the [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3-based lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, M.; Chaouchi, A.; D'Astorg, S.; Rguiti, M.; Courtois, C.

    2015-04-01

    Polycrystalline of [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3 samples were prepared using the high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of a single-phase with orthorhombic structure. AC impedance plots were used as tool to analyze the electrical behavior of the sample as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The AC impedance studies revealed the presence of grain effect, from 425°C onwards. Complex impedance analysis indicated non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. The Nyquist plot showed the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) characteristic of NKLNT. The AC conductivity results were used to correlate with the barrier hopping (CBH) model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm), the minimum hopping distance (Rmin), the density of states at Fermi level (N(Ef)), and the activation energy of the compound.

  10. Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

  11. On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan O; Liu, Chang; Elser, Michael J; Sternig, Andreas; Siedl, Nicolas; Berger, Thomas; Diwald, Oliver

    2013-07-29

    The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 has no effect on two components of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current in mouse dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Taixing; Kakimura, Jun-ichi; Matsutomi, Tomoya; Nakamoto, Chizumi; Ogata, Nobukuni

    2007-01-01

    One possible mechanism underlying inflammation-induced sensitization of the primary afferent neuron is the upregulation of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) current by inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins. This notion is based on reports that showed an augmentation of TTX-R Na(+) current following an application of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. However, no information was available on the properties of the novel type of TTX-R Na(+) channel, Na(V)1.9, at times when these reports were published. Hence, the contribution of Na(V)1.9 to the PGE(2)-induced upregulation of TTX-R Na(+) current remains to be elucidated. To further examine the modulation of TTX-R Na(+) current by PGE(2), we recorded two components of TTX-R Na(+) current in isolation from small (<25 microm in diameter) DRG neurons using wild-type and Na(V)1.8 knock-out mice. Unexpectedly, neither the component mediated by Na(V)1.8 nor the persistent component mediated by Na(V)1.9 was affected by PGE(2) (1 and 10 microM). Our results raise a question regarding the well-known modulatory role of PGE(2) on TTX-R Na(+) current in inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:17220592

  13. Energetics of phosphate frameworks containing zinc and cobalt: NaZnPO{sub 4}, NaH(ZnPO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NaZnPO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O, NaZnPO{sub 4}.4/3 H{sub 2}O, and NaCo{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4}.4/3 H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Le, So-Nhu; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2007-09-15

    Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry were used to study the enthalpy of the {alpha}-{beta} phase transformation of NaZnPO{sub 4} and enthalpies of formation of {alpha}-NaZnPO{sub 4}, NaH(ZnPO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NaZnPO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O, and NaCo{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4}.4/3 H{sub 2}O (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3). The enthalpies of formation from the oxides of cobalt substituted in NaZnPO{sub 4}.4/3 H{sub 2}O do not depend on cobalt content, confirming similar acid-base interactions for Zn-PO{sub 4} and Co-PO{sub 4}. While water molecules stabilize zinc phosphate frameworks through solvating a cation or forming extra hydrogen bonds, the partial substitution of water for sodium oxide to form NaH(ZnPO{sub 4}){sub 2} represents the formation of an acidic compound with weaker acid-base interactions and less exothermic enthalpy of formation from oxides than Na{sub 2}(ZnPO{sub 4}){sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Relative stability of NaZnPO{sub 4} dense phases, open frameworks, and hydrated frameworks. Enthalpy of interaction between water and NaZnPO{sub 4} frameworks is presented by reaction: NaZnPO{sub 4} (cr, open framework) + nH{sub 2}O (l) {yields} NaZnPO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O (cr, hydrated framework)

  14. Thermodynamic Phase And Chemical Equilibrium At 0-110°C For The H+-K+-Na+-Cl--H2O System Up To 16 Molal And The HNO3-H2O System Up To 20 Molal Using An Association-Based Pitzer Model Compatible With ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Todd T. Nichols; Dean D. Taylor

    2003-09-01

    A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100° C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110° C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry.s law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry’s law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.

  15. Thermodynamic Phase And Chemical Equilibrium At 0-110 C For The H+-K+-Na+-Cl--H2O System Up To 16 Molal And The HNO3-H2O System Up To 20 Molal Using An Association-Based Pitzer Model Compatible With ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols,T.T.; Taylor,D.D.

    2003-09-26

    A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100 C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110 C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry's law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry's law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.

  16. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable

  17. Neutral Na in comets tails: a chemical story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Y.; Pauzat, F.; Mousis, O.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Leblanc, F.; Ali-Dib, M.; Doronin, M.; Zicler, E.; Doressoundiram, A.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the neutral sodium comet tail discovered in comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 is still a matter of discussion. Here we propose a scenario which is based on chemical grounds. The starting point is the chemical trapping of the Na+ ion in the refractory material during the condensation phase of the protosolar nebula, followed by its incorporation in the building blocks of the comets parent bodies. In the next step, the Na+ ions are washed out of the refractory material by the water formed by the melting of the ice due to the heat released in the radioactive decay of short period elements. When the water freezes again, the Na+ ion looses its positive charge to evolve progressively toward a neutral atom when approaching the surface of the ice. As shown by high-level numerical simulations based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT) to describe the solid structure of the ice, it is a neutral Na that is ejected with the sublimation of the ice top layer.

  18. Effect of colchicine on sensitivity of duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase to Na+.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, S S; Kumskova, E M; Rubtsov, A M; Lopina, O D

    2008-09-01

    Low molecular mass proteins of the FXYD family that affect the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ and K+ are known to be present in Na,K-ATPases in various tissues. In particular, in Na,K-ATPase from kidney a gamma-subunit (with electrophoretic mobility corresponding to molecular mass of about 10 kD) is present, and Na,K-ATPase preparations from heart contain phospholemman (electrophoretic mobility of this protein corresponds to molecular mass of 13-14 kD), which provides for the interaction of heart Na,K-ATPase with cytoskeletal microtubules. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine removes phospholemman from heart Na,K-ATPase preparations. The goal of the present study was to reveal a low molecular mass protein (probably a member of FXYD family) in preparation of Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase using antibodies against alpha1-subunit results in the coprecipitation of a 13 kD protein with the Na,K-ATPase complex. Treatment of homogenate from duck salt glands with colchicine removes this protein from the purified preparation of Na,K-ATPase. Simultaneously, we observed a decrease in the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ at pH 6.5. However, colchicine treatment of homogenate from rabbit kidney does not affect either the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase obtained from this homogenate to Na+ or the content of 10 kD protein (presumably gamma-subunit). The data suggest that phospholemman (or a similar member of the FXYD family) tightly interacts with Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands and binds it to microtubules, simultaneously participating in the regulation of the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+. PMID:18976215

  19. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  20. Membrane-integral pyrophosphatase subfamily capable of translocating both Na+ and H+.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Heidi H; Baykov, Alexander A; Lahti, Reijo; Malinen, Anssi M

    2013-01-22

    One of the strategies used by organisms to adapt to life under conditions of short energy supply is to use the by-product pyrophosphate to support cation gradients in membranes. Transport reactions are catalyzed by membrane-integral pyrophosphatases (PPases), which are classified into two homologous subfamilies: H(+)-transporting (found in prokaryotes, protists, and plants) and Na(+)-transporting (found in prokaryotes). Transport activities have been believed to require specific machinery for each ion, in accordance with the prevailing paradigm in membrane transport. However, experiments using a fluorescent pH probe and (22)Na(+) measurements in the current study revealed that five bacterial PPases expressed in Escherichia coli have the ability to simultaneously translocate H(+) and Na(+) into inverted membrane vesicles under physiological conditions. Consistent with data from phylogenetic analyses, our results support the existence of a third, dual-specificity bacterial Na(+),H(+)-PPase subfamily, which apparently evolved from Na(+)-PPases. Interestingly, genes for Na(+),H(+)-PPase have been found in the major microbes colonizing the human gastrointestinal tract. The Na(+),H(+)-PPases require Na(+) for hydrolytic and transport activities and are further activated by K(+). Based on ionophore effects, we conclude that the Na(+) and H(+) transport reactions are electrogenic and do not result from secondary antiport effects. Sequence comparisons further disclosed four Na(+),H(+)-PPase signature residues located outside the ion conductance channel identified earlier in PPases using X-ray crystallography. Our results collectively support the emerging paradigm that both Na(+) and H(+) can be transported via the same mechanism, with switching between Na(+) and H(+) specificities requiring only subtle changes in the transporter structure.

  1. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  2. Colonic H(+)-K(+)-ATPase in K(+) conservation and electrogenic Na(+) absorption during Na(+) restriction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Z; Clarke, L L; Gawenis, L R; Shull, G E

    2001-12-01

    Upregulation of the colonic H(+)-K(+)- ATPase (cHKA) during hyperaldosteronism suggests that it functions in both K(+) conservation and electrogenic Na(+) absorption in the colon when Na(+)-conserving mechanisms are activated. To test this hypothesis, wild-type (cHKA(+/+)) and cHKA-deficient (cHKA(-/-)) mice were fed Na(+)-replete and Na(+)-restricted diets and their responses were analyzed. In both genotypes, Na(+) restriction led to reduced plasma Na(+) and increased serum aldosterone, and mRNAs for the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) beta- and gamma-subunits, channel-inducing factor, and cHKA were increased in distal colon. Relative to wild-type controls, cHKA(-/-) mice on a Na(+)-replete diet had elevated fecal K(+) excretion. Dietary Na(+) restriction led to increased K(+) excretion in knockout but not in wild-type mice. The amiloride-sensitive, ENaC-mediated short-circuit current in distal colon was significantly reduced in knockout mice maintained on either the Na(+)-replete or Na(+)-restricted diet. These results demonstrate that cHKA plays an important role in K(+) conservation during dietary Na(+) restriction and suggest that cHKA-mediated K(+) recycling across the apical membrane is required for maximum electrogenic Na(+) absorption. PMID:11705741

  3. Ionic dependence of active Na-K transport: "clamping" of cellular Na+ with monensin.

    PubMed

    Haber, R S; Pressley, T A; Loeb, J N; Ismail-Beigi, F

    1987-07-01

    The Na+ ionophore monensin was used to study the Na+- and K+-dependence of ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb+ uptake in ARL 15 cells, a rat liver cell line. Graded concentrations of monensin rapidly induced incremental elevations of cellular Na+ that were stable for up to 2 h. In experiments in which cellular Na+ was thus "clamped" at various levels, the activation curve for ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb+ uptake as a function of intracellular Na+ was found to be steepest near basal Na+ levels (Hill coefficient approximately equal to 2.4), indicating that these cells can respond to relatively large changes in passive Na+ entry by increasing the race of Na-K pump function with only minimal increases in cellular Na+. Exposure of cells to monensin also permitted examination of the extracellular-K+ dependence of ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb+ uptake in the presence of saturating intracellular Na+ and yielded a Hill coefficient of approximately 1.5. The rate of ATP hydrolysis calculated from measurements of the maximal rate of ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb+ uptake in intact cells was similar to the enzymatic Vmax of the Na+-K+-ATPase in cell lysates, suggesting that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity in these broken-cell preparations closely reflects the functional transport capacity of the Na-K pump.

  4. EFFECTS OF PRECURSOR SOLUTION MODIFICATION ON THE CRYSTALLINITY AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BiFeO3 BASED THIN FILM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Huiting; Yang, Changhong; Wang, Gaoyun; Feng, Chao

    2014-07-01

    For chemical solution decomposition process, the precursor solution is a basic factor affecting the quality of the deposited-film. In this paper, we choose (l00)-oriented 0.7[(Bi0.95Ce0.05)0.5Na0.5(Ti0.99Fe0.01)O3]-0.3BiFe0.97Mn0.03O3(0.7NBTCeFe-0.3BFOMn) thin films prepared by various precursor solutions for investigation. The roles of precursor solution modification on crystallinity, ferroelectric and dielectric properties are characterized. With the addition of polyethylene glycol into the solution, phase-pure perovskite structure can be obtained. Furthermore, when the volume ratio for the solvents (ethylene glycol to acetic acid) is modified as 2:1, enhanced ferroelectricity can be achieved with a remanent polarization (Pr) of 27.5 μC/cm2, which coincides well with the capacitance-voltage curve with relatively sharp feature. Also, the 0.7NBTCeFe-0.3BFOMn film exhibits a dielectric constant (ɛr) of 576 and dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.123 at 100 kHz.

  5. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  6. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  7. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic.

  8. Solid-state 13C NMR study of na-cellulose complexes.

    PubMed

    Porro, Fabrizio; Bédué, Olivier; Chanzy, Henri; Heux, Laurent

    2007-08-01

    The interaction of microcrystalline cellulose from cotton and aqueous sodium hydroxide was investigated by 13C NMR solid-state spectroscopy as a function of temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration. When the concentration of NaOH was increased, the initial cellulose spectrum was replaced successively by that of Na-cellulose I followed by that of Na-cellulose II. In Na-cellulose I, each carbon atom occurred as a singlet, thus implying that one glucosyl moiety was the independent magnetic residue in the structure of this allomorph. In addition, the occurrence of the C6 near 62 ppm is an indication of a gt conformation for the hydroxymethyl group of Na-cellulose I. In Na-cellulose II, the analysis of the resonances of C1 and C6 points toward a structure based on a cellotriosyl moiety as the independent magnetic residue, in agreement with the established X-ray analysis that has shown that for this allomorph, the fiber repeat was also that of a cellotriosyl residue. For Na-cellulose II, the occurrence of the C6 in the 60 ppm region indicates an overall gg conformation for the hydroxymethyl groups. A comparison of the spectra recorded at 268 K and at room temperature confirms the stronger interaction of NaOH with cellulose when the temperature is lowered. In the Q region, corresponding to NaOH concentrations of around 9% and temperatures below 277 K, most of the sample was dissolved and no specific solid-state 13C NMR spectrum could be recorded, except for that of a small fraction of undissolved cellulose I. The same experiment run on a wood pulp sample leads to a new spectrum, with spectral characteristics different from those of Na-cellulose I and Na-cellulose II. This new spectrum is assigned to the Q phase, which appears to result from topological constraints that are present in whole wood pulp fibers but not in microcrystalline cellulose. A spectrum recorded for samples in the Na-cellulose III conditions resembled that of Na-cellulose II but of lower

  9. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  10. Established a new double antibodies sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab toxin based single-chain variable fragments from a naïve mouse phage displayed library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Chongxin; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2014-04-01

    ScFvs are composed of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains via a short linker that maintain the specific antigen binding abilities of antibodies. In this study, we constructed a naïve mouse phage displayed library to generate scFvs against Cry1Ab toxin. After affinity panning, positive phage-scFvs were isolated, sequenced and characterized by ELISA. The best binding ability scFv-G9 was expressed and purified. SDS-PAGE indicated that the relative molecular mass of scFv was estimated at 28 kDa. The purified scFv-G9 was used to develop a new DAS-ELISA for detecting Cry1Ab toxin, within minimum detection limit of 0.008 μg mL(-1), a working range 0.018-6.23 μg mL(-1), and the linear curve displayed an acceptable correlation coefficient of 0.98. The cross-reactivity showed that scFv-G9 had strongly binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin, but not to Cry1B, Cry1C and Cry1F toxin. The average recoveries of Cry1Ab toxin from spiked leaf and rice samples were in the range 92.1-94.8%, and 91.6-98.6%, respectively, with a coefficient of variation (C.V) less than 5.0%. These results showed promising applications of scfv-G9 for detecting Cry1Ab toxin with new DAS-ELISA.

  11. Reduced Na+ uptake in the NaCl-hypersensitive sos1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, L; Zhu, J K

    1997-01-01

    Sos1 is an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with > 20 times higher sensitivity toward Na+ inhibition due to a defective high-affinity potassium-uptake system. We report here that sos1 accumulates less Na+ than the wild type in response to NaCl stress. The Na+ contents in sos1 seedlings exposed to 25 mM NaCl for 2 or more d are about 43% lower than those in the wild type. When assayed at 20 mM external NaCl, sos1 seedlings pretreated with low potassium have 32% lower Na+ uptake than the wild type. However, little difference in Na+ uptake could be measured when the seedlings were not pretreated with low potassium. Low-potassium treatment was shown to induce high-affinity potassium-uptake activity in Arabidopsis seedlings. No substantial difference in Na+ efflux between sos1 and the wild type was detected. The results show that the reduced Na+ accumulation in sos1 is due to a lower Na+ influx rate. Therefore, the sos1 mutation appears to disrupt low-affinity Na+ uptake in addition to its impairment of high-affinity K+ uptake. PMID:9085573

  12. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 .

  13. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . PMID:27089434

  14. Statistical analysis on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities using Odin/OSIRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo T.; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Takahashi, Toru; Gumbel, Jörg; Hedin, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational dataset obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  15. α-synuclein assemblies sequester neuronal α3-Na+/K+-ATPase and impair Na+ gradient

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Redeker, Virginie; Fritz, Nicolas; Pieri, Laura; Almeida, Leandro G; Spolidoro, Maria; Liebmann, Thomas; Bousset, Luc; Renner, Marianne; Léna, Clément; Aperia, Anita; Melki, Ronald; Triller, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular α-synuclein (α-syn) assemblies can be up-taken by neurons; however, their interaction with the plasma membrane and proteins has not been studied specifically. Here we demonstrate that α-syn assemblies form clusters within the plasma membrane of neurons. Using a proteomic-based approach, we identify the α3-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) as a cell surface partner of α-syn assemblies. The interaction strength depended on the state of α-syn, fibrils being the strongest, oligomers weak, and monomers none. Mutations within the neuron-specific α3-subunit are linked to rapid-onset dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). We show that freely diffusing α3-NKA are trapped within α-syn clusters resulting in α3-NKA redistribution and formation of larger nanoclusters. This creates regions within the plasma membrane with reduced local densities of α3-NKA, thereby decreasing the efficiency of Na+ extrusion following stimulus. Thus, interactions of α3-NKA with extracellular α-syn assemblies reduce its pumping activity as its mutations in RDP/AHC. PMID:26323479

  16. Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals: from synthesis, growth mechanism to analysis of Na-ion intercalation/deintercalation abilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Dehua; Zhu, Kongjun; Wu, Qingliu; Wang, Yifeng; Tai, Guoan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qilin

    2016-01-28

    Bundle-like α'-NaV2O5 mesocrystals were synthesized successfully by a two-step hydrothermal method. Observations using electron microscopy revealed that the obtained NaV2O5 mesocrystals were composed of nanobelts with the preferential growth direction of [010]. The precise crystal structure was further confirmed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. Based on analysis of crystal structure and microscopy, a reaction and growth mechanism, hydrolysis-condensation (oxolation and olation)-ion exchange-self-assembly, was proposed and described in detail. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements were used to analyze the Na-ions intercalation/deintercalation abilities in NaV2O5, and indicated that Na-ions were difficult to extract. Importantly, the DFT theoretical calculation results, which showed that the migration energy of Na-ions was so huge that migration of Na-ions was quite difficult, can explain and support well the results of the electrochemical measurements. PMID:26673118

  17. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  18. High NA Nicrostepper Final Optical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudyma, R

    1999-09-24

    The development of a new EUV high NA small-field exposure tool has been proposed for obtaining mask defect printability data in a timeframe several years before beta-tools are available. The imaging system for this new Micro-Exposure Tool (MET), would have a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.3, similar to the NA for a beta-tool, but substantially larger than the 0.10 NA for the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and 0.088 NA for the existing 10x Microstepper. This memorandum discusses the development and summarizes the performance of the camera for the MET and includes a listing of the design prescription, detailed analysis of the distortion, and analysis demonstrating the capability to resolution 30 nm features under the conditions of partially coherent illumination.

  19. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  20. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Preeya T.; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT). PMID:27445847

  1. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Preeya T; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).

  2. Empirical evidence of Lat Heavy Bombardement (LHB) on the Moon based on data taken from Geologic Atlas of the Moon/Empiryczne dowody wielkiego bombardowania (LHB) na Księżycu na podstawie danych zaczerpniętych z Geologicznego atlasu Księżyca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telecka, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    Lunar cratering chronology is a basis for chronology of meteorite impacts on Mars, Earth and on the other terrestrial planets. Moon is a calibration plate for cratering record for all inner solar system. There are two methods of preparing lunar flux curve: theoretical size-frequency distribution (SFD) proposed by Neukum et al. (2001) and empirical, based on the samples collected by the space probes Apollo and Luna. In this paper I checked empirically SFD method based on two maps: Geologic Map of the North Side of the Moon (1978) and Geologic Map of the South Side of the Moon (1979) collected in the Geologic Atlas of the Moon. There was count all craters dated on the each of the lunar stratigraphic units. Boundaries of the lunar geologic units are related to impact structures and lava flows. The most problematic is the age of these forms. Most of the known ages of the lunar basins and craters which are the limits of the stratigraphic units (Nectaris, Imbrium and Orientale basins and Copernicus crater - Table 1) were compared in this paper. If the number of craters in the lunar geological period is constant, duration of the geological units affects the diagram of the impact flux (Fig. 3-8). The period with the most intensive frequency of meteorite collisions is called Large Heavy Bombardment (LHB), but, as we see on figures 3-8, it changes depending on the used data. The length and boundaries of LHB period is a clue to understanding of early evolution of terrestrial planets and inner solar system

  3. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  4. Polarization dependence of Na/emph>+Na/emph> associative ionization revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, H. A. J.; Meulen, H. P. V. D.; Morgenstern, R.; Hertel, I. V.; Meyer, E.; Schmidt, H.; Witte, R.

    1986-02-01

    The dependence of the associative ionization process Na 3 2P3/2+Na 3 2P3/2-->Na2 ++e- on the polarization of the laser light used for Na excitation was independently investigated in Utrecht and Berlin. The purpose of this paper is to clarify discrepancies between earlier experimental results of Kircz, Morgenstern, and Nienhuis, on one hand, and Rothe, Theyunni, Reck, and Tung on the other hand. The new results confirm in general the data of Kircz, Morgenstern, and Nienhuis, and also indicate a dependence of the anisotropy ratios on the relative velocity of the interacting Na* atoms.

  5. Comparison of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen–Based 18F-DCFBC PET/CT to Conventional Imaging Modalities for Detection of Hormone-Naïve and Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven P.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Ciarallo, Anthony; Mena, Esther; Blackford, Amanda; Nadal, Rosa; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Carducci, Michael A.; Ross, Ashley E.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Holt, Daniel P.; Dannals, Robert F.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pomper, Martin G.; Cho, Steve Y.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional imaging modalities (CIMs) have limited sensitivity and specificity for detection of metastatic prostate cancer. We examined the potential of a first-in-class radiofluorinated small-molecule inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-18F-fluorobenzyl-l-cysteine (18F-DCFBC), to detect metastatic hormone-naïve (HNPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Methods Seventeen patients were prospectively enrolled (9 HNPC and 8 CRPC); 16 had CIM evidence of new or progressive metastatic prostate cancer and 1 had high clinical suspicion of metastatic disease. 18F-DCFBC PET/CT imaging was obtained with 2 successive PET scans starting at 2 h after injection. Patients were imaged with CIM at approximately the time of PET. A lesion-by-lesion analysis of PET to CIM was performed in the context of either HNPC or CRPC. The patients were followed with available clinical imaging as a reference standard to determine the true nature of identified lesions on PET and CIM. Results On the lesion-by-lesion analysis, 18F-DCFBC PET was able to detect a larger number of lesions (592 positive with 63 equivocal) than CIM (520 positive with 61 equivocal) overall, in both HNPC and CRPC patients. 18F-DCFBC PET detection of lymph nodes, bone lesions, and visceral lesions was superior to CIM. When intrapatient clustering effects were considered, 18F-DCFBC PET was estimated to be positive in a large proportion of lesions that would be negative or equivocal on CIM (0.45). On follow-up, the sensitivity of 18F-DCFBC PET (0.92) was superior to CIM (0.71). 18F-DCFBC tumor uptake was increased at the later PET time point (∼2.5 h after injection), with background uptake showing a decreasing trend on later PET. Conclusion PET imaging with 18F-DCFBC, a small-molecule PSMA-targeted radiotracer, detected more lesions than CIM and promises to diagnose and stage patients with metastatic prostate cancer more accurately than current

  6. The NA62 RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cassese, A.

    2011-07-01

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the very rare kaon decay K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} at the CERN SPS with a 10% accuracy. The Standard Model prediction for the Branching Ratio is (8.5 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -11}. One of the challenging aspect of the experiment is the suppression of the K{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +} v{sub {mu}} background at the 10{sup -12} level. To satisfy this requirement a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH), able to separate {pi}{sup {+-}} from {mu}{sup {+-}} in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c, with a {mu}, rejection factor better than 10{sup -2}, is needed. The RICH must also have a time resolution of about 100 ps to disentangle accidental time associations of beam particles with pions. The RICH will have a very long focal length (17 m) and will be filled with Ne gas at atmospheric pressure. Two test beams were held at CERN in 2007 and 2009 with a RICH prototype. The results of the two test beams will be presented: the {mu}, mis-identification probability is found to be about 0.7% and the time resolution better than 100 ps in the whole momentum range. (authors)

  7. Na-site substitution effects on the thermoelectric properties of NaCo2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Iguchi, Y.; Itoh, T.; Takahata, K.; Terasaki, I.

    1999-10-01

    The resistivity and thermopower of Na1+xCo2O4 and Na1.1-xCaxCo2O4 are measured and analyzed. In Na1+xCo2O4, whereas the resistivity increases with x, the thermopower is nearly independent of x. This suggests that the excess Na is unlikely to supply carriers, and decreases effective conduction paths in the sample. In Na1.1-xCaxCo2O4, the resistivity and the thermopower increase with x, and the Ca2+ substitution for Na+ reduces the majority carriers in NaCo2O4. This means that they are holes, which is consistent with the positive sign of the thermopower. Strong correlation in this compound is evidenced by the peculiar temperature dependence of the resistivity.

  8. Extracellular Na+ levels regulate formation and activity of the NaX/alpha1-Na+/K+-ATPase complex in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Emmanuelle; Smith, Pascal Y.; Henry, Mélaine; Soulet, Denis; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Toth, Katalin; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2014-01-01

    MnPO neurons play a critical role in hydromineral homeostasis regulation by acting as sensors of extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]out). The mechanism underlying Na+-sensing involves Na+-flow through the NaX channel, directly regulated by the Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform which controls Na+-influx by modulating channel permeability. Together, these two partners form a complex involved in the regulation of intracellular sodium ([Na+]in). Here we aim to determine whether environmental changes in Na+ could actively modulate the NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase complex activity. We investigated the complex activity using patch-clamp recordings from rat MnPO neurons and Neuro2a cells. When the rats were fed with a high-salt-diet, or the [Na+] in the culture medium was increased, the activity of the complex was up-regulated. In contrast, drop in environmental [Na+] decreased the activity of the complex. Interestingly under hypernatremic condition, the colocalization rate and protein level of both partners were up-regulated. Under hyponatremic condition, only NaX protein expression was increased and the level of NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase remained unaltered. This unbalance between NaX and Na+/K+-ATPase pump proportion would induce a bigger portion of Na+/K+-ATPase-control-free NaX channel. Thus, we suggest that hypernatremic environment increases NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform activity by increasing the number of both partners and their colocalization rate, whereas hyponatremic environment down-regulates complex activity via a decrease in the relative number of NaX channels controlled by the pump. PMID:25538563

  9. Gasotransmitters: novel regulators of epithelial na(+) transport?

    PubMed

    Althaus, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The vectorial transport of Na(+) across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na(+) and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung, or intestine. Dysregulated Na(+) transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis, or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na(+) transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO, and H(2)S dependent regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na(+) transport biology.

  10. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na(+)H2O, F(-)H2O, and Cl(-)H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20,000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na(+) and aVTZ basis for Cl(-) and F(-)), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs. PMID:27004880

  11. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na(+)H2O, F(-)H2O, and Cl(-)H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20,000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na(+) and aVTZ basis for Cl(-) and F(-)), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  12. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na+H2O, F-H2O, and Cl-H2O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H2O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na+ and aVTZ basis for Cl- and F-), over a large range of distances and H2O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  13. Increased vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity in Salicornia bigelovii Torr. in response to NaCl.

    PubMed

    Parks, Graham E; Dietrich, Margaret A; Schumaker, Karen S

    2002-05-01

    Shoots of the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii are larger and more succulent when grown in highly saline environments. This increased growth and water uptake has been correlated with a large and specific cellular accumulation of sodium. In glycophytes, sensitivity to salt has been associated with an inability to remove sodium ions effectively from the cytoplasm in order to protect salt-sensitive metabolic processes. Therefore, in Salicornia bigelovii efficient vacuolar sequestration of sodium may be part of the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. The ability to compartmentalize sodium may result from a stimulation of the proton pumps that provide the driving force for increased sodium transport into the vacuole via a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. In current studies, increased vacuolar pyrophosphatase activity (hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate and proton translocation) and protein accumulation were observed in Salicornia bigelovii grown in high concentrations of NaCl. Based on sodium-induced dissipation of a pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient in vacuolar membrane vesicles, a Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity was identified and characterized. This activity is sodium concentration-dependent, specific for sodium and lithium, sensitive to methyl-isobutyl amiloride, and independent of an electrical potential. Vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity varied as a function of plant growth in salt. The affinity of the transporter for Na(+) is almost three times higher in plants grown in high levels of salt (K(m)=3.8 and 11.5 mM for plants grown in high and low salt, respectively) suggesting a role for exchange activity in the salt adaptation of Salicornia bigelovii. PMID:11971917

  14. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  15. Cytoplasmic Na+-dependent modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ via electrogenic mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the role of mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchange (NCXmito) in regulating mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+mito) concentration at intact and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨmito), we measured Ca2+mito and ΔΨmito using fluorescence probes Rhod-2 and TMRE, respectively, in the permeabilized rat ventricular cells. Applying 300 nm cytoplasmic Ca2+ (Ca2+c) increased Ca2+mito and this increase was attenuated by cytoplasmic Na+ (Na+c) with an IC50 of 2.4 mm. To the contrary, when ΔΨmito was depolarized by FCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler, Na+c enhanced the Ca2+c-induced increase in Ca2+mito with an EC50 of about 4 mm. This increase was not significantly affected by ruthenium red or cyclosporin A. The inhibition of NCXmito by CGP-37157 further increased Ca2+mito when ΔΨmito was intact, while it suppressed the Ca2+mito increase when ΔΨmito was depolarized, suggesting that ΔΨmito depolarization changed the exchange mode from forward to reverse. Furthermore, ΔΨmito depolarization significantly reduced the Ca2+mito decrease via forward mode, and augmented the Ca2+mito increase via reverse mode. When the respiratory chain was attenuated, the induction of the reverse mode of NCXmito hyperpolarized ΔΨmito, while ΔΨmito depolarized upon inducing the forward mode of NCXmito. Both changes in ΔΨmito were remarkably inhibited by CGP-37157. The above experimental data indicated that NCXmito is voltage dependent and electrogenic. This notion was supported theoretically by computer simulation studies with an NCXmito model constructed based on present and previous studies, presuming a consecutive and electrogenic Na+–Ca2+ exchange and a depolarization-induced increase in Na+ flux. It is concluded that Ca2+mito concentration is dynamically modulated by Na+c and ΔΨmito via electrogenic NCXmito. PMID:18218682

  16. Search for compounds of the NaBaR(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} family (R = La, Nd, Gd, and Yb) and the new NaBaYb(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} orthoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlyakova, T. N. Kokh, A. E.; Kononova, N. G.; Fedorov, P. P.; Rashchenko, S. V.; Maillard, A.

    2013-01-15

    A search for compounds of the NaBaR(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} composition (where R = La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, or Yb{sup 3+}) is performed by solid state synthesis and spontaneous crystallization. A new compound, NaBaYb(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, is found in this series. It crystallizes in space group R3{sup -} and belongs to the family of sublayer complex orthoborates with isolated BO{sub 3} groups NaBaR(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (R = Y, Sc, and Yb). Theoretical X-ray powder diffraction patterns of NaBaY(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NaBaSc(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and NaBaYb(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are calculated based on single-crystal data.

  17. Energetics of cobalt phosphate frameworks: {alpha}, {beta}, and red NaCoPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Le, So-Nhu; Eng, Hank W.; Navrotsky, Alexandra . E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu

    2006-12-15

    Thermal behavior, relative stability, and enthalpy of formation of {alpha} (pink phase), {beta} (blue phase), and red NaCoPO{sub 4} are studied by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and high-temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. Red NaCoPO{sub 4} with cobalt in trigonal bipyramidal coordination is metastable, irreversibly changing to {alpha} NaCoPO{sub 4} at 827 K with an enthalpy of phase transition of -17.4{+-}6.9 kJ mol{sup -1}. {alpha} NaCoPO{sub 4} with cobalt in octahedral coordination is the most stable phase at room temperature. It undergoes a reversible phase transition to the {beta} phase (cobalt in tetrahedra) at 1006 K with an enthalpy of phase transition of 17.6{+-}1.3 kJ mol{sup -1}. Enthalpy of formation from oxides of {alpha}, {beta}, and red NaCoPO{sub 4} are -349.7{+-}2.3, -332.1{+-}2.5, and -332.3{+-}7.2 kJ mol{sup -1}; standard enthalpy of formation of {alpha}, {beta}, and red NaCoPO{sub 4} are -1547.5{+-}2.7, -1529.9{+-}2.8, and -1530.0{+-}7.3 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The more exothermic enthalpy of formation from oxides of {beta} NaCoPO{sub 4} compared to a structurally related aluminosilicate, NaAlSiO{sub 4} nepheline, results from the stronger acid-base interaction of oxides in {beta} NaCoPO{sub 4} (Na{sub 2}O, CoO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) than in NaAlSiO{sub 4} nepheline (Na{sub 2}O, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}). - Graphical abstract: Relative stability of NaCoPO{sub 4} polymorphs compared to the most stable phase, {alpha} NaCoPO{sub 4}.

  18. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na+ concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na+ solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and/or Mg2+ were higher than that of Na+. This suggests that K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ do not interfere with the detection of Na+ by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl2 or MgCl2. The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

  19. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+). Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na(+) solution to K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na(+) concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na(+) solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K(+), Ca(2+), and/or Mg(2+) were higher than that of Na(+). This suggests that K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) do not interfere with the detection of Na(+) by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl(2) or MgCl(2). The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na(+) detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

  20. Genistein attenuates the hypertensive effects of dietary NaCl in hypertensive male rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, Taehyeon M; Peng, Ning; Clark, John T; Novak, Lea; Roysommuti, Sanya; Prasain, Jeevan; Wyss, J Michael

    2007-11-01

    Diets high in polyphenols may protect estrogen-depleted women and rats from hypertension, but there is little evidence for this beneficial effect in males. On a polyphenol-free diet, ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), high dietary NaCl increases arterial pressure, and this effect is greatly blunted by a soy-based diet. High NaCl diets also elevate arterial pressure in male SHRs, and pilot studies indicated that soy polyphenols blunt this effect. The present studies tested the hypothesis that genistein (the primary polyphenol in soy) reduces NaCl-sensitive hypertension in young, male stroke-prone SHRs (SHR-SP, a very NaCl-sensitive strain of SHR). Seven-week-old male SHR-SPs were placed on polyphenol-free diets with or without normal dietary amounts of genistein [0.06% (wt/wt)] and containing high (4%), moderate (2%), or basal (0.7%) NaCl. SHR-SP on the genistein-free diet displayed a dose-related increase in arterial pressure in response to dietary NaCl, and dietary genistein blunted this response. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium reduced arterial pressure to similar levels in all six groups, suggesting that the antihypertensive effects of genistein are influenced by the autonomic nervous system. We further hypothesized that genistein, like estrogen, would improve insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles. Thus, in study 2, 7-wk-old male SHR-SP were placed on high (6%) or basal (0.7%) NaCl diets with or without genistein (0.06%). Dietary genistein reduced plasma insulin and insulin resistance in SHR-SP on a high NaCl diet and decreased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in SHR-SP on the basal NaCl diet. Thus, in male SHR-SP, dietary genistein blunts NaCl-sensitive hypertension, and these effects may be regulated, in part, by the autonomic nervous system and/or metabolic mechanisms.

  1. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  2. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-01

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect

  3. Dependence of Na-K pump current on internal Na+ in mammalian cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Mogul, D J; Singer, D H; Ten Eick, R E

    1990-08-01

    Na-K pump current (Ipump) is a function of the intracellular Na+ concentration [( Na+]i). We examined the quantitative relationship between Ipump and [Na+]i in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes under steady-state conditions. [Na+]i was controlled and "clamped" at several selected concentrations using wide-tipped pipette microelectrodes, and membrane current was measured using the whole cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Ipump generated at a holding potential of -40 mV was determined by measuring the change in steady-state holding current before and during exposure to dihydroouabain (1 mM); Ipump was measured at 11 levels of [Na+]i ranging from 0 to 80 mM (n = 63) with only one measurement per cell and normalized to cell capacitance to account for differences between myocytes in sarcolemmal surface area. Ipump exhibited a nonlinear dependence on [Na+]i; a Hill analysis of the relationship yielded a half-maximal [Na+]i for pump stimulation of 43.2 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.53. An alternative analysis of the experimental data was performed assuming that occupation of three internal binding sites by Na+ is required for enzyme turnover. Regression analysis gave the best fit when only two different binding affinities (KD) are postulated. The values are KD1 = 1 mM, KD2 = KD3 = 29 mM. From the analysis using the latter model, the level of [Na+]i at which Ipump saturated closely approximated the theoretical saturation level calculated from published estimates of pump turnover rate and density. The maximal sensitivity of the Na-K pump to changes in [Na+]i occurs when internal [Na+] is within the range for the normal resting physiological level. PMID:2167023

  4. The Level 0 Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, S.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Mila, G.; Neri, I.; Petrucci, F.; Soldi, D.

    2016-07-01

    In the NA62 experiment at CERN, the intense flux of particles requires a high-performance trigger for the data acquisition system. A Level 0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) was realized, performing the event selection based on trigger primitives coming from sub-detectors and reducing the trigger rate from 10 to 1 MHz. The L0TP is based on a commercial FPGA device and has been implemented in two different solutions. The performance of the two systems are highlighted and compared.

  5. UPDATE ON THE Re(γ '/γ) MEASUREMENT FROM NA48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenci, Patrizia

    2001-12-01

    The NA48 experiment at CERN has been designed to reach an ultimate error of 2 × 10-4 on the measurement of the direct CP violation parameter Re(γ '/γ). The most recent preliminary result from NA48 is Re(γ '/γ) = (12.2 ± 4.9) × 10-4, based on the analysis of the data collected in 1998.

  6. [Na+/H+- and Na+/Na+-countertransport in human, rabbit, and rat erythrocytes: evidence for the existence of two independent ion-transporting systems].

    PubMed

    Orlov, S N; Kuznetsov, S R; Kolosova, I A; Makarov, V L

    1994-05-01

    The activity and regulatory features of the Na+/H(+)- and Na+/Na(+)-exchange were studied in human, rabbit and rat red blood cells. No basal activity of the Na+/H(+)-exchange (the amyloride-inhibited component of the 22Na+ influx) in erythrocytes of these species was observed. The rate of 22Na+ influx increased rapidly when the experiments were carried out on acid-loaded cells in an alkaline (pH0 = 8.0) incubation medium (delta mu H(+)-induced Na+/H(+)-exchange). The ratio of delta mu H(+)-induced Na+/H(+)-exchange activities in human, rabbit and rat red blood cells was 1.0 : 1.1 : 2.3, respectively, whereas that of the Na+/Na(+)-exchange activities (the phloretin-inhibited component of the 22Na+ influx) in erythrocytes of these species was 1.0 : 4.6 : 0.2. The osmotic shrinkage of rat and rabbit erythrocytes led to the stimulation of the Na+/H(+)- (but not Na+/Na+) exchange. Amyloride (1 mM) inhibited the shrinkage-induced 22Na+ entry as well as the delta mu H(+)-induced 22Na+ entry--by 95 and 10-20%, respectively. Heat treatment (10 min, 49-51 degrees C), disturbing the membrane cytoskeleton suppressed both the shrinkage-induced activation and the delta mu H(+)-induced activation of the Na+/H(+)-exchange. The data obtained indicate that the both transport systems are mediated by two distinct transport carriers. It may be suggested that the delta mu H(+)-induced Na+/H(+)-exchange, on the one hand, and the shrinkage-induced Na+/H(+)-exchange, on the other, are mediated by two different Na+/H(+)-exchanger subtypes. PMID:8043690

  7. Raltegravir in treatment naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV infection based on the superior efficacy it showed compared to optimized backbone therapy alone in patients harboring multidrug resistant viruses. Studies on naïve patients showed comparable efficacy of raltegravir and efavirenz and just recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved raltegravir for the use in naïve patients based on the favorable results of the international double-blind phase III STARTMRK trial. Additional interesting findings were the faster, and not yet explained, decay of HIV-1 RNA and the higher CD4+ cells increase in the raltegravir group as compared to the efavirenz group. Raltegravir is generally well tolerated and adverse events were generally similar in raltegravir and comparator arms throughout all studies. When compared to efavirenz, patients on raltegravir showed less incidence of central nervous system-related adverse events. In studies on experienced patients higher incidence of cancers was found in the raltegravir arm: a relationship with the drug was, however not confirmed in a recent review considering all raltegravir studies. Raltegravir also showed a safe lipid profile expecially in naïve patients, finding that renders the drug attractive for patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. All this characteristics in association with its specific mechanism of action, make raltegravir an interesting drug for naïve patients and a large use in this type of patients is predictable. Only time and experience, however, will tell us whether raltegravir will maintain its promises in the long run. PMID:19959413

  8. Anamorphic high-NA EUV lithography optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migura, Sascha; Kneer, Bernhard; Neumann, Jens Timo; Kaiser, Winfried; van Schoot, Jan

    2015-09-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) for a limit resolution below 8 nm requires the numerical aperture (NA) of the projection optics to be larger than 0.50. For such a high-NA optics a configuration of 4x magnification, full field size of 26 x 33 mm² and 6'' mask is not feasible anymore. The increased chief ray angle and higher NA at reticle lead to non-acceptable mask shadowing effects. These shadowing effects can only be controlled by increasing the magnification, hence reducing the system productivity or demanding larger mask sizes. We demonstrate that the best compromise in imaging, productivity and field split is a so-called anamorphic magnification and a half field of 26 x 16.5 mm² but utilizing existing 6'' mask infrastructure. We discuss the optical solutions for such anamorphic high-NA EUVL.

  9. Searches for New Physics at NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Vito

    2011-10-01

    We present the latest NA62 results in the search for physics beyond Standard Model (SM). NA62 aims to have indirect evidences of new physics, measuring rare K decays. NA62 phase I took place in 2007 when we collected data in order to measure the ratio RK = Ke2/Kμ2 (were Kl2 means K → lνl) at few per mill level. A brief experimental layout description will be followed by analysis strategy and preliminary results. The last part of present paper will be devoted to the description of NA62 phase II, which has the main goal of measuring the ultra-rare K -> π ^ + ν bar ν decay Branching Ratio.

  10. Nanosegregation in Na2C60

    SciTech Connect

    Klupp, G.; Kamaras, K.; Matus, P.; Kiss, L.F.; Kovats, E.; Pekker, S.; Nemes, N.M.; Quintavalle, D.; Janossy, A.

    2005-09-27

    There is continuous interest in the nature of alkali metal fullerides containing C{sub 60}{sup 4-} and C{sub 60}{sup 2-}, because these compounds are believed to be nonmagnetic Mott-Jahn-Teller insulators. This idea could be verified in the case of A4C60, but Na2C60 is more controversial. By comparing the results of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we found that Na2C60 is segregated into 3-10 nm large regions. The two main phases of the material are insulating C60 and metallic Na3C60. We found by neutron scattering that the diffusion of sodium ions becomes faster on heating. Above 470 K Na2C60 is homogeneous and we show IR spectroscopic evidence of a Jahn-Teller distorted C{sub 60}{sup 2-} anion.

  11. Sintassi e tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1986-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concepts of "subject,""complement,""transitivity," and "intransitivity," contrasts the classes of complements in German and Italian based on identical criteria of classification, justifies such a classification for complements, and suggests didactic implications for the theory of valence. (CFM)

  12. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  13. Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical materials: Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwei; Liu, Lijuan; Jin, Shifeng; Yao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yihe; Chen, Chuangtian

    2013-12-11

    Deep-UV coherent light generated by nonlinear optical (NLO) materials possesses highly important applications in photonic technologies. Beryllium borates comprising anionic planar layers have been shown to be the most promising deep UV NLO materials. Here, two novel NLO beryllium borates Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 have been developed through cationic structural engineering. The most closely arranged [Be2BO5]∞ planar layers, connected by the flexible [B2O5] groups, have been found in their structures. This structural regulation strategy successfully resulted in the largest second harmonic generation (SHG) effects in the layered beryllium borates, which is ~1.3 and 1.4 times that of KDP for Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33, respectively. The deep-UV optical transmittance spectra based on single crystals indicated their short-wavelength cut-offs are down to ~170 nm. These results demonstrated that Na2Be4B4O11 and LiNa5Be12B12O33 possess very promising application as deep-UV NLO crystals.

  14. Undiagnosed leptospirosis cases in naïve and vaccinated dogs: properties of a serological test based on a synthetic peptide derived from Hap1/LipL32 (residues 154-178).

    PubMed

    Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aviat, Florence; Marie, Jean-Lou; Chatrenet, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite having current vaccinations. However, leptospirosis diagnosis based on the routine Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) leads to confusing conclusions, especially for infected vaccinated dogs. Indeed, both bacterin and natural infection stimulate the production of agglutinating antibodies. In experimentally infected dogs, antibodies against the peptide PP derived from Hap1/Lipl32 were raised earlier than agglutinating antibodies. The background level of these antibodies was determined in a group of 109 healthy dogs, either vaccinated or not against leptospirosis, with a specificity for IgM of 96.4% and for IgG of 95.5%. PP ELISA was subsequently performed with 118 sera from dogs with suspected leptospirosis that was not confirmed by MAT. New leptospirosis cases based on the PP ELISA results were suspected in 14 out of 102 vaccinated dogs and in two out of 16 non-vaccinated dogs. These results highlight the importance of serological diagnosis corresponding to an interesting window when it is too late for PCR detection and too early to be confirmed by MAT. PMID:25659817

  15. Solvation structure and dynamics of Na+ in liquid ammonia studied by ONIOM-XS MD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripradite, Jarukorn; Tongraar, Anan; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-12-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) technique based on the ONIOM-XS method, known as the ONIOM-XS MD, has been applied to investigate the solvation structure and dynamics of Na+ in liquid ammonia. Regarding the ONIOM-XS MD results, it is observed that Na+ is able to order the surrounding ammonia molecules to form its specific first and second solvation shells with the average coordination numbers of 5.1 and 11.2, respectively. The first solvation shell of Na+ is rather well-defined, forming a preferred 5-fold coordinated complex with a distorted square pyramidal geometry. In this respect, the most preferential Na+(NH3)5 species could convert back and forth to the lower probability Na+(NH3)6 and Na+(NH3)4 configurations. The second solvation shell of Na+ is detectable, in which a number of ammonia molecules, ranging from 7 to 14, are involved in this layer and they are arranged according to recognizable influence of the ion.

  16. Structural diversity in Ni(II) cluster chemistry: Ni5, Ni6, and {NiNa2}n complexes bearing the Schiff-base ligand N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Perlepe, Panagiota S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Gagnon, Kevin J; Teat, Simon J; Escuer, Albert; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2016-06-21

    The employment of the fluorescent bridging and chelating ligand N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2) in Ni(II) cluster chemistry has led to a series of pentanuclear and hexanuclear compounds with different structural motifs, magnetic and optical properties, as well as an interesting 1-D coordination polymer. Synthetic parameters such as the inorganic anion present in the NiX2 starting materials (X = ClO4(-) or Cl(-)), the reaction solvent and the nature of the organic base employed for the deprotonation of nacbH2 were proved to be structure-directing components. Undoubtedly, the reported results demonstrate the rich coordination chemistry of nacbH2 in the presence of Ni(II) metal ions and the ability of this chelate to adopt a variety of different modes, thus fostering the formation of high-nuclearity molecules with many physical properties.

  17. Structural diversity in Ni(II) cluster chemistry: Ni5, Ni6, and {NiNa2}n complexes bearing the Schiff-base ligand N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Perlepe, Panagiota S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Gagnon, Kevin J; Teat, Simon J; Escuer, Albert; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2016-06-21

    The employment of the fluorescent bridging and chelating ligand N-naphthalidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (nacbH2) in Ni(II) cluster chemistry has led to a series of pentanuclear and hexanuclear compounds with different structural motifs, magnetic and optical properties, as well as an interesting 1-D coordination polymer. Synthetic parameters such as the inorganic anion present in the NiX2 starting materials (X = ClO4(-) or Cl(-)), the reaction solvent and the nature of the organic base employed for the deprotonation of nacbH2 were proved to be structure-directing components. Undoubtedly, the reported results demonstrate the rich coordination chemistry of nacbH2 in the presence of Ni(II) metal ions and the ability of this chelate to adopt a variety of different modes, thus fostering the formation of high-nuclearity molecules with many physical properties. PMID:27240998

  18. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  19. Effects of dietary salt on renal Na+ transporter subcellular distribution, abundance, and phosphorylation status.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li E; Sandberg, Monica B; Can, Argun D; Pihakaski-Maunsbach, Kaarina; McDonough, Alicia A

    2008-10-01

    During high-salt (HS) diet the kidney increases urinary Na+ and volume excretion to match intake. We recently reported that HS provokes a redistribution of distal convoluted tubule Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) from apical to subapical vesicles and decreases NCC abundance. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the other renal Na+ transporters' abundance and or subcellular distribution is decreased by HS diet. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NS) 0.4% NaCl diet or a HS 4% NaCl diet for 3 wk or overnight. Kidneys excised from anesthetized rats were fractionated on density gradients or analyzed by microscopy; transporters and associated regulators were detected with specific antibodies. Three-week HS doubled Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE)3 phosphorylation at serine 552 and provoked a redistribution of NHE3, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), myosin VI, Na+-Pi cotransporter (NaPi)-2, ANG II type 2 receptor (AT2R), aminopeptidase N (APN), Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2), epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) beta-subunit, and Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) alpha1- and beta1-subunits from low-density plasma membrane-enriched fractions to higher-density intracellular membrane-enriched fractions. NHE3, myosin VI, and AT2R retraction to the base of the microvilli (MV) during HS was evident by confocal microscopy. HS did not change abundance of NHE3, NKCC, or NKA alpha1- or beta1-subunits but increased ENaC-beta in high-density intracellular enriched membranes. Responses to HS were fully apparent after just 18 h. We propose that retraction of NHE3 to the base of the MV, driven by myosin VI and NHE3 phosphorylation and accompanied by redistribution of the NHE3 regulator DPPIV, contributes to a decrease in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption during HS and that redistribution of transporters out of low-density plasma membrane-enriched fractions in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and distal nephron may also contribute to the homeostatic natriuretic response to HS diet

  20. HCO3(-)-coupled Na+ influx is a major determinant of Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fitz, J.G.; Lidofsky, S.D.; Weisiger, R.A.; Xie, M.H.; Cochran, M.; Grotmol, T.; Scharschmidt, B.F. )

    1991-05-01

    Recent studies in hepatocytes indicate that Na(+)-coupled HCO3- transport contributes importantly to regulation of intracellular pH and membrane HCO3- transport. However, the direction of net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement and the effect of HCO3- on Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity are not known. In these studies, the effect of HCO3- on Na+ influx and turnover were measured in primary rat hepatocyte cultures with 22Na+, and (Na+)i was measured in single hepatocytes using the Na(+)-sensitive fluorochrome SBFI. Na+/K+ pump activity was measured in intact perfused rat liver and hepatocyte monolayers as Na(+)-dependent or ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake, and was measured in single hepatocytes as the effect of transient pump inhibition by removal of extracellular K+ on membrane potential difference (PD) and (Na+)i. In hepatocyte monolayers, HCO3- increased 22Na+ entry and turnover rates by 50-65%, without measurably altering 22Na+ pool size or cell volume, and HCO3- also increased Na+/K+ pump activity by 70%. In single cells, exposure to HCO3- produced an abrupt and sustained rise in (Na+)i from approximately 8 to 12 mM. Na+/K+ pump activity assessed in single cells by PD excursions during transient K+ removal increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-, and the rise in (Na+)i produced by inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump was similarly increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-. In intact perfused rat liver, HCO3- increased both Na+/K+ pump activity and O2 consumption. These findings indicate that, in hepatocytes, net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement is inward and represents a major determinant of Na+ influx and Na+/K+ pump activity. About half of hepatic Na+/K+ pump activity appears dedicated to recycling Na+ entering in conjunction with HCO3- to maintain (Na+)i within the physiologic range.

  1. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water. PMID:20102186

  2. Automatic residue removal for high-NA extreme illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, James; Nam, Byong-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Kong, Dong-Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-10-01

    An epidemic for smaller node has been that, as the device architecture shrinks, lithography process requires high Numerical Aperture (NA), and extreme illumination system. This, in turn, creates many lithography problems such as low lithography process margin (Depth of Focus, Exposure Latitude), unstable Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity and restricted guideline for device design rule and so on. Especially for high NA, extreme illumination such as immersion illumination systems, above all the related problems, restricted design rule due to forbidden pitch is critical and crucial issue. This forbidden pitch is composed of numerous optical effects but majority of these forbidden pitch compose of photo resist residue and these residue must be removed to relieve some room for already tight design rule. In this study, we propose automated algorithm to remove photo resist residue due to high NA and extreme illumination condition. This algorithm automatically self assembles assist patterns based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated assist pattern to the original design and removes any resist residue created by extreme illumination condition. Also we tested our automated algorithm on full chip FLASH memory device and showed the residue removal effect by using commercial verification tools as well as on actual test wafer.

  3. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water.

  4. Corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed coatings on a Ni-base superalloy in Na2SO4-60 Pct V2O5 environment at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Puri, D.; Prakash, S.

    2005-04-01

    The shrouded plasma spray process was used to deposit NiCrAlY, Ni-20Cr, Ni3Al, and Stellite-6 metallic coatings on a Ni-based superalloy (62Ni-23Cr-1.48Al-0.80Mn-0.37Si-0.10Cu-0.025C-bal Fe). NiCrAlY was used as a bond coat in all cases. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on uncoated as well as plasma-spray-coated superalloy specimens after exposure to molten salt at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) and electron-probe microanalysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. The uncoated superalloy suffered accelerated corrosion in the form of intense spalling of the scale. The NiCrAlY coated specimen showed a minimum weight gain, whereas the Stellite-6 indicated a maximum weight gain among the coatings studied. All the coatings were found to be successful in developing resistance against hot corrosion, which may be attributed to the formation of oxides, and spinels of nickel, aluminum, chromium, or cobalt.

  5. The Na+-motive terminal oxidase activity in an alkalo- and halo-tolerant Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Semeykina, A L; Skulachev, V P; Verkhovskaya, M L; Bulygina, E S; Chumakov, K M

    1989-08-15

    An alkalo- and halo-tolerant aerobic microorganism has been isolated which, according to microbiological analysis data and the ribosomal 5S RNA sequence, is a Bacillus similar, but not identical, to B. licheniformis and B. subtilis. The microorganism, called Bacillus FTU, proved to be resistant to the protonophorous uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). The fast growth of Bacillus FTU in the presence of CCCP was shown to require a high Na+ concentration in the medium. A procedure was developed to exhaust endogenous respiratory substrates in Bacillus FTU cells so that fast oxygen consumption by the cells was observed only when an exogenous respiratory substrate was added. The exhausted cells were found to oxidize ascorbate in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) in a cyanide-sensitive fashion. The ascorbate oxidation was coupled to the uphill Na+ extrusion which was stimulated by CCCP and a penetrating weak base, diethylamine, as well as by valinomycin with or without diethylamine. Operation of the Bacillus FTU terminal oxidase resulted in the generation of a delta psi which, in the Na+ medium, was slightly decreased by CCCP and strongly decreased by CCCP + diethylamine. In the K+ medium, CCCP discharged delta psi even without diethylamine. Ascorbate oxidation was competent in ATP synthesis which was resistant to CCCP in the Na+ medium and sensitive to CCCP in the K+ medium as if Na+- and H+-coupled oxidative phosphorylations were operative in the Na+ and K+ media, respectively. Inside-out subcellular vesicles of Bacillus FTU were found to be competent in the Na+ uptake supported by oxidation of ascorbate + TMPD or diaminodurene. CCCP or valinomycin + K+ increased the Na+ uptake very strongly. The process was completely inhibited by cyanide or monensin, the former, but not the latter, being inhibitory for respiration. The data obtained indicate that in Bacillus FTU there is not only H+-motive but also Na

  6. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene family within the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics.

  7. The Offline Software Framework of the NA61/SHINE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Roland; Laszlo, Andras; Marcinek, Antoni; Paul, Tom; Szuba, Marek; Unger, Michael; Veberic, Darko; Wyszynski, Oskar

    2012-12-01

    NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN SPS using the upgraded NA49 hadron spectrometer. Among its physics goals are precise hadron production measurements for improving calculations of the neutrino beam flux in the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment as well as for more reliable simulations of cosmic-ray air showers. Moreover, p+p, p+Pb and nucleus+nucleus collisions will be studied extensively to allow for a study of properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. Currently NA61/SHINE uses the old NA49 software framework for reconstruction, simulation and data analysis. The core of this legacy framework was developed in the early 1990s. It is written in different programming and scripting languages (C, pgi-Fortran, shell) and provides several concurrent data formats for the event data model, which includes also obsolete parts. In this contribution we will introduce the new software framework, called Shine, that is written in C++ and designed to comprise three principal parts: a collection of processing modules which can be assembled and sequenced by the user via XML files, an event data model which contains all simulation and reconstruction information based on STL and ROOT streaming, and a detector description which provides data on the configuration and state of the experiment. To assure a quick migration to the Shine framework, wrappers were introduced that allow to run legacy code parts as modules in the new framework and we will present first results on the cross validation of the two frameworks.

  8. Contribution of Na(v)1.8 sodium channels to action potential electrogenesis in DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Renganathan, M; Cummins, T R; Waxman, S G

    2001-08-01

    C-type dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can generate tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium-dependent action potentials. However, multiple sodium channels are expressed in these neurons, and the molecular identity of the TTX-R sodium channels that contribute to action potential production in these neurons has not been established. In this study, we used current-clamp recordings to compare action potential electrogenesis in Na(v)1.8 (+/+) and (-/-) small DRG neurons maintained for 2-8 h in vitro to examine the role of sodium channel Na(v)1.8 (alpha-SNS) in action potential electrogenesis. Although there was no significant difference in resting membrane potential, input resistance, current threshold, or voltage threshold in Na(v)1.8 (+/+) and (-/-) DRG neurons, there were significant differences in action potential electrogenesis. Most Na(v)1.8 (+/+) neurons generate all-or-none action potentials, whereas most of Na(v)1.8 (-/-) neurons produce smaller graded responses. The peak of the response was significantly reduced in Na(v)1.8 (-/-) neurons [31.5 +/- 2.2 (SE) mV] compared with Na(v)1.8 (+/+) neurons (55.0 +/- 4.3 mV). The maximum rise slope was 84.7 +/- 11.2 mV/ms in Na(v)1.8 (+/+) neurons, significantly faster than in Na(v)1.8 (-/-) neurons where it was 47.2 +/- 1.3 mV/ms. Calculations based on the action potential overshoot in Na(v)1.8 (+/+) and (-/-) neurons, following blockade of Ca(2+) currents, indicate that Na(v)1.8 contributes a substantial fraction (80-90%) of the inward membrane current that flows during the rising phase of the action potential. We found that fast TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels can produce all-or-none action potentials in some Na(v)1.8 (-/-) neurons but, presumably as a result of steady-state inactivation of these channels, electrogenesis in Na(v)1.8 (-/-) neurons is more sensitive to membrane depolarization than in Na(v)1.8 (+/+) neurons, and, in the absence of Na(v)1.8, is attenuated with even modest depolarization. These observations

  9. On the exploration of molten salt (FLiNaK) interaction with plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Sup; Park, Hyonjae; Lho, Taihyeop

    2011-10-01

    We investigated possibility of application of molten salt as a liquid wall in plasma confinement device. Plasma interactions of molten salt - FLiNaK (LiF 46.5 mol% + NaF 11.5% + KF 42 mol%) were investigated by OES(Optical Emission Spectroscopy) and RGA(Residual Gas Analyzer). The plasma was generated with ECR source and the molten salt was maintained as liquid with SUS 316 mold-heater. Optical and mass spectrums were measured during hydrogen plasma interaction with the molten salt and qualitative analysis of resultant species was done. Chemical/physical erosion of FLiNaK after interaction of hydrogen plasma was studied with ICP-MS and IC (Ion Chromatography). Viscosity change of FLiNaK after plasma interaction was measured. Based on the preliminary measurement result, a plasma interaction system with flowing molten salt was designed.

  10. Electrophysiological Determination of Submembrane Na(+) Concentration in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Bence; Bányász, Tamás; Shannon, Thomas R; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T

    2016-09-20

    In the heart, Na(+) is a key modulator of the action potential, Ca(2+) homeostasis, energetics, and contractility. Because Na(+) currents and cotransport fluxes depend on the Na(+) concentration in the submembrane region, it is necessary to accurately estimate the submembrane Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]sm). Current methods using Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators or Na(+) -sensitive electrodes cannot measure [Na(+)]sm. However, electrophysiology methods are ideal for measuring [Na(+)]sm. In this article, we develop patch-clamp protocols and experimental conditions to determine the upper bound of [Na(+)]sm at the peak of action potential and its lower bound at the resting state. During the cardiac cycle, the value of [Na(+)]sm is constrained within these bounds. We conducted experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes at body temperature and found that 1) at a low pacing frequency of 0.5 Hz, the upper and lower bounds converge at 9 mM, constraining the [Na(+)]sm value to ∼9 mM; 2) at 2 Hz pacing frequency, [Na(+)]sm is bounded between 9 mM at resting state and 11.5 mM; and 3) the cells can maintain [Na(+)]sm to the above values, despite changes in the pipette Na(+) concentration, showing autoregulation of Na(+) in beating cardiomyocytes. PMID:27653489

  11. Simultaneous Quantitation of Na(+) and K(+) in Single Normal and Cancer Cells Using a New Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Li, Ping; Fang, Juan; Li, Qingling; Xiao, Haibin; Zhou, Hui; Tang, Bo

    2015-06-16

    Considering the important functions of cellular Na(+) and K(+) together with their cooperative efforts on various biological processes, it is significant to simultaneously detect Na(+) and K(+) at a single-cell level. Here, we present a novel method to discriminate and quantify simultaneously Na(+) and K(+) in single cells using a new near-infrared fluorescent probe associated with microchip electrophoresis. The fluorescent probe selectively responds to both Na(+) and K(+). The microchip electrophoresis allows accurate single-cell manipulation and effective distinction of Na(+) and K(+). Based on the method, the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in single normal and cancer cells was compared, and the variation of Na(+) and K(+) in single cancer cells during the early stage of apoptotic volume decrease was monitored, which would help us to better understand the critical roles of Na(+) and K(+) in malignant cells and apoptosis. This method has paved a new way for the research of the synergistic function of Na(+) and K(+) in the regulation of various biological processes at a single-cell level. PMID:25973531

  12. Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

  13. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  14. Direct Measurement of ^21Na+α Stellar Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh Dam, Nguyen; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Le, H. K.; Nguyen, T. T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Teranishi, T.

    2009-10-01

    Nucleosynthesis of ^22Na is an interesting subject because of possible γ-ray observation and isotopic anomalies in presolar grain. ^22Na would have been mainly produced in the NeNa cycle. At high temperature conditions, ^21Na(α,p)^24Mg reaction could play a significant role to make flow from the NeNa cycle to the next MgAl cycle and beyond. Clearly, the ^21Na(α,p)^24Mg stellar reaction would bypass ^22Na, resulting in reduction of ^22Na production, therefore, it is strongly coupled to the Ne-E problem. It could be also important to understand the early stage of the rp-process. Experiment was performed using a 39 MeV ^21Na radioactive beam obtained by the CNS Radio Isotope Beam separator CRIB of the University of Tokyo. Both protons and alphas were measured from α+^21Na scattering with a thick ^4He gas target.

  15. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O II: Differential thermal analysis of the halite liquidus in the NaCl-H2O binary above 450°c

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunter, W.D.; Chou, I.-Ming; Girsperger, Sven

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of halite can be expressed as a function of the mole-fractional-based activity of NaCl in the liquid phase (L) in temperature (T, °K) and pressure (P, bars) In  Our liquidus data (based on 10 compositions) above 500 bars for these brines were combined with this equation to generate activity coefficients of NaCl which were fit within their experimental uncertainties to the following one parameter Margules equation In . Concentrated solutions of NaCl show negative deviations from ideality which rapidly increase in magnitude with decreasing XNaCl.

  16. Functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling causes high blood pressure in Na+ replete mice

    PubMed Central

    Vitzthum, Helga; Seniuk, Anika; Schulte, Laura Helene; Müller, Maxie Luise; Hetz, Hannah; Ehmke, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    A network of kinases, including WNKs, SPAK and Sgk1, is critical for the independent regulation of K+ and Na+ transport in the distal nephron. Angiotensin II is thought to act as a key hormone in orchestrating these kinases to switch from K+ secretion during hyperkalaemia to Na+ reabsorption during intravascular volume depletion, thus keeping disturbances in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis at a minimum. It remains unclear, however, how K+ and Na+ transport are regulated during a high Na+ intake, which is associated with suppressed angiotensin II levels and a high distal tubular Na+ load. We therefore investigated the integrated blood pressure, renal, hormonal and gene and protein expression responses to large changes of K+ intake in Na+ replete mice. Both low and high K+ intake increased blood pressure and caused Na+ retention. Low K+ intake was accompanied by an upregulation of the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) and its activating kinase SPAK, and inhibition of NCC normalized blood pressure. Renal responses were unaffected by angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonism, indicating that low K+ intake activates the distal nephron by an angiotensin-independent mode of action. High K+ intake was associated with elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations and an upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and its activating kinase Sgk1. Surprisingly, high K+ intake increased blood pressure even during ENaC or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism, suggesting the contribution of aldosterone-independent mechanisms. These findings show that in a Na+ replete state, changes in K+ intake induce specific molecular and functional adaptations in the distal nephron that cause a functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling, resulting in Na+ retention and high blood pressure when K+ intake is either restricted or excessively increased. PMID:24396058

  17. The Na-O anticorrelation in horizontal branch stars. I. NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, R. G.; Lucatello, S.; Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; D'Orazi, V.; Momany, Y. Al

    2011-10-01

    Globular clusters have been recognized to host multiple stellar populations. A spectacular example of this is the massive cluster NGC 2808, where multiple populations have been found along the horizontal branch (HB) and the main sequence (MS). Studies of red giants showed that this cluster appears homogeneous insofar Fe abundance is concerned, but it shows an extended anticorrelation between Na and O abundances. The Na-poor, O-rich population can be identified with the red MS, and the Na-rich, O-poor one with the blue one. This may be understood in terms of different He content, He being correlated with Na. A prediction of this scenario is that He-rich, Na-rich He-core burning stars, because they are less massive, will end up on the bluer part of the HB, while He-poor, Na-poor stars will reside on the red HB. The aim of this paper is to verify this prediction. To this purpose, we acquired high-resolution spectra of regions including strong O and Na lines in several tens of HB stars of NGC 2808, sampling both the red and blue parts of the HB. We limited our analysis to those blue HB stars cooler than the gap at 11 500 K, because diffusion and radiative pressure are known to strongly modify the atmospheric composition of warmer stars. We indeed found a strict correspondence between the colour of the HB stars and their Na and O abundances: all blue HB stars are very O-poor and Na-rich. In addition, we found that while all the red HB stars are more O-rich and Na-poor than the blue ones, there is a moderate Na-O anticorrelation among them as well. This anticorrelation is in turn related to the colour of the red HB stars. These results reinforce the connection between Na and O abundances and the second parameter phenomenon, and show that there are more than three stellar populations in NGC 2808 because only a fraction of the red HB stars belong to the primordial population of this cluster. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 386.D-0086.

  18. NaCd excimer emission bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, G.; Veža, D.; Fijan, D.

    1988-06-01

    The analysis of the visible spectrum of a high pressure sodium lamp filled with sodium, cadium and xenon revealed the existence of NaCd excimer spectral features. These are four red satellite bands at 691, 697, 709 and 726.5 nm and diffuse bands peaking at 479.1 and 484.3 nm. Both spectral phenomena are related to those found earlier for the NaHg system. An interpretation of the red satellite bands origin is given in terms of a qualitative model for the four lowest potential curves of the NaCd excimer. In this model the essential feature is the avoided crossing between B 2∑ 1/2 and A 2∏ 1/2 electronic states, which causes a complex structure of the satellite bands in the very far red wing of the sodium D lines broadened by cadmium.

  19. Microelectrode studies in toad urinary bladder epithelium. effects of Na concentration changes in the mucosal solution on equivalent electromotive forces

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Microelectrode techniques were employed to measure membrane potentials, the electrical resistance of the cell membranes, and the shunt pathway, and to compute the equivalent electromotive forces (EMF) at both cell borders in toad urinary bladder epithelium before and after reductions in mucosal sodium concentration. Basal electrical parameters were not significantly different from those obtained with impalements from the serosal side, indicating that mucosal impalements do not produce significant leaks in the apical membrane. A decrease in mucosal Na concentration caused the cellular resistance to increase and both apical and basolateral EMF to depolarize. When Na was reduced from 112 to 2.4 mM in bladders with spontaneously different baseline values of transepithelial potential difference (Vms), a direct relationship was found between the change in Vms brought about by the Na reduction and the base-line Vms before the change. A direct relationship was also found by plotting the change in EMF at the apical or basolateral border caused by a mucosal Na reduction with the corresponding base-line EMF before the change. These results indicate that resting apical membrane EMF (and, therefore, resting apical membrane potential) is determined by the Na selectivity of the apical membrane, whereas basolateral EMF is at least in part the result of rheogenic Na transport. These results are consistent with data of others that suggested a link between the activity of the basolateral Na pump and apical Na conductance. PMID:6770033

  20. Liquid-vapor partitioning of NaCl(aq) from concentrated brines at temperatures to 350{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Carter, R.W.

    1994-01-20

    Compositions of coexisting liquid and vapor phases have been determined at temperatures from 250 to 350°C for brines containing NaCl and either HCI or NaOH by direct sampling of both phases from a static phase-equilibration apparatus. In these experiments, NaCl concentrations in the liquid phase ranged to 6.5 mol-kg{sup -1}, with corresponding vapor-phase NaCl concentrations varying strongly with temperature and brine composition. Acid or base was added to the brines to suppress unknown contributions of NaCl(aq) hydrolysis products to the observed volatilities. Thermodynamic partitioning constants for NaCl have been determined from the observed compositions of the coexisting phases combined with the known activity coefficients of NaCl(aq) in the liquid phase. An apparent dependence of the values of these partitioning constants on brine concentration is explained by considering the effect of decreasing pressure on the density of the vapor phase. Concentrations of HCI and NaCl in steam produced from various natural brines may be calculated as hnctions of temperature and brine composition based on these new results coupled with our previous determinations of the partitioning constants for HCl(aq). Application of these results to The Geysers will be discussed in terms of the composition of postulated brines which could be in equilibrium with observed steam compositions at various temperatures.

  1. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

  2. Targeting voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.7, Na V1.8, and Na V1.9 for treatment of pathological cough.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) lead to the rational hypothesis that drugs capable of selective blockade of NaV subtypes may be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of unwanted cough. Among the nine NaV subtypes (NaV1.1-NaV1.9), the afferent nerves involved in initiating cough, in common with nociceptive neurons in the somatosensory system, express mainly NaV1.7, NaV1.8, and NaV1.9. Although knowledge about the effect of selectively blocking these channels on the cough reflex is limited, their biophysical properties indicate that each may contribute to the hypertussive and allotussive state that typifies subacute and chronic nonproductive cough.

  3. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  4. Crystal structure of a Na+-bound Na+,K+-ATPase preceding the E1P state.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryuta; Ogawa, Haruo; Vilsen, Bente; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2013-10-10

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) ions out of cells in exchange for two K(+) taken up from the extracellular medium per ATP molecule hydrolysed, thereby establishing Na(+) and K(+) gradients across the membrane in all animal cells. These ion gradients are used in many fundamental processes, notably excitation of nerve cells. Here we describe 2.8 Å-resolution crystal structures of this ATPase from pig kidney with bound Na(+), ADP and aluminium fluoride, a stable phosphate analogue, with and without oligomycin that promotes Na(+) occlusion. These crystal structures represent a transition state preceding the phosphorylated intermediate (E1P) in which three Na(+) ions are occluded. Details of the Na(+)-binding sites show how this ATPase functions as a Na(+)-specific pump, rejecting K(+) and Ca(2+), even though its affinity for Na(+) is low (millimolar dissociation constant). A mechanism for sequential, cooperative Na(+) binding can now be formulated in atomic detail. PMID:24089211

  5. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  6. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  7. Analgesic Effects of GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 in a Mouse Model of NaV1.7-Mediated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Deuis, Jennifer R.; Wingerd, Joshua S.; Winter, Zoltan; Durek, Thomas; Dekan, Zoltan; Sousa, Silmara R.; Zimmermann, Katharina; Hoffmann, Tali; Weidner, Christian; Nassar, Mohammed A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Lewis, Richard J.; Vetter, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of NaV1.7 lead to congenital insensitivity to pain, a rare condition resulting in individuals who are otherwise normal except for the inability to sense pain, making pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.7 a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. We characterized a novel mouse model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of the scorpion toxin OD1, which is suitable for rapid in vivo profiling of NaV1.7 inhibitors. Intraplantar injection of OD1 caused spontaneous pain behaviors, which were reversed by co-injection with NaV1.7 inhibitors and significantly reduced in NaV1.7−/− mice. To validate the use of the model for profiling NaV1.7 inhibitors, we determined the NaV selectivity and tested the efficacy of the reported NaV1.7 inhibitors GpTx-1, PF-04856264 and CNV1014802 (raxatrigine). GpTx-1 selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and was effective when co-administered with OD1, but lacked efficacy when delivered systemically. PF-04856264 state-dependently and selectively inhibited NaV1.7 and significantly reduced OD1-induced spontaneous pain when delivered locally and systemically. CNV1014802 state-dependently, but non-selectively, inhibited NaV channels and was only effective in the OD1 model when delivered systemically. Our novel model of NaV1.7-mediated pain based on intraplantar injection of OD1 is thus suitable for the rapid in vivo characterization of the analgesic efficacy of NaV1.7 inhibitors. PMID:26999206

  8. Understanding hydrothermal transformation from Mn2O3 particles to Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets, nanobelts, and single crystalline ultra-long Na4Mn9O18 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yohan; Woo Lee, Sung; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Min, Bong-Ki; Kumar Nayak, Arpan; Pradhan, Debabrata; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are one of the most valuable materials for batteries, fuel cells and catalysis. Herein, we report the change in morphology and phase of as-synthesized Mn2O3 by inserting Na+ ions. In particular, Mn2O3 nanoparticles were first transformed to 2 nm thin Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets and nanobelts via hydrothermal exfoliation and Na cation intercalation, and finally to sub-mm ultra-long single crystalline Na4Mn9O18 nanowires. This paper reports the morphology and phase-dependent magnetic and catalytic (CO oxidation) properties of the as-synthesized nanostructured Na intercalated Mn-based materials. PMID:26667348

  9. Na+ Inhibits the Epithelial Na+ Channel by Binding to a Site in an Extracellular Acidic Cleft*

    PubMed Central

    Kashlan, Ossama B.; Blobner, Brandon M.; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na+, Cl−, protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na+ concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na+ binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na+. Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li+ or K+ rather than Na+. Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na+. Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  10. Na+ inhibits the epithelial Na+ channel by binding to a site in an extracellular acidic cleft.

    PubMed

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Blobner, Brandon M; Zuzek, Zachary; Tolino, Michael; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. ENaC belongs to a family of ion channels that sense the external environment. These channels have large extracellular regions that are thought to interact with environmental cues, such as Na(+), Cl(-), protons, proteases, and shear stress, which modulate gating behavior. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which ENaC senses high external Na(+) concentrations, resulting in an inhibition of channel activity. Both our structural model of an ENaC α subunit and the resolved structure of an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1) have conserved acidic pockets in the periphery of the extracellular region of the channel. We hypothesized that these acidic pockets host inhibitory allosteric Na(+) binding sites. Through site-directed mutagenesis targeting the acidic pocket, we modified the inhibitory response to external Na(+). Mutations at selected sites altered the cation inhibitory preference to favor Li(+) or K(+) rather than Na(+). Channel activity was reduced in response to restraining movement within this region by cross-linking structures across the acidic pocket. Our results suggest that residues within the acidic pocket form an allosteric effector binding site for Na(+). Our study supports the hypothesis that an acidic cleft is a key ligand binding locus for ENaC and perhaps other members of the ENaC/degenerin family. PMID:25389295

  11. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. PMID:26721205

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross sections and neutron separation energies for 23Na(n,γ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.; Belgya, T.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt thermal neutron capture γ-ray cross sections σγ were measured for the 23Na(n,γ) reaction with guided cold neutron beams at the Budapest Reactor. The 24Na γ-ray cross sections were internally standardized with a stoichiometric NaCl target by using standard 35Cl(n,γ)36Cl γ-ray cross sections. Transitions were assigned to levels in 24Na based primarily upon the known nuclear structure information from the literature, producing a nearly complete neutron capture decay scheme. The total radiative thermal neutron cross section σ0 was determined from the sum of prompt γ-ray cross section populating the ground state as 0.540 (3) b, and from the activation γ-ray cross sections for the decay of 24Na as 0.542 (3) b. The isomer cross section σ0 (23Nam, t1/2=20.20ms)=0.501(3) b and the 24Na neutron separation energy Sn=6959.352(18) keV were also determined in these experiments. New level spins and parities were proposed on the basis of new transition assignments and the systematics of reduced transition probabilities for the primary γ rays.

  13. Lead-free NaNbO3 nanowires for a high output piezoelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hong, Jung-Il; Ding, Yong; Chen, Chih-Yen; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-12-27

    Perovskite ferroelectric nanowires have rarely been used for the conversion of tiny mechanical vibrations into electricity, in spite of their large piezoelectricity. Here we present a lead-free NaNbO(3) nanowire-based piezoelectric device as a high output and cost-effective flexible nanogenerator. The device consists of a NaNbO(3) nanowire-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer composite and Au/Cr-coated polymer films. High-quality NaNbO(3) nanowires can be grown by hydrothermal method at low temperature and can be poled by an electric field at room temperature. The NaNbO(3) nanowire-PDMS polymer composite device shows an output voltage of 3.2 V and output current of 72 nA (current density of 16 nA/cm(2)) under a compressive strain of 0.23%. These results imply that NaNbO(3) nanowires should be quite useful for large-scale lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerator applications.

  14. Modeling of Single Noninactivating Na+ Channels: Evidence for Two Open and Several Fast Inactivated States

    PubMed Central

    The, Yu-Kai; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Popa, M. Oana; Alekov, Alexi K.; Timmer, Jens; Lerche, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels play a fundamental role in the excitability of nerve and muscle cells. Defects in fast Na+ channel inactivation can cause hereditary muscle diseases with hyper- or hypoexcitability of the sarcolemma. To explore the kinetics and gating mechanisms of noninactivating muscle Na+ channels on a molecular level, we analyzed single channel currents from wild-type and five mutant Na+ channels. The mutations were localized in different protein regions which have been previously shown to be important for fast inactivation (D3-D4-linker, D3/S4-S5, D4/S4-S5, D4/S6) and exhibited distinct grades of defective fast inactivation with varying levels of persistent Na+ currents caused by late channel reopenings. Different gating schemes were fitted to the data using hidden Markov models with a correction for time interval omission and compared statistically. For all investigated channels including the wild-type, two open states were necessary to describe our data. Whereas one inactivated state was sufficient to fit the single channel behavior of wild-type channels, modeling the mutants with impaired fast inactivation revealed evidence for several inactivated states. We propose a single gating scheme with two open and three inactivated states to describe the behavior of all five examined mutants. This scheme provides a biological interpretation of the collected data, based on previous investigations in voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels. PMID:16513781

  15. Long-life Na-O₂ batteries with high energy efficiency enabled by electrochemically splitting NaO₂ at a low overpotential.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Li, Chilin; Guo, Xiangxin

    2014-08-01

    Metal-air batteries are thought to be the ultimate solution for energy storage systems owing to their high energy density. Here we report a long-life Na-O2 battery with a high capacity of 750 mA h g(carbon)(-1) by manipulating the nucleation and growth of nano-sized NaO2 particles in a vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) network with a large surface area. Benefiting from the kinetically favorable formation of NaO2 reaction with a low overpotential of ~0.2 V, the electrical energy efficiency is as high as 90% for up to 100 cycles. A good rate performance (~1500 mA h g(carbon)(-1) at 667 mA g(carbon)(-1)) can be achieved through pre-deposition of a thin NaO2 layer. This study encourages the exploration of the key factors influencing the performance of metal-air batteries, as well as Na-based batteries characterized by phase transformation or conversion reactions.

  16. Mechanisms contributing to the cardiac inotropic effect of Na pump inhibition and reduction of extracellular Na

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of the transsarcolemmal [Na] gradient in rabbit cardiac muscle leads to an increase in the force of contraction. This has frequently been attributed to alteration of Ca movements via the sarcolemmal Na/Ca exchange system. However, the specific mechanisms that mediate the increased force at individual contractions have not been clearly established. In the present study, the [Na] gradient was decreased by reduction of extracellular [Na] or inhibition of the Na pump by either the cardioactive steroid acetylstrophanthidin or by reduction of extracellular [K]. Contractile performance and changes in extracellular Ca (sensed by double-barreled Ca-selective microelectrodes) were studied in order to elucidate the underlying basis for the increase in force. In the presence of agents that inhibit sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function (10 mM caffeine, 100-500 nM ryanodine), reduction of the [Na] gradient produced increases in contractile force similar to that observed in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. It is concluded that an intact, functioning SR is not required for the inotropic effect of [Na] gradient reduction (at least in rabbit ventricle). However, this does not exclude a possible contribution of enhanced SR Ca release in the inotropic response to [Na] gradient reduction in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. Acetylstrophanthidin (3-5 microM) usually leads to an increase in the magnitude of extracellular Ca depletions associated with individual contractions. However, acetylstrophanthidin can also increase extracellular Ca accumulation during the contraction, especially at potentiated contractions. This extracellular Ca accumulation can be suppressed by ryanodine and it is suggested that this apparent enhancement of Ca efflux is secondary to an enhanced release of Ca from the SR. Under conditions where Ca efflux during contractions is minimized (after a rest interval in the presence of ryanodine), acetylstrophanthidin increased both the rate and the

  17. Increasing cyclic electron flow is related to Na+ sequestration into vacuoles for salt tolerance in soybean

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi; Fu, Junliang; Yu, Chenliang; Wang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Qinsu; Hong, Jian; Lu, Kaixing; Xue, Gangping; Yan, Chengqi; James, Andrew; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Jianping; Jiang, Dean

    2015-01-01

    In land plants, the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex reduces plastoquinones and drives cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI. It also produces extra ATP for photosynthesis and improves plant fitness under conditions of abiotic environmental stress. To elucidate the role of CEF in salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus, Na+ concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, and expression of NDH B and H subunits, as well as of genes related to cellular and vacuolar Na+ transport, were monitored. The salt-tolerant Glycine max (soybean) variety S111-9 exhibited much higher CEF activity and ATP accumulation in light than did the salt-sensitive variety Melrose, but similar leaf Na+ concentrations under salt stress. In S111-9 plants, ndhB and ndhH were highly up-regulated under salt stress and their corresponding proteins were maintained at high levels or increased significantly. Under salt stress, S111-9 plants accumulated Na+ in the vacuole, but Melrose plants accumulated Na+ in the chloroplast. Compared with Melrose, S111-9 plants also showed higher expression of some genes associated with Na+ transport into the vacuole and/or cell, such as genes encoding components of the CBL10 (calcineurin B-like protein 10)–CIPK24 (CBL-interacting protein kinase 24)–NHX (Na+/H+ antiporter) and CBL4 (calcineurin B-like protein 4)–CIPK24–SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) complexes. Based on the findings, it is proposed that enhanced NDH-dependent CEF supplies extra ATP used to sequester Na+ in the vacuole. This reveals an important mechanism for salt tolerance in soybean and provides new insights into plant resistance to salt stress. PMID:26276865

  18. NaF Inhibits Matrix-Bound Cathepsin-Mediated Dentin Matrix Degradation.

    PubMed

    Altinci, Pinar; Mutluay, Murat; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Pashley, David; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs) degrade the collagen fibrils of demineralized dentin. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has previously been shown to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NaF on the inhibition of dentin-bound MMPs and CCs. Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. The baseline total MMP activity and dry masses were measured. Beams were assigned to test groups based on similar MMP activity and dry mass (n = 10/group), and incubated in artificial saliva (control) or artificial saliva with NaF containing 6-238 mM fluoride for 1, 7 and 21 days. The dry mass loss and MMP activities were reassessed at each time point. The proteolytic activity was screened by gelatin zymography. ICTP and CTX released to the incubation medium were analyzed as indices of MMP and cathepsin K activity, respectively. The beams were examined under scanning electron microscopy. All NaF doses reduced the dry mass loss after 21 days (p < 0.05). NaF inhibition of the total MMP activity ranged between 5 and 80%. In gelatin zymography, the bands of MMP-2 and MMP-9 became less prominent with increasing NaF levels. NaF did not decrease the released ICTP (p > 0.05). Less CTX release was detected with F ≥179 mM (p < 0.05). CaF2-like minerals were observed on the beams. High levels of NaF may slow the degradation of the dentin matrix due to the inhibition of cathepsin K. Fluoride does not seem effective in the direct inhibition of proteolysis by dentin matrix-bound MMPs.

  19. NaF Inhibits Matrix-Bound Cathepsin-Mediated Dentin Matrix Degradation.

    PubMed

    Altinci, Pinar; Mutluay, Murat; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Pashley, David; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs) degrade the collagen fibrils of demineralized dentin. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has previously been shown to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NaF on the inhibition of dentin-bound MMPs and CCs. Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. The baseline total MMP activity and dry masses were measured. Beams were assigned to test groups based on similar MMP activity and dry mass (n = 10/group), and incubated in artificial saliva (control) or artificial saliva with NaF containing 6-238 mM fluoride for 1, 7 and 21 days. The dry mass loss and MMP activities were reassessed at each time point. The proteolytic activity was screened by gelatin zymography. ICTP and CTX released to the incubation medium were analyzed as indices of MMP and cathepsin K activity, respectively. The beams were examined under scanning electron microscopy. All NaF doses reduced the dry mass loss after 21 days (p < 0.05). NaF inhibition of the total MMP activity ranged between 5 and 80%. In gelatin zymography, the bands of MMP-2 and MMP-9 became less prominent with increasing NaF levels. NaF did not decrease the released ICTP (p > 0.05). Less CTX release was detected with F ≥179 mM (p < 0.05). CaF2-like minerals were observed on the beams. High levels of NaF may slow the degradation of the dentin matrix due to the inhibition of cathepsin K. Fluoride does not seem effective in the direct inhibition of proteolysis by dentin matrix-bound MMPs. PMID:26986079

  20. [Reparation and desulfurization of Na2CO3/straw sorbents for removing SO2 from flue gas].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hongshan; Yang, Fan; Kou, Yuan

    2003-11-01

    A series of SO2 sorbents 5%-90% (mass percent) Na2CO3/straw were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation of straw with an aqueous solution of Na2CO3. It was showed that small particle size (< or = 0.28 mm) of the straw and low flow rate (40 mL/min) of the feed gas favor the removal of SO2, while temperature (70 degrees C-300 degrees C) has little effect on the desulfurization efficiency. Based on XRD, SEM and ATR-IR analysis it can be concluded that the Na2CO3 on the surface of the straw is mainly in an amorphous state. The unique structural features of the straw and its interaction with Na2CO3 lead to the amorphous structure having greater surface area (12.14 m2/g) and pore volume (0.093 cm3/g) with a high loading of Na2CO3.

  1. Increased turnover of Na-K ATPase molecules in rat brain after rapid eye movement sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sudipta; Faisal, Mohd; Madan, Vibha; Mallick, Birendra N

    2003-09-15

    It has been shown that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation increases Na-K ATPase activity. Based on kinetic study, it was proposed that increased activity was due to enhanced turnover of enzyme molecules. To test this, anti-alpha1 Na-K ATPase monoclonal antibody (mAb 9A7) was used to label Na-K ATPase molecules. These labeled enzymes were quantified on neuronal membrane by two methods: histochemically on neurons in tissue sections from different brain areas, and by Western blot analysis in control and REM sleep-deprived rat brains. The specific enzyme activity was also estimated and found to be increased, as in previous studies. The results confirmed our hypothesis that after REM sleep deprivation, increased Na-K ATPase activity was at least partly due to increased turnover of Na-K ATPase molecules in the rat brain.

  2. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  3. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  4. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from supercooled NaCl solution confined in porous cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Kefei; Fen-Chong, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Clarifying the nucleation process of chloride-based deicing salt solution (e.g., NaCl solution) confined in cement-based porous materials remains an important issue to understand its detrimental effects on material substrates. In this study, the pore structures of hardened cement pastes were characterized by mercury-intrusion and nitrogen-sorption porosimetry. The ice nucleation temperature of NaCl solution of different concentrations confined in the hardened cement pastes was measured and analyzed by classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. The kinetic factor, contact-angle factor including the contact angle between ice and the substrate were evaluated. The results revealed that the contact angle between ice and the substrate showed the minimum value when adding 3% NaCl into water. The heterogeneous ice nucleation rates were found to be proportional to the water activity shifts.

  5. Solvent drag measurement of transcellular and basolateral membrane NaCl reflection coefficient in kidney proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Shi, L B; Fushimi, K; Verkman, A S

    1991-08-01

    The NaCl reflection coefficient in proximal tubule has important implications for the mechanisms of near isosmotic volume reabsorption. A new fluorescence method was developed and applied to measure the transepithelial (sigma NaClTE) and basolateral membrane (sigma NaClcl) NaCl reflection coefficients in the isolated proximal straight tubule from rabbit kidney. For sigma NaClTE measurement, tubules were perfused with buffers containing 0 Cl, the Cl-sensitive fluorescent indicator 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl] quinolinium and a Cl-insensitive indicator fluorescein sulfonate, and bathed in buffers of differing cryoscopic osmolalities containing NaCl. The transepithelial Cl gradient along the length of the tubule was measured in the steady state by a quantitative ratio imaging technique. A mathematical model based on the Kedem-Katchalsky equations was developed to calculate the axial profile of [Cl] from tubule geometry, lumen flow, water (Pf) and NaCl (PNaCl) permeabilities, and sigma NaClTE. A fit of experimental results to the model gave PNaCl = (2.25 +/- 0.2) x 10(-5) cm/s and sigma NaClTE = 0.98 +/- 0.03 at 23 degrees C. For measurement of sigma NaClbl, tubule cells were loaded with SPQ in the absence of Cl. NaCl solvent drag was measured from the time course of NaCl influx in response to rapid (less than 1 s) Cl addition to the bath solution. With bath-to-cell cryoscopic osmotic gradients of 0, -60, and +30 mosmol, initial Cl influx was 1.23, 1.10, and 1.25 mM/s; a fit to a mathematical model gave sigma NaClbl = 0.97 +/- 0.04. These results indicate absence of NaCl solvent drag in rabbit proximal tubule. The implications of these findings for water and NaCl movement in proximal tubule are evaluated.

  6. 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chipps, K. A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Howard, M. E.; Manning, B.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Strauss, S.; Kozub, R. L.; Matos, M.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Smith, M. S.; Peters, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in 21Na for the astrophysically important 17F( α, p)20Ne reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched 24Mg solid targets were used. Recoiling 4He particles from the 24Mg( p, α)21Na reaction were detected by a highly segmented silicon detector array which measured the yields of 4He particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A new level at 6661 ± 5 keV was observed in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of 21Na and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.

  7. Digital pulse processing for NaI(Tl) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fulvio, A.; Shin, T. H.; Hamel, M. C.; Pozzi, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    We apply two different post-processing techniques to digital pulses induced by photons in a NaI(Tl) detector and compare the obtained energy resolution to the standard analog approach. Our digital acquisition approach is performed using a single-stage acquisition with a fast digitizer. Both the post-processing techniques we propose rely on signal integration. In the first, the pulse integral is calculated by directly numerically integrating the pulse digital samples, while in the second the pulse integral is estimated by a model-based fitting of the pulse. Our study used a 7.62 cm×7.62 cm cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector that gave a 7.60% energy resolution (at 662 keV), using the standard analog acquisition approach, based on a pulse shaping amplifier. The new direct numerical integration yielded a 6.52% energy resolution. The fitting approach yielded a 6.55% energy resolution, and, although computationally heavier than numerical integration, is preferable when only the early samples of the pulse are available. We also evaluated the timing performance of a fast-slow detection system, encompassing an EJ-309 and a NaI(Tl) scintillator. We use two techniques to determine the pulse start time: constant fraction discrimination (CFD) and adaptive noise threshold timing (ANT), for both the analog and digital acquisition approach. With the analog acquisition approach, we found a system time resolution of 5.8 ns and 7.3 ns, using the constant fraction discrimination and adaptive noise threshold timing, respectively. With the digital acquisition approach, a time resolution of 1.2 ns was achieved using the ANT method and 3.3 ns using CFD at 50% of the maximum, to select the pulse start time. The proposed direct digital readout and post-processing techniques can improve the application of NaI(Tl) detectors, traditionally considered 'slow', for fast counting and correlation measurements, while maintaining a good measurement of the energy resolution.

  8. Bioinformatic characterizations and prediction of K+ and Na+ ion channels effector toxins

    PubMed Central

    Soli, Rima; Kaabi, Belhassen; Barhoumi, Mourad; El-Ayeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet

    2009-01-01

    Background K+ and Na+ channel toxins constitute a large set of polypeptides, which interact with their ion channel targets. These polypeptides are classified in two different structural groups. Recently a new structural group called birtoxin-like appeared to contain both types of toxins has been described. We hypothesized that peptides of this group may contain two conserved structural motifs in K+ and/or Na+ channels scorpion toxins, allowing these birtoxin-like peptides to be active on K+ and/or Na+ channels. Results Four multilevel motifs, overrepresented and specific to each group of K+ and/or Na+ ion channel toxins have been identified, using GIBBS and MEME and based on a training dataset of 79 sequences judged as representative of K+ and Na+ toxins. Unexpectedly birtoxin-like peptides appeared to present a new structural motif distinct from those present in K+ and Na+ channels Toxins. This result, supported by previous experimental data, suggests that birtoxin-like peptides may exert their activity on different sites than those targeted by classic K+ or Na+ toxins. Searching, the nr database with these newly identified motifs using MAST, retrieved several sequences (116 with e-value < 1) from various scorpion species (test dataset). The filtering process left 30 new and highly likely ion channel effectors. Phylogenetic analysis was used to classify the newly found sequences. Alternatively, classification tree analysis, using CART algorithm adjusted with the training dataset, using the motifs and their 2D structure as explanatory variables, provided a model for prediction of the activity of the new sequences. Conclusion The phylogenetic results were in perfect agreement with those obtained by the CART algorithm. Our results may be used as criteria for a new classification of scorpion toxins based on functional motifs. PMID:19284552

  9. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  10. Inhibition of Na(+)-independent H+ pump by Na(+)-induced changes in cell Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Apical membrane H+ extrusion in the renal outer medullary collecting duct, inner stripe, is mediated by a Na(+)-independent H+ pump. To examine the regulation of this transporter, cell pH and cell Ca2+ were measured microfluorometrically in in vitro perfused tubules using 2',7'- bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and fura-2, respectively. Apical membrane H+ pump activity, assayed as cell pH recovery from a series of acid loads (NH3/NH+4 prepulse) in the total absence of ambient Na+, initially occurred at a slow rate (0.06 +/- 0.02 pH units/min), which was not sufficient to account for physiologic rates of H+ extrusion. Over 15-20 min after the initial acid load, the rate of Na(+)-independent cell pH recovery increased to 0.63 +/- 0.09 pH units/min, associated with a steady-state cell pH greater than the initial pre-acid load cell pH. This pattern suggested an initial suppression followed by a delayed activation of the apical membrane H+ pump. Replacement of peritubular Na+ with choline or N-methyl-D- glucosamine resulted in an initial spike increase in cell Ca2+ followed by a sustained increase in cell Ca2+. The initial rate of Na(+)- independent cell pH recovery could be increased by elimination of the Na+ removal-induced sustained cell Ca2+ elevation by: (a) performing studies in the presence of 135 mM peritubular Na+ (1 mM peritubular amiloride used to inhibit basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiport); (b) clamping cell Ca2+ low with dimethyl-BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelating agent; or (c) removal of extracellular Ca2+. Cell acidification induced a spike increase in cell Ca2+. The late acceleration of Na(+)-independent cell pH recovery was independent of Na+ removal and of the method used to acidify the cell, but was eliminated by prevention of the cell Ca2+ spike and markedly delayed by the microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B. This study demonstrates that peritubular Na+ removal results in a sustained elevation in cell Ca2+, which inhibits

  11. A Selective Na(+) Aptamer Dissected by Sensitized Tb(3+) Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-17

    A previous study of two RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, NaA43 and Ce13d, revealed the possibility of a common Na(+) aptamer motif. Because Na(+) binding to DNA is a fundamental biochemical problem, the interaction between Ce13d and Na(+) was studied in detail by using sensitized Tb(3+) luminescence spectroscopy. Na(+) displaces Tb(3+) from the DNAzyme, and thus quenches the emission from Tb(3+) . The overall requirement for Na(+) binding includes the hairpin and the highly conserved 16-nucleotide loop in the enzyme strand, along with a few unpaired nucleotides in the substrate. Mutation studies indicate good correlation between Na(+) binding and cleavage activity, thus suggesting a critical role of Na(+) binding for the enzyme activity. Ce13d displayed a Kd of ∼20 mm with Na(+) (other monovalent cations: 40-60 mm). The Kd values for other metal ions are mainly due to non-specific competition. With a single nucleotide mutation, the specific Na(+) binding was lost. Another mutant improved Kd to 8 mm with Na(+) . This study has demonstrated a Na(+) aptamer with important biological implications and analytical applications. It has also defined the structural requirements for Na(+) binding and produced an improved mutant. PMID:27238890

  12. Intracellular Na+ regulation of Na+ pump sites in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.; Navran, S.S.; Seidel, C.L.; Dennison, D.K.; Amann, J.M.; Jemelka, S.K.

    1989-04-01

    Enzymatically dispersed cells from canine saphenous vein and femoral artery were grown in fetal calf serum and studied at day 0 (freshly dispersed) through confluence in primary culture. Intracellular Na levels (Nai), but not intracellular K (Ki), were increased after 24 h in culture and then decreased to a steady state by 4 days. Na+ pump site number (( /sup 3/H) ouabain binding) increased through day 3 and remained elevated. Nai was still elevated at 2 days when the Na+ pump site number began to increase. Total pump turnover (maximum ouabain-inhibited /sup 86/Rb uptake) reflected the increase in Na+ pump site number. These key events precede the observed increases in both protein production and cellular proliferation. If the same cells are maintained in defined medium, without fetal calf serum, Nai, Ki, and the number of (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding sites do not change with time. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the initial mitogenic response of vascular smooth muscle cells to fetal calf serum involves an increased Na+ influx, and a Nai accumulation, caused by low Na+ pump density. The synthesis of new pump sites effects a decrease in the accumulated Nai, which may be related to cell proliferation.

  13. Electrochemical stability of non-aqueous electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries and their compatibility with Na(0.7)CoO2.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amrtha; Hofmann, Jonas; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    The present study compares the physico-chemical properties of non-aqueous liquid electrolytes based on NaPF6, NaClO4 and NaCF3SO3 salts in the binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is determined as a function of salt concentration and temperature. It is found that the electrolytes containing NaClO4 and NaPF6 exhibit ionic conductivities ranging from 5 mS cm(-1) to 7 mS cm(-1) at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window of the different electrolytes is studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements with respect to a variety of working electrodes (WE) such as glassy carbon (GC), graphite and a carbon gas diffusion layer (GDL). Electrolytes containing NaPF6 and NaClO4 are found to be electrochemically stable with respect to GC and GDL electrodes up to 4.5 V vs. Na/Na(+), with some side reactions starting from around 3.0 V for the latter salt. The results further show that aluminium is preferred over different steels as a cathode current collector. Copper is stable up to a potential of 3.5 V vs. Na/Na(+). In view of practical Na-ion battery systems, the electrolytes are electrochemically tested with Na0.7CoO2 as a positive electrode. It is inferred that the electrolyte NaPF6-EC : DMC is favorable for the formation of a stable surface film and the reversibility of the above cathode material. PMID:24336408

  14. Electrochemical stability of non-aqueous electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries and their compatibility with Na(0.7)CoO2.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amrtha; Hofmann, Jonas; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    The present study compares the physico-chemical properties of non-aqueous liquid electrolytes based on NaPF6, NaClO4 and NaCF3SO3 salts in the binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is determined as a function of salt concentration and temperature. It is found that the electrolytes containing NaClO4 and NaPF6 exhibit ionic conductivities ranging from 5 mS cm(-1) to 7 mS cm(-1) at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window of the different electrolytes is studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements with respect to a variety of working electrodes (WE) such as glassy carbon (GC), graphite and a carbon gas diffusion layer (GDL). Electrolytes containing NaPF6 and NaClO4 are found to be electrochemically stable with respect to GC and GDL electrodes up to 4.5 V vs. Na/Na(+), with some side reactions starting from around 3.0 V for the latter salt. The results further show that aluminium is preferred over different steels as a cathode current collector. Copper is stable up to a potential of 3.5 V vs. Na/Na(+). In view of practical Na-ion battery systems, the electrolytes are electrochemically tested with Na0.7CoO2 as a positive electrode. It is inferred that the electrolyte NaPF6-EC : DMC is favorable for the formation of a stable surface film and the reversibility of the above cathode material.

  15. A Novel Feature Selection Technique for Text Classification Using Naïve Bayes

    PubMed Central

    Dey Sarkar, Subhajit; Goswami, Saptarsi; Agarwal, Aman; Aktar, Javed

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of unstructured data, text classification or text categorization has found many applications in topic classification, sentiment analysis, authorship identification, spam detection, and so on. There are many classification algorithms available. Naïve Bayes remains one of the oldest and most popular classifiers. On one hand, implementation of naïve Bayes is simple and, on the other hand, this also requires fewer amounts of training data. From the literature review, it is found that naïve Bayes performs poorly compared to other classifiers in text classification. As a result, this makes the naïve Bayes classifier unusable in spite of the simplicity and intuitiveness of the model. In this paper, we propose a two-step feature selection method based on firstly a univariate feature selection and then feature clustering, where we use the univariate feature selection method to reduce the search space and then apply clustering to select relatively independent feature sets. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by a thorough evaluation and comparison over 13 datasets. The performance improvement thus achieved makes naïve Bayes comparable or superior to other classifiers. The proposed algorithm is shown to outperform other traditional methods like greedy search based wrapper or CFS. PMID:27433512

  16. Final-state symmetry of Na 1s core-shell excitons in NaCl and NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.; Shirley, E.L.; Fister, T.T.; Bradley, J.A.; Brown, F.C.

    2009-08-13

    We report measurements of the Na 1s contribution to the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from NaCl and NaF. Prior x-ray absorption studies have observed two pre-edge excitons in both materials. The momentum-transfer dependence (q dependence) of the measured NRIXS cross section and of real-space full multiple scattering and Bethe-Salpeter calculations determine that the higher-energy core excitons are s type for each material. The lower-energy core excitons contribute at most weakly to the NRIXS signal and we propose that these may be surface core excitons, as have been observed in several other alkali halides. The analysis of the orbital angular momentum of these features leads to a discussion of the limited sensitivity of NRIXS measurements to d-type final states when investigating 1s initial states. In this case the s- and p-type final density of states can be characterized by measurements at a small number of momentum transfers. This is in contrast to the case of more complex initial states for which measurements at a large number of momentum transfers are needed to separate the rich admixture of accessible and contributing final-state symmetries.

  17. Final-state symmetry of Na 1s core-shell excitons in NaCl and NaF.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, K. P.; Seidler, G. T.; Shirley, E. L.; Fister, T. T.; Bradley, J. A.; Brown, F. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Washington; NIST

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of the Na 1s contribution to the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from NaCl and NaF. Prior x-ray absorption studies have observed two pre-edge excitons in both materials. The momentum-transfer dependence (q dependence) of the measured NRIXS cross section and of real-space full multiple scattering and Bethe-Salpeter calculations determine that the higher-energy core excitons are s type for each material. The lower-energy core excitons contribute at most weakly to the NRIXS signal and we propose that these may be surface core excitons, as have been observed in several other alkali halides. The analysis of the orbital angular momentum of these features leads to a discussion of the limited sensitivity of NRIXS measurements to d-type final states when investigating 1s initial states. In this case the s- and p-type final density of states can be characterized by measurements at a small number of momentum transfers. This is in contrast to the case of more complex initial states for which measurements at a large number of momentum transfers are needed to separate the rich admixture of accessible and contributing final-state symmetries.

  18. Intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Sb electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sun, Che Nan; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    A detailed comparative study between electrochemical lithiation and sodiation of pure antimony (Sb), relating changes in structural, thermodynamic, kinetic and electrochemical properties has been carried out. For this purpose, a wide range of measurements using electrochemical (galvanostatic cycling, GITT, PITT), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods as well as density functional theory (DFT) based investigations have been undertaken. Assessment of the thermodynamics reveals that the reaction proceeds identically during the first and second cycles for Li whereas it differs between the first and subsequent cycles for Na. For Li the difference between the first and subsequent cycles is rooted in an improvement of the kinetics likely due to the decrease of Sb particle size whereas the reaction with Na proceeds through a different pathway from the first to subsequent cycles and is associated with the formation of amorphous NaxSb phases. For the first time we rationalize the amorphization of NaxSb phases by the long ranged strain propagation due to Na-vacancy compared to Li-Sb. At full discharge, our XRD results show for the first time that a minor fraction of hexagonal Li3Sb forms concomitantly with cubic Li3Sb. The XRD results confirm that Sb crystallizes into hexagonal Na3Sb at full sodiation. The kinetics of the reaction is assessed by rate performance tests which highlight that both Li and Na can diffuse rapidly throughout micron thick films at room temperature. However, it is found that the (de)insertion of Li provides lower overpotentials and larger storage capacities compared to Na. The difference in rate performance is complemented by diffusion coefficient determinations near the 0 V region where both materials are crystallized into M3Sb (M=Li, Na), and the results show that the apparent diffusion coefficients for Li are equivalent or one order of magnitude higher than those for Na. Interestingly, calculations show that the

  19. [Electrophysiology principles of Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporters].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-25

    Ion channels and transporters represent two major types of pathways of transmembrane transport for ions. Distinct from ion channels which conduct passive ionic diffusion, ion transporters mediate active transport of ions. In the perspective of biochemistry, ion transporters are enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across the plasma membrane. In the present review, we selected the Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC) as an example to analyze the key biochemical and biophysical properties of ion transporters, including stoichiometry, turnover number and transport capacity. Moreover, we provided an analysis of the electrophysiological principles of NBC based on the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the thermodynamical analysis, we showed how the stoichiometry of an NBC determines the direction of its ion transport. Finally, we reviewed the methodology for experimental determination of the stoichiometry of NBC, as well as the physiological significance of the stoichiometry of NBCs in specific tissues. PMID:27350205

  20. [Electrophysiology principles of Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporters].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-25

    Ion channels and transporters represent two major types of pathways of transmembrane transport for ions. Distinct from ion channels which conduct passive ionic diffusion, ion transporters mediate active transport of ions. In the perspective of biochemistry, ion transporters are enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across the plasma membrane. In the present review, we selected the Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC) as an example to analyze the key biochemical and biophysical properties of ion transporters, including stoichiometry, turnover number and transport capacity. Moreover, we provided an analysis of the electrophysiological principles of NBC based on the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the thermodynamical analysis, we showed how the stoichiometry of an NBC determines the direction of its ion transport. Finally, we reviewed the methodology for experimental determination of the stoichiometry of NBC, as well as the physiological significance of the stoichiometry of NBCs in specific tissues.

  1. Rechargeable Na/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] and Na[sub 15]Pb[sub 4]/Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yanping; Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; Jonghe, L.C. De . Materials Sciences Div.)

    1993-10-01

    Cells using polyethylene oxide as a sodium ion conducting electrolyte, P2 phase Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] as the positive electrode and either sodium or sodium/lead alloy as the negative electrode were assembled, discharged, and cycled. Na[sub x]CoO[sub 2] intercalates sodium over a range of x = 0.3--0.9, giving theoretical energy densities of 1,600 Wh/liter (for sodium) or 1,470 Wh/liter (for sodium/lead alloy). Cells could be discharged at rates up to 2.5 mA/cm[sup 2] corresponding to 25% depth of discharge and typically were discharged and charged at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] (100% depth of discharge) or approximately 1--2 C rate. Over one hundred cycles to 60% utilization or more, and two hundred shallower cycles at this rate have been obtained in this laboratory. Experimental evidence suggests that the cathode is the limiting factor in determining cycle life and not the Na/PEO interface as previously thought. Estimates of practical energy and power densities based on the cell performance and the following configuration are presented: 30--45 w/o electroactive material in the positive electrode, a twofold excess of sodium, 10 [mu]m separators, and 5 [mu]m current collectors composed of metal coated plastic. On the basis of these calculations, practical power densities of 335 W/liter for continuous discharge at 0.5 mA/cm[sup 2] and up to 2.7 kW/liter for short periods of time should be attainable. This level of performance approaches or exceeds that seen for some lithium/polymer systems under consideration for electric vehicle applications, but with a lower anticipated cost.

  2. A new Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoelectric system with calculated end-member Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Wahyudi, Olivia; Li, Yongxiang

    2014-03-21

    The phase structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a new lead-free piezoelectric system (1 − x)Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–xBi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} [(1 − x)BNT–xBZH, x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04] were investigated. The structure of Bi(Zn{sub 0.5}Hf{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} was calculated using first-principles method and (1 − x)BNT–xBZH ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid-state process. At room temperature, a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) from rhombohedral to pseudocubic is identified near x = 0.02 by the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns. The ceramics with MPB near room temperature exhibit excellent electrical properties: the Curie temperature, maximum polarization, remnant polarization, and coercive field are 340 °C, 56.3 μC/cm{sup 2}, 43.5 μC/cm{sup 2}, and 5.4 kV/mm, respectively, while the maximum positive bipolar strain and piezoelectric coefficient are 0.09% and 92 pC/N, respectively. In addition, a linear relationship between the MPB phase boundary composition and the calculated tetragonality of non-BNT end-member was demonstrated. Thus, this study not only shows a new BNT-based lead-free piezoelectric system but also suggest a new way to predict the composition at MPB a priori when designing new lead-free piezoelectric system.

  3. Rescue of Na+ affinity in aspartate 928 mutants of Na+,K+-ATPase by secondary mutation of glutamate 314.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Vilsen, Bente

    2015-04-10

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase binds Na(+) at three transport sites denoted I, II, and III, of which site III is Na(+)-specific and suggested to be the first occupied in the cooperative binding process activating phosphorylation from ATP. Here we demonstrate that the asparagine substitution of the aspartate associated with site III found in patients with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism or alternating hemiplegia of childhood causes a dramatic reduction of Na(+) affinity in the α1-, α2-, and α3-isoforms of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas other substitutions of this aspartate are much less disruptive. This is likely due to interference by the amide function of the asparagine side chain with Na(+)-coordinating residues in site III. Remarkably, the Na(+) affinity of site III aspartate to asparagine and alanine mutants is rescued by second-site mutation of a glutamate in the extracellular part of the fourth transmembrane helix, distant to site III. This gain-of-function mutation works without recovery of the lost cooperativity and selectivity of Na(+) binding and does not affect the E1-E2 conformational equilibrium or the maximum phosphorylation rate. Hence, the rescue of Na(+) affinity is likely intrinsic to the Na(+) binding pocket, and the underlying mechanism could be a tightening of Na(+) binding at Na(+) site II, possibly via movement of transmembrane helix four. The second-site mutation also improves Na(+),K(+) pump function in intact cells. Rescue of Na(+) affinity and Na(+) and K(+) transport by second-site mutation is unique in the history of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and points to new possibilities for treatment of neurological patients carrying Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mutations.

  4. Cardiac Na Channels: Structure to Function.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, K R; Clancy, C E

    2016-01-01

    Heart rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. Opening of the primary cardiac voltage-gated sodium (NaV1.5) channel initiates cellular depolarization and the propagation of an electrical action potential that promotes coordinated contraction of the heart. The regularity of these contractile waves is critically important since it drives the primary function of the heart: to act as a pump that delivers blood to the brain and vital organs. When electrical activity goes awry during a cardiac arrhythmia, the pump does not function, the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, and death ensues. Perturbations to NaV1.5 may alter the structure, and hence the function, of the ion channel and are associated downstream with a wide variety of cardiac conduction pathologies, such as arrhythmias. PMID:27586288

  5. Optically pumped Na/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kanorskii, S.I.; Kaslin, V.M.; Yakushev, O.F.

    1980-10-01

    A pulsed copper vapor laser emitting the 578.2 nm line was used as the pump source in achieving stimulated emission as a result of the electronic A/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub u/ to X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/ transitions in the Na/sub 2/ molecule in the spectral range 0.765 to 0.804 ..mu... The average power of all the emission lines was 10 mW when the pulsed pump power was 150 W and the efficiency of conversion of the optical pump energy was about 3%. The pulse repetition frequency was 3.3 kHz. Violet diffuse radiation of the Na/sub 2/ molecules, generated by pumping with the copper vapor laser, was observed. The superradiance regime was found for some of the lines.

  6. Igneous origin for the NA in the cloud of Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-06-01

    Mixtures of sulfur and Na-bearing silicates were heated in evacuated silica glass capsules to temperatures between 600 C and 950 C. At or above 850 C, Na-silicate glass reacts with elemental S to form a (Na, K) sulfide. Mobilization of this phase may account for the presence of Na and K on the surface of Io, and hence in the material sputtered onto the Jovian magnetosphere.

  7. Investigation of the thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction rate via resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Y.; He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Mohr, P.; Hu, J.; Ma, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, H. W.; Tian, W. D.; Chen, R. F.; Guo, B.; Hashimoto, T.; Togano, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Komatsubara, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.

    2014-01-01

    The 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction is thought to be one of the key breakout reactions from the hot CNO cycles to the rp process in type I x-ray bursts. In this work, the resonant properties of the compound nucleus 22Mg have been investigated by measuring the resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p. An 89-MeV 21Na radioactive beam delivered from the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam Separator bombarded an 8.8 mg/cm2 thick polyethylene (CH2)n target. The 21Na beam intensity was about 2×105 pps, with a purity of about 70% on target. The recoiled protons were measured at the center-of-mass scattering angles of θc.m.≈175.2∘, 152.2∘, and 150.5∘ by three sets of ΔE-E telescopes, respectively. The excitation function was obtained with the thick-target method over energies Ex(22Mg)=5.5-9.2 MeV. In total, 23 states above the proton-threshold in 22Mg were observed, and their resonant parameters were determined via an R-matrix analysis of the excitation functions. We have made several new Jπ assignments and confirmed some tentative assignments made in previous work. The thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate has been recalculated based on our recommended spin-parity assignments. The astrophysical impact of our new rate has been investigated through one-zone postprocessing x-ray burst calculations. We find that the 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate significantly affects the peak nuclear energy generation rate, reaction fluxes, and onset temperature of this breakout reaction in these astrophysical phenomena.

  8. Sources of Na for the Io atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Ellis, Susan B.; Rice, A.; Epstein, S.

    1993-01-01

    The physics and geology of Io have been extensively studied, but there has been little discussion of the chemistry. Relatively little is known about Io chemistry, but there are constraints. Further, it will be a long time before improvements will result from direct observation, given the severe difficulties with the Galileo mission. Via laboratory simulation experiments, plausible thermochemical and photochemical processes which determine the nature and amounts of surface constituents of Io are explored. The well-known density of Io shows that the planet overall is rocky. Because the orbit of Io is well within the magnetosphere of Jupiter and because Io only has a thin, transient SO2 atmosphere, the surface is continually sputtered with magnetospheric ions. Complex processes ionize and accelerate the Io surface atoms to keV and MeV energies. Remarkably, only S, O, and Na ions were found by Voyager. Sputtering also produces an atomic cloud of Na and S (O not observable) with a trace of K. Both gaseous and solid SO2 are known from spectroscopic studies. A trace of H2S and possibly CO2 are present. Geologic features are interpreted in terms of elemental S, but there is no direct evidence for this constituent. We thus have a rocky planet which does not have rocks on the surface. Our general goal is to understand the cycling of Na, S, and O through the crust and atmosphere on present-day Io and to understand how Io evolved to this state. A specific objective was to determine the phases on the surface which are the source of the Na in the atmosphere of Io.

  9. Hybrid thermoelastic properties of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Marcondes, M. L.; Shukla, G.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geophysics, their measurements at high pressures and temperatures are limited. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy and to approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a hybrid scheme to reconcile calculated and measured elastic coefficients and apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a challenging material to describe by ab initio and an important mineral in the context of oil/gas exploration. The approach is predictive within the temperature range of validity of the quasiharmonic approximation and results are used to generate velocities of NaCl at desirable geological conditions. [1] Marcondes, M. L. & Wentzcovitch, R.M. (2015). Hybrid ab-initio/experimental thermal equations of state: application to the NaCl pressure scale, J. Appl. Phys. 117:215902.

  10. Na+ transport in Acetabularia bypasses conductance of plasmalemma.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, A; Gradmann, D

    1994-04-01

    Na(+)-selective microelectrodes with the sensor ETH 227 have been used to measure the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration, [Na+]c, in Acetabularia. In the steady-state, [Na+]c is about 60 mM (external 460 mM). Steps in external Na+ concentration, [Na+]o, cause biexponential relaxations of [Na+]c which have formally been described by a serial three-compartment model (outside<==>compartment 1<==>compartment 2). From the initial slopes (some mMsec-1) net uptake and release of about 3 mumolm-2sec-1 Na+ are determined. Surprisingly, but consistent with previous tracer flux measurements (Mummert, H., Gradmann, D. 1991. J. Membrane Biol, 124:255-263), these Na+ fluxes are not accompanied by corresponding changes of the transplasmalemma voltage. [Na+]c is neither affected by the membrane voltage, nor by electrochemical gradients of H+ or Cl- across the plasmalemma, nor by cytoplasmic ATP. The results suggest a powerful vesicular transport system for ions which bypasses the conductance of the plasmalemma. In addition, transient increases of [Na+]c have been observed to take place facultatively during action potentials. The exponential distribution of the amplitudes of these transients (many small and few large peaks) points to local events in the more ore less close vicinity of the Na+ recording electrode. These events are suggested to consist of disruption of endoplasmic vesicles due to a loss of pressure in the cytoplasm.

  11. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  12. Genome Sequences of Cupriavidus metallidurans Strains NA1, NA4, and NE12, Isolated from Space Equipment.

    PubMed

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Provoost, Ann; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Ott, C Mark; Leys, Natalie; Van Houdt, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans NA1, NA4, and NE12 were isolated from space and spacecraft-associated environments. Here, we report their draft genome sequences with the aim of gaining insight into their potential to adapt to these environments.

  13. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  14. Functional Na+ Channels in Cell Adhesion probed by Transistor Recording

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtner, Markus; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Cell membranes in a tissue are in close contact to each other, embedded in the extracellular matrix. Standard electrophysiological methods are not able to characterize ion channels under these conditions. Here we consider the area of cell adhesion on a solid substrate as a model system. We used HEK 293 cells cultured on fibronectin and studied the activation of NaV1.4 sodium channels in the adherent membrane with field-effect transistors in a silicon substrate. Under voltage clamp, we compared the transistor response with the whole-cell current. We observed that the extracellular voltage in the cell-chip contact was proportional to the total membrane current. The relation was calibrated by alternating-current stimulation. We found that Na+ channels are present in the area of cell adhesion on fibronectin with a functionality and a density that is indistinguishable from the free membrane. The experiment provides a basis for studying selective accumulation and depletion of ion channels in cell adhesion and also for a development of cell-based biosensoric devices and neuroelectronic systems. PMID:16227504

  15. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  16. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  17. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  18. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed. PMID:26964335

  19. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald JY; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason TC

    2011-01-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:21293466

  20. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+ -ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ronald J Y; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2011-02-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  1. Development of a Ne gas target for 22Na production by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Bidhan Ch.; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha; Pal, Gautam

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the design and development of a neon gas target for the production of 22Na using a proton beam from the room temperature cyclotron in Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata. The target design is made to handle a beam power of 85 W (17 MeV, 5 μA). The design is based on simulation using the computer code FLUKA for the beam dump and CFD-CFX for target cooling. The target has been successfully used for the production of 22Na in a 6 day long 17 MeV, 5 μA proton irradiation run.

  2. Role of molybdenum in the Na2SO4 induced corrosion of superalloys at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium sulfate induced corrosion of a molybdenum containing nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700, was studied in laboratory furnace test and in a high velocity (Mach 0.3) burner rig. Tlhe effect of SO2 content in the atmosphere on the corrosion behavior in the laboratory furnace tests was determined. catastrophic corrosion occursonly when the melt contains MoO3 in addition to Na2SO4 and Na2MoO4. The conditions under which catastrophic corrosion occurs are identified and a mechanism is described to explain the catastrophic corrosion.

  3. Development of a Ne gas target for (22)Na production by proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidhan Ch; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha; Pal, Gautam

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the design and development of a neon gas target for the production of (22)Na using a proton beam from the room temperature cyclotron in Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata. The target design is made to handle a beam power of 85 W (17 MeV, 5 μA). The design is based on simulation using the computer code FLUKA for the beam dump and CFD-CFX for target cooling. The target has been successfully used for the production of (22)Na in a 6 day long 17 MeV, 5 μA proton irradiation run. PMID:27036769

  4. Identification and characterization of the antifungal substances of a novel Streptomyces cavourensis NA4.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Yu, Su-Ya; Song, Chun-Feng; Wang, Nan; Hua, Hui-Ming; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Wang, Shu-Jin

    2015-03-01

    A new actinomycete strain NA4 was isolated from a deep-sea sediment collected from the South China Sea and showed promising antifungal activities against soilborne fungal pathogens. It was identified as Streptomyces cavourensis by morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic analyses based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The main antifungal components were isolated and identified from the fermentation culture as bafilomycins B1 and C1. These compounds exhibited significant antifungal activities and a broad antifungal spectrum. The results suggest that the Streptomyces cavourensis NA4 and bafilomycins B1 and C1 could be used as potential biocontrol agents for soilborne fungal diseases of plants.

  5. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  6. pNaKtide inhibits Na/K-ATPase reactive oxygen species amplification and attenuates adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad A.; Getty, Morghan; Xie, Zijian; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice fed a high-fat diet corroborated our in vitro observations. Administration of pNaKtide in these mice reduced body weight gain, restored systemic redox and inflammatory milieu, and, crucially, improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, we propose that inhibition of Na/K-ATPase amplification of oxidative stress may ultimately be a novel way to combat obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26601314

  7. Monoclonal antibody to an endogenous bufadienolide, marinobufagenin, reverses preeclampsia-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition and lowers blood pressure in NaCl-sensitive hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Simbirtsev, Andrey S.; Kolodkin, Nikolai I.; Kotov, Alexander Y.; Agalakova, Natalia I.; Kashkin, Vladimir A.; Tapilskaya, Natalia I.; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Reznik, Vitaly A.; Frolova, Elena V.; Nikitina, Elena R.; Budny, Georgy V.; Longo, Dan L.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background Levels of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous bufadienolide Na/K-ATPase (NKA) inhibitor, increase in preeclampsia and in NaCl-sensitive hypertension. Methods We tested a 3E9 monoclonal anti-MBG antibody (mAb) for the ability to lower blood pressure (BP) in NaCl-sensitive hypertension and to reverse the preeclampsia-induced inhibition of erythrocyte NKA. Measurements of MBG were performed via immunoassay based on 4G4 anti-MBG mAb. Results In hypertensive Dahl-S rats, an intraperitoneal administration of 50 μg/kg 3E9 mAb lowered BP by 40 mmHg and activated Na/K-pump in thoracic aorta by 51%. NaCl supplementation of pregnant rats (n = 16) produced a 37 mmHg increase in BP, a 3.5-fold rise in MBG excretion, and a 25% inhibition of the Na/K-pump in the thoracic aorta, compared with pregnant rats on a normal NaCl intake. In eight pregnant hypertensive rats, 3E9 mAb reduced the BP (25 mmHg) and restored the vascular Na/K-pump. In 14 patients with preeclampsia (mean BP, 126 ± 3 mmHg; 26.9 ± 1.4 years; gestational age, 37 ± 0.8 weeks), plasma MBG was increased three-fold and erythrocyte NKA was inhibited compared with that of 12 normotensive pregnant women (mean BP, 71 W 3 mmHg)(1.5 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol Pi/ml/h, respectively; P < .01). Ex-vivo 3E9 mAb restored NKA activity in erythrocytes from patients with preeclampsia. As compared with 3E9 mAb, Digibind, an affinity-purified antidigoxin antibody, was less active with respect to lowering BP in both hypertensive models and to restoration of NKA from erythrocytes from patients with preeclampsia. Conclusion Anti-MBG mAbs may be a useful tool in the studies of MBG in vitro and in vivo and may offer treatment of preeclampsia. PMID:19008721

  8. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A; Plummer, Kim M

    2016-09-03

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2.

  9. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dracatos, Peter M.; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  10. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A; Plummer, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  11. Na+ channel function, regulation, structure, trafficking and sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Shaw, Robin M; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Sack, Jon T; Abriel, Hugues; Aldrich, Richard W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Cannell, Mark B; Catterall, William A; Chazin, Walter J; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Deschenes, Isabelle; Grandi, Eleonora; Hund, Thomas J; Izu, Leighton T; Maier, Lars S; Maltsev, Victor A; Marionneau, Celine; Mohler, Peter J; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rasmusson, Randall L; Sobie, Eric A; Clancy, Colleen E; Bers, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of three reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on Na+ channel function and regulation, Na+ channel structure and function, and Na+ channel trafficking, sequestration and complexing. PMID:25772290

  12. Complexation of pectin with macro- and microelements. Antianemic activity of Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe complexes.

    PubMed

    Minzanova, S T; Mironov, V F; Vyshtakalyuk, A B; Tsepaeva, O V; Mironova, L G; Mindubaev, A Z; Nizameev, I R; Kholin, K V; Milyukov, V A

    2015-12-10

    New water-soluble pectin complexes with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) on the basis of pectin biopolymer have been synthesized and successfully tested on white rats. For a starting, we have obtained a sodium pectate to enhance solubility of target complexes as a whole. Shortly afterwards, running the reaction of ligand exchange of Nа(+) ions with corresponding s-, d- metal cations we were able to synthesize new pectin complexes. The ranges of s-, d-metals salts concentrations were detected experimentally, in which the selective formation of water-soluble complexes occurred. Antianemic effect of new pectin complexes with Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe was investigated on white rats with posthemorrhagic anemia. Under the effect of complexes, the improvement of animals and prevention of erythropoiesis disorders were observed. Antianemic effect of the complexes manifested itself in the doses equivalent to 25% or 50% of the iron daily rate, recommended in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with the drugs based on iron sulphate. PMID:26428154

  13. Initial Testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is currently undergoing testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). Sodium potassium (NaK) was selected as the primary coolant. Basic circuit components include: simulated reactor core, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, liquid metal flowmeter, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, test section, and instrumentation. Operation of the circuit is based around the 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full core), designed to operate at 33 kWt. This presentation addresses the construction, fill and initial testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC).

  14. CIGS solar cell devices on steel substrates coated with Na containing AlPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moojin; Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Jeon, Chan-Wook; Lee, Dongyun; Lee, Sung-Nam; Lee, Ji-Myon; Lee, Hong-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Flexible copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)-based solar cells are developed on stainless steel (STS) substrates covered with an insulating layer. The Na containing AlPO4 ("Na-AlPO4") material is processed using the slot-die coating method. The coated film is analyzed using various spectroscopic methods including scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, secondary-ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and 3D profiler. The characteristics of the solar cells fabricated on these insulating films are also evaluated. The application of the Na-AlPO4 layer on the STS substrates is compared with the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated on metal foil. Although the insertion of the insulating layer does not influence the formation of the CIGS film and solar cell performance, a better uniformity in the current-voltage curve is obtained.

  15. Towards producing ultracold CaNa+ molecular ions in the ground electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Montgomery, John A.; Michels, Harvey H.; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of optical pathways for the formation of cold Ca(1S)Na+(1S) molecular ions, based on accurate potential energy curves and transition dipole moments calculated using effective-core-potential methods of quantum chemistry. In the proposed approach, starting from a mixture of trapped laser-cooled Ca+ ions immersed into an ultracold gas of Na atoms, the (NaCa)+ are photoassociated in the excited E1Σ+ electronic state, followed by spontaneous radiative charge transfer and emission through an intermediate state. We find the optimal formation pathway and report radiative charge-exchange cross sections and vibrational distributions of participating electronic states. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  16. DX-like centers in NaI:Tl upon aliovalent codoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Rajendra; Li, Qi; Williams, Richard T.; Burger, Arnold; Biswas, Koushik

    2014-12-01

    Aliovalent doping has been recently shown to remarkably improve energy resolution in some halide scintillators. Based on first-principles calculations we report on the formation of DX-like centers in a well-known scintillator material, Tl-doped NaI (NaI:Tl), when codoped with Ca or Ba. Our calculations indicate a net binding energy favoring formation of the defect complex (TlNa-+CaNa+) involving a new cation-cation bond, instead of the isolated substitutional defects. The pair has properties of a deep DX-like acceptor complex. Doping with the aliovalent anion impurity Te is also found to induce deep centers, which can act as effective electron or hole traps. The hole trapped as TeI0 involves large lattice relaxation of the Te and an adjacent iodine, consistent with extrinsic self-trapping of the hole. Thus, in contrast to the positive effect achieved by aliovalent co-doping of the rare-earth tri-halides LaBr3:Ce and CeBr3:Ca as reported recently, co-doping with donor-like cations Ca, Ba, or the acceptor-like anion Te in monovalent NaI:Tl is found to inhibit scintillation response.

  17. Amorphous RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles: High temperature solution synthesis and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Li-Ping; Yan, Bing

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles by high-temperature solution synthesis are ultra-small monodisperse and air-stable amorphous, whose size and magnetic dependence are studied. - Highlights: • RE–Fe–B–Na nanoparticles are obtained by high-temperature solution synthesis. • These colloidal nanoparticles are monodisperse and size controlled. • The magnetism dependence and possible magnetic coupling mechanism are studied. - Abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles are prepared by high-temperature solution synthesis. These nanoparticles are ultra-small monodisperse, air-stable and amorphous, whose particle size and magnetic property are characterized by transmission electron microscope and superconducting quantum interference device. Taking Nd–Fe–B–Na nanoparticle as an example, it is found that the particle size can be controlled in less than 7 nm. Besides, the magnetic properties of RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles can be compared for different rare earth elements. Based on the bulk ferromagnetic coupling, other possible magnetic coupling mechanism is discussed.

  18. Structure prediction and targeted synthesis: a new Na(n)N2 diazenide crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwen; Zunger, Alex; Trimarchi, Giancarlo

    2010-11-21

    Significant progress in theoretical and computational techniques for predicting stable crystal structures has recently begun to stimulate targeted synthesis of such predicted structures. Using a global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach that locates ground-state structures and stable stoichiometries from first-principles energy functionals by objectively starting from randomly selected lattice vectors and random atomic positions, we predict the first alkali diazenide compound Na(n)N(2), manifesting homopolar N-N bonds. The previously predicted Na(3)N structure manifests only heteropolar Na-N bonds and has positive formation enthalpy. It was calculated based on local Hartree-Fock relaxation of a fixed-structure type (Li(3)P-type) found by searching an electrostatic point-ion model. Synthesis attempts of this positive ΔH compound using activated nitrogen yielded another structure (anti-ReO(3)-type). The currently predicted (negative formation enthalpy) diazenide Na(2)N(2) completes the series of previously known BaN(2) and SrN(2) diazenides where the metal sublattice transfers charge into the empty N(2) Π(g) orbital. This points to a new class of alkali nitrides with fundamentally different bonding, i.e., homopolar rather than heteropolar bonds and, at the same time, illustrates some of the crucial subtleties and pitfalls involved in structure predictions versus planned synthesis. Attempts at synthesis of the stable Na(2)N(2) predicted here will be interesting.

  19. Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D; Garcia, Jeannette M; Luntz, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    We present a comparative study of nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries employing an ether-based electrolyte. The most intriguing difference between the two batteries is their respective galvanostatic charging overpotentials: a Na-O2 battery exhibits a low overpotential throughout most of its charge, whereas a Li-O2 battery has a low initial overpotential that continuously increases to very high voltages by the end of charge. However, we find that the inherent kinetic Li and Na-O2 overpotentials, as measured on a flat glassy carbon electrode in a bulk electrolysis cell, are similar. Measurement of each batteries' desired product yield, YNaO2 and YLi2O2, during discharge and rechargeability by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicates that less chemical and electrochemical decomposition occurs in a Na-O2 battery during the first Galvanostatic discharge-charge cycle. We therefore postulate that reactivity differences (Li2O2 being more reactive than NaO2) between the major discharge products lead to the observed charge overpotential difference between each battery. PMID:26274476

  20. Highly unconventional surface reconstruction of Na2IrO3 with persistent energy gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpke, F.; Manni, S.; Erwin, S. C.; Mazin, I. I.; Gegenwart, P.; Wenderoth, M.

    2015-01-01

    Na2IrO3 is an intriguing material for which spin-orbit coupling plays a key role. Theoretical predictions have been made that the surface of Na2IrO3 should exhibit a clear signature of the quantum spin Hall effect. We studied the surface of Na2IrO3 using scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional theory calculations. We observed atomic level resolution of the surface and two types of terminations with different surface periodicity and Na content. By comparing bias-dependent experimental topographic images to simulated images, we determined the detailed atomistic structure of both observed surfaces. One of these reveals a strong relaxation to the surface of Na atoms from the subsurface region two atomic layers below. Such dramatic structural changes well below the surface are highly unusual and cast doubt on any prediction of surface properties based on bulk electronic structure. Indeed, using spatially resolved tunneling spectroscopy, we found no indication of the predicted quantum spin Hall behavior.

  1. Chemical and Electrochemical Differences in Nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D; Garcia, Jeannette M; Luntz, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    We present a comparative study of nonaqueous Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries employing an ether-based electrolyte. The most intriguing difference between the two batteries is their respective galvanostatic charging overpotentials: a Na-O2 battery exhibits a low overpotential throughout most of its charge, whereas a Li-O2 battery has a low initial overpotential that continuously increases to very high voltages by the end of charge. However, we find that the inherent kinetic Li and Na-O2 overpotentials, as measured on a flat glassy carbon electrode in a bulk electrolysis cell, are similar. Measurement of each batteries' desired product yield, YNaO2 and YLi2O2, during discharge and rechargeability by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicates that less chemical and electrochemical decomposition occurs in a Na-O2 battery during the first Galvanostatic discharge-charge cycle. We therefore postulate that reactivity differences (Li2O2 being more reactive than NaO2) between the major discharge products lead to the observed charge overpotential difference between each battery.

  2. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  3. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  4. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  5. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  6. Determination of Na(2)O from sodium aluminate NaAlO(2).

    PubMed

    Näykki, T; Raimo, A; Paavo, P; Antero, K; Päivi, N

    2000-07-31

    The aim of the work was to find a suitable method and conditions for determining Na(2)O wt.% from NaAlO(2). Problems were encountered while titrating NaAlO(2) with hydrochloric acid. The problematic area was the pH range 4-10 where aluminum precipitates as hydroxides. The different species of the aluminate solution were determined using potentiometric and complexometric titrations. The equivalent point of the potentiometric titration was detected using Gran's plotting method. Precipitation of aluminum hydroxides did not interfere with titrations, because in potentiometric titrations the pH value was over 10 and in complexometric titrations the pH was 4. The results were accurate and determinations were easy to carry out. Sodium was also determined by DCP-AES.

  7. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-15

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO{sub 2} and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m{sup 2}/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m{sup 2}/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of {approx}3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  8. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions.

  9. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions. PMID:27112871

  10. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment. PMID:26877029

  11. The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

    2012-08-29

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

  12. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment.

  13. Respiratory-driven Na+ electrical potential in the bacterium Vitreoscilla.

    PubMed

    Efiok, B J; Webster, D A

    1990-05-15

    Vitreoscilla is a Gram-negative bacterium with unique respiratory physiology in which Na+ was implicated as a coupling cation for the generation of a transmembrane electrical gradient (delta psi). Thus, cells respiring in the presence of 110 mM Na+ generated a delta psi of -142 mV compared to only -42 and -56 mV for Li+ and choline, respectively, and even the -42 and -56 mV were insensitive to the protonophore 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (DTHB). The kinetics of delta psi formation and collapse correlated well with the kinetics of Na+ fluxes but not with those of H+ fluxes. Cyanide inhibited respiration, Na+ extrusion, and delta psi formation 81% or more, indicating that delta psi formation and Na+ extrusion were coupled to respiration. Experiments were performed to distinguish among three possible transport systems for this coupling: (1) a Na(+)-transporting ATPase; (2) an electrogenic Na+/H+ antiport system; (3) a primary Na+ pump directly driven by the free energy of electron transport. DCCD and arsenate decreased cellular ATP up to 86% but had no effect on delta psi, evidence against a Na(+)-transporting ATPase. Low concentrations of DTHB had no effect on delta psi; high concentrations transiently collapsed delta psi, but led to a stimulation of Na+ extrusion, the opposite of that expected for a Na+/H+ antiport system. Potassium ion, which collapses delta psi, also stimulated Na+ extrusion. The experimental evidence is against Na+ extrusion by mechanisms 1 and 2 and supports the existence of a respiratory-driven primary Na+ pump for generating delta psi in Vitreoscilla. PMID:2372555

  14. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  15. Direct Reactions with MoNA-LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchera, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear reactions can be used to probe the structure of nuclei. Direct reactions, which take place on short time scales, are well-suited for experiments with beams of short-lived nuclei. One such reaction is nucleon knockout where a proton or neutron is removed from the incoming beam from the interaction with a target. Single nucleon knockout reactions have been used to study the single-particle nature of nuclear wave functions. A recent experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory was performed to measure cross sections from single nucleon knockout reactions for several p-shell nuclei. Detection of the residual nucleus in coincidence with any gamma rays emitted from the target allowed cross sections to ground and excited states to be measured. Together with input from reaction theory, ab initio structure theories can be tested. Simultaneously the accuracy of knockout reaction models can be validated by detecting the knocked out neutron with the Modular Neutron Array and Large multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (MoNA-LISA). Preliminary results from this experiment will be shown. Knockout reactions can also be used to populate nuclei which are neutron unbound, thus emit neutrons nearly instantaneously. The structure of these nuclei, therefore, cannot be probed with gamma ray spectroscopy. However, with large neutron detectors like MoNA-LISA the properties of these short-lived nuclei are able to be measured. Recent results using MoNA-LISA to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei will be presented. The author would like to acknowledge support from the NNSA and NSF.

  16. The RICH detector of the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duk, Viacheslav

    2016-09-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN is aimed at measuring the ultra-rare decay K+→π+νν with 10% accuracy. One of the detectors that is crucial for the rejection of background events is the RICH detector: a gas based detector aimed at π/μ separation in the 15-35 GeV/c momentum range with an inefficiency of less than 1%. The RICH must also provide a very precise time measurement (with the time resolution ˜100 ps) to correctly associate the π+ with the parent K+ particle measured by an upstream detector. This paper contains the detailed description of the RICH detector, its readout, and the results of the commissioning run at CERN in 2014.

  17. The NA62 spectrometer acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorskiy, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Bendotti, J.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; Dixon, N.; Elsha, V.; Enik, T.; Glonti, L.; Gusakov, Y.; Kakurin, S.; Kekelidze, V.; Kislov, E.; Kolesnikov, A.; Koval, M.; Lichard, P.; Madigozhin, D.; Morant, J.; Movchan, S.; Perez Gomez, F.; Palladino, V.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Y.; Ruggiero, G.; Samsonov, V.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, A.

    2016-02-01

    The NA62 low mass spectrometer consists of 7000 straw tubes operating in vacuum. The front-end electronics is directly mounted on the detector and connected by a flexible PCB. The front-end board provides the amplification, shaping, discrimination and time measurements of the analogue signals from 16 channels. After digitisation the data is sent to a VME 9U read-out board. The data, once matched with the trigger, is sent to the next step and used by the trigger level 1 algorithm. The front-end and read-out systems of the detector will be presented along with the first results of the detector performances.

  18. Structural mechanism of the formation of mineral Na-tveitite-a new type of phase with a fluorite-derivative structure-in the NaF-CaF{sub 2}-(Y,Ln)F{sub 3} natural system

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A. M. Otroshchenko, L. P.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2012-03-15

    Relationships between the chemical compositions and structures of the mineral tveitite from the southern Norway pegmatites (with the idealized formula Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43}) and Na-tveitite from the Rov mountain (Keivy, Kola Peninsula) Na{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 10}Ln{sub 1.5}Y{sub 5}F{sub 42} are considered. According to the structural mechanism of its formation, Na-tveitite is a nanocomposite crystal based on the crystalline matrix Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43} with the ordered arrangement of {l_brace}Ca{sub 8}[CaY{sub 5}]F{sub 69}{r_brace} clusters which contain anionic {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra with F{sup 1-} at the center. When Na-tveitite is formed, 29% of these clusters are statistically replaced by Na-'Y' clusters {l_brace}[Na{sub 0.5}(Y,Ln){sub 0.5}]{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace} with {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes at the center (analogs of matrix fluorite groups {l_brace}Ca{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace}). This replacement gives rise to composition-imperfect (Na, Ca, 'Y') cationic positions and occupancy-deficient F positions, which correspond to {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra and the {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes that replace them. The difference between Na-tveitite and fluorite phases M{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} is as follows: its matrix is the structure of the ordered phase (tveitite) into which Na-containing rare earth fragments of fluorite-type structure are incorporated instead of ordered-phase structural blocks (clusters).

  19. Na(+)-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchange in the squid axon. Dependence on extracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) in squid giant axons recovers from acid loads by means of a Na(+)-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchanger, the actual mechanism of which might be exchange of: (i) external Na+ and HCO3- for internal Cl- and H+, (ii) Na+ plus two HCO3- for Cl-, (iii) Na+ and CO3= for Cl-, or (iv) the NaCO3- ion pair for Cl-. Here we examine sensitivity of transport to changes of extracellular pH (pHo) in the range 7.1-8.6. We altered pHo in four ways, using: (i) classical "metabolic" disturbances in which we varied [HCO3-]o, [NaCO3-]o, and [CO3=]o at a fixed [CO2]o; (ii) classical "respiratory" disturbances in which we varied [CO2]o, [NaCO3-]o, and [CO3=]o at a fixed [HCO3-]o; (iii) novel mixed-type acid- base disturbances in which we varied [HCO3-]o and [CO2]o at a fixed [CO3=]o and [NaCO3-]o; and (iv) a second series of novel mixed-type disturbances in which we varied [CO2]o, [CO3=]o, and [Na+]o at a fixed [HCO3-]o and [NaCO3-]o. Axons (initial pHi approximately 7.4) were internally dialyzed with a pH 6.5 solution containing 400 mM Cl- but no Na+. After pHi, measured with a glass microelectrode, had fallen to approximately 6.6, dialysis was halted. The equivalent acid extrusion rate (JH) was computed from the rate of pHi recovery (i.e., increase) in the presence of Na+ and HCO3-. When pHo was varied by method (i), which produced the greatest range of [CO3=]o and [NaCO3-]o values, JH increased with pHo in a sigmoidal fashion; the relation was fitted by a pH titration curve with a pK of approximately 7.7 and a Hill coefficient of approximately 3.0. With method (ii), which produced smaller changes in [CO3=]o and [NaCO3-]o, JH also increased with pHo, though less steeply. With method (iii), which involved changes in neither [CO3=]o nor [NaCO3-]o, JH was insensitive to pHo changes. Finally, with method (iv), which involved changes in neither [HCO3-] nor [NaCO3-]o, but reciprocal changes in [CO3=]o and [Na+]o, JH also was insensitive to pHo changes. We found that decreasing p

  20. [Effects of NaCl stress on the seedling growth and K(+)- and Na(+) -allocation of four leguminous tree species].

    PubMed

    Mo, Hai-Bo; Yin, Yun-Long; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Xiu-Jun; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous tree species (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration (C50), and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test tree species in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the tree species. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3.0 per thousand, 5.0 per thousand, 4.5 per thousand, and 3.9 per thousand, respectively, i.e., the salt tolerance of the four tree species was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four tree species seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content (except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four tree species seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with tree species and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na

  1. Er:Yb:NaY2F5O up-converting nanoparticles for sub-tissue fluorescence lifetime thermal sensing.

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ol A; Haro-González, P; Carvajal, J J; Jaque, D; Massons, J; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2014-08-21

    Non-contact thermometry is essential in biomedical studies requiring thermal sensing and imaging with high thermal and spatial resolutions. In this work, we report the potential use of Er:Yb:NaYF4 and Er:Yb:NaY2F5O up-conversion nanoparticles as thermal sensors by means of lifetime based luminescent thermometry. We demonstrate how Er:Yb:NaY2F5O nanocrystals present a higher thermal sensitivity than the Er:Yb:NaYF4 ones and that their lifetime thermal coefficient is comparable to those corresponding to other nano-sized luminescent systems already used for high resolution lifetime fluorescence thermal sensing. We evaluate the potential use of Er:Yb:NaY2F5O nanoparticles as lifetime based thermal probes by providing the first experimental evidence on sub-tissue lifetime fluorescence thermal sensing by using up-conversion nanoparticles in an ex vivo experiment.

  2. Chronic effect of NaCl salinity on a freshwater strain of Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea: Cladocera): a demographic study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Laura

    2007-07-01

    Daphnia magna is mainly recognized as a freshwater cladoceran, but there are some strains that grow in brackish waters. The tolerance to salinity of a freshwater strain was assessed at NaCl concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 7 g L(-1). The green microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus was fed at optimal concentration (4 x 10(5)cells mL(-1)). Reproduction and survival were recorded in two experimental series: in the first one, 20 female neonates were individually studied for each treatment. In the second, cohorts of 10 female neonates were distributed in each of five replicates per treatment. In both cases, experiments were conducted over a full life-cycle. The determined 48-h LC(50) for NaCl was 5.48 g L(-1), but we recorded reproduction at up to 7 g NaCl L(-1). The average clutch size, total progeny, number of clutches, and longevity were significantly reduced by the NaCl concentration (P<0.01); total progeny ranged from 467 to 25 neonates as edge values for NaCl concentrations of 0-7 g L(-1). Inter-brood time was significantly higher for females grown at 7 g NaCl L(-1) (3.9 days). The Life Table analysis demonstrates that average lifespan, life expectancy at birth, net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of growth were also significantly reduced according to NaCl concentration. Based on the results for the two highest NaCl concentrations (6 and 7 g L(-1)), we conclude that the used D. magna strain was acclimated to develop satisfactorily under concentrations of up to 6 g NaCl L(-1); however, the established salinity conditions reduced significantly reproduction and survival in this strain. PMID:17055052

  3. Asymmetry of Na-K-Cl cotransport in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kracke, G R; Anatra, M A; Dunham, P B

    1988-02-01

    The Na-K-Cl cotransport system in human erythrocytes was studied by measuring net influxes and effluxes of Na and K. The influx of K was shown to be stimulated by Na and the influx of Na was stimulated by K, satisfying the fundamental criterion of cotransport. In addition, these mutually stimulating cation influxes had a stoichiometry of 1:1 and were entirely inhibited by furosemide; these results are also consistent with cotransport. Furthermore, the mutually stimulating influxes were entirely dependent on Cl, since they were abolished when nitrate was substituted for Cl. In contrast, cotransport, defined by mutual dependence of fluxes, was not detected in the outward direction over a range of cellular Na and K concentrations from 0 to 50 mmol/l cells. The cotransport pathway did, however, appear to mediate a Na-stimulated K efflux (but no K-stimulated Na efflux), and furosemide-inhibitable effluxes of both Na and K. Nitrate (but not sulfate) appeared to substitute for chloride in promoting Na-stimulated K efflux. Thus the Na-K-Cl cotransport system in human red cells is intrinsically asymmetric, and mediates coupled cation fluxes readily only in the inward direction. PMID:3348364

  4. Hydrogen sulfide induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying

    2012-07-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na(+) activity using Na(+) selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na(+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na(+) channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H(2)S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na(+) influx through Na(+) channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na(+) currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H(2)S-induced Na(+) influx, suggesting that H(2)S-induced disruption of Na(+) homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia.

  5. Minimizing Load Effects on NA4 Gear Vibration Diagnostic Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2001-01-01

    NA4 is a vibration diagnostic parameter, developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, for health monitoring of gears in helicopter transmissions. The NA4 reacts to the onset of gear pitting damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads. This research also indicates NA4 reacts similarly to load variations. The sensitivity of NA4 to load changes will substantially affect its performance on a helicopter gearbox that experiences continuously changing load throughout its flight regimes. The parameter NA4 has been used to monitor gear fatigue tests at constant load. At constant load, NA4 effectively detects the onset of pitting damage and tracks damage severity. Previous research also shows that NA4 reacts to changes in load applied to the gears in the same way it reacts to the onset of pitting damage. The method used to calculate NA4 was modified to minimize these load effects. The modified NA4 parameter was applied to four sets of experimental data. Results indicate the modified NA4 is no longer sensitive to load changes, but remains sensitive to pitting damage.

  6. Lead-free and lead-based ABO3 perovskite relaxors with mixed-valence A-site and B-site disorder: Comparative neutron scattering structural study of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Devreugd, Christopher P.; Phelan, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Ahart, Muhtar; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Boatner, Lynn A.; Viehland, Dwight; Gehring, Peter M.

    2013-11-01

    We report the results of neutron elastic-scattering measurements made between -250 °C and 620 °C on the lead-free relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT). Strong, anisotropic, elastic diffuse scattering intensity decorates the (100), (110), (111), (200), (210), and (220) Bragg peaks at room temperature. The wave-vector dependence of this diffuse scattering is compared to that in the lead-based relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) to determine if any features might be common to relaxors. Prominent ridges in the elastic diffuse scattering intensity contours that extend along ⟨110⟩ are seen that exhibit the same zone dependence as those observed in PMN and other lead-based relaxors. These ridges disappear gradually on heating above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature TCT = 523 °C, which is also near the temperature at which the dielectric permittivity begins to deviate from Curie-Weiss behavior. We thus identify the ⟨110⟩-oriented ridges as a relaxor-specific property. The diffuse scattering contours also display narrower ridges oriented along ⟨100⟩ that are consistent with the x-ray results of Kreisel [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.68.014113 68, 014113 (2003)]; these vanish near 320 °C, indicating that they have a different physical origin. The ⟨100⟩-oriented ridges are not observed in PMN. We observe no equivalent relaxor-specific elastic diffuse scattering from the homovalent relaxor analogues K0.95Li0.05TiO3 (A-site disordered) and KTa0.95Nb0.05O3 (B-site disordered). This suggests that the ⟨110⟩-oriented diffuse scattering ridges are correlated with the presence of strong random electric fields and invites a reassessment of what defines the relaxor phase. We find that doping NBT with 5.6% BaTiO3, a composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary with enhanced piezoelectric properties, increases the room-temperature correlation length along [11¯0] from 40 to 60 Å while doubling the associated integrated diffuse

  7. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    PubMed

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  8. Interaction of the Na+-K+ pump and Na+-Ca2+ exchange via [Na+]i in a restricted space of guinea-pig ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Y; Matsuoka, S; Ban, T; Noma, A

    1998-06-01

    1. The whole-cell Na+-K+ pump current (INa-K) and Na+-Ca2+ exchange current (INa-Ca) were recorded in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes to study the interaction between the two Na+ transport mechanisms. 2. INa-K was isolated as an external K+-induced current, and INa-Ca as an external Ca2+- induced or Ni2+-sensitive current. The experimental protocol used for one ion carrier did not affect the other. 3. The amplitude of INa-K decreased to 54 +/- 17 % of the initial peak during continuous application of K+ with 20 mM Na+ in the pipette. The outward INa-Ca, which was intermittently activated by brief applications of Ca2+, decreased during activation of INa-K, and recovered after cessation of INa-K activation. These findings revealed a dynamic interaction between INa-K and INa-Ca via a depletion of Na+ under the sarcolemma. 4. To estimate changes in Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) under the sarcolemma, the reversal potential (Vrev) of INa-Ca was measured. Unexpectedly, Vrev hardly changed during activation of INa-K. However, when INa-Ca was blocked by Ni2+ at the same time that INa-K was activated, Vrev changed markedly, maximally by +100 mV, immediately after the removal of Ni2+ and K+. 5. Subsarcolemmal [Na+]i was calculated from the Vrev of INa-Ca on the assumption that the subsarcolemmal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was fixed with EGTA, and mean [Na+]i was calculated from both the time integral of INa-K and the cell volume. The subsarcolemmal [Na+]i was about seven times greater than the mean [Na+]i. 6. The interaction between the Na+-K+ pump and Na+-Ca2+ exchange was well simulated by a diffusion model, in which Na+ diffusion was restricted to one-seventh (14 %) of the total cell volume.

  9. The influence of uniaxial compressive stress on the phase transitions and dielectric properties of NaNO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Bulut, Nebahat; Salehli, Ferid

    2016-06-01

    The effect of uniaxial stress on dielectric properties of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) ferroelectric has been investigated. The real part of the dielectric susceptibility was measured at the frequency of 1 kHz without and on applying compressive uniaxial stress along different crystallographic directions using a uniaxial compress meter. Extraordinary changes in the dielectric constant of NaNO2 under the influence of applied uniaxial stresses were observed for the first time. The shifts of the phase transition points Ti and Tc under the uniaxial stresses σyy and σzz were investigated. The "uniaxial pressure-temperature" phase diagram of NaNO2 was obtained from these results. The observed phenomena were interpreted on the base of the phenomenological Landau theory of phase transitions in NaNO2 by taking into account the uniaxial compressive stress effect. A best agreement between the theoretical predictions and experimental results has been revealed.

  10. Non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction over Na-Y zeolites: The promotional effect of acid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-06-01

    The effect of acid sites on the catalytic activities of a series of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites was investigated in the non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction reaction using a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas mixture. The acid sites were formed by NH4+ ion exchange and subsequent heat treatment of a NaY zeolite. The catalytic activities of these H+-modified NaY zeolites significantly increased with the number of acid sites. This NOx conversion increase was correlated with the decrease in the amount of unreacted NO2. The increase in the number of acid sites did not change the NO level, it stayed constant. Temperature programmed desorption following NO2 adsorption showed the appearance of a high temperature desorption peak at 453 K in addition to the main desorption feature of 343 K observed for the base Na-Y. The results of both the IR and TPD experiments revealed the formation of crotonaldehyde, resulting from condensation reaction of adsorbed acetaldehyde. Strong adsorptions of both NOx and hydrocarbon species are proposed to be responsible for the higher catalytic activity of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites in comparison to the base NaY material

  11. Energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce in a phoswich configuration with CsI:Na and NaI:Tl scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, G.; Genolini, B.; Josselin, M.; Matea, I.; Peyré, J.; Pouthas, J.; Zerguerras, T.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the performances of the LaBr3:Ce scintillator when optically coupled to NaI:Tl and CsI:Na in a Phoswich detector for the R&D phase of the gamma ray calorimeter PARIS (Photon Array for the studies with Radioactive Ion and Stable beams). This detector has the purpose to measure γ-energies in a wide range (100 keV-40 MeV), and it will be used principally as a part of the SPIRAL2 instrumentation at GANIL. In this communication we report on the study of the light yield and energy resolution for gamma detection realized by coupling the phoswiches with various photomultiplier tubes, providing different characteristics. We were interested in investigating the possible degradation of the scintillation light produced by the LaBr3:Ce due to the presence of NaI:Tl/CsI:Na crystals, before being detected on the photocathode. For this purpose we realized all the measurements employing a standard ADC and QDC read-out system leading the possibility to perform a gate-based event selection. In this study we measured an energy resolution of 4.6% with an uncollimated 137Cs source for a 50.8×50.8×50.8 mm3 LaBr3:Ce coupled to a 50.8×50.8×152.4 mm3 NaI:Tl. This value is 30% bigger than the energy resolution measured for a 50.8×50.8×101.6 mm3 stand-alone LaBr3:Ce but still in the specifications for the PARIS collaboration physics list.

  12. High-Performance Olivine NaFePO4 Microsphere Cathode Synthesized by Aqueous Electrochemical Displacement Method for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjin; Liu, Qi; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-08-19

    Olivine NaFePO4/C microsphere cathode is prepared by a facile aqueous electrochemical displacement method from LiFePO4/C precursor. The NaFePO4/C cathode shows a high discharge capacity of 111 mAh g(-1), excellent cycling stability with 90% capacity retention over 240 cycles at 0.1 C, and high rate capacity (46 mAh g(-1) at 2 C). The excellent electrochemical performance demonstrates that the aqueous electrochemical displacement method is an effective and promising way to prepare NaFePO4/C material for Na-based energy storage applications. Moreover, the Na2/3FePO4 intermediate is observed for the first time during the Na intercalation process through conventional electrochemical techniques, corroborating an identical two-step phase transition reaction both upon Na intercalation and deintercalation processes. The clarification of the electrochemical reaction mechanism of olivine NaFePO4 could inspire more attention on the investigation of this material for Na ion batteries.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS induces death of alveolar epithelial L2 cells that is associated with cellular shrinkage, transgelin expression and myosin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusuke; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Noritake, Kanako; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gaseous molecule that causes death to humans exposed to high concentrations. H2S is absorbed into the body through the alveolar epithelium and other tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism underling acute lung injury caused by the inhalation of high concentrations of H2S. Rat lung epithelium-derived L2 cells were exposed to a H2S donor, NaHS, at concentrations of 2-4 mM for 1-6 hr. NaHS caused shrinkage and death of the cells without caspase activation. An actin-binding protein, transgelin, was identified as one of the NaHS-inducible proteins in the cells. NaHS increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, indicating that actomyosin-mediated cellular contractility and/or motility could be increased after NaHS exposure. The administration of ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, accelerated cell death after NaHS exposure. Based on these data, we conclude that the increase in MLC phosphorylation in response to NaHS exposure is a cellular protective reaction against NaHS toxicity. Enhancements in smooth muscle cell properties such as transgelin expression and actomyosin-mediated contractility/motility might be involved in cell survival after NaHS exposure. PMID:27665774

  14. Nano-phases of NaBH4 and KBH4.

    PubMed

    Vajeeston, P; Ravindran, P; Fjellvåg, H

    2011-03-01

    Phase stability and chemical bonding of beta-NaBH4 and beta-KBH4 derived nano-structures and possible low energy surfaces of them from thin film geometry have been investigated using ab initio projected augmented plane wave method. Structural optimizations based on total energy calculations predicted that, for beta-NaBH4 and beta-KBH4 phases, the (011) and (101) surfaces are more stable among the possible low energy surfaces. The predicted critical size of the nano-cluster for beta-NaBH4 and beta-KBH4 is 1.35 and 1.8 nm, respectively. The corresponding critical diameter for the nano-whisker is 2.6 and 2.8 nm respectively for beta-NaBH4 and beta-KBH4. Structural optimization based on total energy calculations show that the bond distances in the surfaces of nano-whisker are found to be higher than that in the bulk material and the calculated H site energies and bond overlap population analysis suggesting that it is considerably easier to remove hydrogen from the surface of the clusters and nano-whiskers than that from the bulk crystals.

  15. Sodium iodine(V) oxyfluoride, NaIO2F2.

    PubMed

    Laval, Jean Paul; Jennene Boukharrata, Nefla

    2008-07-01

    As an extension of a general structural study concerning fluorides and oxyfluorides of cations presenting a stereochemically active electronic lone pair, until now limited to tellurium(IV) phases, the previously unknown structure of NaIO(2)F(2) corresponds to a new structure type based on isolated IO(2)F(2)(-) polyhedra forming sheets separated by Na(+) layers. The sodium ion is octahedrally coordinated with 2/m site symmetry, while the I(V) atom has m2m symmetry with a stereochemically active lone electron pair. The O and F atoms (both with m symmetry) are bonded to the I(V) atoms in a fully ordered manner. A comparison with the structure of ferroelastic KIO(2)F(2) and with structures based on hexagonal close packing of anions, mainly rutile-type and FeTeO(3)F-type, reveals differences that are attributed to the smaller ionic radius of Na(+) and the ordering of the Na and I cations.

  16. First principles derived, transferable force fields for CO2 adsorption in Na-exchanged cationic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hanjun; Kamakoti, Preeti; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Aronson, Matthew; Paur, Charanjit; Sholl, David S

    2013-08-21

    The development of accurate force fields is vital for predicting adsorption in porous materials. Previously, we introduced a first principles-based transferable force field for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites (Fang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 10692). In this study, we extend our approach to CO2 adsorption in cationic zeolites which possess more complex structures. Na-exchanged zeolites are chosen for demonstrating the approach. These methods account for several structural complexities including Al distribution, cation positions and cation mobility, all of which are important for predicting adsorption. The simulation results are validated with high-resolution experimental measurements of isotherms and microcalorimetric heats of adsorption on well-characterized materials. The choice of first-principles method has a significant influence on the ability of force fields to accurately describe CO2-zeolite interactions. The PBE-D2 derived force field, which performed well for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites, does not do so for Na-exchanged zeolites; the PBE-D2 method overestimates CO2 adsorption energies on multi-cation sites that are common in cationic zeolites with low Si/Al ratios. In contrast, a force field derived from the DFT/CC method performed well. Agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment not only for LTA-4A on which the force field fitting is based, but for other two common adsorbents, NaX and NaY.

  17. Crystal structure of new synthetic Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca{sub 2}Na(Na{sub x}Ca{sub 0.5-x})[B{sub 3}{sup t}B{sub 2}{sup {delta}}O{sub 8}(OH)(O{sub 1-x}OH{sub x})](CO{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Yamnova, N. A. Borovikova, E. Yu.; Gurbanova, O. A.; Dimitrova, O. V.; Zubkova, N. V.

    2012-05-15

    New Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca{sub 2}Na(Na{sub x}Ca{sub 0.5-x}) [B{sub 3}{sup t}B{sub 2}{sup {Delta}}O{sub 8}(OH)(O{sub 1-x}OH{sub x})](CO{sub 3}) crystals (x {approx} 0.4) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the Ca(OH){sub 2}-H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaCl-system at t = 250 Degree-Sign C and P = 70-80 atm; the structure parameters are found to be a = 11.1848(3) Angstrom-Sign , b = 6.4727(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 25.8181(7) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 96.364(3) Degree-Sign , V = 1857.60(9) Angstrom-Sign {sup 3}, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 8, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 2.801 g/cm{sup 3} (Xcalibur S autodiffractometer (CCD), 2663 reflections with I > 2{sigma} (I), direct solution, refinement by the least-squares method in the anisotropic approximation of thermal atomic vibrations, hydrogen localization, R{sub 1} = 0.0387). The structure is based on boron-oxygen layers of pentaborate radicals 5(2{Delta} + 3T). Ca and Na polyhedra and CO{sub 3} triangles are located between the layers. A crystallochemical analysis of the new Ca,Na carbonate-borate has established its similarity to natural Na,Ca pentaborates (heidornite and tuzlaite) and synthetic Na,Ba-decaborate.

  18. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between β subunits of voltage-gated Na channels

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Teresa K.; Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A.; Isom, Lori L.; Raman, Indira M.

    2009-01-01

    The β subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming α subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, β1, β2, and β3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the β4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected β4 into HEK cells stably expressing NaV1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the β4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length β4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, β4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of non-inactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of β1 or chimeric subunits including the β1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Co-expressing NaV1.1 and β4 with β1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that β1 overcomes the effects of β4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, β1C121W, which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by β4, and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with β4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in β4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that β1 and β4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted β1 subunits. PMID:19228957

  19. [Na] and [K] dependence of the Na/K pump current-voltage relationship in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Na/K pump current was determined between -140 and +60 mV as steady- state, strophanthidin-sensitive, whole-cell current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, voltage-clamped and internally dialyzed via wide- tipped pipettes. Solutions were designed to minimize all other components of membrane current. A device for exchanging the solution inside the pipette permitted investigation of Na/K pump current-voltage (I-V) relationships at several levels of pipette [Na] [( Na]pip) in a single cell; the effects of changes in external [Na] [( Na]o) or external [K] [( K]o) were also studied. At 50 mM [Na]pip, 5.4 mM [K]o, and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, Na/K pump current was steeply voltage dependent at negative potentials but was approximately constant at positive potentials. Under those conditions, reduction of [Na]o enhanced pump current at negative potentials but had little effect at positive potentials: at zero [Na]o, pump current was only weakly voltage dependent. At 5.4 mM [K]o and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip from 50 mM scaled down the sigmoid pump I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right (toward more positive potentials). Pump current at 0 mV was activated by [Na]pip according to the Hill equation with best-fit K0.5 approximately equal to 11 mM and Hill coefficient nH approximately equal to 1.4. At zero [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip seemed to simply scale down the relatively flat pump I-V relationship: Hill fit parameters for pump activation by [Na]pip at 0 mV were K0.5 approximately equal to 10 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.4. At 50 mM [Na]pip and high [Na]o, reduction of [K]o from 5.4 mM scaled down the sigmoid I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right: at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 1.5 mM and nH approximately equal to 1.0. At zero [Na]o, lowering [K]o simply scaled down the flat pump I-V relationships yielding, at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 0.2 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.1. The voltage

  20. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  1. N-acetylcysteine inhibits Na+ absorption across human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Thierry; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Jornot, Lan

    2004-10-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used mucolytic drug in patients with a variety of respiratory disorders. The mechanism of action is based on rupture of the disulfide bridges of the high molecular glycoproteins present in the mucus, resulting in smaller subunits of the glycoproteins and reduced viscosity of the mucus. Because Na(+) absorption regulates airway surface liquid volume and thus the efficiency of mucociliary clearance, we asked whether NAC affects the bioelectric properties of human nasal epithelial cells. A 24-h basolateral treatment with 10 mM of NAC decreased the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current (I(SC)) by 40%, and reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by 50%, without affecting the transepithelial resistance. After permeabilization of the basolateral membranes of cells with amphotericin B in the presence of a mucosal-to-serosal Na(+) gradient (135:25 mM), NAC inhibited 45% of the amiloride-sensitive current. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump activity and the basolateral K(+) conductance were not affected by NAC treatment. NAC did not alter total cell mRNA and protein levels of alpha-epithelial Na(+) channel (EnaC) subunit, but reduced abundance of alpha-ENaC subunits in the apical cell membrane as quantified by biotinylation. This effect can be ascribed to the sulphydryl (SH) group of NAC, since N-acetylserine and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine were ineffective. Given the importance of epithelial Na(+) channels in controlling the thin layer of fluid that covers the surface of the airways, the increase in the fluidity of the airway mucus following NAC treatment in vivo might be in part related to downregulation of Na(+) absorption and consequently water transport. PMID:15281093

  2. Transepithelial glucose transport and Na+/K+ homeostasis in enterocytes: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Kristian; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2014-08-15

    The uptake of glucose and the nutrient coupled transcellular sodium traffic across epithelial cells in the small intestine has been an ongoing topic in physiological research for over half a century. Driving the uptake of nutrients like glucose, enterocytes must have regulatory mechanisms that respond to the considerable changes in the inflow of sodium during absorption. The Na-K-ATPase membrane protein plays a major role in this regulation. We propose the hypothesis that the amount of active Na-K-ATPase in enterocytes is directly regulated by the concentration of intracellular Na(+) and that this regulation together with a regulation of basolateral K permeability by intracellular ATP gives the enterocyte the ability to maintain ionic Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis. To explore these regulatory mechanisms, we present a mathematical model of the sodium coupled uptake of glucose in epithelial enterocytes. Our model integrates knowledge about individual transporter proteins including apical SGLT1, basolateral Na-K-ATPase, and GLUT2, together with diffusion and membrane potentials. The intracellular concentrations of glucose, sodium, potassium, and chloride are modeled by nonlinear differential equations, and molecular flows are calculated based on experimental kinetic data from the literature, including substrate saturation, product inhibition, and modulation by membrane potential. Simulation results of the model without the addition of regulatory mechanisms fit well with published short-term observations, including cell depolarization and increased concentration of intracellular glucose and sodium during increased concentration of luminal glucose/sodium. Adding regulatory mechanisms for regulation of Na-K-ATPase and K permeability to the model show that our hypothesis predicts observed long-term ionic homeostasis.

  3. Structures of a Na+-coupled, substrate-bound MATE multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Symersky, Jindrich; Radchenko, Martha; Koide, Akiko; Guo, Yi; Nie, Rongxin; Koide, Shohei

    2013-02-01

    Multidrug transporters belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family expel dissimilar lipophilic and cationic drugs across cell membranes by dissipating a preexisting Na(+) or H(+) gradient. Despite its clinical relevance, the transport mechanism of MATE proteins remains poorly understood, largely owing to a lack of structural information on the substrate-bound transporter. Here we report crystal structures of a Na(+)-coupled MATE transporter NorM from Neisseria gonorrheae in complexes with three distinct translocation substrates (ethidium, rhodamine 6G, and tetraphenylphosphonium), as well as Cs(+) (a Na(+) congener), all captured in extracellular-facing and drug-bound states. The structures revealed a multidrug-binding cavity festooned with four negatively charged amino acids and surprisingly limited hydrophobic moieties, in stark contrast to the general belief that aromatic amino acids play a prominent role in multidrug recognition. Furthermore, we discovered an uncommon cation-π interaction in the Na(+)-binding site located outside the drug-binding cavity and validated the biological relevance of both the substrate- and cation-binding sites by conducting drug resistance and transport assays. Additionally, we uncovered potential rearrangement of at least two transmembrane helices upon Na(+)-induced drug export. Based on our structural and functional analyses, we suggest that Na(+) triggers multidrug extrusion by inducing protein conformational changes rather than by directly competing for the substrate-binding amino acids. This scenario is distinct from the canonical antiport mechanism, in which both substrate and counterion compete for a shared binding site in the transporter. Collectively, our findings provide an important step toward a detailed and mechanistic understanding of multidrug transport. PMID:23341609

  4. N-acetylcysteine inhibits Na+ absorption across human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Thierry; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Jornot, Lan

    2004-10-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used mucolytic drug in patients with a variety of respiratory disorders. The mechanism of action is based on rupture of the disulfide bridges of the high molecular glycoproteins present in the mucus, resulting in smaller subunits of the glycoproteins and reduced viscosity of the mucus. Because Na(+) absorption regulates airway surface liquid volume and thus the efficiency of mucociliary clearance, we asked whether NAC affects the bioelectric properties of human nasal epithelial cells. A 24-h basolateral treatment with 10 mM of NAC decreased the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current (I(SC)) by 40%, and reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by 50%, without affecting the transepithelial resistance. After permeabilization of the basolateral membranes of cells with amphotericin B in the presence of a mucosal-to-serosal Na(+) gradient (135:25 mM), NAC inhibited 45% of the amiloride-sensitive current. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump activity and the basolateral K(+) conductance were not affected by NAC treatment. NAC did not alter total cell mRNA and protein levels of alpha-epithelial Na(+) channel (EnaC) subunit, but reduced abundance of alpha-ENaC subunits in the apical cell membrane as quantified by biotinylation. This effect can be ascribed to the sulphydryl (SH) group of NAC, since N-acetylserine and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine were ineffective. Given the importance of epithelial Na(+) channels in controlling the thin layer of fluid that covers the surface of the airways, the increase in the fluidity of the airway mucus following NAC treatment in vivo might be in part related to downregulation of Na(+) absorption and consequently water transport.

  5. Quantitative 23Na magnetic resonance imaging of model foods.

    PubMed

    Veliyulin, Emil; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Marica, Florin; Balcom, Bruce J

    2009-05-27

    Partial (23)Na MRI invisibility in muscle foods is often referred to as an inherent drawback of the MRI technique, impairing quantitative sodium analysis. Several model samples were designed to simulate muscle foods with a broad variation in protein, fat, moisture, and salt content. (23)Na spin-echo MRI and a recently developed (23)Na SPRITE MRI approach were compared for quantitative sodium imaging, demonstrating the possibility of accurate quantitative (23)Na MRI by the latter method. Good correlations with chemically determined standards were also obtained from bulk (23)Na free induction decay (FID) and CPMG relaxation experiments on the same sample set, indicating their potential use for rapid bulk NaCl measurements. Thus, the sodium MRI invisibility is a methodological problem that can easily be circumvented by using the SPRITE MRI technique. PMID:21314196

  6. Pyrophosphate-fueled Na+ and H+ transport in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Baykov, Alexander A; Malinen, Anssi M; Luoto, Heidi H; Lahti, Reijo

    2013-06-01

    In its early history, life appeared to depend on pyrophosphate rather than ATP as the source of energy. Ancient membrane pyrophosphatases that couple pyrophosphate hydrolysis to active H(+) transport across biological membranes (H(+)-pyrophosphatases) have long been known in prokaryotes, plants, and protists. Recent studies have identified two evolutionarily related and widespread prokaryotic relics that can pump Na(+) (Na(+)-pyrophosphatase) or both Na(+) and H(+) (Na(+),H(+)-pyrophosphatase). Both these transporters require Na(+) for pyrophosphate hydrolysis and are further activated by K(+). The determination of the three-dimensional structures of H(+)- and Na(+)-pyrophosphatases has been another recent breakthrough in the studies of these cation pumps. Structural and functional studies have highlighted the major determinants of the cation specificities of membrane pyrophosphatases and their potential use in constructing transgenic stress-resistant organisms.

  7. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus Novel Putative Na+-Channel Scorpion Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy A.; Mourão, Caroline B. F.; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Possani, Lourival D.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs) from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species. Methodology/Principal Findings cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups. Conclusions/Significance This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the Na

  8. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Magnesium correction to the NaKCa chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Equations and graphs have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer. Either the equations or graphs can be used to determine appropriate temperature corrections for given waters with calculated NaKCa temperatures > 70??C and R 50 are probably derived from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures approximately equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures. ?? 1979.

  10. Neutron diffraction studies of the Na-ion battery electrode materials NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, H. Ben; Essehli, R.; Avdeev, M.; Park, J.-B.; Sun, Y.-K.; Al-Maadeed, M. A.; Belharouak, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new compounds NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 were synthesized by sol-gel method and their crystal structures were determined by using neutron powder diffraction data. These compounds were characterized by galvanometric cycling and cyclic voltammetry. NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 crystallize with a stuffed α-CrPO4-type structure. The structure consists of a 3D-framework made of octahedra and tetrahedra that are sharing corners and/or edges generating channels along [100] and [010], in which the sodium atoms are located. Of significance, in the structures of NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 a statistical disorder Ni2+/Cr3+ was observed on both the 8g and 4a atomic positions, whereas in NaCoCr2(PO4)3 the statistical disorder Co2+/Cr3+ was only observed on the 8g atomic position. When tested as negative electrode materials, NaCoCr2(PO4)3, NaNiCr2(PO4)3, and Na2Ni2Cr(PO4)3 delivered specific capacities of 352, 385, and 368 mA h g-1, respectively, which attests to the electrochemical activity of sodium in these compounds.

  11. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-12

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense β"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys coated with TiN by cathodic arc deposition in NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Altun, Hikmet Sinici, Hakan

    2008-03-15

    Magnesium-based light-metal alloys belong to a class of structural materials with increasing industrial attention. Magnesium alloys show the lowest density among the engineering metallic materials, low cost and large availability. However, the limitations according to mechanical strength and the low corrosion resistance restrict their practical application. In this study, TiN was coated on magnesium-based AZ91 magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloy using cathodic arc PVD process. The corrosion behaviours of uncoated and coated magnesium alloys in 1% NaCl, 3% NaCl and 3% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions and the influence of the coatings on the corrosion behaviour of the substrate were investigated utilizing potentiodynamic polarization tests. A potentiostat for electrochemical corrosion tests, a cathodic arc physical vapour deposition coating system for coating processes, a scanning electron microscopy for surface examination and elemental analysis of the coatings were used in this study. It was determined that corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys can be increased with TiN coating on the alloys using cathodic arc PVD process.

  13. Effects of Cl adatom on Na-Decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xinxiang; Sun, Yu; Dong, Meifeng; Li, Chun; Wang, Jiesheng; Mimura, Hidenori; Yuan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    The effects of the Cl adatom on Na-decorated graphene are studied using first principles density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation to calculate the adsorption energy, geometric structure, charge density difference, and density of states. When Na and Cl adatoms are simultaneously absorbed on opposite sides of graphene, the adsorption energy of Na increases by about 1 eV and the adsorption system becomes more stable because graphene can effectively transfer the 3s valence of the Na adatom to the Cl adatom.

  14. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  15. Study of OSL in NaF: Ca,Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium Fluoride containing Cu+ ions was prepared by R.A.P. followed by melt-quenching technique. Results on photo, thermo and optically stimulated luminescence in NaF:Ca,Cu are reported. OSL sensitivity of NaF:Ca,Cu is approximately 2 times than that of standard phosphor LMP. The rate of OSL depletion for 90% decay for NaF:Ca,Cu is 0.3 times as that of OSL phosphor LMP. NaF:Ca,Cu thus deserves much more attention than it has received up till now.

  16. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  17. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  18. The naïve intuitive statistician: a naïve sampling model of intuitive confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Peter; Winman, Anders; Hansson, Patrik

    2007-07-01

    The perspective of the naïve intuitive statistician is outlined and applied to explain overconfidence when people produce intuitive confidence intervals and why this format leads to more overconfidence than other formally equivalent formats. The naïve sampling model implies that people accurately describe the sample information they have but are naïve in the sense that they uncritically take sample properties as estimates of population properties. A review demonstrates that the naïve sampling model accounts for the robust and important findings in previous research as well as provides novel predictions that are confirmed, including a way to minimize the overconfidence with interval production. The authors discuss the naïve sampling model as a representative of models inspired by the naïve intuitive statistician. PMID:17638502

  19. Melting properties of radiation-induced Na and Cl2 precipitates in ultra-heavily irradiated NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugonyako, A. V.; Vainshtein, D. I.; den Hartog, H. P.; Turkin, A. A.; den Hartog, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of NaCl to high doses of ionizing radiation leads to the formation of nano-particles of metallic Na, very small chlorine precipitates, vacancy voids, and dislocations. A useful way to monitor the stage of the damage formation process is measuring the latent heat of melting of the Na-particles (100 °C) and chlorine precipitates (-101 °C). In this paper we will present data, showing that for doses in the range of TRad (1010 Gy) the concentration of radiolytic Na may become very large. Even in pure samples, we have converted more than 20% of all NaCl molecules into metallic Na and chlorine, but often higher percentages can be achieved. In this paper we will present new data obtained for ultra-high irradiation doses and a first attempt will be made to understand the results.

  20. Attenuation of Na/K-ATPase Mediated Oxidant Amplification with pNaKtide Ameliorates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang; Tian, Jiang; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Maxwell, Kyle; Yan, Yanling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Shah, Preeya T.; Khawaja, Asad A.; Martin, Rebecca; Robinette, Tylor J.; El-Hamdani, Adee; Dodrill, Michael W.; Sodhi, Komal; Drummond, Christopher A.; Haller, Steven T.; Kennedy, David J.; Abraham, Nader G.; Xie, Zijian; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase) can effect the amplification of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined whether attenuation of oxidant stress by antagonism of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification might ameliorate experimental uremic cardiomyopathy induced by partial nephrectomy (PNx). PNx induced the development of cardiac morphological and biochemical changes consistent with human uremic cardiomyopathy. Both inhibition of Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification with pNaKtide and induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) w