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Sample records for based fast layout

  1. A fast and efficient method for device level layout analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, YaoQi; Zou, Elaine; Pang, Jenny; Huang, Lucas; Yang, Legender; Zhang, Chunlei; Du, Chunshan; Hu, Xinyi; Wan, Qijian

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for device level layout analysis, especially as technology advances. The analysis is to study standard cells by extracting and classifying critical dimension parameters. There are couples of parameters to extract, like channel width, length, gate to active distance, and active to adjacent active distance, etc. for 14nm technology, there are some other parameters that are cared about. On the one hand, these parameters are very important for studying standard cell structures and spice model development with the goal of improving standard cell manufacturing yield and optimizing circuit performance; on the other hand, a full chip device statistics analysis can provide useful information to diagnose the yield issue. Device analysis is essential for standard cell customization and enhancements and manufacturability failure diagnosis. Traditional parasitic parameters extraction tool like Calibre xRC is powerful but it is not sufficient for this device level layout analysis application as engineers would like to review, classify and filter out the data more easily. This paper presents a fast and efficient method based on Calibre equation-based DRC (eqDRC). Equation-based DRC extends the traditional DRC technology to provide a flexible programmable modeling engine which allows the end user to define grouped multi-dimensional feature measurements using flexible mathematical expressions. This paper demonstrates how such an engine and its programming language can be used to implement critical device parameter extraction. The device parameters are extracted and stored in a DFM database which can be processed by Calibre YieldServer. YieldServer is data processing software that lets engineers query, manipulate, modify, and create data in a DFM database. These parameters, known as properties in eqDRC language, can be annotated back to the layout for easily review. Calibre DesignRev can create a HTML formatted report of the results displayed in Calibre

  2. Model-based multiple patterning layout decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daifeng; Tian, Haitong; Du, Yuelin; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2015-10-01

    As one of the most promising next generation lithography technologies, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) plays an important role in the attempts to keep in pace with 10 nm technology node and beyond. With feature size keeps shrinking, it has become impossible to print dense layouts within one single exposure. As a result, MPL such as double patterning lithography (DPL) and triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been widely adopted. There is a large volume of literature on DPL/TPL layout decomposition, and the current approach is to formulate the problem as a classical graph-coloring problem: Layout features (polygons) are represented by vertices in a graph G and there is an edge between two vertices if and only if the distance between the two corresponding features are less than a minimum distance threshold value dmin. The problem is to color the vertices of G using k colors (k = 2 for DPL, k = 3 for TPL) such that no two vertices connected by an edge are given the same color. This is a rule-based approach, which impose a geometric distance as a minimum constraint to simply decompose polygons within the distance into different masks. It is not desired in practice because this criteria cannot completely capture the behavior of the optics. For example, it lacks of sufficient information such as the optical source characteristics and the effects between the polygons outside the minimum distance. To remedy the deficiency, a model-based layout decomposition approach to make the decomposition criteria base on simulation results was first introduced at SPIE 2013.1 However, the algorithm1 is based on simplified assumption on the optical simulation model and therefore its usage on real layouts is limited. Recently AMSL2 also proposed a model-based approach to layout decomposition by iteratively simulating the layout, which requires excessive computational resource and may lead to sub-optimal solutions. The approach2 also potentially generates too many stiches. In this

  3. Exploration of networks using overview+detail with constraint-based cooperative layout.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Schreiber, Falk; Stuckey, Peter; Woodward, Michael; Wybrow, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A standard approach to large network visualization is to provide an overview of the network and a detailed view of a small component of the graph centred around a focal node. The user explores the network by changing the focal node in the detailed view or by changing the level of detail of a node or cluster. For scalability, fast force-based layout algorithms are used for the overview and the detailed view. However, using the same layout algorithm in both views is problematic since layout for the detailed view has different requirements to that in the overview. Here we present a model in which constrained graph layout algorithms are used for layout in the detailed view. This means the detailed view has high-quality layout including sophisticated edge routing and is customisable by the user who can add placement constraints on the layout. Scalability is still ensured since the slower layout techniques are only applied to the small subgraph shown in the detailed view. The main technical innovations are techniques to ensure that the overview and detailed view remain synchronized, and modifying constrained graph layout algorithms to support smooth, stable layout. The key innovation supporting stability are new dynamic graph layout algorithms that preserve the topology or structure of the network when the user changes the focus node or the level of detail by in situ semantic zooming. We have built a prototype tool and demonstrate its use in two application domains, UML class diagrams and biological networks.

  4. Issues in Text Design and Layout for Computer Based Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…

  5. Directional 2D functions as models for fast layout pattern transfer verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. Andres; Hofmann, Mark; Otto, Oberdan

    2009-03-01

    As advanced manufacturing processes become more stable, the need to adapt new designs to fully utilize the available manufacturing technology becomes a key technologic differentiator. However, many times such gains can only be realized and evaluated during full chip analysis. It has been demonstrated that the most accurate layout verification methods require application of the actual OPC recipes along with most of the mask data preparation that defines the pattern transfer characteristics of the process. Still, this method in many instances is not sufficiently fast to be used in a layout creation environment which undergoes constant updates. By doing an analysis of typical mask data processing, it is possible to determine that the most CPUintensive computations are the OPC and contour simulation steps needed to perform layout printability checks. Several researchers have tried to reduce the time it takes to compute the OPC mask by introducing matrix convolutions of the layout with empirically calibrated two-dimensional functions. However, most of these approaches do not provide a sufficient speed-up since they only replace the OPC computation and still require a full contour computation. Another alternative is to try to find effective ways of pattern matching those topologies that will exhibit transfer difficulties4, but such methods lack the ability to be predictive beyond their calibration data. In this paper we present a methodology that includes common resolution enhancement techniques, such as retargeting and sub-resolution assist feature insertion, and which replaces the OPC computation and subsequent contour calculation with an edge bias function based on an empirically-calibrated, directional, two-dimensional function. Because the edge bias function does not provide adequate control over the corner locations, a spline-based smoothing process is applied. The outcome is a piecewise-linear curve similar to those obtained by full lithographic simulations. Our

  6. An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.

  7. Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2015-07-01

    The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).

  8. Fuel Design and Core Layout for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rooijen, W.F.G. van; Kloosterman, J.L.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Dam, H. van

    2005-09-15

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is regarded as the primary candidate for a future sustainable nuclear power system. In this paper a general core layout is presented for a 2400-MW(thermal) GCFR. Two fuel elements are discussed: a TRISO-based coated particle and the innovative hollow sphere concept. Sustainability calls for recycling of all minor actinides (MAs) in the core and a breeding gain close to unity. A fuel cycle is designed allowing operation over a long period, requiring refueling with {sup 238}U only. The evolution of nuclides in the GCFR core is calculated using the SCALE system (one-dimensional and three-dimensional). Calculations were done over multiple irradiation cycles including reprocessing. The result is that it is possible to design a fuel and GCFR core with a breeding gain around unity, with recycling of all MAs from cycle to cycle. The burnup reactivity swing is small, improving safety. After several fuel batches an equilibrium core is reached. MA loading in the core remains limited, and the fuel temperature coefficient is always negative.

  9. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors. PMID:25897500

  10. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors.

  11. A microcomputer-based menu-driven chip layout language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrese, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The Menu Driven Chip Layout Language (MDCLL) is a microcomputer-based design tool used for representing the physical layout of integrated circuit designs in the Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF). MDCLL is based on the Chip Layout Language (CLL) created by Tim Saxe of Stanford University and as modified at the Air Force Institute of Technology. MDCLL leads the user through interactive menu-driven functions, allowing the user to represent a circuit design in CIF; however, the user sees a language similar to CLL even though the file is stored on disk as CIF. The output CIF file is suitable for use with other Computer Aided Design tools or for use in the fabrication process. MDCLL uses a cell-oriented design methodology in which the user defines cell, and then the user combines these cells with the necessary interconnects to form the layout of an entire integrated circuit. Cell interconnections are possible by placing wires, abutting cells, or by overlapping cells. The main functions of MDCLL are to create a new cell, delete a cell, place a cell, move a cell, modify a cell, interconnect cells, and print the CIF file of a cell.

  12. Evidence-based ergonomics. A comparison of Japanese and American office layouts.

    PubMed

    Noro, Kageyu; Fujimaki, Goroh; Kishi, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    There is a variety of alternatives in office layouts. Yet the theoretical basis and criteria for predicting how well these layouts accommodate employees are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate criteria for selecting office layouts. Intensive computer workers worked in simulated office layouts in a controlled experimental laboratory. Eye movement measures indicate that knowledge work requires both concentration and interaction. Findings pointed to one layout as providing optimum balance between these 2 requirements. Recommendations for establishing a theoretical basis and design criteria for selecting office layouts based on work style are suggested.

  13. [Land layout for lake tourism based on ecological restraint].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Jiang-Feng; Zou, Li-Lin; Liu, Shi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To avoid the decrease and deterioration of lake wetlands and the other ecological issues such as lake water pollution that were caused by the unreasonable exploration of lake tourism, a land layout for the tourism development of Liangzi Lake with the priority of ecological security pattern was proposed, based on the minimal cumulative resistance model and by using GIS technology. The study area was divided into four ecological function zones, i. e., core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecotone zone, and human activity zone. The core protection zone was the landscape region of ecological source. In the protection zone, new tourism land was forbidden to be increased, and some of the existing fundamental tourism facilities should be removed while some of them should be upgraded. The ecological buffer zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 0 to 4562. In the buffer zone, expansion of tourism land should be forbidden, the existing tourism land should be downsized, and human activities should be isolated from ecological source by converting the human environment to the natural environment as far as possible. The ecotone zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 4562 to 30797. In this zone, the existing tourism land was distributed in patches, tourism land could be expanded properly, and the lake forestry ecological tourism should be developed widely. The human activity zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 30797 to 97334, which would be the key area for the land layout of lake tourism. It was suggested that the land layout for tourism with the priority of landscape ecological security pattern would be the best choice for the lake sustainable development.

  14. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  15. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency. PMID:26448740

  16. Analyzing the layout of China's strategic petroleum reserve base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Huiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    With the development of China's economy, its dependence on foreign oil increases every year. Therefore, oil reserves play a vital role in ensuring China's energy security. The selection of a base site for the construction of strategic oil reserves is a priority. This study analyzes the status quo as well as future development trends for oil processing conditions, pipeline transportation conditions, consumption and production in the base radiation area, crude oil loading and unloading capacity of the port, reserve modes, and other factors. Preliminary planning of the spatial layout of the petroleum strategic reserve base is also detailed in this study. Strategic oil reserve bases can be positioned at the Pearl River Delta, the crude oil pipelines of Central and Southwest China and the large refineries and locations near the crude oil port terminals. Meanwhile, ground and underground reserve modes should be combined.

  17. Native conflict awared layout decomposition in triple patterning lithography using bin-based library matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianhua; Jiang, Hao; Lv, Wen; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Triple patterning (TP) lithography becomes a feasible technology for manufacturing as the feature size further scale down to sub 14/10 nm. In TP, a layout is decomposed into three masks followed with exposures and etches/freezing processes respectively. Previous works mostly focus on layout decomposition with minimal conflicts and stitches simultaneously. However, since any existence of native conflict will result in layout re-design/modification and reperforming the time-consuming decomposition, the effective method that can be aware of native conflicts (NCs) in layout is desirable. In this paper, a bin-based library matching method is proposed for NCs detection and layout decomposition. First, a layout is divided into bins and the corresponding conflict graph in each bin is constructed. Then, we match the conflict graph in a prebuilt colored library, and as a result the NCs can be located and highlighted quickly.

  18. Surrogate based wind farm layout optimization using manifold mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja Kamaludeen, Shaafi M.; van Zuijle, Alexander; Bijl, Hester

    2016-09-01

    High computational cost associated with the high fidelity wake models such as RANS or LES serves as a primary bottleneck to perform a direct high fidelity wind farm layout optimization (WFLO) using accurate CFD based wake models. Therefore, a surrogate based multi-fidelity WFLO methodology (SWFLO) is proposed. The surrogate model is built using an SBO method referred as manifold mapping (MM). As a verification, optimization of spacing between two staggered wind turbines was performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology and the performance was compared with that of direct optimization using high fidelity model. Significant reduction in computational cost was achieved using MM: a maximum computational cost reduction of 65%, while arriving at the same optima as that of direct high fidelity optimization. The similarity between the response of models, the number of mapping points and its position, highly influences the computational efficiency of the proposed method. As a proof of concept, realistic WFLO of a small 7-turbine wind farm is performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology. Two variants of Jensen wake model with different decay coefficients were used as the fine and coarse model. The proposed SWFLO method arrived at the same optima as that of the fine model with very less number of fine model simulations.

  19. Graph-based layout analysis for PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Li, Yun; Shi, Cao

    2013-03-01

    To increase the flexibility and enrich the reading experience of e-book on small portable screens, a graph based method is proposed to perform layout analysis on Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. Digital born document has its inherent advantages like representing texts and fractional images in explicit form, which can be straightforwardly exploited. To integrate traditional image-based document analysis and the inherent meta-data provided by PDF parser, the page primitives including text, image and path elements are processed to produce text and non text layer for respective analysis. Graph-based method is developed in superpixel representation level, and page text elements corresponding to vertices are used to construct an undirected graph. Euclidean distance between adjacent vertices is applied in a top-down manner to cut the graph tree formed by Kruskal's algorithm. And edge orientation is then used in a bottom-up manner to extract text lines from each sub tree. On the other hand, non-textual objects are segmented by connected component analysis. For each segmented text and non-text composite, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted for labelling purpose. The experimental results on selected pages from PDF books are presented.

  20. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  1. Optimization lighting layout based on gene density improved genetic algorithm for indoor visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Kong, Deqian; Xia, Peijie

    2017-05-01

    For indoor visible light communication system, the layout of LED lamps affects the uniformity of the received power on communication plane. In order to find an optimized lighting layout that meets both the lighting needs and communication needs, a gene density genetic algorithm (GDGA) is proposed. In GDGA, a gene indicates a pair of abscissa and ordinate of a LED, and an individual represents a LED layout in the room. The segmented crossover operation and gene mutation strategy based on gene density are put forward to make the received power on communication plane more uniform and increase the population's diversity. A weighted differences function between individuals is designed as the fitness function of GDGA for reserving the population having the useful LED layout genetic information and ensuring the global convergence of GDGA. Comparing square layout and circular layout, with the optimized layout achieved by the GDGA, the power uniformity increases by 83.3%, 83.1% and 55.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the convergence of GDGA is verified compared with evolutionary algorithm (EA). Experimental results show that GDGA can quickly find an approximation of optimal layout.

  2. Study on the general layout of semi-submersible offshore drilling platforms based on process flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ji-Xiang; Qi, Yao-Guang; Xiao, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Pu

    2009-06-01

    The general layout of 6th generation semi-submersible drilling platforms is the main factor impacting the efficiency of their drilling operations. This paper provides a compound/integrated algorithm based on process flow that is aimed at improving efficiency, while giving attention to stability and safety at the same time. The paper describes the process flow of dual drilling centers and a hierarchical division of rigs based on the different modes of transportation of various drilling support systems. The general layout-centripetal overall arrangement spatially was determined based on drilling efficiency. We derived our modules according to drilling functionality; the modules became our basic layout units. We applied different layout algorithm to mark out the upper and lower decks. That is, the upper deck was designed based on the lowest transportation cost while the lower deck’s calculations were based on the best-fit scope. Storage configurations in columns and pontoons were also considered for the layout design. Finally the center of gravity was taken into consideration and the general layout was adjusted accordingly, to result in an optimal center of gravity. The methodology of the general layout can provide a reference for implementation of domestic designs of semi-submersible rigs.

  3. Automatic layout feature extraction for lithography hotspot detection based on deep neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Lithography hotspot detection in the physical verification phase is one of the most important techniques in today's optical lithography based manufacturing process. Although lithography simulation based hotspot detection is widely used, it is also known to be time-consuming. To detect hotspots in a short runtime, several machine learning based methods have been proposed. However, it is difficult to realize highly accurate detection without an increase in false alarms because an appropriate layout feature is undefined. This paper proposes a new method to automatically extract a proper layout feature from a given layout for improvement in detection performance of machine learning based methods. Experimental results show that using a deep neural network can achieve better performance than other frameworks using manually selected layout features and detection algorithms, such as conventional logistic regression or artificial neural network.

  4. DFM based on layout restriction and process window verification for sub-60nm memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soo-Han; Jung, Dai-Hyun; Hong, Ji-Suk; Choi, Joon-Ho; Yoo, Moon-Hyun; Kong, Jeong-Taek

    2007-05-01

    The adoption of the model-based OPC and RET does not guarantee enough process margin any more in the low k1 lithography because potential patterning defects by layout-induced hot spots reduce common process window. The introduction of the litho-friendly layout has faced practical limitation by the designers' short knowledge of the lithography and its impact on the layout. In this paper, we develop a novel method based on restricted design rules (RDR) and process window verification (PWV) to get rid of the layout-related process hot spots during the physical layout design. Since RDR consists of simple design rules familiar to designers and PWV is implemented on layout editor environment, this proposed method is easy to apply in the current design flow. Since memory core layout is designed with typical and repeated patterns, the restriction of layout by design rule enforcement is effective to remove hot spots in the core area. We develop a systematic RDR extraction method by designing test patterns representing repeated memory core patterns by simple pattern matching technique. 1-dimensional (1D, simple line and space pattern) and 1.5-dimensional (1.5D, complicated line and space pattern) test patterns are analyzed to take into account the printability. The 2-dimension (2D) test patterns split by contact pad size are designed to consider the overlap margin between related layers. After removing the hot spots with RDR violations on unit cell by auto-fixer, PWV is applied to detect the random hot spots located on peripheral area. Analyzing CD difference between measurement and simulation according to variation of resist cutting plane and focus, the optical model having physical meaning is generated. The resist model, which uses focus exposure matrix (FEM) data within the process margin of memory cell, can represent the photo process variations accurately. Implementing the proposed method based on RDR and PWV, depth of focus (DOF) of sub-60nm memory device is improved

  5. The 3Ls of Introductory Web-Based Instructional Design: Linking, Layout, and Learner Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.

    This paper presents guidelines for World Wide Web-based instructional design, based on the 3Ls (i.e., linking, layout, and learner support). The first section, focusing on macro level design, discusses nodes and links, including how nodes work, determining nodes, node size, presentation format, characteristics of links, and kinds of links. The…

  6. Model-based strategy for cell culture seed train layout verified at lab scale.

    PubMed

    Kern, Simon; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Pörtner, Ralf; Frahm, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Cell culture seed trains-the generation of a sufficient viable cell number for the inoculation of the production scale bioreactor, starting from incubator scale-are time- and cost-intensive. Accordingly, a seed train offers potential for optimization regarding its layout and the corresponding proceedings. A tool has been developed to determine the optimal points in time for cell passaging from one scale into the next and it has been applied to two different cell lines at lab scale, AGE1.HN AAT and CHO-K1. For evaluation, experimental seed train realization has been evaluated in comparison to its layout. In case of the AGE1.HN AAT cell line, the results have also been compared to the formerly manually designed seed train. The tool provides the same seed train layout based on the data of only two batches.

  7. Graph-based Representations and Coupled Verification of VLSI Schematics and Layouts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    concludes with a description of a computer implementation of this algorithm called GRASP (for Gramar -based Schematic Parser) and experiments using...from a cell library can be grouped into classes of cells with similar layout characteristics. For example, up to eight essentially similar yet

  8. Layout design-based research on optimization and assessment method for shipbuilding workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Meng, Mei; Liu, Shuang

    2013-06-01

    The research study proposes to examine a three-dimensional visualization program, emphasizing on improving genetic algorithms through the optimization of a layout design-based standard and discrete shipbuilding workshop. By utilizing a steel processing workshop as an example, the principle of minimum logistic costs will be implemented to obtain an ideological equipment layout, and a mathematical model. The objectiveness is to minimize the total necessary distance traveled between machines. An improved control operator is implemented to improve the iterative efficiency of the genetic algorithm, and yield relevant parameters. The Computer Aided Tri-Dimensional Interface Application (CATIA) software is applied to establish the manufacturing resource base and parametric model of the steel processing workshop. Based on the results of optimized planar logistics, a visual parametric model of the steel processing workshop is constructed, and qualitative and quantitative adjustments then are applied to the model. The method for evaluating the results of the layout is subsequently established through the utilization of AHP. In order to provide a mode of reference to the optimization and layout of the digitalized production workshop, the optimized discrete production workshop will possess a certain level of practical significance.

  9. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  10. Automatic indexing of scanned documents: a layout-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.

  11. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  13. Method of improving photoelectric efficiency for laser power beaming based on photovoltaic cell layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Beibei; Li, Xiaojiang

    2017-02-01

    In accordance with the high impact of the uneven distribution of laser beam power on the photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic cell (PV) array, a method based on PV layout optimization is proposed to improve the photovoltaic efficiency. First of all, a mathematical model of series-parallel PV array is built, and by analyzing the influencing factors on photovoltaic efficiency, the idea and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency based on PV layout optimization is provided; then, the MATLAB/Simulink simulation tool is used to simulate the effects of improving photoelectric efficiency. The simulation results show that compared to the traditional PV array, the optimized PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency, and compared to the situation with uneven temperature distribution, the array efficiency has higher efficiency under even temperature distribution.

  14. Towards a more accurate extraction of the SPICE netlist from MAGIC based layouts

    SciTech Connect

    Geronimo, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    The extraction of the SPICE netlist form MAGIC based layouts is investigated. It is assumed that the layout is fully coherent with the corresponding mask representation. The process of the extraction can be made in three steps: (1) extraction of .EXT file from layout, through MAGIC command extract; (2) extraction of the netlist from .EXT file through ext2spice extractor; and (3) correction of the netlist through ext2spice.corr program. Each of these steps introduces some approximations, most of which can be optimized, and some errors, most of which can be corrected. Aim of this work is the description of each step, of the approximations and errors on each step, and of the corresponding optimizations and corrections to be made in order to improve the accuracy of the extraction. The HP AMOS14TB 0.5 {micro}m process with linear capacitor and silicide block options and the corresponding SCN3MLC{_}SUBM.30.tech27 technology file will be used in the following examples.

  15. Laplacian eigenmaps- and Bayesian clustering-based layout pattern sampling and its applications to hotspot detection and optical proximity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2016-10-01

    Effective layout pattern sampling is a fundamental component for lithography process optimization, hotspot detection, and model calibration. Existing pattern sampling algorithms rely on either vector quantization or heuristic approaches. However, it is difficult to manage these methods due to the heavy demands of prior knowledge, such as high-dimensional layout features and manually tuned hypothetical model parameters. We present a self-contained layout pattern sampling framework, where no manual parameter tuning is needed. To handle high dimensionality and diverse layout feature types, we propose a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique with kernel parameter optimization. Furthermore, we develop a Bayesian model-based clustering, through which automatic sampling is realized without arbitrary setting of model parameters. The effectiveness of our framework is verified through a sampling benchmark suite and two applications: lithography hotspot detection and optical proximity correction.

  16. Virtual reality based support system for layout planning and programming of an industrial robotic work cell.

    PubMed

    Yap, Hwa Jen; Taha, Zahari; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Chang, Siow-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell.

  17. Full-Chip Layout Optimization for Process Margin Enhancement Using Model-Based Hotspot Fixing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kyoh, Suigen; Kotani, Toshiya; Takekawa, Yoko; Inoue, Soichi; Nakamae, Koji

    2010-06-01

    As the design rule of integrated circuits is shrinking rapidly, it is necessary to use low-k1 lithography technologies. With low-k1 lithography, even if aggressive optical proximity correction is adopted, many sites become marginless spots, known as “hotspots”. For this problem, hotspot fixer (HSF) in design-for-manufacturability flow has been studied. In our previous work, we indicated the feasibility of layout modification using a simple line/space sizing rule for metal layers in 65-nm-node logic devices. However, in view of the continuous design-rule shrinkage and design complication, a more flexible modification method has become necessary to fix various types of hotspots. In this work, we have developed a brute-force model-based HSF. To further reduce the processing time, the hybrid flow of rule- and model-based HSFs is studied. The feasibility of such hybrid flow is studied by applying it to the full-chip layout modification of a logic test chip.

  18. Virtual Reality Based Support System for Layout Planning and Programming of an Industrial Robotic Work Cell

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Hwa Jen; Taha, Zahari; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Chang, Siow-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell. PMID:25360663

  19. Optical path layout and moving mirrors of wavemeter based on Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqiang; Peng, Yuexiang; Gao, Fengyou; He, Yongli; Zheng, Hongxing

    2008-03-01

    General wavemeters based on Michelson interferometer only have a moving arm, which cann't more multiply optical paths' differences, and is unable to avoid dispersion from a beamsplitter. Commonly, the moving mirror driven by a direct current motor and a ball screw have some disadvantage, such as heavy weight, unstable motion. In the paper, a better optical layout, and configuration and a driving method of moving mirrors are proposed. A newly optical paths layout of a wavemeter based on Michelson Interferometer is present, including two moving mirrors for forming optical paths' differences, a beamsplitter for splitting a light into a transmitted light and a reflected light, two reflectors, and a reference laser. It has two moving arms and can eliminate dispersion from the beamsplitter. According to Doppler effect, how to form the interference fringes in the photodiodes is analyzed and formulated. The Doppler effect appears with motion of the moving mirrors. Consequently, alternately dark and bright interference fringes are generated, then received and converted into the electronic signals by the photodiodes. It is concluded that the electronic signals involves the wavelength of a light and the velocity of the moving mirror by investigating the Doppler effect. The structure of the moving mirrors is clarified. The moving mirrors are made of the two pyramid prisms which are placed symmetrically on the driving motor. A controlling system for keeping the moving mirrors in constant velocity is designed. In order to make frequencies of electronic signals from interference fringes stable, the moving mirrors must move in a uniform speed. The voice coil motor (VCM) drags the moving mirror to and fro. VCM in uniform motion is realized by an optical-mechanical-electrical closed-loop feedback system. The Doppler frequency difference of the reference laser is the standard of the system. The PID controller comprising parallel proportional-integral-differential operational circuit

  20. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    PubMed

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  1. A Cut-Based Procedure For Document-Layout Modelling And Automatic Document Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, Andreas R.

    1989-03-01

    With the growing degree of office automation and the decreasing costs of storage devices, it becomes more and more attractive to store optically scanned documents like letters or reports in an electronic form. Therefore the need of a good paper-computer interface becomes increasingly important. This interface must convert paper documents into an electronic representation that not only captures their contents, but also their layout and logical structure. We propose a procedure to describe the layout of a document page by dividing it recursively into nested rectangular areas. A semantic meaning to each one will be assigned by means of logical labels. The procedure is used as a basis for modelling a hierarchical document layout onto the semantic meaning of the parts in the document. We analyse the layout of a document using a best-first search in this tesselation structure. The search is directed by a measure of similarity between the layout pattern in the model and the layout of the actual document. The validity of a hypothesis for the semantic labelling of a layout block can then be verified. It either supports the hypothesis or initiates the generation of a new one. The method has been implemented in Common Lisp on a SUN 3/60 Workstation and has run for a large population of office docu-ments. The results obtained have been very encouraging and have convincingly confirmed the soundness of the approach.

  2. Automatic photobook: focusing on image selection and image layout based on content and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shao-Fu; Tang, Henry; Tretter, Daniel; Lin, Qian; Allebach, Jan

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present improvements to image selection and image layout for automatic photobook generating algorithms. These improvements are designed to help the user easily create a photo album, which matches the user preferences and strengthens the aesthetic quality of the photobook. Image content, composition, and metadata are utilized to determine the set of images being selected, and to suggest the layout of each page.

  3. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  4. A novel method for designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly in home-based rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duojin; Wu, Jing; Lin, Qinglian

    2017-04-28

    The home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients improves their autonomy, independence and reintegration into society. Hence, a suitable environment plays an important role in rehabilitation, as do different assistance technologies. The majority of accidents at home involving elderly people occur in the bathroom. Therefore, the planning of the layout of facilities is important in this potentially dangerous area. This paper proposes an approach towards designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in the bathroom, based on logistical and nonlogistical relationships. A fuzzy-based analytical hierarchical process (fuzzy-AHP) is then proposed for a comprehensive evaluation of the alternatives for this layout plan. This approach was applied to the home of a 71 years old female patient, who was experiencing home-based rehabilitation. After the initial designing and optimizing of the layout of the facilities in her bathroom, a plan could then be created for her particular needs. The results of this research could then enable the home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients to be more effective. Value: This paper develops a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly. Implications for Rehabilitation Develop a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom. Provide a mathematical and more scientific approach to home layout design for home-based rehabilitation. Provide new opportunities for research, for both the therapist and the patient to analyse the home facility layout.

  5. Dynamic Distribution and Layouting of Model-Based User Interfaces in Smart Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscher, Dirk; Lehmann, Grzegorz; Schwartze, Veit; Blumendorf, Marco; Albayrak, Sahin

    The developments in computer technology in the last decade change the ways of computer utilization. The emerging smart environments make it possible to build ubiquitous applications that assist users during their everyday life, at any time, in any context. But the variety of contexts-of-use (user, platform and environment) makes the development of such ubiquitous applications for smart environments and especially its user interfaces a challenging and time-consuming task. We propose a model-based approach, which allows adapting the user interface at runtime to numerous (also unknown) contexts-of-use. Based on a user interface modelling language, defining the fundamentals and constraints of the user interface, a runtime architecture exploits the description to adapt the user interface to the current context-of-use. The architecture provides automatic distribution and layout algorithms for adapting the applications also to contexts unforeseen at design time. Designers do not specify predefined adaptations for each specific situation, but adaptation constraints and guidelines. Furthermore, users are provided with a meta user interface to influence the adaptations according to their needs. A smart home energy management system serves as running example to illustrate the approach.

  6. Optimal multi-floor plant layout based on the mathematical programming and particle swarm optimization

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Chang Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the fields of researches associated with plant layout optimization, the main goal is to minimize the costs of pipelines and pumping between connecting equipment under various constraints. However, what is the lacking of considerations in previous researches is to transform various heuristics or safety regulations into mathematical equations. For example, proper safety distances between equipments have to be complied for preventing dangerous accidents on a complex plant. Moreover, most researches have handled single-floor plant. However, many multi-floor plants have been constructed for the last decade. Therefore, the proper algorithm handling various regulations and multi-floor plant should be developed. In this study, the Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) problem including safety distances, maintenance spaces, etc. is suggested based on mathematical equations. The objective function is a summation of pipeline and pumping costs. Also, various safety and maintenance issues are transformed into inequality or equality constraints. However, it is really hard to solve this problem due to complex nonlinear constraints. Thus, it is impossible to use conventional MINLP solvers using derivatives of equations. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is employed. The ethylene oxide plant is illustrated to verify the efficacy of this study. PMID:26027708

  7. WFST-based ground truth alignment for difficult historical documents with text modification and layout variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azawi, Mayce; Liwicki, Marcus; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes several approaches that can be used for generating correspondences between real scanned books and their transcriptions which might have different modifications and layout variations, also taking OCR errors into account. Our approaches for the alignment between the manuscript and the transcription are based on weighted finite state transducers (WFST). In particular, we propose adapted WFSTs to represent the transcription to be aligned with the OCR lattices. The character-level alignment has edit rules to allow edit operations (insertion, deletion, substitution). Those edit operations allow the transcription model to deal with OCR segmentation and recognition errors, and also with the task of aligning with different text editions. We implemented an alignment model with a hyphenation model, so it can adapt the non-hyphenated transcription. Our models also work with Fraktur ligatures, which are typically found in historical Fraktur documents. We evaluated our approach on Fraktur documents from Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg" volumes (1862-1889) and observed the performance of those models under OCR errors. We compare the performance of our model for three different scenarios: having no information about the correspondence at the word (i), line (ii), sentence (iii) or page (iv) level.

  8. Optimal multi-floor plant layout based on the mathematical programming and particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the fields of researches associated with plant layout optimization, the main goal is to minimize the costs of pipelines and pumping between connecting equipment under various constraints. However, what is the lacking of considerations in previous researches is to transform various heuristics or safety regulations into mathematical equations. For example, proper safety distances between equipments have to be complied for preventing dangerous accidents on a complex plant. Moreover, most researches have handled single-floor plant. However, many multi-floor plants have been constructed for the last decade. Therefore, the proper algorithm handling various regulations and multi-floor plant should be developed. In this study, the Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) problem including safety distances, maintenance spaces, etc. is suggested based on mathematical equations. The objective function is a summation of pipeline and pumping costs. Also, various safety and maintenance issues are transformed into inequality or equality constraints. However, it is really hard to solve this problem due to complex nonlinear constraints. Thus, it is impossible to use conventional MINLP solvers using derivatives of equations. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is employed. The ethylene oxide plant is illustrated to verify the efficacy of this study.

  9. Fourier-based layout for grating function structure in spatial filtering velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeper, M.; Damaschke, N.

    2017-04-01

    Optical spatial filtering velocimetry (SFV) has been used for several decades for velocity measurements. Since the 1990s, charge-coupled device (CCD) line sensors have been used for the realization of spatial filtering systems by the inherent implementation of grating functions using a specialized clock regime. Another approach is the realization of optical SFV systems by utilizing array detectors (CCD or CMOS) with software-implemented grating functions, especially for two-dimensional velocity measurements. Choosing a suitable grating function for the observed scene can be an obstacle when using SFV, and relies on the experience of the user. With this in mind, this contribution presents an overview of how to assemble an optical spatial filtering system. After a general description of signal generation in spatial filtering systems, a straightforward approach to identifying matching harmonic grating functions by using Fourier analysis is presented. This approach has particular advantages for observed scenes with a periodically structured pattern, which were problematic when using SFV in connection with a fixed grating function. Matching periods of harmonic grating functions can be found as peaks in the spectral density distribution of the imaged scene. Once a matching grating function has been found, the signal processing can be made with SFV, which is simpler than calculating the cross-correlation of full frames and is suitable for real-time application. Criteria for the layout of an array-detector-based spatial filtering velocimeter are then discussed.

  10. Real-time text extraction based on the page layout analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soua, M.; Benchekroun, A.; Kachouri, R.; Akil, M.

    2017-05-01

    Several approaches were proposed in order to extract text from scanned documents. However, text extraction in heterogeneous documents stills a real challenge. Indeed, text extraction in this context is a difficult task because of the variation of the text due to the differences of sizes, styles and orientations, as well as to the complexity of the document region background. Recently, we have proposed the improved hybrid binarization based on Kmeans method (I-HBK)5 to extract suitably the text from heterogeneous documents. In this method, the Page Layout Analysis (PLA), part of the Tesseract OCR engine, is used to identify text and image regions. Afterwards our hybrid binarization is applied separately on each kind of regions. In one side, gamma correction is employed before to process image regions. In the other side, binarization is performed directly on text regions. Then, a foreground and background color study is performed to correct inverted region colors. Finally, characters are located from the binarized regions based on the PLA algorithm. In this work, we extend the integration of the PLA algorithm within the I-HBK method. In addition, to speed up the separation of text and image step, we employ an efficient GPU acceleration. Through the performed experiments, we demonstrate the high F-measure accuracy of the PLA algorithm reaching 95% on the LRDE dataset. In addition, we illustrate the sequential and the parallel compared PLA versions. The obtained results give a speedup of 3.7x when comparing the parallel PLA implementation on GPU GTX 660 to the CPU version.

  11. Process Mining-Based Method of Designing and Optimizing the Layouts of Emergency Departments in Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rismanchian, Farhood; Lee, Young Hoon

    2017-07-01

    This article proposes an approach to help designers analyze complex care processes and identify the optimal layout of an emergency department (ED) considering several objectives simultaneously. These objectives include minimizing the distances traveled by patients, maximizing design preferences, and minimizing the relocation costs. Rising demand for healthcare services leads to increasing demand for new hospital buildings as well as renovating existing ones. Operations management techniques have been successfully applied in both manufacturing and service industries to design more efficient layouts. However, high complexity of healthcare processes makes it challenging to apply these techniques in healthcare environments. Process mining techniques were applied to address the problem of complexity and to enhance healthcare process analysis. Process-related information, such as information about the clinical pathways, was extracted from the information system of an ED. A goal programming approach was then employed to find a single layout that would simultaneously satisfy several objectives. The layout identified using the proposed method improved the distances traveled by noncritical and critical patients by 42.2% and 47.6%, respectively, and minimized the relocation costs. This study has shown that an efficient placement of the clinical units yields remarkable improvements in the distances traveled by patients.

  12. Lossless compression algorithm for hierarchical IC layout data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2007-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). While OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it also significantly increases IC layout file size. This has the undesirable side effect of increasing storage, processing, and I.O. times for subsequent steps of mask preparation. To alleviate the growing volume of layout data, a new layout data format, Open Artwork System Interchange Standard (OASIS), was introduced in 2001 by SEMI's Data Path Task Force. Even though OASIS results in a more efficient representation than the previous industry standard format GDSII, there is still room for improvement by applying data compression techniques. In this paper, we propose two such techniques for compressing layout data, including OPC layout, while remaining complaint with existing industry standard formats such as OASIS and GDSII. Such compliance ensures that the resulting compressed files can be viewed, edited, and manipulated by industry standard CAD viewing and editing tools without the need for a decoder. Our approach is to eliminate redundancies in the representation of the geometrical data by finding repeating groups of geometries between multiple cells and within a cell. We refer to the former as "inter-cell sub-cell detection (InterSCD)" and latter as "intra-cell sub-cell detection (IntraSCD)". We show both problems to be NP hard, and propose two sets of heuristics to solve them. For OPC layout data, we also propose a fast compression method based on IntraSCD which utilizes the hierarchical information in the pre-OPC layout data. We show that the IntraSCD approach can also be effective in reconstructing hierarchy from flattened layout data. We demonstrate the results of our proposed algorithms on actual IC layouts for 90nm, 130nm, and 180nm feature size circuit designs.

  13. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference.

  14. Maximization of the annual energy production of wind power plants by optimization of layout and yaw-based wake control: Maximization of wind plant AEP by optimization of layout and wake control

    SciTech Connect

    Gebraad, Pieter; Thomas, Jared J.; Ning, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Dykes, Katherine

    2016-05-24

    This paper presents a wind plant modeling and optimization tool that enables the maximization of wind plant annual energy production (AEP) using yaw-based wake steering control and layout changes. The tool is an extension of a wake engineering model describing the steady-state effects of yaw on wake velocity profiles and power productions of wind turbines in a wind plant. To make predictions of a wind plant's AEP, necessary extensions of the original wake model include coupling it with a detailed rotor model and a control policy for turbine blade pitch and rotor speed. This enables the prediction of power production with wake effects throughout a range of wind speeds. We use the tool to perform an example optimization study on a wind plant based on the Princess Amalia Wind Park. In this case study, combined optimization of layout and wake steering control increases AEP by 5%. The power gains from wake steering control are highest for region 1.5 inflow wind speeds, and they continue to be present to some extent for the above-rated inflow wind speeds. The results show that layout optimization and wake steering are complementary because significant AEP improvements can be achieved with wake steering in a wind plant layout that is already optimized to reduce wake losses.

  15. Rapid graph layout using space filling curves.

    PubMed

    Muelder, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    Network data frequently arises in a wide variety of fields, and node-link diagrams are a very natural and intuitive representation of such data. In order for a node-link diagram to be effective, the nodes must be arranged well on the screen. While many graph layout algorithms exist for this purpose, they often have limitations such as high computational complexity or node colocation. This paper proposes a new approach to graph layout through the use of space filling curves which is very fast and guarantees that there will be no nodes that are colocated. The resulting layout is also aesthetic and satisfies several criteria for graph layout effectiveness.

  16. TopoLayout: multilevel graph layout by topological features.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Daniel; Munzner, Tamara; Auber, David

    2007-01-01

    We describe TopoLayout, a feature-based, multilevel algorithm that draws undirected graphs based on the topological features they contain. Topological features are detected recursively inside the graph, and their subgraphs are collapsed into single nodes, forming a graph hierarchy. Each feature is drawn with an algorithm tuned for its topology. As would be expected from a feature-based approach, the runtime and visual quality of TopoLayout depends on the number and types of topological features present in the graph. We show experimental results comparing speed and visual quality for TopoLayout against four other multilevel algorithms on a variety of data sets with a range of connectivities and sizes. TopoLayout frequently improves the results in terms of speed and visual quality on these data sets.

  17. PXIE Optics and Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Shteynas, B.G.; Solyak, N.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) will serve as a prototype for the Project X front end. The aim is to validate the Project-X design and to decrease technical risks mainly related to the front end. The paper discusses the main requirements and constraints motivating the facility layout and optics. Final adjustments to the Project X front end design, if needed, will be based on operational experience gained with PXIE.

  18. Fast dual graph-based hotspot detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong; Xu, Xu

    2006-10-01

    As advanced technologies in wafer manufacturing push patterning processes toward lower-k I subwavelength printing, lithography for mass production potentially suffers from decreased patterning fidelity. This results in generation of many hotspots, which are actual device patterns with relatively large CD and image errors with respect to on-wafer targets. Hotspots can be formed under a variety of conditions such as the original design being unfriendly to the RET that is applied, unanticipated pattern combinations in rule-based OPC, or inaccuracies in model-based OPC. When these hotspots fall on locations that are critical to the electrical performance of a device, device performance and parametric yield can be significantly degraded. Previous rule-based hotspot detection methods suffer from long runtimes for complicated patterns. Also, the model generation process that captures process variation within simulation-based approaches brings significant overheads in terms of validation, measurement and parameter calibration. In this paper, we first describe a novel detection algorithm for hotspots induced by lithographic uncertainty. Our goal is to rapidly detect all lithographic hotspots without significant accuracy degradation. In other words, we propose a filtering method: as long as there are no "false negatives", i.e., we successfully have a superset of actual hotspots, then our method can dramatically reduce the layout area for golden hotspot analysis. The first step of our hotspot detection algorithm is to build a layout graph which reflects pattern-related CD variation. Given a layout L, the layout graph G = (V, E c union E p) consists of nodes V, corner edges E c and proximity edges E p. A face in the layout graph includes several close features and the edges between them. Edge weight can be calculated from a traditional 2-D model or a lookup table. We then apply a three-level hotspot detection: (1) edge-level detection finds the hotspot caused by two close

  19. Improvement of production layout based on optimum production balancing scale results by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsan, Siregar; Ulina Anastasia Sipangkar, Tri; Prasetio, Aji

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted at a make to order production system company which is engaged in the car body of the vehicle. One of the products produced is dump truck which is one kind of transportation for the transport of goods equipped with hydraulics to facilitate goods’ loading and unloading process. The company has 7 work stations with different cycle times. Companies often experience delays in order delivery. The production process on the production floor has not been done optimally where there is a build up of work in process in some work centres. The build up of work in process (WIP) products is seen in the welding and painting stations. Stacking that occurs on the production line may cause the company to be liable for damages due to delays in product completion. The WIP occurs due to unbalanced paths can be seen from the variance of cycle time of each station is very diverse. The time difference of each work element is due to the allocation of work elements to each work centre unevenly. On the basis of the allocation of uneven work elements, the dump truck assembly line is made. The analysis is done by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method to do the balancing of production line. The result of layout improvement by using systematic layout planning (SLP) method is change the composition of the work centre from 7 into 4 work centre which enables the movement of material to be more effective and efficient so that it can get an efficient and effective production trajectory and can solve existing problems. The result of the track balancing is then used as a guide in constructing a new layout based on the balancing result with the most optimum method.

  20. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  1. Discrete tuning concept for fiber-integrated lasers based on tailored FBG arrays and a theta cavity layout.

    PubMed

    Tiess, Tobias; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate a novel tuning concept for pulsed fiber-integrated lasers with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as a discrete and tailored spectral filter, as well as a modified laser design. Based on a theta cavity layout, the structural delay lines originating from the FBG array are balanced, enabling a constant repetition rate and stable pulse properties over the full tuning range. The emission wavelength is electrically tuned with respect to the filter properties based on an adapted temporal gating scheme using an acousto-optic modulator. This concept has been investigated with an Yb-doped fiber laser, demonstrating excellent emission properties with high signal contrast (>35  dB) and narrow linewidth (<150  pm) over a tuning range of 25 nm.

  2. On the suitability and development of layout templates for analog layout reuse and layout-aware synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Lopez, Rafael; Fernandez, Francisco V.; Rodriguez Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Accelerating the synthesis of increasingly complex analog integrated circuits is key to bridge the widening gap between what we can integrate and what we can design while meeting ever-tightening time-to-market constraints. It is a well-known fact in the semiconductor industry that such goal can only be attained by means of adequate CAD methodologies, techniques, and accompanying tools. This is particularly important in analog physical synthesis (a.k.a. layout generation), where large sensitivities of the circuit performances to the many subtle details of layout implementation (device matching, loading and coupling effects, reliability, and area features are of utmost importance to analog designers), render complete automation a truly challenging task. To approach the problem, two directions have been traditionally considered, knowledge-based and optimization-based, both with their own pros and cons. Besides, recently reported solutions oriented to speed up the overall design flow by means of reuse-based practices or by cutting off time-consuming, error-prone spins between electrical and layout synthesis (a technique known as layout-aware synthesis), rely on a outstandingly rapid yet efficient layout generation method. This paper analyses the suitability of procedural layout generation based on templates (a knowledge-based approach) by examining the requirements that both layout reuse and layout-aware solutions impose, and how layout templates face them. The ability to capture the know-how of experienced layout designers and the turnaround times for layout instancing are considered main comparative aspects in relation to other layout generation approaches. A discussion on the benefit-cost trade-off of using layout templates is also included. In addition to this analysis, the paper delves deeper into systematic techniques to develop fully reusable layout templates for analog circuits, either for a change of the circuit sizing (i.e., layout retargeting) or a change of

  3. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  4. Staking Terraces Online: A Terrace Layout Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Terrace construction in Missouri exceeded 3 million feet at a cost of over $8 million in 2008. Up to 50 % of the total construction and design time is spent on the terrace layout itself. A web-based computer program, MOTERR, has been developed to design terrace layouts. The program utilizes digital ...

  5. Lossless compression of VLSI layout image data.

    PubMed

    Dai, Vito; Zakhor, Avideh

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel lossless compression algorithm called Context Copy Combinatorial Code (C4), which integrates the advantages of two very disparate compression techniques: context-based modeling and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) style copying. While the algorithm can be applied to many lossless compression applications, such as document image compression, our primary target application has been lossless compression of integrated circuit layout image data. These images contain a heterogeneous mix of data: dense repetitive data better suited to LZ-style coding, and less dense structured data, better suited to context-based encoding. As part of C4, we have developed a novel binary entropy coding technique called combinatorial coding which is simultaneously as efficient as arithmetic coding, and as fast as Huffman coding. Compression results show C4 outperforms JBIG, ZIP, BZIP2, and two-dimensional LZ, and achieves lossless compression ratios greater than 22 for binary layout image data, and greater than 14 for gray-pixel image data.

  6. Heuristics for connectivity-based brain parcellation of SMA/pre-SMA through force-directed graph layout.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessandro; Cerliani, Leonardo; Nanetti, Luca; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2011-02-01

    We propose the use of force-directed graph layout as an explorative tool for connectivity-based brain parcellation studies. The method can be used as a heuristic to find the number of clusters intrinsically present in the data (if any) and to investigate their organisation. It provides an intuitive representation of the structure of the data and facilitates interactive exploration of properties of single seed voxels as well as relations among (groups of) voxels. We validate the method on synthetic data sets and we investigate the changes in connectivity in the supplementary motor cortex, a brain region whose parcellation has been previously investigated via connectivity studies. This region is supposed to present two easily distinguishable connectivity patterns, putatively denoted by SMA (supplementary motor area) and pre-SMA. Our method provides insights with respect to the connectivity patterns of the premotor cortex. These present a substantial variation among subjects, and their subdivision into two well-separated clusters is not always straightforward.

  7. Feasibility study, software design, layout and simulation of a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform machine for use in optical array interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boriakoff, Valentin; Chen, Wei

    1990-01-01

    The NASA-Cornell Univ.-Worcester Polytechnic Institute Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) chip based on the architecture of the systolic FFT computation as presented by Boriakoff is implemented into an operating device design. The kernel of the system, a systolic inner product floating point processor, was designed to be assembled into a systolic network that would take incoming data streams in pipeline fashion and provide an FFT output at the same rate, word by word. It was thoroughly simulated for proper operation, and it has passed a comprehensive set of tests showing no operational errors. The black box specifications of the chip, which conform to the initial requirements of the design as specified by NASA, are given. The five subcells are described and their high level function description, logic diagrams, and simulation results are presented. Some modification of the Read Only Memory (ROM) design were made, since some errors were found in it. Because a four stage pipeline structure was used, simulating such a structure is more difficult than an ordinary structure. Simulation methods are discussed. Chip signal protocols and chip pinout are explained.

  8. A Rule Based Approach to ISS Interior Volume Control and Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, Jim; Fitts, David; Dory, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Traditional human factors design involves the development of human factors requirements based on a desire to accommodate a certain percentage of the intended user population. As the product is developed human factors evaluation involves comparison between the resulting design and the specifications. Sometimes performance metrics are involved that allow leniency in the design requirements given that the human performance result is satisfactory. Clearly such approaches may work but they give rise to uncertainty and negotiation. An alternative approach is to adopt human factors design rules that articulate a range of each design continuum over which there are varying outcome expectations and interactions with other variables, including time. These rules are based on a consensus of human factors specialists, designers, managers and customers. The International Space Station faces exactly this challenge in interior volume control, which is based on anthropometric, performance and subjective preference criteria. This paper describes the traditional approach and then proposes a rule-based alternative. The proposed rules involve spatial, temporal and importance dimensions. If successful this rule-based concept could be applied to many traditional human factors design variables and could lead to a more effective and efficient contribution of human factors input to the design process.

  9. A comparison of user-generated and automatic graph layouts.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Lee, Bongshin; Fisher, Danyel; Quinn, Kori Inkpen; Isenberg, Petra; Robertson, George; North, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper compares user-generated and automatic graph layouts. Following the methods suggested by van Ham et al. (2008), a group of users generated graph layouts using both multi-touch interaction on a tabletop display and mouse interaction on a desktop computer. Users were asked to optimize their layout for aesthetics and analytical tasks with a social network. We discuss characteristics of the user-generated layouts and interaction methods employed by users in this process. We then report on a web-based study to compare these layouts with the output of popular automatic layout algorithms. Our results demonstrate that the best of the user-generated layouts performed as well as or better than the physics-based layout. Orthogonal and circular automatic layouts were found to be considerably less effective than either the physics-based layout or the best of the user-generated layouts. We highlight several attributes of the various layouts that led to high accuracy and improved task completion time, as well as aspects in which traditional automatic layout methods were unsuccessful for our tasks.

  10. Development of a Prediction Model Based on RBF Neural Network for Sheet Metal Fixture Locating Layout Design and Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqi; Yang, Bo; Kang, Yonggang; Yang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Fixture plays an important part in constraining excessive sheet metal part deformation at machining, assembly, and measuring stages during the whole manufacturing process. However, it is still a difficult and nontrivial task to design and optimize sheet metal fixture locating layout at present because there is always no direct and explicit expression describing sheet metal fixture locating layout and responding deformation. To that end, an RBF neural network prediction model is proposed in this paper to assist design and optimization of sheet metal fixture locating layout. The RBF neural network model is constructed by training data set selected by uniform sampling and finite element simulation analysis. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the proposed method.

  11. Placement with Symmetry Constraints for Analog IC Layout Design Based on Tree Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Natsumi; Fujiyoshi, Kunihiro

    Symmetry constrains are the constraints that the given cells should be placed symmetrically in design of analog ICs. We use O-tree to represent placements and propose a decoding algorithm which can obtain one of the minimum placements satisfying the constraints. The decoding algorithm uses linear programming, which is too much time consuming. Therefore we propose a graph based method to recognize if there exists no placement satisfying both the given symmetry and O-tree constraints, and use the method before application of linear programming. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by computational experiments.

  12. Gene regulatory network clustering for graph layout based on microarray gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kaname; Imoto, Seiya; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    We propose a statistical model realizing simultaneous estimation of gene regulatory network and gene module identification from time series gene expression data from microarray experiments. Under the assumption that genes in the same module are densely connected, the proposed method detects gene modules based on the variational Bayesian technique. The model can also incorporate existing biological prior knowledge such as protein subcellular localization. We apply the proposed model to the time series data from a synthetically generated network and verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed model is also applied the time series microarray data from HeLa cell. Detected gene module information gives the great help on drawing the estimated gene network.

  13. Solid-perforated panel layout optimization by topology optimization based on unified transfer matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yoon Young

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for the optimization of the sequencing of solid panels, perforated panels and air gaps and their respective thickness for maximizing sound transmission loss and/or absorption. For the optimization, a method based on the topology optimization formulation is proposed. It is difficult to employ only the commonly-used material interpolation technique because the involved layers exhibit fundamentally different acoustic behavior. Thus, an optimization method formulation using a so-called unified transfer matrix is newly proposed. The key idea is to form elements of the transfer matrix such that interpolated elements by the layer design variables can be those of air, perforated and solid panel layers. The problem related to the interpolation is addressed and bench mark-type problems such as sound transmission or absorption maximization problems are solved to check the efficiency of the developed method.

  14. Suggestions for Layout and Functional Behavior of Software-Based Voice Switch Keysets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides communication services for a number of real time environments, including Space Shuttle Propulsion support and International Space Station (ISS) payload operations. In such settings, control team members speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops. Each loop has a particular purpose and constituency, and users are assigned listen and/or talk capabilities for a given loop based on their role in fulfilling the purpose. A voice switch is a given facility's hardware and software that supports such communication, and may be interconnected with other facilities switches to create a large network that, from an end user perspective, acts like a single system. Since users typically monitor and/or respond to several voice loops concurrently for hours on end and real time operations can be very dynamic and intense, it s vital that a control panel or keyset for interfacing with the voice switch be a servant that reduces stress, not a master that adds it. Implementing the visual interface on a computer screen provides tremendous flexibility and configurability, but there s a very real risk of overcomplication. (Remember how office automation made life easier, which led to a deluge of documents that made life harder?) This paper a) discusses some basic human factors considerations related to keysets implemented as application software windows, b) suggests what to standardize at the facility level and what to leave to the user's preference, and c) provides screen shot mockups for a robust but reasonably simple user experience. Concepts apply to keyset needs in almost any type of operations control or support center.

  15. ILP-based co-optimization of cut mask layout, dummy fill, and timing for sub-14nm BEOL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwangsoo; Kahng, Andrew B.; Lee, Hyein; Wang, Lutong

    2015-10-01

    Self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP), due to its low overlay error, has emerged as the leading option for 1D gridded back-end-of-line (BEOL) in sub-14nm nodes. To form actual routing patterns from a uniform "sea of wires", a cut mask is needed for line-end cutting or realization of space between routing segments. Constraints on cut shapes and minimum cut spacing result in end-of-line (EOL) extensions and non-functional (i.e. dummy fill) patterns; the resulting capacitance and timing changes must be consistent with signoff performance analyses and their impacts should be minimized. In this work, we address the co-optimization of cut mask layout, dummy fill, and design timing for sub-14nm BEOL design. Our central contribution is an optimizer based on integer linear programming (ILP) to minimize the timing impact due to EOL extensions, considering (i) minimum cut spacing arising in sub-14nm nodes; (ii) cut assignment to different cut masks (color assignment); and (iii) the eligibility to merge two unit-size cuts into a bigger cut. We also propose a heuristic approach to remove dummy fills after the ILP-based optimization by extending the usage of cut masks. Our heuristic can improve critical path performance under minimum metal density and mask density constraints. In our experiments, we study the impact of number of cut masks, minimum cut spacing and metal density under various constraints. Our studies of optimized cut mask solutions in these varying contexts give new insight into the tradeoff of performance and cost that is afforded by cut mask patterning technology options.

  16. Fast Forwarding for Content-Based Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Fast Forwarding for Content-Based Networking Antonio Carzaniga Jing Deng Alexander L. Wolf Software Engineering Research Laboratory Department of...Computer Science Technical Report CU-CS-922-01 November 2001 c 2001 Antonio Carzaniga , Jing Deng, and Alexander L. Wolf Abstract This paper presents a...Proceedings of the 23th International Conference on Software Engineering, pages 443–452, Toronto, Canada, May 2001. [3] A. Carzaniga , D. S. Rosenblum

  17. Trends in Newspaper Layout and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiley, Kenneth C.; Erb, Lyle L.

    With the increasing competition from television in recent years, the newspaper industry has finally realized that it doesn't have the news field as its sole domain. The competition, especially from colored television, and the fast pace of contemporary society have influenced the layout and printing format of the national newspapers in several…

  18. CEV Seat Layout Evaluation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-15

    Photographic documentation of the CEV Seat Layout Evaluation taken in the Orion mockup located in bldg 9NW, Johnson Space Center (JSC). Test subjects in orange Launch and Entry Suit (LES) is visible in the seat.

  19. Layout pattern analysis using the Voronoi diagram of line segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sandeep Kumar; Cheilaris, Panagiotis; Gabrani, Maria; Papadopoulou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of problematic patterns in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs is of great value as the lithographic simulation tools face significant timing challenges. To reduce the processing time, such a tool selects only a fraction of possible patterns which have a probable area of failure, with the risk of missing some problematic patterns. We introduce a fast method to automatically extract patterns based on their structure and context, using the Voronoi diagram of line-segments as derived from the edges of VLSI design shapes. Designers put line segments around the problematic locations in patterns called "gauges," along which the critical distance is measured. The gauge center is the midpoint of a gauge. We first use the Voronoi diagram of VLSI shapes to identify possible problematic locations, represented as gauge centers. Then we use the derived locations to extract windows containing the problematic patterns from the design layout. The problematic locations are prioritized by the shape and proximity information of the design polygons. We perform experiments for pattern selection in a portion of a 22-nm random logic design layout. The design layout had 38,584 design polygons (consisting of 199,946 line segments) on layer Mx, and 7079 markers generated by an optical rule checker (ORC) tool. The optical rules specify requirements for printing circuits with minimum dimension. Markers are the locations of some optical rule violations in the layout. We verify our approach by comparing the coverage of our extracted patterns to the ORC-generated markers. We further derive a similarity measure between patterns and between layouts. The similarity measure helps to identify a set of representative gauges that reduces the number of patterns for analysis.

  20. Study on Soil Special Variability and Crops Optimal Layout Based on Gis in The West-Northern Plateau of Hebei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lixiao; Du, Xiong; Zhang, Jizong; Li, Cundong; Zhang, Lifeng

    A geo-statistics method combined with GIS was applied to study the soil special variation characteristics of a typical basin on the Northwestern Plateau of Hebei Province. It indicates that the rational crop layout is determined by the soil texture. And the crop layout optimization schemes were put forward for different production objectives based on the GIS platform with the soilcrops special co-adaptation. The results showed that basin altitude was the primary cause for the special variation of soil texture and nutrient content. The crop layout optimization schemes showed that the economic efficiency was increased by 26.9%~48.5% in large-scale of crop production, while the economic efficiency was increased by only 8.0%~8.5% with ecological construction of de-farming. It was concluded that the agricultural production progress should mostly rely on the renovation of farming organization systemand the scale of economy should be the primary impetus for agricultural development in the Northwestern Plateau of Hebei Province.

  1. Hi-trees and their layout.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  2. Feasibility study, software design, layout and simulation of a two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform machine for use in optical array interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boriakoff, Valentin

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was the feasibility study of a particular architecture of a digital signal processing machine operating in real time which could do in a pipeline fashion the computation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time-domain sampled complex digital data stream. The particular architecture makes use of simple identical processors (called inner product processors) in a linear organization called a systolic array. Through computer simulation the new architecture to compute the FFT with systolic arrays was proved to be viable, and computed the FFT correctly and with the predicted particulars of operation. Integrated circuits to compute the operations expected of the vital node of the systolic architecture were proven feasible, and even with a 2 micron VLSI technology can execute the required operations in the required time. Actual construction of the integrated circuits was successful in one variant (fixed point) and unsuccessful in the other (floating point).

  3. Application of layout DOE in RET flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; van Adrichem, Paul; Li, Ji; Yang, Amy; Lucas, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    At low k1 lithography and strong off-axis illumination, it is very hard to achieve edge-placement tolerances and 2-D image fidelity requirements for some layout configurations. Quite often these layouts are within simple design rules constraint for a given technology node. Evidently it is important to have these layouts included during early RET flow development. Simple shrinkage from previous technology node is quite common, although often not enough. For logic designs, it is hard to control design styles. Moreover for engineers in fabless design groups, it is difficult to assess the manufacturability of their layouts because of the lack of understanding of the litho process. Assist features (AF) are frequently placed according to pre-determined rules to improve lithography process window. These rules are usually derived from lithographic models. Direct validation of AF rules is required at development phase.To ensure good printability through process window, process aware optical proximity correction (OPC) recipes were developed. Generally rules based correction is performed before model based correction. Furthermore, there are also lots of other options and parameters in OPC recipes for an advanced technology, thus making it difficult to holistically optimize performance of recipe bearing all these variables in mind. In this paper we demonstrate the application of layout DOE in RET flow development. Layout pattern libraries are generated using the Synopsys Test Pattern Generator (STPG), which is embedded in a layout tool (ICWB). Assessment gauges are generated together with patterns for quick correction accuracy assessment. OPC verification through full process is also deployed. Several groups of test pattern libraries for different applications are developed, ranging from simple 1D pattern for process capability study and settings of process aware parameters to a full set of patterns for the assessment of rules based correction, line end and corner interaction

  4. Research study: Device technology STAR router user's guide. [automated layout of large scale integration discretionary interconnection masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The STAR Router program developed to perform automated layout of LSI discretionary interconnection masks is described. The input and output for the router are standard PR2D data files. A state-of-the-art cellular path-finding procedure, based on Lee's algorithm, which produces fast, shortest distance routing of microcircuit net data is included.

  5. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    SciTech Connect

    C.L. Linden

    2000-06-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

  6. A GIS-based approach: Influence of the ventilation layout to the environmental conditions in an underground mine.

    PubMed

    Bascompta, Marc; Castañón, Ana María; Sanmiquel, Lluís; Oliva, Josep

    2016-11-01

    Gases such as CO, CO2 or NOx are constantly generated by the equipment in any underground mine and the ventilation layout can play an important role in keeping low concentrations in the working faces. Hence, a method able to control the workplace environment is crucial. This paper proposes a geographical information system (GIS) for such goal. The system created provides the necessary tools to manage and analyse an underground environment, connecting pollutants and temperatures with the ventilation characteristics over time. Data concerning the ventilation system, in a case study, has been taken every month since 2009 and integrated into the management system, which has quantified the gasses concentration throughout the mine due to the characteristics and evolution of the ventilation layout. Three different zones concerning CO, CO2, NOx and effective temperature have been found as well as some variations among workplaces within the same zone that suggest local airflow recirculations. The system proposed could be a useful tool to improve the workplace conditions and efficiency levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic response of a carbon nanotube-based rotary nano device with different carbon-hydrogen bonding layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hang; Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Gao, Zhaoliang; Chen, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    In a nano rotational transmission system (RTS) which consists of a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as the motor and a coaxially arranged double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) as a bearing, the interaction between the motor and the rotor in bearing, which has great effects on the response of the RTS, is determined by their adjacent edges. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the interaction is analyzed when the adjacent edges have different carbon-hydrogen (Csbnd H) bonding layouts. In the computational models, the rotor in bearing and the motor with a specific input rotational speed are made from the same armchair SWCNT. Simulation results demonstrate that a perfect rotational transmission could happen when the motor and rotor have the same Csbnd H bonding layout on their adjacent ends. If only half or less of the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are bonded with hydrogen atoms, the strong attraction between the lower speed (100 GHz) motor and rotor leads to a synchronous rotational transmission. If only the motor or the rotor has Csbnd H bonds on their adjacent ends, no rotational transmission happens due to weak interaction between the bonded hydrogen atoms on one end with the sp1 bonded carbon atoms on the other end.

  8. Automatic layout and visualization of biclusters

    PubMed Central

    Grothaus, Gregory A; Mufti, Adeel; Murali, TM

    2006-01-01

    Background Biclustering has emerged as a powerful algorithmic tool for analyzing measurements of gene expression. A number of different methods have emerged for computing biclusters in gene expression data. Many of these algorithms may output a very large number of biclusters with varying degrees of overlap. There are no systematic methods that create a two-dimensional layout of the computed biclusters and display overlaps between them. Results We develop a novel algorithm for laying out biclusters in a two-dimensional matrix whose rows (respectively, columns) are rows (respectively, columns) of the original dataset. We display each bicluster as a contiguous submatrix in the layout. We allow the layout to have repeated rows and/or columns from the original matrix as required, but we seek a layout of the smallest size. We also develop a web-based search interface for the user to query the genes and samples of interest and visualise the layout of biclusters matching the queries. Conclusion We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach on gene expression data for two types of leukaemia and on protein-DNA binding data for two growth conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The software implementing the layout algorithm is available at . PMID:16952321

  9. Fast Beam-Based BPM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K.; Loos, H.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Peters, F.; /SLAC

    2012-10-15

    The Alignment Diagnostic System (ADS) of the LCLS undulator system indicates that the 33 undulator quadrupoles have extremely high position stability over many weeks. However, beam trajectory straightness and lasing efficiency degrade more quickly than this. A lengthy Beam Based Alignment (BBA) procedure must be executed every two to four weeks to re-optimize the X-ray beam parameters. The undulator system includes RF cavity Beam Position Monitors (RFBPMs), several of which are utilized by an automatic feedback system to align the incoming electron-beam trajectory to the undulator axis. The beam trajectory straightness degradation has been traced to electronic drifts of the gain and offset of the BPMs used in the beam feedback system. To quickly recover the trajectory straightness, we have developed a fast beam-based procedure to recalibrate the BPMs. This procedure takes advantage of the high-precision monitoring capability of the ADS, which allows highly repeatable positioning of undulator quadrupoles. This report describes the ADS, the position stability of the LCLS undulator quadrupoles, and some results of the new recovery procedure.

  10. Fast diffraction computation algorithms based on FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logofatu, Petre Catalin; Nascov, Victor; Apostol, Dan

    2010-11-01

    The discovery of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm by Cooley and Tukey meant for diffraction computation what the invention of computers meant for computation in general. The computation time reduction is more significant for large input data, but generally FFT reduces the computation time with several orders of magnitude. This was the beginning of an entire revolution in optical signal processing and resulted in an abundance of fast algorithms for diffraction computation in a variety of situations. The property that allowed the creation of these fast algorithms is that, as it turns out, most diffraction formulae contain at their core one or more Fourier transforms which may be rapidly calculated using the FFT. The key in discovering a new fast algorithm is to reformulate the diffraction formulae so that to identify and isolate the Fourier transforms it contains. In this way, the fast scaled transformation, the fast Fresnel transformation and the fast Rayleigh-Sommerfeld transform were designed. Remarkable improvements were the generalization of the DFT to scaled DFT which allowed freedom to choose the dimensions of the output window for the Fraunhofer-Fourier and Fresnel diffraction, the mathematical concept of linearized convolution which thwarts the circular character of the discrete Fourier transform and allows the use of the FFT, and last but not least the linearized discrete scaled convolution, a new concept of which we claim priority.

  11. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  12. Research on the optimization of air quality monitoring station layout based on spatial grid statistical analysis method.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Zhou, Xing Chen; Ikhumhen, Harrison Odion; Difei, An

    2017-05-25

    In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012 to 2014, the monthly mean particulate matter concentration (PM10) in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced. The spatial distribution variation of districts in Beijing using the gridding model was performed, and through the 3-year spatial analysis, PM10 concentration data including the variation and spatial overlay (1.5 km × 1.5 km cell resolution grid), the spatial distribution result obtained showed that the total PM10 concentration frequency variation exceeded the standard. It is very important to optimize the layout of the existing air monitoring stations by combining the concentration distribution of air pollutants with the spatial region using GIS.

  13. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  14. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  15. Automatic page layout using genetic algorithms for electronic albuming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geigel, Joe; Loui, Alexander C. P.

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a flexible system for automatic page layout that makes use of genetic algorithms for albuming applications. The system is divided into two modules, a page creator module which is responsible for distributing images amongst various album pages, and an image placement module which positions images on individual pages. Final page layouts are specified in a textual form using XML for printing or viewing over the Internet. The system makes use of genetic algorithms, a class of search and optimization algorithms that are based on the concepts of biological evolution, for generating solutions with fitness based on graphic design preferences supplied by the user. The genetic page layout algorithm has been incorporated into a web-based prototype system for interactive page layout over the Internet. The prototype system is built using client-server architecture and is implemented in java. The system described in this paper has demonstrated the feasibility of using genetic algorithms for automated page layout in albuming and web-based imaging applications. We believe that the system adequately proves the validity of the concept, providing creative layouts in a reasonable number of iterations. By optimizing the layout parameters of the fitness function, we hope to further improve the quality of the final layout in terms of user preference and computation speed.

  16. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  17. Representation and Perception of Scenic Layout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanocki, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive approach to on-line spatial perception within scenes. A theoretical framework is developed, based on the idea that experience with a scene can activate a complex representation of layout that facilitates subsequent processing of spatial relations within the scene. The representations integrate significant, relevant…

  18. Extensible layout in functional documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

    2006-02-01

    Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

  19. Interactive layout mechanisms for image database retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    MacCuish, J.; McPherson, A.; Barros, J.; Kelly, P.

    1996-01-29

    In this paper we present a user interface, CANDID Camera, for image retrieval using query-by-example technology. Included in the interface are several new layout algorithms based on multidimensional scaling techniques that visually display global and local relationships between images within a large image database. We use the CANDID project algorithms to create signatures of the images, and then measure the dissimilarity between the signatures. The layout algorithms are of two types. The first are those that project the all-pairs dissimilarities to two dimensions, presenting a many-to-many relationship for a global view of the entire database. The second are those that relate a query image to a small set of matched images for a one-to-many relationship that provides a local inspection of the image relationships. Both types are based on well-known multidimensional scaling techniques that have been modified and used together for efficiency and effectiveness. They include nonlinear projection and classical projection. The global maps are hybrid algorithms using classical projection together with nonlinear projection. We have developed several one-to-many layouts based on a radial layout, also using modified nonlinear and classical projection.

  20. Interactive layout mechanisms for image database retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCuish, John; McPherson, Allen; Barros, Julio E.; Kelly, Patrick M.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a user interface, CANDID Camera, for image retrieval using query- by-example technology. Included in the interface are several new layout algorithms based on multidimensional scaling techniques that visually display global and local relationships between images within a large image database. We use the CANDID project algorithms to create signatures of the images, and then measure the dissimilarity between the signatures. The layout algorithms are of two types. The first are those that project the all-pairs dissimilarities to two dimensions, presenting a many-to-many relationship for a global view of the entire database. The second are those that relate a query image to a small set of matched images for a one-to-many relationship that provides a local inspection of the image relationships. Both types are based on well-known multidimensional scaling techniques that have been modified and used together for efficiency and effectiveness. They include nonlinear projection and classical projection. The global maps are hybrid algorithms using classical projection together with nonlinear projection. We have developed several one-to-many layouts based on a radial layout, also using modified nonlinear and classical projection.

  1. Game level layout generation using evolved cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Andrew; Masek, Martin; Lam, Chiou-Peng; Hingston, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Design of level layouts typically involves the production of a set of levels which are different, yet display a consistent style based on the purpose of a particular level. In this paper, a new approach to the generation of unique level layouts, based on a target set of attributes, is presented. These attributes, which are learned automatically from an example layout, are used for the off-line evolution of a set of cellular automata rules. These rules can then be used for the real-time generation of level layouts that meet the target parameters. The approach is demonstrated on a set of maze-like level layouts. Results are presented to show the effect of various CA parameters and rule representation.

  2. Topology-optimized metasurfaces: impact of initial geometric layout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianji; Fan, Jonathan A

    2017-08-15

    Topology optimization is a powerful iterative inverse design technique in metasurface engineering and can transform an initial layout into a high-performance device. With this method, devices are optimized within a local design phase space, making the identification of suitable initial geometries essential. In this Letter, we examine the impact of initial geometric layout on the performance of large-angle (75 deg) topology-optimized metagrating deflectors. We find that when conventional metasurface designs based on dielectric nanoposts are used as initial layouts for topology optimization, the final devices have efficiencies around 65%. In contrast, when random initial layouts are used, the final devices have ultra-high efficiencies that can reach 94%. Our numerical experiments suggest that device topologies based on conventional metasurface designs may not be suitable to produce ultra-high-efficiency, large-angle metasurfaces. Rather, initial geometric layouts with non-trivial topologies and shapes are required.

  3. Fast pixel-based optical proximity correction based on nonparametric kernel regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xu; Wu, Bingliang; Song, Zhiyang; Jiang, Shangliang; Li, Yanqiu

    2014-10-01

    Optical proximity correction (OPC) is a resolution enhancement technique extensively used in the semiconductor industry to improve the resolution and pattern fidelity of optical lithography. In pixel-based OPC (PBOPC), the layout is divided into small pixels, which are then iteratively modified until the simulated print image on the wafer matches the desired pattern. However, the increasing complexity and size of modern integrated circuits make PBOPC techniques quite computationally intensive. This paper focuses on developing a practical and efficient PBOPC algorithm based on a nonparametric kernel regression, a well-known technique in machine learning. Specifically, we estimate the OPC patterns based on the geometric characteristics of the original layout corresponding to the same region and a series of training examples. Experimental results on metal layers show that our proposed approach significantly improves the speed of a current professional PBOPC software by a factor of 2 to 3, and may further reduce the mask complexity.

  4. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  5. Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE): An efficient optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Navid; Sabaghzadeh, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    For finding the optimum layout of spacecraft subsystems, important factors such as the center of gravity, moments of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies, etc. should be taken into account. This large number of effective parameters makes the optimum layout process of spacecraft subsystems complex and time consuming. In this paper, an automatic tool, based on multi-objective optimization methods, is proposed for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems. In this regard, an efficient Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE) is produced by integration of some modeling, FEM, and optimization software. SCALE automatically provides optimal solutions for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems with considering important constraints such as center of gravity, moment of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies and structural strength. In order to show the superiority and efficiency of SCALE, layout of a telecommunication spacecraft and a remote sensing spacecraft are performed. The results show that, the objective functions values for obtained layouts by using SCALE are in a much better condition than traditional one i.e. Reference Baseline Solution (RBS) which is proposed by the engineering system team. This indicates the good performance and ability of SCALE for finding the optimal layout of spacecraft subsystems.

  6. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  7. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  8. Highly reliable data layout schemes for very large scale storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongjian; Zhong, Haifeng; Wu, Wei

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate data layout schemes and their impact on system reliability in a petabyte scale storage system built from thousands of Object-Based Storage Devices. We delve in two underlying data layout schemes: RAID 5 and RAID 5 mirroring. To accelerate data reconstruction, Fast Mirroring Copy is employed where the reconstructed objects are stored on different OBSDs throughout the system. In order to improve the system reliability, SMART Reliability Mechanism (SRM) is introduced for enhancing the reliability in very large-scale storage system. Analysis results show that they can be used to assure the reliability of data storage and efficiently utilize the disk resource while exert minimum impact on the whole systems performance.

  9. Location selection and layout for LB10, a lunar base at the Lunar North Pole with a liquid mirror observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Doule, Ondrej; Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2013-04-01

    We present the site selection process and urban planning of a Lunar Base for a crew of 10 (LB10), with an infrared astronomical telescope, based on the concept of the Lunar LIquid Mirror Telescope. LB10 is a base designated for permanent human presence on the Moon. The base architecture is based on utilization of inflatable, rigid and regolith structures for different purposes. The location for the settlement is identified through a detailed analysis of surface conditions and terrain parameters around the Lunar North and South Poles. A number of selection criteria were defined regarding construction, astronomical observations, landing and illumination conditions. The location suggested for the settlement is in the vicinity of the North Pole, utilizing the geographical morphology of the area. The base habitat is on a highly illuminated and relatively flat plateau. The observatory in the vicinity of the base, approximately 3.5 kilometers from the Lunar North Pole, inside a crater to shield it from Sunlight. An illustration of the final form of the habitat is also depicted, inspired by the baroque architectural form.

  10. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  11. Design & layout of recreation facilities

    Treesearch

    Howard R. Orr

    1971-01-01

    Design and layout of recreation facilities is a problem solving process that must be divorced from the emotionalism that has shrouded outdoor recreation and must deal deliberately with the growing information concerning people and natural resources.

  12. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  13. Process, design rule, and layout co-optimization for DSA based patterning of sub-10nm Finfet devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Joydeep; Torres, Andres; Pan, David Z.

    2017-03-01

    Directed Self Assembly (DSA) has emerged as one of the most compelling next generation patterning techniques for sub-7nm via or contact layers. A key issue in enabling DSA as a mainstream patterning technique is the generation of grapho-epitaxy based guiding pattern (GP) shapes to assemble the contact patterns on target with high fidelity and resolution. Current GP generation is mostly empirical, and limited to a very small number of via configurations. In this paper, we propose the first model-based GP synthesis algorithm and methodology for on-target and robust DSA, on general via pattern configurations. The final post-RET printed GPs derived from our original synthesized GPs are resilient to process variations and continue to maintain the same DSA fidelity in terms of placement error and target shape.

  14. Very large scale integration: computer aided layout and design. 1979-March, 1983 (Citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities Data Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning computer aided layout and design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits. Included are algorithms and languages for layout and design procedures. The computer aids provide for architectural design, for entering and verifying or editing the VLSI circuits and for topology developed for the architecture. Some citations reference color graphics to assist in differentiating among layers, and others discuss means of dealing with the architectural complexity, or techniques to minimize the complexity. (Contains 257 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1984) The Contractor shall lay out its work from Government-established base lines and bench marks indicated on the drawings, and shall be responsible for all measurements in connection with the layout....

  16. 9. Heating & Plumbing layout. This is the only extant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Heating & Plumbing layout. This is the only extant technical drawing showing the floor plan of this building. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  17. Lithium-niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Groellmann, Peter; Mutter, Gerhard

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a lithium niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here as 'Digi- MIOC' (digital-electroded multifunction integrated optic chip, which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting microfiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to-electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) - FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power, and high reliabliity are also highlighted.

  18. Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Spatial Layout Information in Brain Tumor T1-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images. PMID:25028970

  19. Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Barrett, Anthony; Vatan, Farrokh; Mackey, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Two improved new methods for automated diagnosis of complex engineering systems involve the use of novel algorithms that are more efficient than prior algorithms used for the same purpose. Both the recently developed algorithms and the prior algorithms in question are instances of model-based diagnosis, which is based on exploring the logical inconsistency between an observation and a description of a system to be diagnosed. As engineering systems grow more complex and increasingly autonomous in their functions, the need for automated diagnosis increases concomitantly. In model-based diagnosis, the function of each component and the interconnections among all the components of the system to be diagnosed (for example, see figure) are represented as a logical system, called the system description (SD). Hence, the expected behavior of the system is the set of logical consequences of the SD. Faulty components lead to inconsistency between the observed behaviors of the system and the SD. The task of finding the faulty components (diagnosis) reduces to finding the components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the inconsistencies. Of course, the meaningful solution should be a minimal set of faulty components (called a minimal diagnosis), because the trivial solution, in which all components are assumed to be faulty, always explains all inconsistencies. Although the prior algorithms in question implement powerful methods of diagnosis, they are not practical because they essentially require exhaustive searches among all possible combinations of faulty components and therefore entail the amounts of computation that grow exponentially with the number of components of the system.

  20. Lithium niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Kemmler, Manfred W.; Spahlinger, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a Lithium Niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here to as 'Digi-MIOC', which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting micro fiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. As a consequence of this work, it has been possible for LITEF to cost effectively mass produce Digi-MIOCs. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to- electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) -FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power and high reliability are also highlighted.

  1. GPU-based fast gamma index calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuejun; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-03-01

    The γ-index dose comparison tool has been widely used to compare dose distributions in cancer radiotherapy. The accurate calculation of γ-index requires an exhaustive search of the closest Euclidean distance in the high-resolution dose-distance space. This is a computational intensive task when dealing with 3D dose distributions. In this work, we combine a geometric method (Ju et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 879-87) with a radial pre-sorting technique (Wendling et al 2007 Med. Phys. 34 1647-54) and implement them on computer graphics processing units (GPUs). The developed GPU-based γ-index computational tool is evaluated on eight pairs of IMRT dose distributions. The γ-index calculations can be finished within a few seconds for all 3D testing cases on one single NVIDIA Tesla C1060 card, achieving 45-75× speedup compared to CPU computations conducted on an Intel Xeon 2.27 GHz processor. We further investigated the effect of various factors on both CPU and GPU computation time. The strategy of pre-sorting voxels based on their dose difference values speeds up the GPU calculation by about 2.7-5.5 times. For n-dimensional dose distributions, γ-index calculation time on CPU is proportional to the summation of γn over all voxels, while that on GPU is affected by γn distributions and is approximately proportional to the γn summation over all voxels. We found that increasing the resolution of dose distributions leads to a quadratic increase of computation time on CPU, while less-than-quadratic increase on GPU. The values of dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria also have an impact on γ-index calculation time.

  2. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  3. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  4. Ultrasensitive and Fast All-Inorganic Perovskite-Based Photodetector via Fast Carrier Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Fengying; Chen, Junsheng; Yang, Songqiu; Xia, Xusheng; Pullerits, Tõnu; Deng, Weiqiao; Han, Keli

    2017-09-01

    Low trap-state density, high carrier mobility, and efficient charge carrier collection are key parameters for photodetectors with high sensitivity and fast response time. This study demonstrates a simple solution growth method to prepare CsPbBr3 microcrystals (MCs) with low trap-state density. Time-dependent photoluminescence study with one-photon excitation (OPE) and two-photon excitation (TPE) indicates that CsPbBr3 MCs exhibit fast carrier diffusion with carrier mobility over 100 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) . Furthermore, CsPbBr3 MC-based photodetectors with high charge carriers' collection efficiency are fabricated. Such photodetectors show ultrahigh responsivity (R) up to 6 × 10(4) A W(-1) with OPE and high R up to 6 A W(-1) with TPE. The R for OPE is over one order of magnitude higher (the R for TPE is three orders of magnitude higher) than that of previously reported all-inorganic perovskite-based photodetectors. Moreover, the photodetectors exhibit fast response time of ≈1 ms, which corresponds to a gain ≈10(5) and a gain- bandwidth product of 10(8) Hz for OPE (a gain ≈10(3) and a gain-bandwidth product of 10(6) Hz for TPE). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Predicting the effect of seine rope layout pattern and haul-in procedure on the effectiveness of demersal seine fishing: A Computer simulation-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Nina A. H.; Aarsæther, Karl G.; Herrmann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Demersal Seining is an active fishing method applying two long seine ropes and a seine net. Demersal seining relies on fish responding to the seine rope as it moves during the fishing process. The seine ropes and net are deployed in a specific pattern encircling an area on the seabed. In some variants of demersal seining the haul-in procedure includes a towing phase where the fishing vessel moves forward before starting to winch in the seine ropes. The initial seine rope encircled area, the gradual change in it during the haul-in process and the fish's reaction to the moving seine ropes play an important role in the catch performance of demersal seine fishing. The current study investigates this subject by applying computer simulation models for demersal seine fishing. The demersal seine fishing is dynamic in nature and therefore a dynamic model, SeineSolver is applied for simulating the physical behaviour of the seine ropes during the fishing process. Information about the seine rope behaviour is used as input to another simulation tool, SeineFish that predicts the catch performance of the demersal seine fishing process. SeineFish implements a simple model for how fish at the seabed reacts to an approaching seine rope. Here, the SeineSolver and SeineFish tools are applied to investigate catching performance for a Norwegian demersal seine fishery targeting cod (Gadus morhua) in the coastal zone. The effect of seine rope layout pattern and the duration of the towing phase are investigated. Among the four different layout patterns investigated, the square layout pattern was predicted to perform best; catching 69%-86% more fish than would be obtained with the rectangular layout pattern. Inclusion of a towing phase in the fishing process was found to increase the catch performance for all layout patterns. For the square layout pattern, inclusion of a towing phase of 15 or 35 minutes increased the catch performance by respectively 37% and 48% compared to fishing without

  6. Predicting the effect of seine rope layout pattern and haul-in procedure on the effectiveness of demersal seine fishing: A Computer simulation-based approach.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Nina A H; Aarsæther, Karl G; Herrmann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Demersal Seining is an active fishing method applying two long seine ropes and a seine net. Demersal seining relies on fish responding to the seine rope as it moves during the fishing process. The seine ropes and net are deployed in a specific pattern encircling an area on the seabed. In some variants of demersal seining the haul-in procedure includes a towing phase where the fishing vessel moves forward before starting to winch in the seine ropes. The initial seine rope encircled area, the gradual change in it during the haul-in process and the fish's reaction to the moving seine ropes play an important role in the catch performance of demersal seine fishing. The current study investigates this subject by applying computer simulation models for demersal seine fishing. The demersal seine fishing is dynamic in nature and therefore a dynamic model, SeineSolver is applied for simulating the physical behaviour of the seine ropes during the fishing process. Information about the seine rope behaviour is used as input to another simulation tool, SeineFish that predicts the catch performance of the demersal seine fishing process. SeineFish implements a simple model for how fish at the seabed reacts to an approaching seine rope. Here, the SeineSolver and SeineFish tools are applied to investigate catching performance for a Norwegian demersal seine fishery targeting cod (Gadus morhua) in the coastal zone. The effect of seine rope layout pattern and the duration of the towing phase are investigated. Among the four different layout patterns investigated, the square layout pattern was predicted to perform best; catching 69%-86% more fish than would be obtained with the rectangular layout pattern. Inclusion of a towing phase in the fishing process was found to increase the catch performance for all layout patterns. For the square layout pattern, inclusion of a towing phase of 15 or 35 minutes increased the catch performance by respectively 37% and 48% compared to fishing without

  7. Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-02-01

    This library provides a simple-to-use API for implementing an altnerative to traditional row-major order in-memory layout, one based on a Morton- order space filling curve (SFC) , specifically, a Z-order variant of the Morton order curve. The library enables programmers to, after a simple initialization step, to convert a multidimensional array from row-major to Z- order layouts, then use a single, generic API call to access data from any arbitrary (i,j,k) location from within the array, whether it it be stored in row- major or z-order format. The motivation for using a SFC in-memory layout is for improved spatial locality, which results in increased use of local high speed cache memory. The basic idea is that with row-major order layouts, a data access to some location that is nearby in index space is likely far away in physical memory, resulting in poor spatial locality and slow runtime. On the other hand, with a SFC-based layout, accesses that are nearby in index space are much more likely to also be nearby in physical memory, resulting in much better spatial locality, and better runtime performance. Numerous studies over the years have shown significant runtime performance gains are realized by using a SFC-based memory layout compared to a row-major layout, sometimes by as much as 50%, which result from the better use of the memory and cache hierarchy that are attendant with a SFC-based layout (see, for example, [Beth2012]). This library implementation is intended for use with codes that work with structured, array-based data in 2 or 3 dimensions. It is not appropriate for use with unstructured or point-based data.

  8. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  9. Fast simulation method for airframe analysis based on big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongliang; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we employ the big data method to structural analysis by considering the correlations between loads and loads, loads and results and results and results. By means of fundamental mathematics and physical rules, the principle, feasibility and error control of the method are discussed. We then establish the analysis process and procedures. The method is validated by two examples. The results show that the fast simulation method based on big data is fast and precise when it is applied to structural analysis.

  10. DFM viewpoints of cell-level layout assessments and indications for concurrent layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chung-Min; Yeh, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Yi-Kan; Klaver, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Design-for-manufacturing (DFM) is becoming an actual design practice among IC manufacturers, designers and EDA companies. Layout assessment by design-rule-check (DRC) using EDA tools is a common practice today to ensure well-manufactured design geometries. Standalone DFM tools, which require iteration loops of DFM analysis and fixing, do not fit well in design flows and are considered cumbersome. A better layout assessment method for DFM issues is required: one that gives actionable feedback, and that can be used with automatic optimization in early design stages. The latter is needed to avoid costly design re-spins that will consume critical time-to-market as well as use a lot of engineering resources, reticles and wafer material costs. For example, a DFM checking tool may report the hotspot types and locations, but this information is not sufficient for designers to decide tradeoffs between different fixing choices and to take care of trade-off between physical and electrical design constraints at the same time. When model-based properties are introduced such as lithographic contour, the tradeoffs between rule-based and model-based properties can only be resolved by the automatic and concurrent optimization. This work demonstrates a methodology of DFM scoring of layout based on preferred rules compliance, lithography GATE printability, as well as the layout fixing. The electrical impact on gates is analyzed and showed reduced variability (compared to nominal behavior) in gate performance. Designers can get visual feedback of the layout quality, as well as improvement suggestions. Takumi TKE software is used to demonstrate automatic and concurrent optimization. The method applies to both cell-level and custom designs.

  11. CS-based fast ultrasound imaging with improved FISTA algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jie; He, Yugao; Shi, Guangming; Han, Tingyu

    2015-08-01

    In ultrasound imaging system, the wave emission and data acquisition is time consuming, which can be solved by adopting the plane wave as the transmitted signal, and the compressed sensing (CS) theory for data acquisition and image reconstruction. To overcome the very high computation complexity caused by introducing CS into ultrasound imaging, in this paper, we propose an improvement of the fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) to achieve the fast reconstruction of the ultrasound imaging, in which a modified setting is done with the parameter of step size for each iteration. Further, the GPU strategy is designed for the proposed algorithm, to guarantee the real time implementation of imaging. The simulation results show that the GPU-based image reconstruction algorithm can achieve the fast ultrasound imaging without damaging the quality of image.

  12. FastME 2.0: A Comprehensive, Accurate, and Fast Distance-Based Phylogeny Inference Program.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Vincent; Desper, Richard; Gascuel, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    FastME provides distance algorithms to infer phylogenies. FastME is based on balanced minimum evolution, which is the very principle of Neighbor Joining (NJ). FastME improves over NJ by performing topological moves using fast, sophisticated algorithms. The first version of FastME only included Nearest Neighbor Interchange. The new 2.0 version also includes Subtree Pruning and Regrafting, while remaining as fast as NJ and providing a number of facilities: Distance estimation for DNA and proteins with various models and options, bootstrapping, and parallel computations. FastME is available using several interfaces: Command-line (to be integrated in pipelines), PHYLIP-like, and a Web server (http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/fastme/). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  14. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  15. GEM-based detectors for thermal and fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, G.; Claps, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Foggetta, L.; Muraro, A.; Valente, P.

    2015-06-01

    Lately the problem of 3He replacement for neutron detection stimulated an intense activity research on alternative technologies based on alternative neutron converters. This paper presents briefly the results obtained with new GEM detectors optimized for fast and thermal neutrons. For thermal neutrons, we realized a side-on GEM detector based on a series of boron-coated alumina sheets placed perpendicularly to the incident neutron beam direction. This prototype has been tested at n@BTF photo-production neutron facilty in order to test its effectiveness under a very high flux gamma background. For fast neutrons, we developed new GEM detectors (called nGEM) for the CNESM diagnostic system of the SPIDER NBI prototype for ITER (RFX-Consortium, Italy) and as beam monitor for fast neutrons lines at spallation sources. The nGEM is a Triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with a polyethylene layer used to convert fast neutrons into recoil protons through the elastic scattering process. This paper describes the results obtained by testing a medium size (30 × 25 cm2 active area) nGEM detector at the ISIS spallation source on the VESUVIO beam line.

  16. Perceiving Layout without Effective Schemas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Dale S.

    The processing of mental structures in perception appears to be serial, in that viewers can fill in missing parts from an impoverished stimulus following a top down process. To investigate the effects of unfamiliarity, complexity, and legibility on object and layout perception of unfamiliar stimuli, ten subjects were shown one of four ribbon…

  17. Cache-oblivious mesh layouts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-Eui; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Manocha, Dinesh

    2005-07-01

    We present a novel method for computing cache-oblivious layouts of large meshes that improve the performance of interactive visualization and geometric processing algorithms. Given that the mesh is accessed in a reasonably coherent manner, we assume no particular data access patterns or cache parameters of the memory hierarchy involved in the computation. Furthermore, our formulation extends directly to computing layouts of multi-resolution and bounding volume hierarchies of large meshes. We develop a simple and practical cache-oblivious metric for estimating cache misses. Computing a coherent mesh layout is reduced to a combinatorial optimization problem. We designed and implemented an out-of-core multilevel minimization algorithm and tested its performance on unstructured meshes composed of tens to hundreds of millions of triangles. Our layouts can significantly reduce the number of cache misses. We have observed 2-20 times speedups in view-dependent rendering, collision detection, and isocontour extraction without any modification of the algorithms or runtime applications.

  18. The Aurora Project: A new sail layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Brusa, Eugenio

    1999-05-01

    Aurora spacecraft is a scientific probe propelled by a "fast" solar sail whose first goal is to perform a technology assessment mission. The main characteristic of the sail is its low mass, which implies the absence of a plastic backing of the aluminum film and the lightness of the whole structure. In previous structural studies the limiting factor has been shown to be the elastic stability of a number of structural members subject to compressive loads. An alternative structural layout is here suggested: an inflatable beam, which is kept pressurized also after the deployment, relieves all compressive stresses, allowing a very simple configuration and a straightforward deployment procedure. However, as the mission profile requires a trajectory passing close to the Sun, a configuration different from the 'parachute' sail proposed in another paper, must be used.

  19. Fast pedestrian detection based on multiple instance hierarchical HOG matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang; Meng, Long; Lin, Xinggang

    2013-12-01

    Many pedestrian detection research works focused on the improvement of detection performance, without considering the detection speed, making the detection algorithms not applicable for real-world requirement for real-time processing. To explore this problem, we first propose a pre-processing method Hierarchical HOG Matrices to replace the traditional integral histogram of gradients, which stores more data in the pre-processing phase to reduce computation time. A matrix-based detection computation structure is also proposed, which organize the massive data computations in the scanning detection process into matrix operations to optimize the overall speed. We then add multiple instance learning into the fast pedestrian detection algorithm to further enhance its accuracy. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed fast and robust pedestrian detection algorithm based on the multiple instance feature achieves an accuracy comparable to the latest algorithms, with the best speed among the algorithms with an accuracy of the same level.

  20. Fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engquist, Bjorn; Osher, Stanley; Zhong, Sifen

    1992-01-01

    A class was devised of fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations whose coefficients are time independent. The method draws on the work of Beylkin, Coifman, and Rokhlin which they applied to general Calderon-Zygmund type integral operators. A modification of their idea is applied to linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations, with spatially varying coefficients. A significant speedup over standard methods is obtained when applied to hyperbolic equations in one space dimension and parabolic equations in multidimensions.

  1. Fast image matching algorithm based on projection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Yue, Xiaobo; Zhou, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    Based on analyzing the traditional template matching algorithm, this paper identified the key factors restricting the speed of matching and put forward a brand new fast matching algorithm based on projection. Projecting the grayscale image, this algorithm converts the two-dimensional information of the image into one-dimensional one, and then matches and identifies through one-dimensional correlation, meanwhile, because of normalization has been done, when the image brightness or signal amplitude increasing in proportion, it could also perform correct matching. Experimental results show that the projection characteristics based image registration method proposed in this article could greatly improve the matching speed, which ensuring the matching accuracy as well.

  2. Uncluttering graph layouts using anisotropic diffusion and mass transport.

    PubMed

    Frishman, Yaniv; Tal, Ayellet

    2009-01-01

    Many graph layouts include very dense areas, making the layout difficult to understand. In this paper, we propose a technique for modifying an existing layout in order to reduce the clutter in dense areas. A physically inspired evolution process based on a modified heat equation is used to create an improved layout density image, making better use of available screen space. Using results from optimal mass transport problems, a warp to the improved density image is computed. The graph nodes are displaced according to the warp. The warp maintains the overall structure of the graph, thus limiting disturbances to the mental map, while reducing the clutter in dense areas of the layout. The complexity of the algorithm depends mainly on the resolution of the image visualizing the graph and is linear in the size of the graph. This allows scaling the computation according to required running times. It is demonstrated how the algorithm can be significantly accelerated using a graphics processing unit (GPU), resulting in the ability to handle large graphs in a matter of seconds. Results on several layout algorithms and applications are demonstrated.

  3. Laser-based fast-neutron spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, Ishay; Kishon, Itay; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Schanz, Victor A.; Tebartz, Alexandra; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald C.; Johnson, Randall Philip; Shimada, Tsutomu; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Roth, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Great progress has been made in recent years in realizing compact, laser-based neutron generators. These devices, however, are inapplicable for conducting energy-resolved fast-neutron radiography because of the electromagnetic noise produced by the interaction of a strong laser field with matter. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel neutron time-of-flight detector, largely immune to electromagnetic noise. The detector is based on plastic scintillator, only a few mm in size, which is coupled to a silicon photo-multiplier by a long optical fiber. I will present results we obtained at the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the summer of 2016. Using this detector, we recorded high resolution, low-background fast neutron spectra generated by the interaction of laser accelerated deuterons with Beryllium. The quality of these spectra was sufficient to resolve the unique neutron absorption spectra of different elements and thus it is the first demonstration of laser-based fast neutron spectroscopy. I will discuss how this achievement paves the way to realizing compact neutron radiography systems for research, security, and commercial applications.

  4. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  5. Fast global image smoothing based on weighted least squares.

    PubMed

    Min, Dongbo; Choi, Sunghwan; Lu, Jiangbo; Ham, Bumsub; Sohn, Kwanghoon; Do, Minh N

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for performing a spatially inhomogeneous edge-preserving image smoothing, called fast global smoother. Focusing on sparse Laplacian matrices consisting of a data term and a prior term (typically defined using four or eight neighbors for 2D image), our approach efficiently solves such global objective functions. In particular, we approximate the solution of the memory-and computation-intensive large linear system, defined over a d-dimensional spatial domain, by solving a sequence of 1D subsystems. Our separable implementation enables applying a linear-time tridiagonal matrix algorithm to solve d three-point Laplacian matrices iteratively. Our approach combines the best of two paradigms, i.e., efficient edge-preserving filters and optimization-based smoothing. Our method has a comparable runtime to the fast edge-preserving filters, but its global optimization formulation overcomes many limitations of the local filtering approaches. Our method also achieves high-quality results as the state-of-the-art optimization-based techniques, but runs ∼10-30 times faster. Besides, considering the flexibility in defining an objective function, we further propose generalized fast algorithms that perform Lγ norm smoothing (0 < γ < 2) and support an aggregated (robust) data term for handling imprecise data constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our techniques in a range of image processing and computer graphics applications.

  6. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  7. Correlation-coefficient-based fast template matching through partial elimination.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Arif; Khan, Sohaib

    2012-04-01

    Partial computation elimination techniques are often used for fast template matching. At a particular search location, computations are prematurely terminated as soon as it is found that this location cannot compete with an already known best match location. Due to the nonmonotonic growth pattern of the correlation-based similarity measures, partial computation elimination techniques have been traditionally considered inapplicable to speed up these measures. In this paper, we show that partial elimination techniques may be applied to a correlation coefficient by using a monotonic formulation, and we propose basic-mode and extended-mode partial correlation elimination algorithms for fast template matching. The basic-mode algorithm is more efficient on small template sizes, whereas the extended mode is faster on medium and larger templates. We also propose a strategy to decide which algorithm to use for a given data set. To achieve a high speedup, elimination algorithms require an initial guess of the peak correlation value. We propose two initialization schemes including a coarse-to-fine scheme for larger templates and a two-stage technique for small- and medium-sized templates. Our proposed algorithms are exact, i.e., having exhaustive equivalent accuracy, and are compared with the existing fast techniques using real image data sets on a wide variety of template sizes. While the actual speedups are data dependent, in most cases, our proposed algorithms have been found to be significantly faster than the other algorithms.

  8. Improvement of the user interface of multimedia applications by automatic display layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueders, Peter; Ernst, Rolf

    1995-03-01

    Multimedia research has mainly focussed on real-time data capturing and display combined with compression, storage and transmission of these data. However, there is another problem considering real-time selecting and arranging a possibly large amount of data from multiple media on the computer screen together with textual and graphical data of regular software. This problem has already been known from complex software systems, such as CASE and hypertest, and will even be aggravated in multimedia systems. The aim of our work is to alleviate the user from the burden of continuously selecting, placing and sizing windows and their contents, but without introducing solutions limited to only few applications. We present an experimental system which controls the computer screen contents and layouts, directed by a user and/or tool provided information filter and prioritization. To be application independent, the screen layout is based on general layout optimization algorithms adapted from the VLSI layout which are controlled by application specific objective functions. In this paper, we discuss the problems of a comprehensible screen layout including the stability of optical information in time, the information filtering, the layout algorithms and the adaptation of the objective function to include a specific application. We give some examples of different standard applications with layout problems ranging from hierarchical graph layout to window layout. The results show that the automatic tool independent display layout will be possible in a real time interactive environment.

  9. 31. "FIGURE 310, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. "FIGURE 3-10, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and rail head cross sections. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. SOI layout decomposition for double patterning lithography on high-performance computer platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstov, Vladimir; Zinchenko, Lyudmila; Makarchuk, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In the paper silicon on insulator layout decomposition algorithms for the double patterning lithography on high performance computing platforms are discussed. Our approach is based on the use of a contradiction graph and a modified concurrent breadth-first search algorithm. We evaluate our technique on 45 nm Nangate Open Cell Library including non-Manhattan geometry. Experimental results show that our soft computing algorithms decompose layout successfully and a minimal distance between polygons in layout is increased.

  11. Fast Waves at the Base of the Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Rhode, William S

    2015-01-01

    Georg von Békésy observed that the onset times of responses to brief-duration stimuli vary as a function of distance from the stapes, with basal regions starting to move earlier than apical ones. He noticed that the speed of signal propagation along the cochlea is slow when compared with the speed of sound in water. Fast traveling waves have been recorded in the cochlea, but their existence is interpreted as the result of an experiment artifact. Accounts of the timing of vibration onsets at the base of the cochlea generally agree with Békésy's results. Some authors, however, have argued that the measured delays are too short for consistency with Békésy's theory. To investigate the speed of the traveling wave at the base of the cochlea, we analyzed basilar membrane (BM) responses to clicks recorded at several locations in the base of the chinchilla cochlea. The initial component of the BM response matches remarkably well the initial component of the stapes response, after a 4-μs delay of the latter. A similar conclusion is reached by analyzing onset times of time-domain gain functions, which correspond to BM click responses normalized by middle-ear input. Our results suggest that BM responses to clicks arise from a combination of fast and slow traveling waves.

  12. Fast Waves at the Base of the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Rhode, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Georg von Békésy observed that the onset times of responses to brief-duration stimuli vary as a function of distance from the stapes, with basal regions starting to move earlier than apical ones. He noticed that the speed of signal propagation along the cochlea is slow when compared with the speed of sound in water. Fast traveling waves have been recorded in the cochlea, but their existence is interpreted as the result of an experiment artifact. Accounts of the timing of vibration onsets at the base of the cochlea generally agree with Békésy’s results. Some authors, however, have argued that the measured delays are too short for consistency with Békésy’s theory. To investigate the speed of the traveling wave at the base of the cochlea, we analyzed basilar membrane (BM) responses to clicks recorded at several locations in the base of the chinchilla cochlea. The initial component of the BM response matches remarkably well the initial component of the stapes response, after a 4-μs delay of the latter. A similar conclusion is reached by analyzing onset times of time-domain gain functions, which correspond to BM click responses normalized by middle-ear input. Our results suggest that BM responses to clicks arise from a combination of fast and slow traveling waves. PMID:26062000

  13. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  14. Adjoint Optimization of Wind Plant Layouts

    DOE PAGES

    King, Ryan N.; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; ...

    2016-08-31

    Using adjoint optimization and three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations, we present a new gradient-based approach for optimally siting wind turbines within utility-scale wind plants. By solving the adjoint equations of the flow model, the gradients needed for optimization are found at a cost that is independent of the number of control variables, thereby permitting optimization of large wind plants with many turbine locations. Moreover, compared to the common approach of superimposing prescribed wake deficits onto linearized flow models, the computational efficiency of the adjoint approach allows the use of higher-fidelity RANS flow models which can capture nonlinear turbulent flowmore » physics within a wind plant. The RANS flow model is implemented in the Python finite element package FEniCS and the derivation of the adjoint equations is automated within the dolfin-adjoint framework. Gradient-based optimization of wind turbine locations is demonstrated on idealized test cases that reveal new optimization heuristics such as rotational symmetry, local speedups, and nonlinear wake curvature effects. Layout optimization is also demonstrated on more complex wind rose shapes, including a full annual energy production (AEP) layout optimization over 36 inflow directions and 5 windspeed bins.« less

  15. Adjoint Optimization of Wind Plant Layouts

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan N.; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Hamlington, Peter E.

    2016-08-31

    Using adjoint optimization and three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations, we present a new gradient-based approach for optimally siting wind turbines within utility-scale wind plants. By solving the adjoint equations of the flow model, the gradients needed for optimization are found at a cost that is independent of the number of control variables, thereby permitting optimization of large wind plants with many turbine locations. Moreover, compared to the common approach of superimposing prescribed wake deficits onto linearized flow models, the computational efficiency of the adjoint approach allows the use of higher-fidelity RANS flow models which can capture nonlinear turbulent flow physics within a wind plant. The RANS flow model is implemented in the Python finite element package FEniCS and the derivation of the adjoint equations is automated within the dolfin-adjoint framework. Gradient-based optimization of wind turbine locations is demonstrated on idealized test cases that reveal new optimization heuristics such as rotational symmetry, local speedups, and nonlinear wake curvature effects. Layout optimization is also demonstrated on more complex wind rose shapes, including a full annual energy production (AEP) layout optimization over 36 inflow directions and 5 windspeed bins.

  16. Digital image correlation based on a fast convolution strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Qin; Xiong, Chunyang; Huang, Jianyong

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the efficiency of digital image correlation (DIC) methods has attracted increasing attention because of its increasing importance for many engineering applications. Based on the classical affine optical flow (AOF) algorithm and the well-established inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is essentially a natural extension of the AOF algorithm under a nonlinear iterative framework, this paper develops a set of fast convolution-based DIC algorithms for high-efficiency subpixel image registration. Using a well-developed fast convolution technique, the set of algorithms establishes a series of global data tables (GDTs) over the digital images, which allows the reduction of the computational complexity of DIC significantly. Using the pre-calculated GDTs, the subpixel registration calculations can be implemented efficiently in a look-up-table fashion. Both numerical simulation and experimental verification indicate that the set of algorithms significantly enhances the computational efficiency of DIC, especially in the case of a dense data sampling for the digital images. Because the GDTs need to be computed only once, the algorithms are also suitable for efficiently coping with image sequences that record the time-varying dynamics of specimen deformations.

  17. Parameter tuning for the NFFT based fast Ewald summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Franziska

    2016-07-01

    The computation of the Coulomb potentials and forces in charged particle systems under 3d-periodic boundary conditions is possible in an efficient way by utilizing the Ewald summation formulas and applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this paper we consider the particle-particle NFFT (P^2NFFT) approach, which is based on the fast Fourier transform for nonequispaced data (NFFT) and compare the error behaviors regarding different window functions, which are used in order to approximate the given continuous charge distribution by a mesh based charge density. Typically B-splines are applied in the scope of particle mesh methods, as for instance within the well known particle-particle particle-mesh (P^3M) algorithm. The publicly available P^2NFFT algorithm allows the application of an oversampled FFT as well as the usage of different window functions. We consider for the first time also an approximation by Bessel functions and show how the resulting root mean square errors in the forces can be predicted precisely and efficiently. The results show that, if the parameters are tuned appropriately, the Bessel window function is in many cases even the better choice in terms of computational costs. Moreover, the results indicate that it is often advantageous in terms of efficiency to spend some oversampling within the NFFT while using a window function with a smaller support.

  18. Graphic composite segmentation for PDF documents with complex layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Shi, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Converting the PDF books to re-flowable format has recently attracted various interests in the area of e-book reading. Robust graphic segmentation is highly desired for increasing the practicability of PDF converters. To cope with various layouts, a multi-layer concept is introduced to segment graphic composites including photographic images, drawings with text insets or surrounded with text elements. Both image based analysis and inherent digital born document advantages are exploited in this multi-layer based layout analysis method. By combining low-level page elements clustering applied on PDF documents and connected component analysis on synthetically generated PNG image document, graphic composites can be segmented for PDF documents with complex layouts. The experimental results on graphic composite segmentation of PDF document pages have shown satisfactory performance.

  19. A fast image encryption algorithm based on chaotic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; Zhu, Congxu

    2016-09-01

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a new two-dimensional Sine ICMIC modulation map (2D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) model, and its chaotic performance is analyzed by means of phase diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum and complexity. It shows that this map has good ergodicity, hyperchaotic behavior, large maximum Lyapunov exponent and high complexity. Based on this map, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, the confusion and diffusion processes are combined for one stage. Chaotic shift transform (CST) is proposed to efficiently change the image pixel positions, and the row and column substitutions are applied to scramble the pixel values simultaneously. The simulation and analysis results show that this algorithm has high security, low time complexity, and the abilities of resisting statistical analysis, differential, brute-force, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  20. A fast quad-tree based two dimensional hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Priscilla; Sankaranarayanan, Swamynathan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, microarray technologies have become a robust technique in the area of genomics. An important step in the analysis of gene expression data is the identification of groups of genes disclosing analogous expression patterns. Cluster analysis partitions a given dataset into groups based on specified features. Euclidean distance is a widely used similarity measure for gene expression data that considers the amount of changes in gene expression. However, the huge number of genes and the intricacy of biological networks have highly increased the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting group of data, increasing processing time. The proposed technique focuses on a QT based fast 2-dimensional hierarchical clustering algorithm to perform clustering. The construction of the closest pair data structure is an each level is an important time factor, which determines the processing time of clustering. The proposed model reduces the processing time and improves analysis of gene expression data.

  1. Fast-responding bio-based shape memory thermoplastic polyurethanes

    DOE PAGES

    Petrovic, Zoran S.; Milic, Jelena; Zhang, Fan; ...

    2017-05-31

    Fast response shape-memory polyurethanes were prepared from bio-based polyols, diphenyl methane diisocyanate and butane diol. The bio-based polyester polyols were synthesized from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, a product obtained by ozonolysis of fatty acids extracted from soy oil and castor oil. The morphology of polyurethanes was investigated by synchrotron ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, which revealed the inter-domain spacing between the hard and soft phases, the degree of phase separation, and the level of intermixing between the hard and soft phases. We also conducted thorough investigations of the thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of the polyurethanes, and found that high crystallization rate ofmore » the soft segment gives these polyurethanes unique properties suitable for shapememory applications, such as adjustable transition temperatures, high degree of elastic elongations, and good mechanical strength. In conclusion, these materials are also potentially biodegradable and biocompatible, therefore suitable for biomedical and environmental applications.« less

  2. Statistical best bases for fast encoding in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Dennis M., Jr.; Warner, Douglas W.; Weaver, John B.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion of a training set of images to reduce the number of encodes required for a magnetic resonance (MR) image of a new object. One form of this technique has been proposed and another implemented. We evaluate the error likely to be achieved as a function of the number of encodes and two technical problems: reduced SNR in the images and smoothing of the K-L functions in practice. As an alternative, we propose the use of joint best bases derived from the local trigonometric library as an approximation to the K-L basis. These bases approach the rate-distortion characteristic achieved by the K-L basis, but they are easier to use in MRI and can be applied with existing methods for fast acquisition.

  3. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  4. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    PubMed

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user.

  5. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  6. Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David H.; Novembre, John; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Population stratification has long been recognized as a confounding factor in genetic association studies. Estimated ancestries, derived from multi-locus genotype data, can be used to perform a statistical correction for population stratification. One popular technique for estimation of ancestry is the model-based approach embodied by the widely applied program structure. Another approach, implemented in the program EIGENSTRAT, relies on Principal Component Analysis rather than model-based estimation and does not directly deliver admixture fractions. EIGENSTRAT has gained in popularity in part owing to its remarkable speed in comparison to structure. We present a new algorithm and a program, ADMIXTURE, for model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. ADMIXTURE adopts the likelihood model embedded in structure. However, ADMIXTURE runs considerably faster, solving problems in minutes that take structure hours. In many of our experiments, we have found that ADMIXTURE is almost as fast as EIGENSTRAT. The runtime improvements of ADMIXTURE rely on a fast block relaxation scheme using sequential quadratic programming for block updates, coupled with a novel quasi-Newton acceleration of convergence. Our algorithm also runs faster and with greater accuracy than the implementation of an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm incorporated in the program FRAPPE. Our simulations show that ADMIXTURE's maximum likelihood estimates of the underlying admixture coefficients and ancestral allele frequencies are as accurate as structure's Bayesian estimates. On real-world data sets, ADMIXTURE's estimates are directly comparable to those from structure and EIGENSTRAT. Taken together, our results show that ADMIXTURE's computational speed opens up the possibility of using a much larger set of markers in model-based ancestry estimation and that its estimates are suitable for use in correcting for population stratification in association studies. PMID:19648217

  7. Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David H; Novembre, John; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Population stratification has long been recognized as a confounding factor in genetic association studies. Estimated ancestries, derived from multi-locus genotype data, can be used to perform a statistical correction for population stratification. One popular technique for estimation of ancestry is the model-based approach embodied by the widely applied program structure. Another approach, implemented in the program EIGENSTRAT, relies on Principal Component Analysis rather than model-based estimation and does not directly deliver admixture fractions. EIGENSTRAT has gained in popularity in part owing to its remarkable speed in comparison to structure. We present a new algorithm and a program, ADMIXTURE, for model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. ADMIXTURE adopts the likelihood model embedded in structure. However, ADMIXTURE runs considerably faster, solving problems in minutes that take structure hours. In many of our experiments, we have found that ADMIXTURE is almost as fast as EIGENSTRAT. The runtime improvements of ADMIXTURE rely on a fast block relaxation scheme using sequential quadratic programming for block updates, coupled with a novel quasi-Newton acceleration of convergence. Our algorithm also runs faster and with greater accuracy than the implementation of an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm incorporated in the program FRAPPE. Our simulations show that ADMIXTURE's maximum likelihood estimates of the underlying admixture coefficients and ancestral allele frequencies are as accurate as structure's Bayesian estimates. On real-world data sets, ADMIXTURE's estimates are directly comparable to those from structure and EIGENSTRAT. Taken together, our results show that ADMIXTURE's computational speed opens up the possibility of using a much larger set of markers in model-based ancestry estimation and that its estimates are suitable for use in correcting for population stratification in association studies.

  8. Fast and accurate face recognition based on image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Image compression is desired for many image-related applications especially for network-based applications with bandwidth and storage constraints. The face recognition community typical reports concentrate on the maximal compression rate that would not decrease the recognition accuracy. In general, the wavelet-based face recognition methods such as EBGM (elastic bunch graph matching) and FPB (face pattern byte) are of high performance but run slowly due to their high computation demands. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) algorithms run fast but perform poorly in face recognition. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition method based on standard image compression algorithm, which is termed as compression-based (CPB) face recognition. First, all gallery images are compressed by the selected compression algorithm. Second, a mixed image is formed with the probe and gallery images and then compressed. Third, a composite compression ratio (CCR) is computed with three compression ratios calculated from: probe, gallery and mixed images. Finally, the CCR values are compared and the largest CCR corresponds to the matched face. The time cost of each face matching is about the time of compressing the mixed face image. We tested the proposed CPB method on the "ASUMSS face database" (visible and thermal images) from 105 subjects. The face recognition accuracy with visible images is 94.76% when using JPEG compression. On the same face dataset, the accuracy of FPB algorithm was reported as 91.43%. The JPEG-compressionbased (JPEG-CPB) face recognition is standard and fast, which may be integrated into a real-time imaging device.

  9. Online medical journal article layout analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a physical and logical layout analysis algorithm, which is applied to segment and label online medical journal articles (regular HTML and PDF-Converted-HTML files). For these articles, the geometric layout of the Web page is the most important cue for physical layout analysis. The key to physical layout analysis is then to render the HTML file in a Web browser, so that the visual information in zones (composed of one or a set of HTML DOM nodes), especially their relative position, can be utilized. The recursive X-Y cut algorithm is adopted to construct a hierarchical zone tree structure. In logical layout analysis, both geometric and linguistic features are used. The HTML documents are modeled by a Hidden Markov Model with 16 states, and the Viterbi algorithm is then used to find the optimal label sequence, concluding the logical layout analysis.

  10. Layout techniques for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques are presented for solving circuit-layout problems. In particular, a channel-placement algorithm is first introduced to reduce the channel density (d) so that a channel router can complete the routing requirements in fewer tracks. A 4-layer channel-routing model is then formulated so that a general channel routing problem (CRP) with cyclic conflicts and long critical paths can be completed with d/2. Finally, the 4-layer, 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem needed to enhance the channel routing in general circuit layout is investigated from the graph-theoretical viewpoint. The channel-placement technique consists of two phases. Using the principle of decomposition, the initial placement phase effectively reduces the complexity of the problem and, therefore, improves the efficiency of the second phase, which is called the iterative improvement placement. The main feature of this phase is its hill-climbing ability to avoid being trapped at local minima. The combination of these two phases leads to an efficient technique for standard cell placement. To utilize multi-layer technology, a new 4-layer channel routing model is introduced to minimize the channel width of more-generalized CRP's. The 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem is transformed to an equivalent graph-theoretical problem.

  11. A flexible fast 3D profilometry based on modulation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yunfu; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Yanfei; Wang, Ying

    2011-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible fast profilometry based on modulation measurement. Two orthogonal gratings through a beam splitter are vertically projected on an object surface, and the measured object is placed between the imaging planes of the two gratings. Then the image of the object surface modulated by the orthogonal gratings can be obtained by a CCD camera in the same direction as the grating projection. This image is processed by the operations consisting of performing the Fourier transform, spatial frequency filtering and inverse Fourier transform. Using the modulation distributions of two grating patterns, we can reconstruct the 3D shape of the object. In the measurement process, we only need to capture one fringe pattern, so it is faster than the MMP and remains the advantages of it. In the article, the principle of this method, the setup of the measurement system, some simulations and primary experiment results are given. The simulative and experimental result proves it can restore the 3D shape of the complex object fast and comparatively accurate. Because only one fringe pattern is needed in the testing, our method has a promising extensive application prospect in real-time acquiring and dynamic measurement of 3D data of complex objects.

  12. Fast Field Calibration of MIMU Based on the Powell Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Chen, Wanwan; Li, Bin; You, Zheng; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The calibration of micro inertial measurement units is important in ensuring the precision of navigation systems, which are equipped with microelectromechanical system sensors that suffer from various errors. However, traditional calibration methods cannot meet the demand for fast field calibration. This paper presents a fast field calibration method based on the Powell algorithm. As the key points of this calibration, the norm of the accelerometer measurement vector is equal to the gravity magnitude, and the norm of the gyro measurement vector is equal to the rotational velocity inputs. To resolve the error parameters by judging the convergence of the nonlinear equations, the Powell algorithm is applied by establishing a mathematical error model of the novel calibration. All parameters can then be obtained in this manner. A comparison of the proposed method with the traditional calibration method through navigation tests shows the classic performance of the proposed calibration method. The proposed calibration method also saves more time compared with the traditional calibration method. PMID:25177801

  13. A PDE-Based Fast Local Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Danping; Merriman, Barry; Osher, Stanley; Zhao, Hongkai; Kang, Myungjoo

    1999-11-01

    We develop a fast method to localize the level set method of Osher and Sethian (1988, J. Comput. Phys.79, 12) and address two important issues that are intrinsic to the level set method: (a) how to extend a quantity that is given only on the interface to a neighborhood of the interface; (b) how to reset the level set function to be a signed distance function to the interface efficiently without appreciably moving the interface. This fast local level set method reduces the computational effort by one order of magnitude, works in as much generality as the original one, and is conceptually simple and easy to implement. Our approach differs from previous related works in that we extract all the information needed from the level set function (or functions in multiphase flow) and do not need to find explicitly the location of the interface in the space domain. The complexity of our method to do tasks such as extension and distance reinitialization is O(N), where N is the number of points in space, not O(N log N) as in works by Sethian (1996, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 93, 1591) and Helmsen and co-workers (1996, SPIE Microlithography IX, p. 253). This complexity estimation is also valid for quite general geometrically based front motion for our localized method.

  14. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

    2004-05-01

    In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

  15. Impact of data layouts on the efficiency of GPU-accelerated IDW interpolation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Tian, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of different data layouts on the computational efficiency of GPU-accelerated Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation algorithm. First we redesign and improve our previous GPU implementation that was performed by exploiting the feature of CUDA dynamic parallelism (CDP). Then we implement three versions of GPU implementations, i.e., the naive version, the tiled version, and the improved CDP version, based upon five data layouts, including the Structure of Arrays (SoA), the Array of Structures (AoS), the Array of aligned Structures (AoaS), the Structure of Arrays of aligned Structures (SoAoS), and the Hybrid layout. We also carry out several groups of experimental tests to evaluate the impact. Experimental results show that: the layouts AoS and AoaS achieve better performance than the layout SoA for both the naive version and tiled version, while the layout SoA is the best choice for the improved CDP version. We also observe that: for the two combined data layouts (the SoAoS and the Hybrid), there are no notable performance gains when compared to other three basic layouts. We recommend that: in practical applications, the layout AoaS is the best choice since the tiled version is the fastest one among three versions. The source code of all implementations are publicly available.

  16. Fast spectral color image segmentation based on filtering and clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Min; Li, Hongyu; Jia, Jinyuan; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a fast approach to spectral image segmentation. In the algorithm, two popular techniques are extended and applied to spectral color images: the mean-shift filtering and the kernel-based clustering. We claim that segmentation should be completed under illuminant F11 rather than directly using the original spectral reflectance, because such illumination can reduce data variability and expedite the following filtering. The modes obtained in the mean-shift filtering represent the local features of spectral images, and will be applied to segmentation in place of pixels. Since the modes are generally small in number, the eigendecomposition of kernel matrices, the crucial step in the kernelbased clustering, becomes much easier. The combination of these two techniques can efficiently enhance the performance of segmentation. Experiments show that the proposed segmentation method is feasible and very promising for spectral color images.

  17. [Fast Implementation Method of Protein Spots Detection Based on CUDA].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bangshu; Ye, Yijia; Ou, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Haodong

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of protein spots detection, a fast detection method based on CUDA was proposed. Firstly, the parallel algorithms of the three most time-consuming parts in the protein spots detection algorithm: image preprocessing, coarse protein point detection and overlapping point segmentation were studied. Then, according to single instruction multiple threads executive model of CUDA to adopted data space strategy of separating two-dimensional (2D) images into blocks, various optimizing measures such as shared memory and 2D texture memory are adopted in this study. The results show that the operative efficiency of this method is obviously improved compared to CPU calculation. As the image size increased, this method makes more improvement in efficiency, such as for the image with the size of 2,048 x 2,048, the method of CPU needs 52,641 ms, but the GPU needs only 4,384 ms.

  18. Fast complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Sappal, Amandeep; Singh Patterh, Manjeet; Sharma, Sanjay

    2011-07-01

    Today's 3G wireless systems require both high linearity and high power amplifier (PA) efficiency. The high peak-to-average ratios of the digital modulation schemes used in 3G wireless systems require that the RF PA maintain high linearity over a large range while maintaining this high efficiency; these two requirements are often at odds with each other with many of the traditional amplifier architectures. In this article, a fast and easy-to-implement adaptive digital predistorter has been presented for Wideband Code Division Multiplexed signals using complex memory polynomial work function. The proposed algorithm has been implemented to test a Motorola LDMOSFET PA. The proposed technique also takes care of the memory effects of the PA, which have been ignored in many proposed techniques in the literature. The results show that the new complex memory polynomial-based adaptive digital predistorter has better linearisation performance than conventional predistortion techniques.

  19. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  20. Optimized layout generator for microgyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.; Li, Shifeng; Logeeswaran, V. J.; Ng, David C.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents an optimized out-of-plane microgyroscope layout generator using AutoCAD R14 and MS ExcelTM as a first attempt to automating the design of resonant micro- inertial sensors. The out-of-plane microgyroscope with two degrees of freedom lumped parameter model was chosen as the synthesis topology. Analytical model for the open loop operating has been derived for the gyroscope performance characteristics. Functional performance parameters such as sensitivity are ensured to be satisfied while simultaneously optimizing a design objective such as minimum area. A single algorithm will optimize the microgyroscope dimensions, while simultaneously maximizing or minimizing the objective functions: maximum sensitivity and minimum area. The multi- criteria objective function and optimization methodology was implemented using the Generalized Reduced Gradient algorithm. For data conversion a DXF to GDS converter was used. The optimized theoretical design performance parameters show good agreement with finite element analysis.

  1. Economics of wind farm layout

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, A.C.; Bain, D.A.

    1997-12-31

    The life cycle cost of energy (COE) is the primary determinant of the economic viability of a wind energy generation facility. The cost of wind turbines and associated hardware is counterbalanced by the energy which can be generated. This paper focuses on the turbine layout design process, considering the cost and energy capture implications of potential spacing options from the viewpoint of a practicing project designer. It is argued that lateral spacings in the range of 1.5 to 5 diameters are all potentially optimal, but only when matched to wind resource characteristics and machine design limits. The effect of wakes on energy capture is quantified while the effect on turbine life and maintenance cost is discussed qualitatively. Careful optimization can lower COE and project designers are encouraged to integrate the concepts in project designs.

  2. Refractive index fiber sensor based on Brillouin fast light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiali; Gan, Jiulin; Zhang, Zhishen; Yang, Tong; Deng, Huaqiu; Yang, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    A new type of refractive index fiber sensor was invented by combining the evanescent-field scattering sensing mechanism with the Brillouin fast light scheme. Superluminal light was realized using Brillouin lasing oscillation in a fiber ring cavity. The refractive index of the solution around the microfiber within the cavity is related to the group velocity of the fast light. This fast light refractive index sensor offers an alternative for high-accuracy sensing applications.

  3. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  4. Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  6. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  7. Fast and Secure Chaos-Based Cryptosystem for Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajallah, Mousa; El Assad, Safwan; Deforges, Olivier

    Nonlinear dynamic cryptosystems or chaos-based cryptosystems have been attracting a large amount of research since 1990. The critical aspect of cryptography is to face the growth of communication and to achieve the design of fast and secure cryptosystems. In this paper, we introduce three versions of a chaos-based cryptosystem based on a similar structure of the Zhang and Fridrich cryptosystems. Each version is composed of two layers: a confusion layer and a diffusion layer. The confusion layer is achieved by using a modified 2-D cat map to overcome the fixed-point problem and some other weaknesses, and also to increase the dynamic key space. The 32-bit logistic map is used as a diffusion layer for the first version, which is more robust than using it in 8-bit. In the other versions, the logistic map is replaced by a modified Finite Skew Tent Map (FSTM) for three reasons: to increase the nonlinearity properties of the diffusion layer, to overcome the fixed-point problem, and to increase the dynamic key space. Finally, all versions of the proposed cryptosystem are more resistant against known attacks and faster than Zhang cryptosystems. Moreover, the dynamic key space is much larger than the one used in Zhang cryptosystems. Performance and security analysis prove that the proposed cryptosystems are suitable for securing real-time applications.

  8. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  9. Progressive classification scheme for document layout recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillon, Julian; Pujol, Jaume; Zeger, Kenneth

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, we present a progressive classification scheme for a document layout recognition system using three stages. The first stages, preprocessing, extracts statistical information that may be used for background detection and removal. The second stage, a tree based classified, uses a variable block size and a set of probabilistic rules to classify segmented blocks that are independently classified. The third, state, postprocessing, uses the label map generated in the second state with a set of context rules to label unclassified blocks, trying also to solve some of the misclassification errors that may have been generated during the previous stage. The progressive scheme used in the second and third stages allows the user to stop the classification process at any block size, depending on this requirements. Experiments show that a progressive scheme combined with a set of postprocessing rules increases the percentage of correctly classified blocks and reduces the number of block computations.

  10. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  11. A quantitative model for designing keyboard layout.

    PubMed

    Shieh, K K; Lin, C C

    1999-02-01

    This study analyzed the quantitative relationship between keytapping times and ergonomic principles in typewriting skills. Keytapping times and key-operating characteristics of a female subject typing on the Qwerty and Dvorak keyboards for six weeks each were collected and analyzed. The results showed that characteristics of the typed material and the movements of hands and fingers were significantly related to keytapping times. The most significant factors affecting keytapping times were association frequency between letters, consecutive use of the same hand or finger, and the finger used. A regression equation for relating keytapping times to ergonomic principles was fitted to the data. Finally, a protocol for design of computerized keyboard layout based on the regression equation was proposed.

  12. Printed circuit board layout by microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausman, E. W.

    1983-12-01

    Printed circuit board artwork is usually prepared manually because of the unavailability of computer-aided-design tools. This thesis presents the design of a microcomputer based printed circuit board layout system that is easy to use and cheap. Automatic routing and component placement routines will significantly speed up the process. The design satisfies the following requirements: Microcomputer implementation, portable, algorithm independent, interactive, and user friendly. When it is fully implemented a user will be able to select components and a board outline from an automated catalog, enter a schematic diagram, position the components on the board, and completely route the board from a single graphics terminal. Currently, the user interface and the outer level command processor have been implemented in Pascal. Future versions will be written in C for better portability.

  13. Efficient Video Stitching Based on Fast Structure Deformation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Maojun; Wang, Zhengming; Li, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    In computer vision, video stitching is a very challenging problem. In this paper, we proposed an efficient and effective wide-view video stitching method based on fast structure deformation that is capable of simultaneously achieving quality stitching and computational efficiency. For a group of synchronized frames, firstly, an effective double-seam selection scheme is designed to search two distinct but structurally corresponding seams in the two original images. The seam location of the previous frame is further considered to preserve the interframe consistency. Secondly, along the double seams, 1-D feature detection and matching is performed to capture the structural relationship between the two adjacent views. Thirdly, after feature matching, we propose an efficient algorithm to linearly propagate the deformation vectors to eliminate structure misalignment. At last, image intensity misalignment is corrected by rapid gradient fusion based on the successive over relaxation iteration (SORI) solver. A principled solution to the initialization of the SORI significantly reduced the number of iterations required. We have compared favorably our method with seven state-of-the-art image and video stitching algorithms as well as traditional ones. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the existing ones compared in terms of overall stitching quality and computational efficiency.

  14. A pipette-based calibration system for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with fast response times.

    PubMed

    Ramsson, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that utilizes the oxidation and/or reduction of an analyte of interest to infer rapid changes in concentrations. In order to calibrate the resulting oxidative or reductive current, known concentrations of an analyte must be introduced under controlled settings. Here, I describe a simple and cost-effective method, using a Petri dish and pipettes, for the calibration of carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) using FSCV.

  15. A fast method for particle picking in cryo-electron micrographs based on fast R-CNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yifan; Yang, Guangwen

    2017-06-01

    We propose a fast method to automatically pick protein particles in cryo-EM micrographs, which is now completed manually in practice. Our method is based on Fast R-CNN, with sliding window as the regions proposal solution. To reduce the false positive detections, we set a single class for the major contaminant ice, and pick out all the ice particles in the whole datasets. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three proteins have demonstrated that our approach can automatically accomplish the human-level particle picking task, and we successfully reduce the test time from 1.5 minutes of previous deep learning method to 2 seconds without any recall or precision losses. Our program is available under the MIT License at https://github.com/xiao1fan/FastParticlePicker.

  16. Biased Randomized Algorithm for Fast Model-Based Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin; Vartan, Farrokh

    2005-01-01

    A biased randomized algorithm has been developed to enable the rapid computational solution of a propositional- satisfiability (SAT) problem equivalent to a diagnosis problem. The closest competing methods of automated diagnosis are described in the preceding article "Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis" and "Two Methods of Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem" (NPO-30584), which appears elsewhere in this issue. It is necessary to recapitulate some of the information from the cited articles as a prerequisite to a description of the present method. As used here, "diagnosis" signifies, more precisely, a type of model-based diagnosis in which one explores any logical inconsistencies between the observed and expected behaviors of an engineering system. The function of each component and the interconnections among all the components of the engineering system are represented as a logical system. Hence, the expected behavior of the engineering system is represented as a set of logical consequences. Faulty components lead to inconsistency between the observed and expected behaviors of the system, represented by logical inconsistencies. Diagnosis - the task of finding the faulty components - reduces to finding the components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the logical inconsistencies. One seeks a minimal set of faulty components (denoted a minimal diagnosis), because the trivial solution, in which all components are deemed to be faulty, always explains all inconsistencies. In the methods of the cited articles, the minimal-diagnosis problem is treated as equivalent to a minimal-hitting-set problem, which is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean-satisfiability and integer-programming problems. The integer-programming approach taken in one of the prior methods is complete (in the sense that it is guaranteed to find a solution if one exists) and slow and yields a lower bound on the size of the

  17. A novel approach of ensuring layout regularity correct by construction in advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shafquat Jahan; Vaderiya, Yagnesh; Gupta, Radhika; Parthasarathy, Chittoor; Marin, Jean-Claude; Robert, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    In advanced technology nodes, layout regularity has become a mandatory prerequisite to create robust designs less sensitive to variations in manufacturing process in order to improve yield and minimizing electrical variability. In this paper we describe a method for designing regular full custom layouts based on design and process co-optimization. The method includes various design rule checks that can be used on-the-fly during leaf-cell layout development. We extract a Layout Regularity Index (LRI) from the layouts based on the jogs, alignments and pitches used in the design for any given metal layer. Regularity Index of a layout is the direct indicator of manufacturing yield and is used to compare the relative health of different layout blocks in terms of process friendliness. The method has been deployed for 28nm and 40nm technology nodes for Memory IP and is being extended to other IPs (IO, standard-cell). We have quantified the gain of layout regularity with the deployed method on printability and electrical characteristics by process-variation (PV) band simulation analysis and have achieved up-to 5nm reduction in PV band.

  18. Fast implementation of window-based methods for stereo correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammad Shorif; Son, Tran Thai; Mita, Seiichi

    2003-11-01

    Stereo correspondence is a common tool in computer or robot vision, with numerous applications, such as determination of three-dimensional depth information of objects for virtual reality, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, using a pair of left and right images from a stereo camera system. Computation time is an important factor in estimating dense disparity for the above applications. For of a pixel in the left image, its correspondence has to be searched in the right image based on epipolar line and maximum disparity search range. The intensity of a pixel alone in the left image does not have sufficient discriminatory power to determine its correspondence uniquely from the right image, thus other pixels in its neighborhood comprising a window is used for accurate estimation. In window-based approaches, this correspondence or disparity is conventionally determined based on matching windows of pixels by using sum of square differences, sum of absolute differences, or normalized correlation techniques. With a view to reduce the computation time, we propose a fast algorithm where it is not necessary to compute the window costs for all candidate pixels in the right image within the search range. To determine the correspondence of a pixel in the left image we just compute the window costs for candidate pixels in the right image whose intensities are different within a certain value to the intensity of the pixel in the left image. We applied our proposal to standard stereo images and found that we can easily reduce the computation time of about 30% with almost no degradation of accuracy.

  19. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately.

  20. DUK - A Fast and Efficient Kmer Based Sequence Matching Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingkun; Copeland, Alex; Han, James

    2011-03-21

    A new tool, DUK, is developed to perform matching task. Matching is to find whether a query sequence partially or totally matches given reference sequences or not. Matching is similar to alignment. Indeed many traditional analysis tasks like contaminant removal use alignment tools. But for matching, there is no need to know which bases of a query sequence matches which position of a reference sequence, it only need know whether there exists a match or not. This subtle difference can make matching task much faster than alignment. DUK is accurate, versatile, fast, and has efficient memory usage. It uses Kmer hashing method to index reference sequences and Poisson model to calculate p-value. DUK is carefully implemented in C++ in object oriented design. The resulted classes can also be used to develop other tools quickly. DUK have been widely used in JGI for a wide range of applications such as contaminant removal, organelle genome separation, and assembly refinement. Many real applications and simulated dataset demonstrate its power.

  1. Fast recognition of musical sounds based on timbre.

    PubMed

    Agus, Trevor R; Suied, Clara; Thorpe, Simon J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Human listeners seem to have an impressive ability to recognize a wide variety of natural sounds. However, there is surprisingly little quantitative evidence to characterize this fundamental ability. Here the speed and accuracy of musical-sound recognition were measured psychophysically with a rich but acoustically balanced stimulus set. The set comprised recordings of notes from musical instruments and sung vowels. In a first experiment, reaction times were collected for three target categories: voice, percussion, and strings. In a go/no-go task, listeners reacted as quickly as possible to members of a target category while withholding responses to distractors (a diverse set of musical instruments). Results showed near-perfect accuracy and fast reaction times, particularly for voices. In a second experiment, voices were recognized among strings and vice-versa. Again, reaction times to voices were faster. In a third experiment, auditory chimeras were created to retain only spectral or temporal features of the voice. Chimeras were recognized accurately, but not as quickly as natural voices. Altogether, the data suggest rapid and accurate neural mechanisms for musical-sound recognition based on selectivity to complex spectro-temporal signatures of sound sources.

  2. Fast Minimum Variance Beamforming Based on Legendre Polynomials.

    PubMed

    Bae, MooHo; Park, Sung Bae; Kwon, Sung Jae

    2016-09-01

    Currently, minimum variance beamforming (MV) is actively investigated as a method that can improve the performance of an ultrasound beamformer, in terms of the lateral and contrast resolution. However, this method has the disadvantage of excessive computational complexity since the inverse spatial covariance matrix must be calculated. Some noteworthy methods among various attempts to solve this problem include beam space adaptive beamforming methods and the fast MV method based on principal component analysis, which are similar in that the original signal in the element space is transformed to another domain using an orthonormal basis matrix and the dimension of the covariance matrix is reduced by approximating the matrix only with important components of the matrix, hence making the inversion of the matrix very simple. Recently, we proposed a new method with further reduced computational demand that uses Legendre polynomials as the basis matrix for such a transformation. In this paper, we verify the efficacy of the proposed method through Field II simulations as well as in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results show that the approximation error of this method is less than or similar to those of the above-mentioned methods and that the lateral response of point targets and the contrast-to-speckle noise in anechoic cysts are also better than or similar to those methods when the dimensionality of the covariance matrices is reduced to the same dimension.

  3. Fast CEUS image segmentation based on self organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paire, Julie; Sauvage, Vincent; Albouy-Kissi, Adelaïde; Ladam Marcus, Viviane; Marcus, Claude; Hoeffel, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently become an important technology for lesion detection and characterization. CEUS is used to investigate the perfusion kinetics in tissue over time, which relates to tissue vascularization. In this paper, we present an interactive segmentation method based on the neural networks, which enables to segment malignant tissue over CEUS sequences. We use Self-Organizing-Maps (SOM), an unsupervised neural network, to project high dimensional data to low dimensional space, named a map of neurons. The algorithm gathers the observations in clusters, respecting the topology of the observations space. This means that a notion of neighborhood between classes is defined. Adjacent observations in variables space belong to the same class or related classes after classification. Thanks to this neighborhood conservation property and associated with suitable feature extraction, this map provides user friendly segmentation tool. It will assist the expert in tumor segmentation with fast and easy intervention. We implement SOM on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to accelerate treatment. This allows a greater number of iterations and the learning process to converge more precisely. We get a better quality of learning so a better classification. Our approach allows us to identify and delineate lesions accurately. Our results show that this method improves markedly the recognition of liver lesions and opens the way for future precise quantification of contrast enhancement.

  4. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  5. Luminaire layout: Design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report was presented during the discussion regarding guidelines for PAR uniformity in greenhouses. The data shows a lighting uniformity analysis in a research greenhouse for rose production at the Cornell University campus. The luminaire layout was designed using the computer program Lumen-Micro. After implementation of the design, accurate measurements were taken in the greenhouse and the uniformity analysis for both the design and implementation were compared. A study of several supplemental lighting installations resulted in the following recommendations: include only the actual growing area in the lighting uniformity analysis; for growing areas up to 20 square meters, take four measurements per square meter; for growing areas above 20 square meters, take one measurement per square meter; use one of the uniformity criteria and frequency graphs to compare lighting uniformity amongst designs; and design for uniformity criterion of a least 0.75 and the fraction within +/- 15% of the average PAR value should be close to one.

  6. Optimised layout and roadway support planning with integrated intelligent software

    SciTech Connect

    Kouniali, S.; Josien, J.P.; Piguet, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Experience with knowledge-based systems for Layout planning and roadway support dimensioning is on hand in European coal mining since 1985. The systems SOUT (Support choice and dimensioning, 1989), SOUT 2, PLANANK (planning of bolt-support), Exos (layout planning diagnosis. 1994), Sout 3 (1995) have been developed in close cooperation by CdF{sup 1}. INERIS{sup 2} , EMN{sup 3} (France) and RAG{sup 4}, DMT{sup 5}, TH - Aachen{sup 6} (Germany); ISLSP (Integrated Software for Layout and support planning) development is in progress (completion scheduled for July 1996). This new software technology in combination with conventional programming systems, numerical models and existing databases turned out to be suited for setting-up an intelligent decision aid for layout and roadway support planning. The system enhances reliability of planning and optimises the safety-to-cost ratio for (1) deformation forecast for roadways in seam and surrounding rocks, consideration of the general position of the roadway in the rock mass (zones of increased pressure, position of operating and mined panels); (2) support dimensioning; (3) yielding arches, rigid arches, porch sets, rigid rings, yielding rings and bolting/shotcreting for drifts; (4) yielding arches, rigid arches and porch sets for roadways in seam; and (5) bolt support for gateroads (assessment of exclusion criteria and calculation of the bolting pattern) bolting of face-end zones (feasibility and safety assessment; stability guarantee).

  7. Multi-level graph layout on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Frishman, Yaniv; Tal, Ayellet

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for force directed graph layout on the GPU. The algorithm, whose goal is to compute layouts accurately and quickly, has two contributions. The first contribution is proposing a general multi-level scheme, which is based on spectral partitioning. The second contribution is computing the layout on the GPU. Since the GPU requires a data parallel programming model, the challenge is devising a mapping of a naturally unstructured graph into a well-partitioned structured one. This is done by computing a balanced partitioning of a general graph. This algorithm provides a general multi-level scheme, which has the potential to be used not only for computation on the GPU, but also on emerging multi-core architectures. The algorithm manages to compute high quality layouts of large graphs in a fraction of the time required by existing algorithms of similar quality. An application for visualization of the topologies of ISP (Internet Service Provider) networks is presented.

  8. Fast and automatic watermark resynchronization based on zernike moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiangui; Liu, Chunhui; Zeng, Wenjun; Huang, Jiwu; Liu, Congbai

    2007-02-01

    In some applications such as real-time video applications, watermark detection needs to be performed in real time. To address image watermark robustness against geometric transformations such as the combination of rotation, scaling, translation and/or cropping (RST), many prior works choose exhaustive search method or template matching method to find the RST distortion parameters, then reverse the distortion to resynchronize the watermark. These methods typically impose huge computation burden because the search space is typically a multiple dimensional space. Some other prior works choose to embed watermarks in an RST invariant domain to meet the real time requirement. But it might be difficult to construct such an RST invariant domain. Zernike moments are useful tools in pattern recognition and image watermarking due to their orthogonality and rotation invariance property. In this paper, we propose a fast watermark resynchronization method based on Zernike moments, which requires only search over scaling factor to combat RST geometric distortion, thus significantly reducing the computation load. We apply the proposed method to circularly symmetric watermarking. According to Plancherel's Theorem and the rotation invariance property of Zernike moments, the rotation estimation only requires performing DFT on Zernike moments correlation value once. Thus for RST attack, we can estimate both rotation angle and scaling factor by searching for the scaling factor to find the overall maximum DFT magnitude mentioned above. With the estimated rotation angle and scaling factor parameters, the watermark can be resynchronized. In watermark detection, the normalized correlation between the watermark and the DFT magnitude of the test image is used. Our experimental results demonstrate the advantage of our proposed method. The watermarking scheme is robust to global RST distortion as well as JPEG compression. In particular, the watermark is robust to print-rescanning and

  9. Fast generation of Fresnel holograms based on multirate filtering.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Peter; Liu, Jung-Ping; Cheung, Wai-Keung; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-12-01

    One of the major problems in computer-generated holography is the high computation cost involved for the calculation of fringe patterns. Recently, the problem has been addressed by imposing a horizontal parallax only constraint whereby the process can be simplified to the computation of one-dimensional sublines, each representing a scan plane of the object scene. Subsequently the sublines can be expanded to a two-dimensional hologram through multiplication with a reference signal. Furthermore, economical hardware is available with which sublines can be generated in a computationally free manner with high throughput of approximately 100 M pixels/second. Apart from decreasing the computation loading, the sublines can be treated as intermediate data that can be compressed by simply downsampling the number of sublines. Despite these favorable features, the method is suitable only for the generation of white light (rainbow) holograms, and the resolution of the reconstructed image is inferior to the classical Fresnel hologram. We propose to generate holograms from one-dimensional sublines so that the above-mentioned problems can be alleviated. However, such an approach also leads to a substantial increase in computation loading. To overcome this problem we encapsulated the conversion of sublines to holograms as a multirate filtering process and implemented the latter by use of a fast Fourier transform. Evaluation reveals that, for holograms of moderate size, our method is capable of operating 40,000 times faster than the calculation of Fresnel holograms based on the precomputed table lookup method. Although there is no relative vertical parallax between object points at different distance planes, a global vertical parallax is preserved for the object scene as a whole and the reconstructed image can be observed easily.

  10. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  11. Non-Manhattan layout extraction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkhozhina, Aziza; Ahmadullin, Ildus; Allebach, Jan P.; Lin, Qian; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Hunter, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Automated publishing requires large databases containing document page layout templates. The number of layout templates that need to be created and stored grows exponentially with the complexity of the document layouts. A better approach for automated publishing is to reuse layout templates of existing documents for the generation of new documents. In this paper, we present an algorithm for template extraction from a docu- ment page image. We use the cost-optimized segmentation algorithm (COS) to segment the image, and Voronoi decomposition to cluster the text regions. Then, we create a block image where each block represents a homo- geneous region of the document page. We construct a geometrical tree that describes the hierarchical structure of the document page. We also implement a font recognition algorithm to analyze the font of each text region. We present a detailed description of the algorithm and our preliminary results.

  12. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  13. Fast and accurate line scanner based on white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambelet, Patrick; Moosburger, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    White-light interferometry is a highly accurate technology for 3D measurements. The principle is widely utilized in surface metrology instruments but rarely adopted for in-line inspection systems. The main challenges for rolling out inspection systems based on white-light interferometry to the production floor are its sensitivity to environmental vibrations and relatively long measurement times: a large quantity of data needs to be acquired and processed in order to obtain a single topographic measurement. Heliotis developed a smart-pixel CMOS camera (lock-in camera) which is specially suited for white-light interferometry. The demodulation of the interference signal is treated at the level of the pixel which typically reduces the acquisition data by one orders of magnitude. Along with the high bandwidth of the dedicated lock-in camera, vertical scan-speeds of more than 40mm/s are reachable. The high scan speed allows for the realization of inspection systems that are rugged against external vibrations as present on the production floor. For many industrial applications such as the inspection of wafer-bumps, surface of mechanical parts and solar-panel, large areas need to be measured. In this case either the instrument or the sample are displaced laterally and several measurements are stitched together. The cycle time of such a system is mostly limited by the stepping time for multiple lateral displacements. A line-scanner based on white light interferometry would eliminate most of the stepping time while maintaining robustness and accuracy. A. Olszak proposed a simple geometry to realize such a lateral scanning interferometer. We demonstrate that such inclined interferometers can benefit significantly from the fast in-pixel demodulation capabilities of the lock-in camera. One drawback of an inclined observation perspective is that its application is limited to objects with scattering surfaces. We therefore propose an alternate geometry where the incident light is

  14. FastEtch: A Fast Sketch-based Assembler for Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Priyanka; Kalyanaraman, Ananth

    2017-09-11

    De novo genome assembly describes the process of reconstructing an unknown genome from a large collection of short (or long) reads sequenced from the genome. A single run of a Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology can produce billions of short reads, making genome assembly computationally demanding (both in terms of memory and time). One of the major computational steps in modern day short read assemblers involves the construction and use of a string data structure called the de Bruijn graph. In fact, a majority of short read assemblers build the complete de Bruijn graph for the set of input reads, and subsequently traverse and prune low-quality edges, in order to generate genomic "contigs"-the output of assembly. These steps of graph construction and traversal, contribute to well over 90% of the runtime and memory. In this paper, we present a fast algorithm, FastEtch, that uses sketching to build an approximate version of the de Bruijn graph for the purpose of generating an assembly. The algorithm uses Count-Min sketch, which is a probabilistic data structure for streaming data sets. The result is an approximate de Bruijn graph that stores information pertaining only to a selected subset of nodes that are most likely to contribute to the contig generation step. In addition, edges are not stored; instead that fraction which contribute to our contig generation are detected on-the-fly. This approximate approach is intended to significantly improve performance (both execution time and memory footprint) whilst possibly compromising on the output assembly quality. We present two main versions of the assembler-one that generates an assembly, where each contig represents a contiguous genomic region from one strand of the DNA, and another that generates an assembly, where the contigs can straddle either of the two strands of the DNA. For further scalability, we have implemented a multi-threaded parallel code. Experimental results using our algorithm conducted on E

  15. Automatic layout of structured hierarchical reports.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Eirik; Karger, David R; Miller, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Domain-specific database applications tend to contain a sizable number of table-, form-, and report-style views that must each be designed and maintained by a software developer. A significant part of this job is the necessary tweaking of low-level presentation details such as label placements, text field dimensions, list or table styles, and so on. In this paper, we present a horizontally constrained layout management algorithm that automates the display of structured hierarchical data using the traditional visual idioms of hand-designed database UIs: tables, multi-column forms, and outline-style indented lists. We compare our system with pure outline and nested table layouts with respect to space efficiency and readability, the latter with an online user study on 27 subjects. Our layouts are 3.9 and 1.6 times more compact on average than outline layouts and horizontally unconstrained table layouts, respectively, and are as readable as table layouts even for large datasets.

  16. Nonuniform fast Fourier transform-based fast back-projection algorithm for stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lele; Yin, Yuqing

    2016-10-01

    Stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar (SFCW-GPR) systems are becoming increasingly popular in the GPR community due to the wider dynamic range and higher immunity to radio interference. The traditional back-projection (BP) algorithm is preferable for SFCW-GPR imaging in layered mediums scenarios for its convenience and robustness. However, the existing BP imaging algorithms are usually very computationally intensive, which limits their practical applications to SFCW-GPR imaging. To solve the above problem, a fast SFCW-GPR BP imaging algorithm based on nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) technique is proposed in this paper. By reformulating the traditional BP imaging algorithm into the evaluations of NUFFT, the computational efficiency of NUFFT is exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the imaging reconstruction. Both simulation and experimental results have verified the effectiveness and improvement of computational efficiency of the proposed imaging method.

  17. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long (6×105 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series. PMID:27941600

  18. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-12-07

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long ( 6 × 10 5 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series.

  19. Geotechnical and environmental considerations in highway layouts: an integrated GIS assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Salah; Kaysi, Isam; Bedran, Mounia

    Highway route layout design typically relies on aerial photographs, topographic maps and geologic maps. In this paper, a GIS platform, which incorporates the main digital data needed for evaluating route layouts, is used in a computer-based approach for highway layout assessment. Possible layouts are evaluated based on two sets of criteria. First, traditional evaluation criteria focussing on geometric design factors and impact on man-made features are considered. Next, the developed assessment framework builds on the GIS platform to generate specific environmental and geotechnical criteria for route layout evaluation. The developed approach integrates highway design, slope stability, and traffic noise modeling packages and specifically written codes with the GIS packages ARC/INFO and ArcView. A prototypical application of the assessment framework for a proposed highway south of the city of Beirut, Lebanon is presented. The results demonstrate the potential of the developed approach in incorporating new evaluation criteria at the route layout design stage and in automating the route layout assessment procedure.

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  1. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  3. Applications to car bodies - Generalized layout design of three-dimensional shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Junichi; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    We shall describe applications of the homogenization method, formulated in Part 1, to design layout of car bodies represented by three-dimensional shell structures based on a multi-loading optimization.

  4. Applications to car bodies - Generalized layout design of three-dimensional shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Junichi; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    We shall describe applications of the homogenization method, formulated in Part 1, to design layout of car bodies represented by three-dimensional shell structures based on a multi-loading optimization.

  5. OPC verification and hotspot management for yield enhancement through layout analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Lee, Taehyeong; Jung, Areum; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Vikram, Abhishek; Park, Sangho

    2011-03-01

    As the design rule shrinks down, various techniques such as RET, DFM have been continuously developed and applied to lithography field. And we have struggled not only to obtain sufficient process window with those techniques but also to feedback hot spots to OPC process for yield improvement in mass production. OPC verification procedure which iterates its processes from OPC to wafer verification until the CD targets are met and hot spots are cleared is becoming more important to ensure robust and accurate patterning and tight hot spot management. Generally, wafer verification results which demonstrate how well OPC corrections are made need to be fed back to OPC engineer in effective and accurate way. First of all, however, it is not possible to cover all transistors in full-chip with some OPC monitoring points which have been used for wafer verification. Secondly, the hot spots which are extracted by OPC simulator are not always reliable enough to represent defective information for full-chip. Finally, it takes much TAT and labor to do this with CD SEM measurement. These difficulties on wafer verification would be improved by design based analysis. The optimal OPC monitoring points are created by classifying all transistors in full chip layout and Hotspot set is selected by pattern matching process using the NanoScopeTM, which is known as a fast design based analysis tool, with a very small amount of hotspots extracted by OPC simulator in full chip layout. Then, each set is used for wafer verification using design based inspection tool, NGR2150TM. In this paper, new verification methodology based on design based analysis will be introduced as an alternative method for effective control of OPC accuracy and hot spot management.

  6. Movement layout and adjustment for a specialized video measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinbo; Wang, Zhong; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Jin

    2012-08-01

    Specialized video measuring system (SVMS) is a kind of instruments diagnosing only one special type of part with high performance. In the design of a SVMS, it is necessary to consider the special requirements during the inspection of the parts. We take the video-based inspecting instrument for watch escapement (VIIWE) as an example of SVMS. A method based on least interferences is proposed to determine an optimized movement layout. The quality of image taken by an imaging lens with a limited depth of field (100 μm) may be degraded by two parameters, i.e., the perpendicularity of optical axis to workbench and the parallelism of probe movement plane to workbench. To optimize the two parameters, we calibrate the perpendicularity with a definition function, measure the parallelism with a dial indicator, and develop a mechanism of adjustment. The scheme about movement layout and adjustment has been successfully applied in the VIIWE.

  7. User-friendly design approach for analog layout design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Lee, Zhao Chuan; Tripathi, Vikas; Perez, Valerio; Ong, Yoong Seang; Hui, Chiu Wing

    2017-03-01

    Analog circuits are sensitives to the changes in the layout environment conditions, manufacturing processes, and variations. This paper presents analog verification flow with five types of analogfocused layout constraint checks to assist engineers in identifying any potential device mismatch and layout drawing mistakes. Compared to several solutions, our approach only requires layout design, which is sufficient to recognize all the matched devices. Our approach simplifies the data preparation and allows seamless integration into the layout environment with minimum disruption to the custom layout flow. Our user-friendly analog verification flow provides the engineer with more confident with their layouts quality.

  8. Accurate Anisotropic Fast Marching for Diffusion-Based Geodesic Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Jbabdi, S.; Bellec, P.; Toro, R.; Daunizeau, J.; Pélégrini-Issac, M.; Benali, H.

    2008-01-01

    Using geodesics for inferring white matter fibre tracts from diffusion-weighted MR data is an attractive method for at least two reasons: (i) the method optimises a global criterion, and hence is less sensitive to local perturbations such as noise or partial volume effects, and (ii) the method is fast, allowing to infer on a large number of connexions in a reasonable computational time. Here, we propose an improved fast marching algorithm to infer on geodesic paths. Specifically, this procedure is designed to achieve accurate front propagation in an anisotropic elliptic medium, such as DTI data. We evaluate the numerical performance of this approach on simulated datasets, as well as its robustness to local perturbation induced by fiber crossing. On real data, we demonstrate the feasibility of extracting geodesics to connect an extended set of brain regions. PMID:18299703

  9. High power, fast, microwave components based on beam generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, W. M.; Fernsler, R. F.; Gitlin, M. S.

    1998-10-01

    It is shown that the agile mirror plasma, under development as a device to simply and cheaply give electronic steering to microwave beams, also has application as a fast, electronically controlled, high power reflector, or phase shifter. In a radar system, this can lead to such applications as pulse to pulse polarization agility and electronic control of antenna gain, as well as to innovative approaches to high power millimeter wave circulators. The basic theory of the enhanced glow plasma is also developed.

  10. Perceived orientation, spatial layout and the geometry of pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, E. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to discuss the role of geometry in determining the perception of spatial layout and perceived orientation in pictures viewed at an angle. This discussion derives from Cutting's (1988) suggestion, based on his analysis of some of the author's data (Goldstein, 1987), that the changes in perceived orientation that occur when pictures are viewed at an angle can be explained in terms of geometrically produced changes in the picture's virtual space.

  11. A novel fast full inversion based breast ultrasound elastography technique.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hirad; Fenster, Aaron; Samani, Abbas

    2013-04-07

    Cancer detection and classification have been the focus of many imaging and therapeutic research studies. Elastography is a non-invasive technique to visualize suspicious soft tissue areas where tissue stiffness is used as image contrast mechanism. In this study, a breast ultrasound elastography system including software and hardware is proposed. Unlike current elastography systems that image the tissue strain and present it as an approximation to relative tissue stiffness, this system is capable of imaging the breast absolute Young's modulus in fast fashion. To improve the quality of elastography images, a novel system consisting of two load cells has been attached to the ultrasound probe. The load cells measure the breast surface forces to be used for calculating the tissue stress distribution throughout the breast. To facilitate fast imaging, this stress calculation is conducted by an accelerated finite element method. Acquired tissue displacements and surface force data are used as input to the proposed Young's modulus reconstruction technique. Numerical and tissue mimicking phantom studies were conducted for validating the proposed system. These studies indicated that fast imaging of breast tissue absolute Young's modulus using the proposed ultrasound elastography system is feasible. The tissue mimicking phantom study indicated that the system is capable of providing reliable absolute Young's modulus values for both normal tissue and tumour as the maximum Young's modulus reconstruction error was less than 6%. This demonstrates that the proposed system has a good potential to be used for clinical breast cancer assessment.

  12. A novel fast full inversion based breast ultrasound elastography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Hirad; Fenster, Aaron; Samani, Abbas

    2013-04-01

    Cancer detection and classification have been the focus of many imaging and therapeutic research studies. Elastography is a non-invasive technique to visualize suspicious soft tissue areas where tissue stiffness is used as image contrast mechanism. In this study, a breast ultrasound elastography system including software and hardware is proposed. Unlike current elastography systems that image the tissue strain and present it as an approximation to relative tissue stiffness, this system is capable of imaging the breast absolute Young’s modulus in fast fashion. To improve the quality of elastography images, a novel system consisting of two load cells has been attached to the ultrasound probe. The load cells measure the breast surface forces to be used for calculating the tissue stress distribution throughout the breast. To facilitate fast imaging, this stress calculation is conducted by an accelerated finite element method. Acquired tissue displacements and surface force data are used as input to the proposed Young’s modulus reconstruction technique. Numerical and tissue mimicking phantom studies were conducted for validating the proposed system. These studies indicated that fast imaging of breast tissue absolute Young’s modulus using the proposed ultrasound elastography system is feasible. The tissue mimicking phantom study indicated that the system is capable of providing reliable absolute Young’s modulus values for both normal tissue and tumour as the maximum Young’s modulus reconstruction error was less than 6%. This demonstrates that the proposed system has a good potential to be used for clinical breast cancer assessment.

  13. A case study of printing industry plant layout for effective production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswajit, T.; Teja, T. Ravi; Deepthi, Y. P.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the overall picture of the processes happening in printing industry. This research is aimed to improve the plant layout of existing plant. The travel time was reduced by relocating machinery. Relocation is based on systematic layout planning (SLP). The complete process of raw material entering the industry to dispatching of finished product is shown in 3-D Flow diagram. The process happening in each floor explained in detail using Flow Process chart. Travel time is reduced by 25% after modifying existing plant layout.

  14. Mask complexity reduction, quality assurance, and yield improvement through reduced layout variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.

    2006-10-01

    Technology, CAD, and design are increasingly more challenged by Design-for-Manufacturability rules and guidelines required to improve pattern transfer quality to the reticle and silicon wafer. One key reason for this challenge is the variability of the layout, which for designs beyond the 100 nm technology node should no longer be subject only to short range design rule checks concerning individual layout features. To include the impact of medium and long-range pattern interactions (across-die or exposure field) into the design process, one should change layout architecture methodology distributed so far among multiple design groups and using manual drawing techniques or semi-automated tools with different quality standards. This task becomes even more important for the RF/analog layout where signal propagation is sensitive to device matching requirements and capacitive coupling. At that point, IC designer had two options to control the layout freedom: by enforcing new, more restrictive design rules or by using standardized, parameterized layout based on standard cells proven on silicon, including all electrically extracted RET, OPC, and dummy features. In this work, we will show that the standardized layout is the option preferred from the point of view of design, CAD, and technology.

  15. G-Space: a linear time graph layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Brian; Baumes, Jeffrey; Shead, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe G-Space, a straightforward linear time layout algorithm that draws undirected graphs based purely on their topological features. The algorithm is divided into two phases. The first phase is an embedding of the graph into a 2-D plane using the graph-theoretical distances as coordinates. These coordinates are computed with the same process used by HDE (High-Dimensional Embedding) algorithms. In our case we do a Low-Dimensional Embedding (LDE), and directly map the graph distances into a two dimensional geometric space. The second phase is the resolution of the many-to-one mappings that frequently occur within the low dimensional embedding. The resulting layout appears to have advantages over existing methods: it can be computed rapidly, and it can be used to answer topological questions quickly and intuitively.

  16. Human Factors Evaluations of Two-Dimensional Spacecraft Conceptual Layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Much of the human factors work done in support of the NASA Constellation lunar program has been with low fidelity mockups. These volumetric replicas of the future lunar spacecraft allow researchers to insert test subjects from the engineering and astronaut population and evaluate the vehicle design as the test subjects perform simulations of various operational tasks. However, lunar outpost designs must be evaluated without the use of mockups, creating a need for evaluation tools that can be performed on two-dimension conceptual spacecraft layouts, such as floor plans. A tool based on the Cooper- Harper scale was developed and applied to one lunar scenario, enabling engineers to select between two competing floor plan layouts. Keywords: Constellation, human factors, tools, processes, habitat, outpost, Net Habitable Volume, Cooper-Harper.

  17. Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Layout of the Hypersonic Flight Experiment Shefex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Th.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the SHarp Edge Flight EXperiment SHEFEX is the investigation of possible new shapes for future launcher or reentry vehicles [1]. The main focus is the improvement of common space vehicle shapes by application of facetted surfaces and sharp edges. The experiment will enable the time accurate investigation of the flow effects and their structural answer during the hypersonic flight from 90 km down to an altitude of 20 km. The project, being performed under responsibility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is scheduled to fly on top of a two-stage solid propellant sounding rocket for the first half of 2005. The paper contains a survey of the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic layout of the experimental vehicle. The results are inputs for the definition of the structural layout, the TPS and the flight instrumentation as well as for the preparation of the flight test performed by the Mobile Rocket Base of DLR.

  18. Uncertainty Assessment for Fast Reactors Based on Nuclear Data Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Ivanov, E.; Ecrabet, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents IRSN's results of the OECD/NEA WPEC Subgroup 33 benchmark exercise which is focused upon combined use of differential and integral data using adjustment technique. The results are generated by BERING code using different sets of input data: integral parameters and sensitivity coefficients for fast benchmark experiments and applications computed by deterministic ERANOS code and Monte Carlo SCALE sequences, COMMARA-2.0 and JENDL-4.0 cross-section-covariance data and integral correlations provided by JAEA. The paper demonstrates results of the adjustment when using different input data and two adjustment algorithms implemented in BERING.

  19. AmbiguityVis: Visualization of Ambiguity in Graph Layouts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Shen, Qiaomu; Archambault, Daniel; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhu, Min; Yang, Sixiao; Qu, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Node-link diagrams provide an intuitive way to explore networks and have inspired a large number of automated graph layout strategies that optimize aesthetic criteria. However, any particular drawing approach cannot fully satisfy all these criteria simultaneously, producing drawings with visual ambiguities that can impede the understanding of network structure. To bring attention to these potentially problematic areas present in the drawing, this paper presents a technique that highlights common types of visual ambiguities: ambiguous spatial relationships between nodes and edges, visual overlap between community structures, and ambiguity in edge bundling and metanodes. Metrics, including newly proposed metrics for abnormal edge lengths, visual overlap in community structures and node/edge aggregation, are proposed to quantify areas of ambiguity in the drawing. These metrics and others are then displayed using a heatmap-based visualization that provides visual feedback to developers of graph drawing and visualization approaches, allowing them to quickly identify misleading areas. The novel metrics and the heatmap-based visualization allow a user to explore ambiguities in graph layouts from multiple perspectives in order to make reasonable graph layout choices. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated through case studies and expert reviews.

  20. Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrostowski, Lukas; Lu, Zeqin; Flueckiger, Jonas; Wang, Xu; Klein, Jackson; Liu, Amy; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Pond, James

    2016-05-01

    Electronic circuit designers commonly start their design process with a schematic, namely an abstract representation of the physical circuit. In integrated photonics on the other hand, it is common for the design to begin at the physical component level, and create a layout by connecting components with interconnects. In this paper, we discuss how to create a schematic from the physical layout via netlist extraction, which enables circuit simulations. Post-layout extraction can also be used to predict how fabrication variability and non-uniformity will impact circuit performance. This is based on the component position information, compact models that are parameterized for dimensional variations, and manufacturing variability models such as a simulated wafer thickness map. This final step is critical in understanding how real-world silicon photonic circuits will behave. We present an example based on treating the ring resonator as a circuit. A silicon photonics design kit, as described here, is available for download at http://github.com/lukasc-ubc/SiEPIC_EBeam_PDK.

  1. Hierarchical approaches to VLSI circuit layout

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrafzadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis studies two hierarchical approaches to the circuit-layout problem: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The first part is devoted to the traditional top-down approach, and particularly, to an important subproblem thereof called the Channel Routing Problem (CRP). The complexity of CRP in three different layout modes - the reserved mode, the knock-knee mode, and the restricted-overlap mode - is studied. Besides the conventional square grid, two new grids - the alternate grid and the 45/sup 0/ grid - are considered, and their respective versatility is assessed. In the second part, a novel bottom-up technique for solving the layout problem is proposed. The strategy is to recursively interconnect a set of modules, in conformity with the design rules. The basic step consists of merging a pair of strongly-connected modules. This technique is elaborated on and the fundamental problems of this approach are discussed.

  2. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  3. Vision-based fast navigation of micro aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loianno, Giuseppe; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    We address the key challenges for autonomous fast flight for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) in 3-D, cluttered environments. For complete autonomy, the system must identify the vehicle's state at high rates, using either absolute or relative asynchronous on-board sensor measurements, use these state estimates for feedback control, and plan trajectories to the destination. State estimation requires information from different sensors to be fused, exploiting information from different, possible asynchronous sensors at different rates. In this work, we present techniques in the area of planning, control and visual-inertial state estimation for fast navigation of MAVs. We demonstrate how to solve on-board, on a small computational unit, the pose estimation, control and planning problems for MAVs, using a minimal sensor suite for autonomous navigation composed of a single camera and IMU. Additionally, we show that a consumer electronic device such as a smartphone can alternatively be employed for both sensing and computation. Experimental results validate the proposed techniques. Any consumer, provided with a smartphone, can autonomously drive a quadrotor platform at high speed, without GPS, and concurrently build 3-D maps, using a suitably designed app.

  4. Logical and layout structures of documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickel, Jürgen

    1990-11-01

    Document preparation systems are commonly layout oriented in that way that the user interactively creates and modifies frames for text, mathematical formulas, raster or geometric graphics, etc. For batch-oriented systems the user manipulates the process of formatting by inserting control commands into the plain text. These modify the position or graphic aspect of the following text portion. Many systems provide a macro mechanism to combine lengthy and repeatedly used control commands to macros, with the result that the text is interpersed with macrocalls. Macro calls. Macro calls are often logical delimiters. They subdivide the plain text into a linear of document objects, which forms the linear description of the logical document structure similar to a tree. It must be mentioned that in most systems there is no direct support or representation of the logical document structure. The logical structure exists only in the author's mind and the author himself compiles the logical document objects and their hierarchical relationship to physical layout representation. More flexiblw and interactively formatting editors for structured document preparation presuppose a strong distinction of logical and layout structure and incorporate a formal description of the mapping, how the layout is derived from the logical structure. The logical structure is an enriched tree-oriented representation, in which between pbjects are constrained by grammatical specification. The layout structures define the layout relationships on the physical pages of the document and they are also constrained by grammatical spedifications. Another goal is to define the mapping well known as formatting by high-level specification for classes of documents, in order to be able to generate automatically formatting editors by high-level specifications.

  5. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  6. Analysis tools for the interplay between genome layout and regulation.

    PubMed

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Elati, Mohamed; Képès, François

    2016-06-06

    Genome layout and gene regulation appear to be interdependent. Understanding this interdependence is key to exploring the dynamic nature of chromosome conformation and to engineering functional genomes. Evidence for non-random genome layout, defined as the relative positioning of either co-functional or co-regulated genes, stems from two main approaches. Firstly, the analysis of contiguous genome segments across species, has highlighted the conservation of gene arrangement (synteny) along chromosomal regions. Secondly, the study of long-range interactions along a chromosome has emphasised regularities in the positioning of microbial genes that are co-regulated, co-expressed or evolutionarily correlated. While one-dimensional pattern analysis is a mature field, it is often powerless on biological datasets which tend to be incomplete, and partly incorrect. Moreover, there is a lack of comprehensive, user-friendly tools to systematically analyse, visualise, integrate and exploit regularities along genomes. Here we present the Genome REgulatory and Architecture Tools SCAN (GREAT:SCAN) software for the systematic study of the interplay between genome layout and gene expression regulation. SCAN is a collection of related and interconnected applications currently able to perform systematic analyses of genome regularities as well as to improve transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and gene regulatory network predictions based on gene positional information. We demonstrate the capabilities of these tools by studying on one hand the regular patterns of genome layout in the major regulons of the bacterium Escherichia coli. On the other hand, we demonstrate the capabilities to improve TFBS prediction in microbes. Finally, we highlight, by visualisation of multivariate techniques, the interplay between position and sequence information for effective transcription regulation.

  7. [CUDA-based fast dose calculation in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Cao; Hou, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Dose calculation plays a key role in treatment planning of radiotherapy. Algorithms for dose calculation require high accuracy and computational efficiency. Finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm is a method commonly adopted in the treatment planning system for radiotherapy. However, improvement on its computational efficiency is still desirable for such purpose as real time treatment planning. In this paper, we present an implementation of the FSPB, by which the most time-consuming parts in the algorithm are parallelized and ported on graphic processing unit (GPU). Compared with the FSPB completely running on central processing unit (CPU), the GPU-implemented FSPB can speed up the dose calculation for 25-35 times on a low price GPU (Geforce GT320) and for 55-100 times on a Tesla C1060, indicating that the GPU-implemented FSPB can provide fast enough dose calculations for real-time treatment planning.

  8. Perceptual organization in user-generated graph layouts.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Frank; Rogowitz, Bernice E

    2008-01-01

    Many graph layout algorithms optimize visual characteristics to achieve useful representations. Implicitly, their goal is to create visual representations that are more intuitive to human observers. In this paper, we asked users to explicitly manipulate nodes in a network diagram to create layouts that they felt best captured the relationships in the data. This allowed us to measure organizational behavior directly, allowing us to evaluate the perceptual importance of particular visual features, such as edge crossings and edge-lengths uniformity. We also manipulated the interior structure of the node relationships by designing data sets that contained clusters, that is, sets of nodes that are strongly interconnected. By varying the degree to which these clusters were "masked" by extraneous edges we were able to measure observers' sensitivity to the existence of clusters and how they revealed them in the network diagram. Based on these measurements we found that observers are able to recover cluster structure, that the distance between clusters is inversely related to the strength of the clustering, and that users exhibit the tendency to use edges to visually delineate perceptual groups. These results demonstrate the role of perceptual organization in representing graph data and provide concrete recommendations for graph layout algorithms.

  9. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation with asymmetrical exits layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hao; Guan, Hongzhi; Shao, Chunfu; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of pedestrian evacuation from a room with asymmetrical exit layout is presented based on the improved Dynamic Parameter Model in this paper. A special technique is introduced to compute two basic dynamic parameters: Direction- parameter and Empty- parameter considering the effects of pedestrian jam around exits and the width of exits on evacuation path selection in order to reduce evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits layout. Two new coefficients: cognition coefficient and imbalance coefficient are introduced to respectively describe pedestrian cognitive ability and the layout imbalance of exits. The simulation results of the improved and original models are compared and analyzed. Simulation results show that evacuation time depends on the cognition coefficient and imbalance coefficient under normal evacuation condition with reasonable pedestrian. It is also found that there are phase transitions and critical points in the simulation curves of evacuation time against cognition coefficient and that the pedestrian flow shows distinctive characteristics at different phases. The values of critical cognition coefficient points depend on the initial pedestrian density and imbalance coefficient.

  10. Effects of image intensifier halo on perceived layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacher, James E.; Brandwood, Tracey; Thomas, Paul; Vinnikov, Margarita; Xu, Gancun; Jennings, Sion; Macuda, Todd; Palmisano, Stephan A.; Craig, Greg; Wilcox, Laurie; Allison, Robert S.

    2007-04-01

    Night vision devices (NVDs) or night-vision goggles (NVGs) based on image intensifiers improve nighttime visibility and extend night operations for military and increasingly civil aviation. However, NVG imagery is not equivalent to daytime vision and impaired depth and motion perception has been noted. One potential cause of impaired perceptions of space and environmental layout is NVG halo, where bright light sources appear to be surrounded by a disc-like halo. In this study we measured the characteristics of NVG halo psychophysically and objectively and then evaluated the influence of halo on perceived environmental layout in a simulation experiment. Halos are generated in the device and are not directly related to the spatial layout of the scene. We found that, when visible, halo image (i.e. angular) size was only weakly dependent on both source intensity and distance although halo intensity did vary with effective source intensity. The size of halo images surrounding lights sources are independent of the source distance and thus do not obey the normal laws of perspective. In simulation experiments we investigated the effect of NVG halo on judgements of observer attitude with respect to the ground during simulated flight. We discuss the results in terms of NVG design and of the ability of human operators to compensate for perceptual distortions.

  11. A new sensitivity model with blank space for layout optimization*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junping; Wu, Yao; Liu, Shigang; Xing, Runsen

    2017-06-01

    As the technology scales advancing into the nanometer region, the concept of yield has become an increasingly important design metric. To reduce the yield loss caused by local defects, layout optimization can play a critical role. In this paper, we propose a new open sensitivity-based model with consideration of the blank space around the net, and study the corresponding net optimization. The proposed new model not only has a high practicability in the selection of nets to be optimized but also solves the issue of the increase in short critical area brought during the open optimization,which means to reduce the open critical area with no new short critical area produced, and thereby this model can ensure the decrease of total critical area and finally achieves an integrative optimization. Compared with the models available, the experimental results show that our sensitivity model not only consumes less time with concise algorithm but also can deal with irregular layout, which is out of the scope of other models. At the end of this paper, the effectiveness of the new model is verified by the experiment on the randomly selected five metal layers from the synthesized OpenSparc circuit layout.

  12. BioLayout(Java): versatile network visualisation of structural and functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Goldovsky, Leon; Cases, Ildefonso; Enright, Anton J; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2005-01-01

    Visualisation of biological networks is becoming a common task for the analysis of high-throughput data. These networks correspond to a wide variety of biological relationships, such as sequence similarity, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory cascades and protein interactions. We present a general approach for the representation and analysis of networks of variable type, size and complexity. The application is based on the original BioLayout program (C-language implementation of the Fruchterman-Rheingold layout algorithm), entirely re-written in Java to guarantee portability across platforms. BioLayout(Java) provides broader functionality, various analysis techniques, extensions for better visualisation and a new user interface. Examples of analysis of biological networks using BioLayout(Java) are presented.

  13. Layout and Design in "Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Janet; Stocker, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Educators are required to combine their expertise and allow students to explore the different areas by using the method of collaboration in which teachers from different disciplines will create an environment where each will use their expert skills. The collaboration of a computer teacher with an art teacher resulted in the creation of Layout and…

  14. You Be the Judge: Newspaper Advertising Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The learning package is designed to provide the marketing educator with a culminating activity for an instructional unit focusing on advertising layout principles and procedures. It is to be used in conjunction with 35mm slides of newspaper advertisements, which the student views and rates in comparison with the ratings of a panel of experts. A…

  15. Layout and Design in "Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Janet; Stocker, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Educators are required to combine their expertise and allow students to explore the different areas by using the method of collaboration in which teachers from different disciplines will create an environment where each will use their expert skills. The collaboration of a computer teacher with an art teacher resulted in the creation of Layout and…

  16. From FAST to E-FAST: an overview of the evolution of ultrasound-based traumatic injury assessment.

    PubMed

    Montoya, J; Stawicki, S P; Evans, D C; Bahner, D P; Sparks, S; Sharpe, R P; Cipolla, J

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound is a ubiquitous and versatile diagnostic tool. In the setting of acute injury, ultrasound enhances the basic trauma evaluation, influences bedside decision-making, and helps determine whether or not an unstable patient requires emergent procedural intervention. Consequently, continued education of surgeons and other acute care practitioners in performing focused emergency ultrasound is of great importance. This article provides a synopsis of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and the extended FAST (E-FAST) that incorporates basic thoracic injury assessment. The authors also review key pitfalls, limitations, controversies, and advances related to FAST, E-FAST, and ultrasound education.

  17. a Preliminary Work on Layout Slam for Reconstruction of Indoor Corridor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baligh Jahromi, A.; Sohn, G.; Shahbazi, M.; Kang, J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a real time indoor corridor layout estimation method based on visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The proposed method adopts the Manhattan World Assumption at indoor spaces and uses the detected single image straight line segments and their corresponding orthogonal vanishing points to improve the feature matching scheme in the adopted visual SLAM system. Using the proposed real time indoor corridor layout estimation method, the system is able to build an online sparse map of structural corner point features. The challenges presented by abrupt camera rotation in the 3D space are successfully handled through matching vanishing directions of consecutive video frames on the Gaussian sphere. Using the single image based indoor layout features for initializing the system, permitted the proposed method to perform real time layout estimation and camera localization in indoor corridor areas. For layout structural corner points matching, we adopted features which are invariant under scale, translation, and rotation. We proposed a new feature matching cost function which considers both local and global context information. The cost function consists of a unary term, which measures pixel to pixel orientation differences of the matched corners, and a binary term, which measures the amount of angle differences between directly connected layout corner features. We have performed the experiments on real scenes at York University campus buildings and the available RAWSEEDS dataset. The incoming results depict that the proposed method robustly performs along with producing very limited position and orientation errors.

  18. Accurate and fast narcissus calculation based on sequential ray trace.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Xiaobing; Zhong, Ning; Zheng, Changsheng; Wen, Lizhan

    2013-11-20

    A narcissus calculating method for cryogenic infrared imaging systems is proposed in this paper. The accuracy is largely improved compared to the traditional paraxial analysis, as ray blocking of the optical opertures is taken into account and real ray data are used during the calculation. The narcissus distribution on the full focal plane can be obtained via analyzing field by field. Meanwhile, it can be implemented simply and fast as sequential ray tracing is utilized and rays only pass through three surfaces during the cold return statistics for every retro-reflecting surface. According to this method, a general narcissus calculation package was realized using the macro language of optical design software Code V. The performance of the new method was tested by calculating an example system using this package and comparing it with traditional methods. The results showed that the new method produced the same result accuracy and information quantity as the nonsequential ray trace, while the whole analysis took only 5 s, which was significantly shortened compared with the nonsequential ray trace, which took about 30 min.

  19. An approach toward fast gradient-based image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hell, Benjamin; Kassubeck, Marc; Bauszat, Pablo; Eisemann, Martin; Magnor, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present and investigate an approach to fast multilabel color image segmentation using convex optimization techniques. The presented model is in some ways related to the well-known Mumford-Shah model, but deviates in certain important aspects. The optimization problem has been designed with two goals in mind. The objective function should represent fundamental concepts of image segmentation, such as incorporation of weighted curve length and variation of intensity in the segmented regions, while allowing transformation into a convex concave saddle point problem that is computationally inexpensive to solve. This paper introduces such a model, the nontrivial transformation of this model into a convex-concave saddle point problem, and the numerical treatment of the problem. We evaluate our approach by applying our algorithm to various images and show that our results are competitive in terms of quality at unprecedentedly low computation times. Our algorithm allows high-quality segmentation of megapixel images in a few seconds and achieves interactive performance for low resolution images.

  20. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  1. Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Bastian Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W.

    2015-11-16

    Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.

  2. On fast iterative mapping algorithms for stripe based coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Gayatri; Patel, Krunalkumar; Pollard, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reconfigurable devices have potential for great flexibility/efficiency, but mapping algorithms onto these architectures is a long-standing challenge. This paper addresses this challenge for stripe based coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs) by drawing on insights from graph drawing. We adapt fast, iterative algorithms from hierarchical graph drawing to the problem of mapping to stripe based architectures. We find that global sifting is 98 times as fast as simulated annealing and produces very compact designs with 17% less area on average, at a cost of 5% greater wire length. Interleaving iterations of Sugiyama and global sifting is 40 times as fast as simulated annealing and achieves somewhat more compact designs with 1.8% less area on average, at a cost of only 1% greater wire length. These solutions can enable fast design space exploration, rapid performance testing, and flexible programming of CGRAs "in the field."

  3. Fast Numerically Based Modeling for Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassen, D. S.; Everett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    There is a need for computationally fast GPR numerical modeling. This includes circumstances where real time performance is needed, for example discrimination of landmines or UXO's, and in circumstances that require a high number of successive forward problems, for example inversion or imaging. Traditional numerical techniques such as finite difference or finite element are too slow for these applications, but they provide results from general scenarios such as scattering from very complicated shapes with high contrast. Neural networks may fit in the niche between analytical techniques and traditional numerical techniques. Our concept is training a neural network to associate the model inputs of electromagnetic properties of the background and targets, and the size and shape of the targets, with the output generated by a 3-D finite difference model. Successive examples from various electromagnetic properties and targets are displayed to the neural network, until the neural network has adapted itself though optimization. The trained neural network is now used as the forward model by displaying new input parameters and the neural network then generates the appropriate output. The results from the neural network are then compared to results from finite difference models to see how well the neural networks is performing and at what point it breaks down. Areas of poor fit can be addressed through further training. The neural network GPR model can be adapted by displaying additional finite difference results to the neural network, and can also be adapted to a specific field area by actual field data examples. Because of this adaptation ability the neural network GPR model can be optimized for specific environments and applications.

  4. FMFilter: A fast model based variant filtering tool.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Mete; Faruk Gerdan, Ö; Görmez, Zeliha; Demirci, Hüseyin

    2016-04-01

    The availability of whole exome and genome sequencing has completely changed the structure of genetic disease studies. It is now possible to solve the disease causing mechanisms within shorter time and budgets. For this reason, mining out the valuable information from the huge amount of data produced by next generation techniques becomes a challenging task. Current tools analyze sequencing data in various methods. However, there is still need for fast, easy to use and efficacious tools. Considering genetic disease studies, there is a lack of publicly available tools which support compound heterozygous and de novo models. Also, existing tools either require advanced IT expertise or are inefficient for handling large variant files. In this work, we provide FMFilter, an efficient sieving tool for next generation sequencing data produced by genetic disease studies. We develop a software which allows to choose the inheritance model (recessive, dominant, compound heterozygous and de novo), the affected and control individuals. The program provides a user friendly Graphical User Interface which eliminates the requirement of advanced computer techniques. It has various filtering options which enable to eliminate the majority of the false alarms. FMFilter requires negligible memory, therefore it can easily handle very large variant files like multiple whole genomes with ordinary computers. We demonstrate the variant reduction capability and effectiveness of the proposed tool with public and in-house data for different inheritance models. We also compare FMFilter with the existing filtering software. We conclude that FMFilter provides an effective and easy to use environment for analyzing next generation sequencing data from Mendelian diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, V.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Raiford, G.B.

    1980-09-01

    SACRD (Safety Analysis Computerized Reactor Data) is a data base of nondesign-related information used in computer codes for fast reactor safety analyses. This document reports the procedures used in SACRD to help assure a reasonable level of integrity of the material contained in the data base. It also serves to document much of the computer software used with the data base.

  6. Fast Algorithms for Earth Mover Distance Based on Optimal Transport and L1 Regularization II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    FAST ALGORITHMS FOR EARTH MOVER DISTANCE BASED ON OPTIMAL TRANSPORT AND L1 REGULARIZATION II WUCHEN LI, STANLEY OSHER, AND WILFRID GANGBO Abstract...We modify a fast algorithm which we designed in [15] for computing the Earth mover’s distance (EMD), whose cost is a Manhattan metric. From the theory...and converges very rapidly. Several numerical examples are presented. 1. Introduction The Earth Mover’s distance (EMD), also named the Monge problem

  7. Wiring knock-knee layouts: A global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Wagner, Dorothea; Wagner, Frank; Weihe, Karsten

    1994-05-01

    We present a global approach to solve the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts. In general, the problem is NP-complete. Only for very restricted classes of layouts polynomial three-layer wiring algorithms are known up to now. In this paper, we show that for a large class of layouts a three-layer wiring can be constructed by solving a path problem in a special class of graphs or a two-satisfiability problem, and thus may be wired in time linear in the size of the layout area. Moreover, it is shown that a minimum stretching of the layout into a layout belonging to this class can be found by solving a clique cover problem in an interval graph. This problem is solvable in time linear in the size of the layout area as well. Altogether, the method also yields a good heuristic for the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts.

  8. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  9. Automatic layout of integrated-optic time-of-flight circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Ruth D.

    1996-11-01

    This work describes the architecture and algorithms used in the computer-aided design tool developed for the automatic layout of integrated-optic, time-of-flight circuit designs. As in VLSI circuit layout, total wire length and chip area minimization are the goals in the layout of time-of-flight circuits. However, there are two major differences between the layout of time of flight circuits and VLSI circuits. First, the interconnection lengths of time-of-flight designs are exactly specified in order to achieve the necessary delays for signal synchronization. SEcondly, the switching elements are 120 times longer than they are wide. This highly astigmatic aspect ratio causes severe constraints on how and where the switches are placed. Assuming the continued development of corner turning mirrors allows the use of a parallel, row-based device placement architecture and a rectangular, fixed-grid track system for the connecting paths. The layout process proceeds in two steps. The first step involves the use of a partial circuit graph representation to place the elements in rows, oriented in the direction of the signal flow. After iterative improvement of the placement, the second step proceeds with the routing of the connecting paths. The main problem in the automatic layout of time-of-flight circuits is achieving the correct path lengths without overlapping previously routed paths. This problem is solved by taking advantage of a certain degree of variability present in each path, allowing the use of simple heuristics to circumvent previously routed paths.

  10. Using RGB-D sensors and evolutionary algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts.

    PubMed

    Diego-Mas, Jose Antonio; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Garzon-Leal, Diana

    2017-11-01

    RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria. Results show that typical drawbacks of using RGB-D sensors for body tracking are not a problem for this application, and that the combination with intelligent algorithms can automatize the layout design process. The procedure described can be used to automatically suggest new layouts when workers or processes of production change, to adapt layouts to specific workers based on their ways to do the tasks, or to obtain layouts simultaneously optimized for several production processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast and accurate FPGA based QRS detection system.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ashish; Macchiarulo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    An accurate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ECG Analysis system is described in this paper. The design, based on a popular software based QRS detection algorithm, calculates the threshold value for the next peak detection cycle, from the median of eight previously detected peaks. The hardware design has accuracy in excess of 96% in detecting the beats correctly when tested with a subset of five 30 minute data records obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The design, implemented using a proprietary design tool (System Generator), is an extension of our previous work and uses 76% resources available in a small-sized FPGA device (Xilinx Spartan xc3s500), has a higher detection accuracy as compared to our previous design and takes almost half the analysis time in comparison to software based approach.

  12. Fast Marching Tree: a Fast Marching Sampling-Based Method for Optimal Motion Planning in Many Dimensions*

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Lucas; Schmerling, Edward; Clark, Ashley; Pavone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel probabilistic sampling-based motion planning algorithm called the Fast Marching Tree algorithm (FMT*). The algorithm is specifically aimed at solving complex motion planning problems in high-dimensional configuration spaces. This algorithm is proven to be asymptotically optimal and is shown to converge to an optimal solution faster than its state-of-the-art counterparts, chiefly PRM* and RRT*. The FMT* algorithm performs a “lazy” dynamic programming recursion on a predetermined number of probabilistically-drawn samples to grow a tree of paths, which moves steadily outward in cost-to-arrive space. As such, this algorithm combines features of both single-query algorithms (chiefly RRT) and multiple-query algorithms (chiefly PRM), and is reminiscent of the Fast Marching Method for the solution of Eikonal equations. As a departure from previous analysis approaches that are based on the notion of almost sure convergence, the FMT* algorithm is analyzed under the notion of convergence in probability: the extra mathematical flexibility of this approach allows for convergence rate bounds—the first in the field of optimal sampling-based motion planning. Specifically, for a certain selection of tuning parameters and configuration spaces, we obtain a convergence rate bound of order O(n−1/d+ρ), where n is the number of sampled points, d is the dimension of the configuration space, and ρ is an arbitrarily small constant. We go on to demonstrate asymptotic optimality for a number of variations on FMT*, namely when the configuration space is sampled non-uniformly, when the cost is not arc length, and when connections are made based on the number of nearest neighbors instead of a fixed connection radius. Numerical experiments over a range of dimensions and obstacle configurations confirm our the-oretical and heuristic arguments by showing that FMT*, for a given execution time, returns substantially better solutions than either PRM* or RRT

  13. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  14. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  15. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts...

  16. Visual saliency-based fast intracoding algorithm for high efficiency video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Shi, Guangming; Zhou, Wei; Duan, Zhemin

    2017-01-01

    Intraprediction has been significantly improved in high efficiency video coding over H.264/AVC with quad-tree-based coding unit (CU) structure from size 64×64 to 8×8 and more prediction modes. However, these techniques cause a dramatic increase in computational complexity. An intracoding algorithm is proposed that consists of perceptual fast CU size decision algorithm and fast intraprediction mode decision algorithm. First, based on the visual saliency detection, an adaptive and fast CU size decision method is proposed to alleviate intraencoding complexity. Furthermore, a fast intraprediction mode decision algorithm with step halving rough mode decision method and early modes pruning algorithm is presented to selectively check the potential modes and effectively reduce the complexity of computation. Experimental results show that our proposed fast method reduces the computational complexity of the current HM to about 57% in encoding time with only 0.37% increases in BD rate. Meanwhile, the proposed fast algorithm has reasonable peak signal-to-noise ratio losses and nearly the same subjective perceptual quality.

  17. Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: Role of street layout and local destinations.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-03-01

    Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents.

  18. Fast Fragmentation of Networks Using Module-Based Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Requião da Cunha, Bruno; González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Gonçalves, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of Network Science, optimization of procedures for efficiently breaking complex networks is attracting much attention from a practical point of view. In this contribution, we present a module-based method to efficiently fragment complex networks. The procedure firstly identifies topological communities through which the network can be represented using a well established heuristic algorithm of community finding. Then only the nodes that participate of inter-community links are removed in descending order of their betweenness centrality. We illustrate the method by applying it to a variety of examples in the social, infrastructure, and biological fields. It is shown that the module-based approach always outperforms targeted attacks to vertices based on node degree or betweenness centrality rankings, with gains in efficiency strongly related to the modularity of the network. Remarkably, in the US power grid case, by deleting 3% of the nodes, the proposed method breaks the original network in fragments which are twenty times smaller in size than the fragments left by betweenness-based attack. PMID:26569610

  19. Fast Fragmentation of Networks Using Module-Based Attacks.

    PubMed

    Requião da Cunha, Bruno; González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Gonçalves, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of Network Science, optimization of procedures for efficiently breaking complex networks is attracting much attention from a practical point of view. In this contribution, we present a module-based method to efficiently fragment complex networks. The procedure firstly identifies topological communities through which the network can be represented using a well established heuristic algorithm of community finding. Then only the nodes that participate of inter-community links are removed in descending order of their betweenness centrality. We illustrate the method by applying it to a variety of examples in the social, infrastructure, and biological fields. It is shown that the module-based approach always outperforms targeted attacks to vertices based on node degree or betweenness centrality rankings, with gains in efficiency strongly related to the modularity of the network. Remarkably, in the US power grid case, by deleting 3% of the nodes, the proposed method breaks the original network in fragments which are twenty times smaller in size than the fragments left by betweenness-based attack.

  20. Influence of diurnal variation and fasting on serum iron concentrations in a community-based population.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-09-23

    Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Page layout analysis and classification for complex scanned documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkilinc, M. Sezer; Jaber, Mustafa; Saber, Eli; Bauer, Peter; Depalov, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    A framework for region/zone classification in color and gray-scale scanned documents is proposed in this paper. The algorithm includes modules for extracting text, photo, and strong edge/line regions. Firstly, a text detection module which is based on wavelet analysis and Run Length Encoding (RLE) technique is employed. Local and global energy maps in high frequency bands of the wavelet domain are generated and used as initial text maps. Further analysis using RLE yields a final text map. The second module is developed to detect image/photo and pictorial regions in the input document. A block-based classifier using basis vector projections is employed to identify photo candidate regions. Then, a final photo map is obtained by applying probabilistic model based on Markov random field (MRF) based maximum a posteriori (MAP) optimization with iterated conditional mode (ICM). The final module detects lines and strong edges using Hough transform and edge-linkages analysis, respectively. The text, photo, and strong edge/line maps are combined to generate a page layout classification of the scanned target document. Experimental results and objective evaluation show that the proposed technique has a very effective performance on variety of simple and complex scanned document types obtained from MediaTeam Oulu document database. The proposed page layout classifier can be used in systems for efficient document storage, content based document retrieval, optical character recognition, mobile phone imagery, and augmented reality.

  2. Whisker Contact Detection of Rodents Based on Slow and Fast Mechanical Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Laure N.; Boubenec, Yves; Debrégeas, Georges; Prevost, Alexis M.; Wandersman, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to locate nearby objects with an extreme precision. To perform such tasks, they need to detect whisker/object contacts with a high temporal accuracy. This contact detection is conveyed by classes of mechanoreceptors whose neural activity is sensitive to either slow or fast time varying mechanical stresses acting at the base of the whiskers. We developed a biomimetic approach to separate and characterize slow quasi-static and fast vibrational stress signals acting on a whisker base in realistic exploratory phases, using experiments on both real and artificial whiskers. Both slow and fast mechanical inputs are successfully captured using a mechanical model of the whisker. We present and discuss consequences of the whisking process in purely mechanical terms and hypothesize that free whisking in air sets a mechanical threshold for contact detection. The time resolution and robustness of the contact detection strategies based on either slow or fast stress signals are determined. Contact detection based on the vibrational signal is faster and more robust to exploratory conditions than the slow quasi-static component, although both slow/fast components allow localizing the object. PMID:28119582

  3. Center for Shape Optimization and Material Layout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    that eventually participate in the optimal layout for non -self-adjoint problems . Currently, these microstructures are worked out numerically [6...the fourth order problem arising in the theory of plates. 1.2 The Fourth Order Problems Direct Approach in the Optimal Design of Plates. The state of... constraint set. In fact, the constraint set is not only nonlinear, its also non -smooth, and even non - convex . Worst of all, we do not even have an analytic

  4. Document Template for Printed Circuit Board Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.T.; /Fermilab

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the information that may be required to properly specify a printed circuit board (PCB) design. You must provide sufficient information to the PCB layout vendor such that they can quote accurately and design the PCB that you need. Use the following information as a guide to write your specification. Include as much of it as is necessary to get the PCB design that you want.

  5. Fast vision-based catheter 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moradi Dalvand, Mohsen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Howe, Robert D

    2016-07-21

    Continuum robots offer better maneuverability and inherent compliance and are well-suited for surgical applications as catheters, where gentle interaction with the environment is desired. However, sensing their shape and tip position is a challenge as traditional sensors can not be employed in the way they are in rigid robotic manipulators. In this paper, a high speed vision-based shape sensing algorithm for real-time 3D reconstruction of continuum robots based on the views of two arbitrary positioned cameras is presented. The algorithm is based on the closed-form analytical solution of the reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D space from two arbitrary perspective projections. High-speed image processing algorithms are developed for the segmentation and feature extraction from the images. The proposed algorithms are experimentally validated for accuracy by measuring the tip position, length and bending and orientation angles for known circular and elliptical catheter shaped tubes. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to evaluate the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate good accuracy (maximum errors of  ±0.6 mm and  ±0.5 deg), performance (200 Hz), and robustness (maximum absolute error of 1.74 mm, 3.64 deg for the added noises) of the proposed high speed algorithms.

  6. Fast Dictionary-Based Reconstruction for Diffusion Spectrum Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F.; Yendiki, Anastasia; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI) reveals detailed local diffusion properties at the expense of substantially long imaging times. It is possible to accelerate acquisition by undersampling in q-space, followed by image reconstruction that exploits prior knowledge on the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Previously proposed methods impose this prior in the form of sparsity under wavelet and total variation (TV) transforms, or under adaptive dictionaries that are trained on example datasets to maximize the sparsity of the representation. These compressed sensing (CS) methods require full-brain processing times on the order of hours using Matlab running on a workstation. This work presents two dictionary-based reconstruction techniques that use analytical solutions, and are two orders of magnitude faster than the previously proposed dictionary-based CS approach. The first method generates a dictionary from the training data using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and performs the reconstruction in the PCA space. The second proposed method applies reconstruction using pseudoinverse with Tikhonov regularization with respect to a dictionary. This dictionary can either be obtained using the K-SVD algorithm, or it can simply be the training dataset of pdfs without any training. All of the proposed methods achieve reconstruction times on the order of seconds per imaging slice, and have reconstruction quality comparable to that of dictionary-based CS algorithm. PMID:23846466

  7. Fast vision-based catheter 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi Dalvand, Mohsen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Howe, Robert D.

    2016-07-01

    Continuum robots offer better maneuverability and inherent compliance and are well-suited for surgical applications as catheters, where gentle interaction with the environment is desired. However, sensing their shape and tip position is a challenge as traditional sensors can not be employed in the way they are in rigid robotic manipulators. In this paper, a high speed vision-based shape sensing algorithm for real-time 3D reconstruction of continuum robots based on the views of two arbitrary positioned cameras is presented. The algorithm is based on the closed-form analytical solution of the reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3D space from two arbitrary perspective projections. High-speed image processing algorithms are developed for the segmentation and feature extraction from the images. The proposed algorithms are experimentally validated for accuracy by measuring the tip position, length and bending and orientation angles for known circular and elliptical catheter shaped tubes. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to evaluate the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate good accuracy (maximum errors of  ±0.6 mm and  ±0.5 deg), performance (200 Hz), and robustness (maximum absolute error of 1.74 mm, 3.64 deg for the added noises) of the proposed high speed algorithms.

  8. Fast rule-based bioactivity prediction using associative classification mining

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Relating chemical features to bioactivities is critical in molecular design and is used extensively in the lead discovery and optimization process. A variety of techniques from statistics, data mining and machine learning have been applied to this process. In this study, we utilize a collection of methods, called associative classification mining (ACM), which are popular in the data mining community, but so far have not been applied widely in cheminformatics. More specifically, classification based on predictive association rules (CPAR), classification based on multiple association rules (CMAR) and classification based on association rules (CBA) are employed on three datasets using various descriptor sets. Experimental evaluations on anti-tuberculosis (antiTB), mutagenicity and hERG (the human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene) blocker datasets show that these three methods are computationally scalable and appropriate for high speed mining. Additionally, they provide comparable accuracy and efficiency to the commonly used Bayesian and support vector machines (SVM) methods, and produce highly interpretable models. PMID:23176548

  9. Fast dictionary-based reconstruction for diffusion spectrum imaging.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F; Yendiki, Anastasia; Wald, Lawrence L; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2013-11-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging reveals detailed local diffusion properties at the expense of substantially long imaging times. It is possible to accelerate acquisition by undersampling in q-space, followed by image reconstruction that exploits prior knowledge on the diffusion probability density functions (pdfs). Previously proposed methods impose this prior in the form of sparsity under wavelet and total variation transforms, or under adaptive dictionaries that are trained on example datasets to maximize the sparsity of the representation. These compressed sensing (CS) methods require full-brain processing times on the order of hours using MATLAB running on a workstation. This work presents two dictionary-based reconstruction techniques that use analytical solutions, and are two orders of magnitude faster than the previously proposed dictionary-based CS approach. The first method generates a dictionary from the training data using principal component analysis (PCA), and performs the reconstruction in the PCA space. The second proposed method applies reconstruction using pseudoinverse with Tikhonov regularization with respect to a dictionary. This dictionary can either be obtained using the K-SVD algorithm, or it can simply be the training dataset of pdfs without any training. All of the proposed methods achieve reconstruction times on the order of seconds per imaging slice, and have reconstruction quality comparable to that of dictionary-based CS algorithm.

  10. 10. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the plumbing layout ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the plumbing layout of Test Stand 'C' Cv Cell, vacuum line, and scrubber-condenser as erected in 1977-78. JPL drawing by VTN Consolidated, Inc. Engineers, Architects, Planners, 2301 Campus Drive, Irvine, California 92664: 'JPL-ETS E-18 (C-Stand Modifications) Flow Diagram,' sheet M-2 (JPL sheet number E18/41-0), September 1, 1977. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  12. An interactive wire-wrap board layout program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics-based tool for specifying the placement of electronic parts on a wire-wrap circuit board is presented. Input is a data file (currently produced by a commercial logic design system) which describes the parts used and their interconnections. Output includes printed reports describing the parts and wire paths, parts counts, placement lists, board drawing, and a tape to send to the wire-wrap vendor. The program should reduce the engineer's layout time by a factor of 3 to 5 as compared to manual methods.

  13. 9. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the mechanical layout ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of engineering drawing showing the mechanical layout of Test Stand 'C' Cv Cell, vacuum line, and scrubber-condenser as erected in 1977-78. JPL drawing by VTN Consolidated, Inc. Engineers, Architects, Planners, 2301 Campus Drive, Irvine, California 92664: 'JPL-ETS E-18 (C-Stand Modifications) Control Elevations & Schematics,' sheet M-5 (JPL sheet number E18/44-0), 1 September 1977. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures for image recording and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasherininov, P. G. Tomasov, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures (CdTe, GaAs) for image recording and processing with a speed to 10{sup 6} cycle/s (which exceeds the speed of known recording media based on metal-insulator-semiconductor-(liquid crystal) (MIS-LC) structures by two to three orders of magnitude), a photosensitivity of 10{sup -2}V/cm{sup 2}, and a spatial resolution of 5-10 (line pairs)/mm are developed. Operating principles of nanostructures as fast optical recording media and methods for reading images recorded in such media are described. Fast optical processors for recording images in incoherent light based on CdTe crystal nanostructures are implemented. The possibility of their application to fabricate image correlators is shown.

  15. Ultra-fast cell counters based on microtubular waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Bausch, Cornelius S.; Heyn, Christian; Hansen, Wolfgang; Wolf, Insa M. A.; Diercks, Björn-Philipp; Guse, Andreas H.; Blick, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a radio-frequency impedance-based biosensor embedded inside a semiconductor microtube for the in-flow detection of single cells. An impedance-matched tank circuit and a tight wrapping of the electrodes around the sensing region, which creates a close, leakage current-free contact between cells and electrodes, yields a high signal-to-noise ratio. We experimentally show a twofold improved sensitivity of our three-dimensional electrode structure to conventional planar electrodes and support these findings by finite element simulations. Finally, we report on the differentiation of polystyrene beads, primary mouse T lymphocytes and Jurkat T lymphocytes using our device. PMID:28134293

  16. Fast, moment-based estimation methods for delay network tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl Christophre; Michailidis, George; Nair, Vijayan N

    2008-01-01

    Consider the delay network tomography problem where the goal is to estimate distributions of delays at the link-level using data on end-to-end delays. These measurements are obtained using probes that are injected at nodes located on the periphery of the network and sent to other nodes also located on the periphery. Much of the previous literature deals with discrete delay distributions by discretizing the data into small bins. This paper considers more general models with a focus on computationally efficient estimation. The moment-based schemes presented here are designed to function well for larger networks and for applications like monitoring that require speedy solutions.

  17. Ultra-fast cell counters based on microtubular waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausch, Cornelius S.; Heyn, Christian; Hansen, Wolfgang; Wolf, Insa M. A.; Diercks, Björn-Philipp; Guse, Andreas H.; Blick, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a radio-frequency impedance-based biosensor embedded inside a semiconductor microtube for the in-flow detection of single cells. An impedance-matched tank circuit and a tight wrapping of the electrodes around the sensing region, which creates a close, leakage current-free contact between cells and electrodes, yields a high signal-to-noise ratio. We experimentally show a twofold improved sensitivity of our three-dimensional electrode structure to conventional planar electrodes and support these findings by finite element simulations. Finally, we report on the differentiation of polystyrene beads, primary mouse T lymphocytes and Jurkat T lymphocytes using our device.

  18. Improved Coomassie Blue Dye-Based Fast Staining Protocol for Proteins Separated by SDS-PAGE

    PubMed Central

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization. PMID:24278455

  19. Improved coomassie blue dye-based fast staining protocol for proteins separated by SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization.

  20. Fast Object Motion Estimation Based on Dynamic Stixels

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Néstor; Morell, Antonio; Toledo, Jonay; Acosta, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    The stixel world is a simplification of the world in which obstacles are represented as vertical instances, called stixels, standing on a surface assumed to be planar. In this paper, previous approaches for stixel tracking are extended using a two-level scheme. In the first level, stixels are tracked by matching them between frames using a bipartite graph in which edges represent a matching cost function. Then, stixels are clustered into sets representing objects in the environment. These objects are matched based on the number of stixels paired inside them. Furthermore, a faster, but less accurate approach is proposed in which only the second level is used. Several configurations of our method are compared to an existing state-of-the-art approach to show how our methodology outperforms it in several areas, including an improvement in the quality of the depth reconstruction. PMID:27483265

  1. GPU-based fast pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rintaro; Kurihara, Tsuneya; Nagamine, Yoshihiko

    2011-03-07

    Performance of a treatment planning system is an essential factor in making sophisticated plans. The dose calculation is a major time-consuming process in planning operations. The standard algorithm for proton dose calculations is the pencil beam algorithm which produces relatively accurate results, but is time consuming. In order to shorten the computational time, we have developed a GPU (graphics processing unit)-based pencil beam algorithm. We have implemented this algorithm and calculated dose distributions in the case of a water phantom. The results were compared to those obtained by a traditional method with respect to the computational time and discrepancy between the two methods. The new algorithm shows 5-20 times faster performance using the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 card in comparison with the Intel Core-i7 920 processor. The maximum discrepancy of the dose distribution is within 0.2%. Our results show that GPUs are effective for proton dose calculations.

  2. GPU-based fast pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Rintaro; Kurihara, Tsuneya; Nagamine, Yoshihiko

    2011-03-01

    Performance of a treatment planning system is an essential factor in making sophisticated plans. The dose calculation is a major time-consuming process in planning operations. The standard algorithm for proton dose calculations is the pencil beam algorithm which produces relatively accurate results, but is time consuming. In order to shorten the computational time, we have developed a GPU (graphics processing unit)-based pencil beam algorithm. We have implemented this algorithm and calculated dose distributions in the case of a water phantom. The results were compared to those obtained by a traditional method with respect to the computational time and discrepancy between the two methods. The new algorithm shows 5-20 times faster performance using the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 card in comparison with the Intel Core-i7 920 processor. The maximum discrepancy of the dose distribution is within 0.2%. Our results show that GPUs are effective for proton dose calculations.

  3. Fast Solvers for Transient Hydraulic Tomography based on Laplace transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhos, T.; Saibaba, A.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Transient Hydraulic Tomography (THT) is a method to estimate the parameters hydraulic conductivity and specific storage, from measurements of hydraulic heads or pressure obtained in a series of interference tests in aquifer geologic formation such as an aquifer (i.e., pumping at one location and depth while measuring the response at several others). These measurements can be used to reconstruct the spatial variation of hydraulic parameters by solving a nonlinear inverse problem, which we tackle using the geostatistical approach. A central challenge associated with the application of the geostatistical approach to THT, is the computational cost associated with constructing the Jacobian - which represents the sensitivity of the measurements to the unknown parameters. This essentially requires repeated solutions to the 'forward problem' and the 'adjoint problem' for determination of derivatives, which are both time-dependent parabolic partial differential equations. To solve the 'forward problem', we use a Laplace Transform based exponential time integrator combined with a Krylov subspace based method for solving shifted systems. This approach allows us to independently evaluate the transient problem at different time instants at (almost) the cost of solving one steady-state groundwater equation. A similar approach can be used to accelerate the solution of the 'adjoint problem' as well. As we demonstrate, this approach dramatically lowers the computational cost associated with evaluating the Jacobian and as a result, the reconstruction of the parameters. The performance of our algorithm is demonstrated on some challenging synthetic examples; in particular, we apply it to large-scale inverse problems arising from transient hydraulic tomography.

  4. Fast integrator based data acquisition system for the SST-1 Thomson scattering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Kiran; Kumar, Ajai

    2010-04-01

    An operational transconductance amplifier based fast charge-integrating module (FCIM) is designed and developed for an easy acquisition of fast Thomson scattered and background signal. FCIM based data acquisition technique can be used for the measurement of charge pulses of <20 ns duration. The response of the module is tested using a standard pulsed charge-generating module. The measuring charge range of the module depends on the integrating capacitor. Comparison of the performance of FCIM to commercially available module shows that it has better dynamic range with higher sensitivity and less measurement error. The module is quite cost effective and has many new features.

  5. Fast integrator based data acquisition system for the SST-1 Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kiran; Kumar, Ajai

    2010-04-01

    An operational transconductance amplifier based fast charge-integrating module (FCIM) is designed and developed for an easy acquisition of fast Thomson scattered and background signal. FCIM based data acquisition technique can be used for the measurement of charge pulses of <20 ns duration. The response of the module is tested using a standard pulsed charge-generating module. The measuring charge range of the module depends on the integrating capacitor. Comparison of the performance of FCIM to commercially available module shows that it has better dynamic range with higher sensitivity and less measurement error. The module is quite cost effective and has many new features.

  6. Fasting time and vitamin B12 levels in a community-based population.

    PubMed

    Orton, Dennis J; Naugler, Christopher; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential vitamin that manifests with numerous severe but non-specific symptoms in cases of deficiency. Assessing Cbl status often requires fasting, although this requirement is not standard between institutions. This study evaluated the impact of fasting on Cbl levels in a large community-based cohort in an effort to promote standardization of Cbl testing between sites. Laboratory data for Cbl, fasting time, patient age and sex were obtained from laboratory information service from Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) for the period of April 2011 to June 2015. CLS is the sole supplier of laboratory services in the Southern Alberta region in Canada (population, approximately 1.4 million). To investigate potential sex-specific effects of fasting on Cbl levels, males and females were analyzed separately using linear regression models. A total of 346,957 individual patient results (196,849 females, 146,085 males) were obtained. The mean plasma Cbl level was 386.5 (±195.6) pmol/L and 412.0 (±220.8) pmol/L for males and females, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed fasting had no significant association with Cbl levels in females; however a statistically significant decrease of 0.9pmol/L/hour fasting (p<0.001) was noted in males. The broad population variance in Cbl suggests the slight gender-specific differences noted in this study are insignificant. Despite this, fasting has the potential to contribute to higher rates of Cbl deficiency in men. Together, these data suggest fasting should be excluded as a requirement for evaluating plasma Cbl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast Outlier Detection Using a Grid-Based Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihwan; Cho, Nam-Wook

    2016-01-01

    As one of data mining techniques, outlier detection aims to discover outlying observations that deviate substantially from the reminder of the data. Recently, the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) algorithm has been successfully applied to outlier detection. However, due to the computational complexity of the LOF algorithm, its application to large data with high dimension has been limited. The aim of this paper is to propose grid-based algorithm that reduces the computation time required by the LOF algorithm to determine the k-nearest neighbors. The algorithm divides the data spaces in to a smaller number of regions, called as a "grid", and calculates the LOF value of each grid. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed method, several experiments incorporating different parameters were conducted. The proposed method demonstrated a significant computation time reduction with predictable and acceptable trade-off errors. Then, the proposed methodology was successfully applied to real database transaction logs of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. As a result, we show that for a very large dataset, the grid-LOF can be considered as an acceptable approximation for the original LOF. Moreover, it can also be effectively used for real-time outlier detection.

  8. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  9. [Fast discrimination of varieties of sugar based on spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Chen, Yong-Ming; He, Yong

    2009-02-01

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied in the discrimination of sugar varieties. NIRS is a pollution-free, rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis method, with the characteristics of high speed, non-destructiveness, high precision and reliable detection data, etc. Four kinds of sugar were gained from the local market and each species was divided into 40 samples. One hundred twenty samples were used as the training set and the remainders (total 40 samples) formed the prediction set. Samples were scanned by a spectroradiometer within a wavelength region of 325-1 075 nm. Three pre-processing methods were applied on the spectra prior to building the PLS regression model. The multivariable analysis using partial least square (PLS) was applied to abstract characteristics of the pattern. Through full cross validation, 11 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed. The correlation coefficient (R), residual variance (Rv) and standard error of calibration (SEC) were 0.999 916, 0. 00 985 and 0.014 538 respectively. Then, these 11 principal components were taken as the input of BP neural network. This model was used to predict the varieties of 40 unknown samples. Through training and prediction, the recognition rate of 100% was achieved by BP neural network. This model has come to be reliable and practicable. Thus, it is concluded that PLS analysis combined with BP neural network is an available alternative for pattern recognition based on the spectroscopy technology.

  10. Fast magneto-optic switch based on nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua; Ruan, Jian-Jian; Lin, Shao-Han; Chen, Zhi-Min

    2011-09-01

    The paper studies an all fiber high-speed magneto-optic switch which includes an optical route, a nanosecond pulse generator, and a magnetic field module in order to reduce the switching time of the optical switch in the all optical network. A compact nanosecond pulse generator can be designed based on the special character of the avalanche transistor. The output current pulse of the nanosecond pulse generator is less than 5 ns, while the pulse amplitude is more than 100 V and the pulse width is about 10 to 20 ns, which is able to drive a high-speed magnetic field. A solenoid is used as the magnetic field module, and a bismuth-substituted rare-earth iron garnet single crystal is chosen as the Faraday rotator. By changing the direction of current in the solenoid quickly, the magnetization of the magneto-optic material is reversed, and the optical beam can be rapidly switched. The experimental results indicate that the switching time of the device is about 100 to 400 ns, which can partially meet the demand of the rapid development of the all optical network.

  11. Fast ice image retrieval based on a multilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guoyu; Sorensen, Scott; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2014-02-01

    We propose a multilayer system to perform ice image retrieval. Ice images are typically texture-less, which adds difficulty in retrieving the images. To achieve high accuracy, high level local features are usually used in retrieving the images. However, most high level features contain high dimensionality that slows down the retrieval process. To overcome this problem, we divide the retrieval process into 3 steps. Each step filters out a large portion of images. As the features are constructed according to the ice image properties, one image can be quickly localized compared with the use of high-level features. The ice images are captured in Arctic, where the ice state changes dramatically due to the environmental and other influences. We build the first layer of the system on the utilization of color information and edges, as the color and the edges are the most critical characteristics of ice images. We divide the second layer into two sub-layers. The first sublayer is on the use of edge histogram. For the second sublayer, we detect salient points based on pixel values on the edge position and connect every adjacent points with straight lines. A new feature is built on the basis of distance scale of every adjacent salient points and the angles between connected lines. Our new feature is invariant to transformation, rotation and scaling. As the features in the first two layers are holistic features, the time performance is much better than high-level local features. The third layer is to apply Harris detector to find the correspondences between two features on a small set of filtered images. The experiments show that our system achieves good accuracy while maintaining much better time performance.

  12. Fast shape-based nearest-neighbor search for brain MRIs using hierarchical feature matching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peihong; Awate, Suyash P; Gerber, Samuel; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fast method for quantifying shape differences/similarities between pairs of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. Most shape comparisons in the literature require some kind of deformable registration or identification of exact correspondences. The proposed approach relies on an optimal matching of a large collection of features, using a very fast, hierarchical method from the literature, called spatial pyramid matching (SPM). This paper shows that edge-based image features in combination with SPM results in a fast similarity measure that captures relevant anatomical information in brain MRI. We present extensive comparisons against known methods for shape-based, k-nearest-neighbor lookup to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Finally, we show that the method compares favorably with more computation-intensive methods in the construction of local atlases for use in brain MR image segmentation.

  13. Fast L1-based sparse representation of EEG for motor imagery signal classification.

    PubMed

    Younghak Shin; Heung-No Lee; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2016-08-01

    Improvement of classification performance is one of the key challenges in electroencephalogram (EEG) based motor imagery brain-computer interface (BCI). Recently, sparse representation based classification (SRC) method has been shown to provide satisfactory classification accuracy in motor imagery classification. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the performance of the SRC method in terms of not only its classification accuracy but also of its computation time. For this purpose, we investigate the performance of recently developed fast L1 minimization methods for their use in SRC, such as homotopy and fast iterative soft-thresholding algorithm (FISTA). From experimental analysis, we note that the SRC method with the fast L1 minimization algorithms is shown to provide robust classification performance, compared to support vector machine (SVM), both in time and accuracy.

  14. Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy; VanderWal, Randall

    2007-01-01

    A proposed program of research and development would be devoted to exploitation of nanomaterials in pressuresensitive paints (PSPs), which are used on wind-tunnel models for mapping surface pressures associated with flow fields. Heretofore, some success has been achieved in measuring steady-state pressures by use of PSPs, but success in measuring temporally varying pressures has been elusive because of the inherent slowness of the optical responses of these materials. A PSP contains a dye that luminesces in a suitable wavelength range in response to photoexcitation in a shorter wavelength range. The luminescence is quenched by oxygen at a rate proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen and thus proportional to the pressure of air. As a result, the intensity of luminescence varies inversely with the pressure of air. The major problem in developing a PSP that could be easily applied to a wind-tunnel model and could be useful for measuring rapidly varying pressure is to provide very high gas diffusivity for rapid, easy transport of oxygen to and from active dye molecules. Most PSPs include polymer-base binders, which limit the penetration of oxygen to dye molecules, thereby reducing responses to pressure fluctuations. The proposed incorporation of nanomaterials (somewhat more specifically, nanorods) would result in paints having nanostructured surfaces that, relative to conventional PSP surfaces, would afford easier and more nearly complete access of oxygen molecules to dye molecules. One measure of greater access is effective surface area: For a typical PSP as proposed applied to a given solid surface, the nanometer-scale structural features would result in an exposed surface area more than 100 times that of a conventional PSP, and the mass of proposed PSP needed to cover the surface would be less than tenth of the mass of the conventional PSP. One aspect of the proposed development would be to synthesize nanorods of Si/SiO2, in both tangle-mat and regular- array

  15. Automated layout and phase assignment techniques for dark-field alternating PSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Wang, Huijuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander

    1998-12-01

    We describe new, efficient algorithms for layout modification and phase assignment for dark field alternating-type phase- shifting masks in the single-exposure regime. We make the following contributions. First, we give optimal and fast algorithms to minimize the number of phase conflicts that must be removed to ensure 2-colorability of the conflict graph. These methods can potentially reduce runtime and/or improve solution quality, compared to previous approaches of Moniwa et al. and Ooi et al. Second, we suggest a new iterative 2- coloring and compaction approach that simultaneously optimizes layout and phase assignment. The approach iteratively performs the following steps: (1) compact the layout and find the conflict graph; (2) find the minimum set of edges whose deletion makes the conflict graph bipartite; and (3) add a new compaction constraint for each edge in this minimum set, such that the corresponding pair of features will no longer conflict. Third, we describe additional approaches to co- optimization of layout and phase assignment for alternating PSM. Preliminary computational experience appears promising.

  16. A fast and flexible library-based thick-mask near-field calculation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xu; Gao, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Dong, Lisong; Li, Yanqiu

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image calculation is the basis of the current lithography simulation. As the critical dimension (CD) of the integrated circuits continuously shrinks, the thick mask near-field calculation has increasing influence on the accuracy and efficiency of the entire aerial image calculation process. This paper develops a flexible librarybased approach to significantly improve the efficiency of the thick mask near-field calculation compared to the rigorous modeling method, while leading to much higher accuracy than the Kirchhoff approximation method. Specifically, a set of typical features on the fullchip are selected to serve as the training data, whose near-fields are pre-calculated and saved in the library. Given an arbitrary test mask, we first decompose it into convex corners, concave corners and edges, afterwards match each patch to the training layouts based on nonparametric kernel regression. Subsequently, we use the matched near-fields in the library to replace the mask patches, and rapidly synthesize the near-field for the entire test mask. Finally, a data-fitting method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the synthesized near-field based on least square estimate (LSE). We use a pair of two-dimensional mask patterns to test our method. Simulations show that the proposed method can significantly speed up the current FDTD method, and effectively improve the accuracy of the Kirchhoff approximation method.

  17. Comparing taxi clearance input layouts for advancements in flight deck automation for surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lara W. S.

    Airport moving maps (AMMs) have been shown to decrease navigation errors, increase taxiing speed, and reduce workload when they depict airport layout, current aircraft position, and the cleared taxi route. However, current technologies are limited in their ability to depict the cleared taxi route due to the unavailability of datacomm or other means of electronically transmitting clearances from ATC to the flight deck. This study examined methods by which pilots can input ATC-issued taxi clearances to support taxi route depictions on the AMM. Sixteen general aviation (GA) pilots used a touchscreen monitor to input taxi clearances using two input layouts, softkeys and QWERTY, each with and without feedforward (graying out invalid inputs). QWERTY yielded more taxi route input errors than the softkeys layout. The presence of feedforward did not produce fewer taxi route input errors than in the non-feedforward condition. The QWERTY layout did reduce taxi clearance input times relative to the softkeys layout, but when feedforward was present this effect was observed only for the longer, 6-segment taxi clearances. It was observed that with the softkeys layout, feedforward reduced input times compared to non-feedforward but only for the 4-segment clearances. Feedforward did not support faster taxi clearance input times for the QWERTY layout. Based on the results and analyses of the present study, it is concluded that for taxi clearance inputs, (1) QWERTY remain the standard for alphanumeric inputs, and (2) feedforward be investigated further, with a focus on participant preference and performance of black-gray contrast of keys.

  18. PARLO: PArallel Run-Time Layout Optimization for Scientific Data Explorations with Heterogeneous Access Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Zhenhuan; Boyuka, David; Zou, X; Liu, Gary; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ma, Xiaosong; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2013-01-01

    Download Citation Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project The size and scope of cutting-edge scientific simulations are growing much faster than the I/O and storage capabilities of their run-time environments. The growing gap is exacerbated by exploratory, data-intensive analytics, such as querying simulation data with multivariate, spatio-temporal constraints, which induces heterogeneous access patterns that stress the performance of the underlying storage system. Previous work addresses data layout and indexing techniques to improve query performance for a single access pattern, which is not sufficient for complex analytics jobs. We present PARLO a parallel run-time layout optimization framework, to achieve multi-level data layout optimization for scientific applications at run-time before data is written to storage. The layout schemes optimize for heterogeneous access patterns with user-specified priorities. PARLO is integrated with ADIOS, a high-performance parallel I/O middleware for large-scale HPC applications, to achieve user-transparent, light-weight layout optimization for scientific datasets. It offers simple XML-based configuration for users to achieve flexible layout optimization without the need to modify or recompile application codes. Experiments show that PARLO improves performance by 2 to 26 times for queries with heterogeneous access patterns compared to state-of-the-art scientific database management systems. Compared to traditional post-processing approaches, its underlying run-time layout optimization achieves a 56% savings in processing time and a reduction in storage overhead of up to 50%. PARLO also exhibits a low run-time resource requirement, while also limiting the performance impact on running applications to a reasonable level.

  19. Hyper-NA imaging of 45nm node random CH layouts using inverse lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, E.; Tritchkov, A.; Sakajiri, K.; Granik, Y.; Kempsell, M.; Vandenberghe, G.

    2008-03-01

    The imaging of Contact Hole (CH) layouts is one of the most challenging tasks in hyper-NA lithography. Contact Hole layouts can be printed using different illumination conditions, but an illumination condition that provides good imaging at dense pitches (such as Quasar or Quadrupole illumination), will usually suffer from poor image contrast and Depth of Focus (DOF) towards the more isolated pitches. Assist Features (AF) can be used to improve the imaging of more isolated contact holes, but for a random CH layout, an AF placement rule would have to be developed for every CH configuration in the design. This makes optimal AF placement an almost impossible task for random layouts when using rule-based AF placement. We have used an inverse lithography technique by Mentor Graphics, to treat a random contact hole layout (drawn at minimal pitch 115nm) for imaging at NA 1.35. The combination of the dense 115nm pitch and available NA of 1.35 makes the use of Quasar illumination necessary, and the treatment of the clip with inverse lithography automatically generated optimal (model-based) AF for all geometries in the design. Because the inverse lithography solution consists of smooth shapes rather than rectangles, mask manufacturability becomes a concern. The algorithm allows simplification of the smooth shapes into rectangles and greatly improves mask write time. Wafer prints of clips treated with inverse lithography at NA 1.35 confirm the benefit of the assist features.

  20. Optimization of wind plant layouts using an adjoint approach

    DOE PAGES

    King, Ryan N.; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; ...

    2017-03-10

    Using adjoint optimization and three-dimensional steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations, we present a new gradient-based approach for optimally siting wind turbines within utility-scale wind plants. By solving the adjoint equations of the flow model, the gradients needed for optimization are found at a cost that is independent of the number of control variables, thereby permitting optimization of large wind plants with many turbine locations. Moreover, compared to the common approach of superimposing prescribed wake deficits onto linearized flow models, the computational efficiency of the adjoint approach allows the use of higher-fidelity RANS flow models which can capture nonlinear turbulent flowmore » physics within a wind plant. The steady-state RANS flow model is implemented in the Python finite-element package FEniCS and the derivation and solution of the discrete adjoint equations are automated within the dolfin-adjoint framework. Gradient-based optimization of wind turbine locations is demonstrated for idealized test cases that reveal new optimization heuristics such as rotational symmetry, local speedups, and nonlinear wake curvature effects. Layout optimization is also demonstrated on more complex wind rose shapes, including a full annual energy production (AEP) layout optimization over 36 inflow directions and 5 wind speed bins.« less

  1. LAYOUT AND SIZING OF ESF ALCOVES AND REFUGE CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    John Beesley and Romeo S. Jurani

    1995-08-25

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish size requirements and approximate locations of Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) test and operations alcoves, including refuge chambers during construction of the Topopah Spring (TS) loop. Preliminary conceptual layouts for non-deferred test alcoves will be developed to examine construction feasibility based on current test plans and available equipment. The final location and configuration layout for alcoves will be developed when in-situ rock conditions can be visually determined. This will be after the TBM has excavated beyond the alcove location and the rock has been exposed. The analysis will examine the need for construction of walkways and electrical alcoves in the ramps and main drift. Niches that may be required to accommodate conveyor booster drives and alignments are not included in this analysis. The analysis will develop design criteria for refuge chambers to meet MSHA requirements and will examine the strategic location of refuge chambers based on their potential use in various ESF fire scenarios. This document supersedes DI:BABE00000-01717-0200-00003 Rev 01, ''TS North Ramp Alcove and Stubout Location Analysis'' in its entirety (Reference 5-6).

  2. A rate-constrained fast full-search algorithm based on block sum pyramid.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung Cheol; Chun, Kang-Wook; Ra, Jong Beom

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a fast full-search algorithm (FSA) for rate-constrained motion estimation. The proposed algorithm, which is based on the block sum pyramid frame structure, successively eliminates unnecessary search positions according to rate-constrained criterion. This algorithm provides the identical estimation performance to a conventional FSA having rate constraint, while achieving considerable reduction in computation.

  3. Fast neutron mutants database and web displays at SoyBase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomics database, has been expanded to include data for the fast neutron mutants produced by Bolon, Vance, et al. In addition to the expected text and sequence homology searches and visualization of the indels in the context of the genome sequence viewer, ...

  4. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology. A systems viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  5. Child and Parent Voices on a Community-Based Prevention Program (FAST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hill, Patricia; Gore, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a collaborative program involving schools, families, and community-based partners in efforts to prevent substance use, juvenile delinquency, school failure, child abuse and neglect, mental health problems, and violence. Although evaluated extensively, there remains a dearth of qualitative data on child and…

  6. Common and Specific Factors Approaches to Home-Based Treatment: I-FAST and MST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mo Yee; Greene, Gilbert J.; Fraser, J. Scott; Edwards, Shivani G.; Grove, David; Solovey, Andrew D.; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the treatment outcomes of integrated families and systems treatment (I-FAST), a moderated common factors approach, in reference to multisystemic therapy (MST), an established specific factor approach, for treating at risk children and adolescents and their families in an intensive community-based setting. Method:…

  7. Image dehazing based on partitioning reconstruction and entropy-based alternating fast-weighted guided filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyu; Yuen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    A robust image dehazing algorithm based on the first-order scattering of the image degradation model is proposed. In this work, there are three contributions toward image dehazing: (i) a robust method for assessing the global irradiance from the most hazy-opaque regions of the imagery is proposed; (ii) more detailed depth information of the scene can be recovered through the enhancement of the transmission map using scene partitions and entropy-based alternating fast-weighted guided filters; and (iii) crucial model parameters are extracted from in-scene information. This paper briefly outlines the principle of the proposed technique and compares the dehazed results with four other dehazing algorithms using a variety of different types of imageries. The dehazed images have been assessed through a quality figure-of-merit, and experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm effectively removes haze and has achieved a much better quality of dehazed images than all other state-of-the-art dehazing methods employed in this work.

  8. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira; Gromov, Kirill; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Husted, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    Fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) has been shown to reduce the perioperative convalescence resulting in less postoperative morbidity, earlier fulfillment of functional milestones, and shorter hospital stay. As organizational optimization is also part of the fast-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD 2511 and USD 2551, respectively. Fast-track THA and TKA results in similar cost despite differences in the organizational set-up. Compared to cost associated with longer more conventional published pathways, fast-track is cheaper, which on top of the favorable published clinical outcome adds to cost efficiency and the potential for economic savings. Detailed baseline TDABC calculations are provided for comparison and further optimization of cost-benefit effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

    2012-05-02

    Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

  10. Tunable temporal gap based on simultaneous fast and slow light in electro-optic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzhen; Chen, Yuping; Jiang, Haowei; Liu, Yi'an; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Xianfeng

    2015-07-13

    We demonstrated a tunable temporal gap based on simultaneous fast and slow light in electro-optic photonic crystals. The light experiences an anomalous dispersion near the transmission center and a normal dispersion away from the center, where it can be accelerated and slowed down, respectively. We also obtained the switch between fast and slow light by adjusting the external electric filed. The observed largest temporal gap is 541 ps, which is crucial in practical event operation inside the gap. The results offer a new solution for temporal cloak.

  11. Fast switchable grating based on orthogonal photo alignments of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Hu, Wei; Chigrinov, V. G.; Kiselev, A. D.; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a fast switchable grating based on ferroelectric liquid crystals and orthogonal planar alignment by means of photo alignments. Both 1D and 2D gratings have been constructed. The proposed diffracting element provides fast response time of around 20 μs, contrast of 7000:1 and high diffraction efficiency, at the electric field of 6 V/μm. The saturated electro-optical (EO) states up to very high frequency (≈5 kHz) are the real advantage of the proposed switchable grating, which opens several opportunities to improve the quality of existing devices and to find new applications.

  12. Design Considerations of Fast-cycling Synchrotrons Based on Superconducting Transmission Line Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Huang, Y.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Fast-cycling synchrotrons are key instruments for accelerator based nuclear and high-energy physics programs. We explore a possibility to construct fast-cycling synchrotrons by using super-ferric, {approx}2 Tesla B-field dipole magnets powered with a superconducting transmission line. We outline both the low temperature (LTS) and the high temperature (HTS) superconductor design options and consider dynamic power losses for an accelerator with operation cycle of 0.5 Hz. We also briefly outline possible power supply system for such accelerator, and discuss the quench protection system for the magnet string powered by a transmission line conductor.

  13. Fast polarization-state tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfu; Cao, Guoliang; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Yao, Yong; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-07-27

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fast polarization tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter. It has the advantages of fast convergence and is inherently insensitive to phase noise and frequency offset effects. The scheme is experimentally compared to conventional polarization tracking methods on the polarization rotation angular frequency. The results show that better tracking capability with more than one order of magnitude improvement is obtained in the cases of polarization multiplexed QPSK and 16QAM signals. The influences of the filter tuning parameters on tracking performance are also investigated in detail.

  14. Photonic-chip-based tunable slow and fast light via stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Pant, Ravi; Byrnes, Adam; Poulton, Christopher G; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-03-01

    We report the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of photonic chip based tunable slow and fast light via stimulated Brillouin scattering. Slow, fast, and negative group velocities were observed in a 7 cm long chalcogenide (As(2)S(3)) rib waveguide with a group index change ranging from ~-44 to +130, which results in a maximum delay of ~23 ns at a relatively low gain of ~23 dB. Demonstration of large tunable delays in a chip scale device opens up applications such as frequency sensing and true-time delay for a phased array antenna, where integration and delays ~10 ns are highly desirable.

  15. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  16. Repository Surface Design Site Layout Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD (Reference 5.5), including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  17. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.

  18. The layout of a bacterial genome.

    PubMed

    Képès, François; Jester, Brian C; Lepage, Thibaut; Rafiei, Nafiseh; Rosu, Bianca; Junier, Ivan

    2012-07-16

    Recently the mismatch between our newly acquired capacity to synthetize DNA at genome scale, and our low capacity to design ab initio a functional genome has become conspicuous. This essay gathers a variety of constraints that globally shape natural genomes, with a focus on eubacteria. These constraints originate from chromosome replication (leading/lagging strand asymmetry; gene dosage gradient from origin to terminus; collisions with the transcription complexes), from biased codon usage, from noise control in gene expression, and from genome layout for co-functional genes. On the basis of this analysis, lessons are drawn for full genome design.

  19. Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.

    2010-08-01

    A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.

  20. Detection of fast neutrons using detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zat'ko, B.; Sedlačková, K.; Dubecký, F.; Boháček, P.; Sekáčová, M.; Nečas, V.

    2011-12-01

    Detectors with AuZn square Schottky contact of the area of 2.5 × 2.5 mm2 were fabricated. On the back side, the whole area AuGeNi eutectic ohmic contact was evaporated. The thickness of the base material (semi-insulating GaAs) was 220 μm. The connection of 4 detectors in parallel was tested to get the detection area of 25 mm2. The 239Pu-Be fast neutron source with energies between 0.5 and 12 MeV was used in experimental measurements. We have investigated the optimal thickness of HDPE (high-density polyethylene) conversion layer for fast neutron detection. The spectra of the neutrons were measured by detectors covered by HDPE converter of different thicknesses. The fast neutron detection efficiency proved experimentally was compared with results from simulations performed by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code.

  1. Fast online Monte Carlo-based IMRT planning for the MRI linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Bol, G H; Hissoiny, S; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2012-03-07

    The MRI accelerator, a combination of a 6 MV linear accelerator with a 1.5 T MRI, facilitates continuous patient anatomy updates regarding translations, rotations and deformations of targets and organs at risk. Accounting for these demands high speed, online intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) re-optimization. In this paper, a fast IMRT optimization system is described which combines a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for online beamlet generation and a fast inverse dose optimization algorithm. Tightly conformal IMRT plans are generated for four phantom cases and two clinical cases (cervix and kidney) in the presence of the magnetic fields of 0 and 1.5 T. We show that for the presented cases the beamlet generation and optimization routines are fast enough for online IMRT planning. Furthermore, there is no influence of the magnetic field on plan quality and complexity, and equal optimization constraints at 0 and 1.5 T lead to almost identical dose distributions.

  2. Fast online Monte Carlo-based IMRT planning for the MRI linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol, G. H.; Hissoiny, S.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2012-03-01

    The MRI accelerator, a combination of a 6 MV linear accelerator with a 1.5 T MRI, facilitates continuous patient anatomy updates regarding translations, rotations and deformations of targets and organs at risk. Accounting for these demands high speed, online intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) re-optimization. In this paper, a fast IMRT optimization system is described which combines a GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for online beamlet generation and a fast inverse dose optimization algorithm. Tightly conformal IMRT plans are generated for four phantom cases and two clinical cases (cervix and kidney) in the presence of the magnetic fields of 0 and 1.5 T. We show that for the presented cases the beamlet generation and optimization routines are fast enough for online IMRT planning. Furthermore, there is no influence of the magnetic field on plan quality and complexity, and equal optimization constraints at 0 and 1.5 T lead to almost identical dose distributions.

  3. Rapid virtual prototyping of complex photonic integrated circuits using layout-aware schematic-driven design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaleev, S.; Richter, A.; Sokolov, E.; Savitzki, S.; Polatynski, A.; Farina, J.; Koltchanov, I.

    2017-02-01

    We present our versatile simulation framework for the schematic-driven and layout-aware design of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) realizing a fast and user-friendly design flow for large-scale PICs comprising passive and active building blocks (BBs). We show how the seamless interaction of circuit simulation with photonic layout design tools allows to specify and utilize directly physical locations and orientations of BBs of standardized process design kits (PDKs). We demonstrate how to combine graphical schematic capture and automated waveguide routing, and discuss by means of typical design applications how an optimized design flow can speed-up the virtual prototyping of complex PICs and optoelectronic applications.

  4. Case-based reasoning(CBR) model for ultra-fast cooling in plate mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Zhaodong; Wang, Guodong

    2014-11-01

    New generation thermo-mechanical control process(TMCP) based on ultra-fast cooling is being widely adopted in plate mill to product high-performance steel material at low cost. Ultra-fast cooling system is complex because of optimizing the temperature control error generated by heat transfer mathematical model and process parameters. In order to simplify the system and improve the temperature control precision in ultra-fast cooling process, several existing models of case-based reasoning(CBR) model are reviewed. Combining with ultra-fast cooling process, a developed R5 CBR model is proposed, which mainly improves the case representation, similarity relation and retrieval module. Certainty factor is defined in semantics memory unit of plate case which provides not only internal data reliability but also product performance reliability. Similarity relation is improved by defined power index similarity membership function. Retrieval process is simplified and retrieval efficiency is improved apparently by windmill retrieval algorithm. The proposed CBR model is used for predicting the case of cooling strategy and its capability is superior to traditional process model. In order to perform comprehensive investigations on ultra-fast cooling process, different steel plates are considered for the experiment. The validation experiment and industrial production of proposed CBR model are carried out, which demonstrated that finish cooling temperature(FCT) error is controlled within ±25°C and quality rate of product is more than 97%. The proposed CBR model can simplify ultra-fast cooling system and give quality performance for steel product.

  5. Simultaneous optimization of micro-heliostat geometry and field layout using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazardjani, Mani Yousefpour; Kronhardt, Valentina; Dikta, Gerhard; Göttsche, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    A new optimization tool for micro-heliostat (MH) geometry and field layout is presented. The method intends simultaneous performance improvement and cost reduction through iteration of heliostat geometry and field layout parameters. This tool was developed primarily for the optimization of a novel micro-heliostat concept, which was developed at Solar-Institut Jülich (SIJ). However, the underlying approach for the optimization can be used for any heliostat type. During the optimization the performance is calculated using the ray-tracing tool SolCal. The costs of the heliostats are calculated by use of a detailed cost function. A genetic algorithm is used to change heliostat geometry and field layout in an iterative process. Starting from an initial setup, the optimization tool generates several configurations of heliostat geometries and field layouts. For each configuration a cost-performance ratio is calculated. Based on that, the best geometry and field layout can be selected in each optimization step. In order to find the best configuration, this step is repeated until no significant improvement in the results is observed.

  6. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  7. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  8. Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio for wireless light-emitting diode communication in modern lighting layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizan, Luqman A.; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad S.; Hassan, Mazen R.; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Nordin, Rosdiadee

    2014-04-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are predicted to be widely used in domestic applications in the future, because they are becoming widespread in commercial lighting applications. The ability of LEDs to be modulated at high speeds offers the possibility of using them as sources for communication instead of illumination. The growing interest in using these devices for both illumination and communication requires attention to combine this technology with modern lighting layouts. A dual-function system is applied to three models of modern lighting layouts: the hybrid corner lighting layout (HCLL), the hybrid wall lighting layout (HWLL), and the hybrid edge lighting layout (HELL). Based on the analysis, the relationship between the space adversity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is demonstrated for each model. The key factor that affects the SNR performance of visible light communication is the reliance on the design parameter that is related to the number and position of LED lights. The model of HWLL is chosen as the best layout, since 61% of the office area is considered as an excellent communication area and the difference between the area classification, Δp, is 22%. Thus, this system is applicable to modern lighting layouts.

  9. Turbo recognition: a statistical approach to layout analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyasu, Taku A.; Chou, Philip A.

    2000-12-01

    Turbo recognition (TR) is a communication theory approach to the analysis of rectangular layouts, in the spirit of Document Image Decoding. The TR algorithm, inspired by turbo decoding, is based on a generative model of image production, in which two grammars are used simultaneously to describe structure in orthogonal (horizontal and vertical directions. This enables TR to strictly embody non-local constraints that cannot be taken into account by local statistical methods. This basis in finite state grammars also allows TR to be quickly retargetable to new domains. We illustrate some of the capabilities of TR with two examples involving realistic images. While TR, like turbo decoding, is not guaranteed to recover the statistically optimal solution, we present an experiment that demonstrates its ability to produce optimal or near-optimal results on a simple yet nontrivial example, the recovery of a filled rectangle in the midst of noise. Unlike methods such as stochastic context free grammars and exhaustive search, which are often intractable beyond small images, turbo recognition scales linearly with image size, suggesting TR as an efficient yet near-optimal approach to statistical layout analysis.

  10. Stereoscopic layout of a perspective flight guidance display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Matthias; Muecke, Stephan K. M.; Mayer, Udo

    1997-05-01

    Analyses of aviation accidents ascribe about 75% of all incidents to human (pilot) behavior. A strong effort is being made to improve ergonomic cockpit layout, because of dramatic changes in the airspace structure, the increase in air traffic, and larger aircraft. One part of an interdisciplinary research project investigates the potential of stereoscopic flight-guidance displays in order to improve pilots' situation awareness. This experimental approach, which aims to research and apply ergonomic design recommendations for stereoscopic flight displays, is based upon a new type of perspective flight-guidance display. The examination of existing research regarding stereoscopic flight displays reveals a lack of basic knowledge, as well as a need for further systematic research into cockpit application. Thus the project contains experiments on different levels of abstraction, ranging from classic parameter experiments to flight simulator tests. Both current knowledge and recent discoveries are applied to superimposed 2-D flight parameters and to real and synthetic 3-D elements, such as a perspective landscape, other airplanes or flight prediction. The stereoscopic layout takes into consideration specific informational needs within different flight phases and is evaluated by means of pilot performance and pilot strain. Selected symbols of the flight guidance display and actual results are presented as examples of the research approach.

  11. Fast computer simulation of reconstructed image from rainbow hologram based on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuming, Jiao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    A fast computer simulation solution for rainbow hologram reconstruction based on GPU is proposed. In the commonly used segment Fourier transform method for rainbow hologram reconstruction, the computation of 2D Fourier transform on each hologram segment is very time consuming. GPU-based parallel computing can be applied to improve the computing speed. Compared with CPU computing, simulation results indicate that our proposed GPU computing can effectively reduce the computation time by as much as eight times.

  12. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Bhaskar, Gaikwad; Singh, J K

    2009-01-01

    Tractors in low-income countries are used both for farm and non-farm activities. Most of the tractors being manufactured in India are products of collaboration with other countries. The design of tractors manufactured in India has not changed much in the past five decades especially from an ergonomics point of view, because of economic considerations. This paper describes a tractor control layout assessment with respect to the Indian population and compares the location of controls with workspace envelopes and the IS12343 standard for commonly used tractors on Indian farms. Controls like steering, foot clutch, foot brake, foot accelerator are located in areas defined by IS12343 standard in some tractors but these are not placed in the workspace envelopes of the Indian population. This results in a mismatch between the workspace envelope and location of controls as defined by the standard. The controls need a complete change in their layout to be in the workspace envelopes, as this cannot be achieved by providing seat movement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present tractor design.

  13. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

  14. Large-scale analytical Fourier transform of photomask layouts using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed.

  15. Enhanced Layout Optimization and Wind Aerodynamic Models for Wind Farm Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen Jim

    The proposed project is motivated by the need to develop wake models and optimization algorithms that can accurately capture the wake losses in an array of wind turbines and optimize the turbine placements. In the past 4 years, we have developed capabilities to improve the layout design of wind farms located on complex terrains, as contributions from four major tasks. The outcome of the first task was the creation of a wake interaction model capable of describing the effects of overlapping wakes that can be used in combination with existing mathematical optimization tools for wind farm layout design. Such a model was derived and evaluated against existing wake interaction methods. This wake interaction model enables a mechanistic approach to account for multiple overlapping wakes while remaining compatible with established mathematical optimization methods. In the second task, this wake interaction model was used in conjunction with full-scale CFD simulations to design wind farm layouts. We developed an optimization algorithm that intelligently integrates a mathematical optimization approach to design wind farm layout on complex terrains with full-scale CFD simulations. The two subsequent tasks were focused on developing a wake model capable of producing comparable accuracy as full-scale CFD simulations but at a significantly lower computational cost. The third task focused on studying the effects of turbine blade geometry and atmospheric turbulence on turbine wake development. The findings of this step contributed to the fourth task of developing a new wake model capable of simulating wakes on complex terrains. This model has been validated against full-scale CFD simulations of a turbine placed on the terrain of the Gros-Morne Wind Farm in Quebec. The proposed model allows for fast simulation of wakes, making it ideal for designing wind farm layouts on complex terrains.

  16. Scintillator-based diagnostic for fast ion loss measurements on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.

    2010-10-15

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector has been installed on DIII-D with the time response (>100 kHz) needed to study energetic ion losses induced by Alfven eigenmodes and other MHD instabilities. Based on the design used on ASDEX Upgrade, the diagnostic measures the pitch angle and gyroradius of ion losses based on the position of the ions striking the two-dimensional scintillator. For fast time response measurements, a beam splitter and fiberoptics couple a portion of the scintillator light to a photomultiplier. Reverse orbit following techniques trace the lost ions to their possible origin within the plasma. Initial DIII-D results showing prompt losses and energetic ion loss due to MHD instabilities are discussed.

  17. Automatic page composition with nested sub-layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of a system for the automatic composition of publications. The system first composes nested hierarchies of contents, then applies layout engines at branch points in the hierarchies to explore layout options, and finally selects the best overall options for the finished publications. Although the system has been developed as a general platform for automated publishing, this paper describes its application to the composition and layout of a magazine-like publication for social content from Facebook. The composition process works by assembling design fragments that have been populated with text and images from the Facebook social network. The fragments constitute a design language for a publication. Each design fragment is a nested mutable sub-layout that has no specific size or shape until after it has been laid-out. The layout process balances the space requirements of the fragment's internal contents with its external context in the publication. The mutability of sub-layouts requires that their layout options must be kept open until all the other contents that share the same space have been considered. Coping with large numbers of options is one of the greatest challenges in layout automation. Most existing layout methods work by rapidly elimination design options rather than by keeping options open. A further goal of this publishing system is to confirm that a custom publication can be generated quickly by the described methods. In general, the faster that publications can be created, the greater the opportunities for the technology.

  18. Framework for identifying recommended rules and DFM scoring model to improve manufacturability of sub-20nm layout design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Piyush; Madhavan, Sriram; Malik, Shobhit; Wang, Lynn T.; Capodieci, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses the framework for building critical recommended rules and a methodology for devising scoring models using simulation or silicon data. Recommended rules need to be applied to critical layout configurations (edge or polygon based geometric relations), which can cause yield issues depending on layout context and process variability. Determining of critical recommended rules is the first step for this framework. Based on process specifications and design rule calculations, recommended rules are characterized by evaluating the manufacturability response to improvements in a layout-dependent parameter. This study is applied to critical 20nm recommended rules. In order to enable the scoring of layouts, this paper also discusses a CAD framework involved in supporting use-models for improving the DFM-compliance of a physical design.

  19. The effect of concentrator field layout on the performance of point-focus distributed receiver systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Dugan, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of concentrator field layout on the technical-economic performance of a point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal power plant is presented. The plant design is based on the small community prototype system currently under development for JPL/DOE; parabolic dish concentrators are employed, and small heat engines are used to generate electricity at each dish. The effect of field size, array proportions, dish-to-dish spacing and packing fraction (concentrator-land area ratio) are presented for typical PFDR layouts. Economic analyses are carried out to determine optimum packing fraction as a function of site cost.

  20. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  1. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  2. A Universal Fast Algorithm for Sensitivity-Based Structural Damage Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Q. W.; Liu, J. K.; Li, C. H.; Liang, C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Structural damage detection using measured response data has emerged as a new research area in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering communities in recent years. In this paper, a universal fast algorithm is presented for sensitivity-based structural damage detection, which can quickly improve the calculation accuracy of the existing sensitivity-based technique without any high-order sensitivity analysis or multi-iterations. The key formula of the universal fast algorithm is derived from the stiffness and flexibility matrix spectral decomposition theory. With the introduction of the key formula, the proposed method is able to quickly achieve more accurate results than that obtained by the original sensitivity-based methods, regardless of whether the damage is small or large. Three examples are used to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed method. It has been shown that the universal fast algorithm is simple to implement and quickly gains higher accuracy over the existing sensitivity-based damage detection methods. PMID:24453815

  3. Identifying factors associated with fast food consumption among adolescents in Beijing China using a theory-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Castellanos, D C; Bachman, J

    2016-07-01

    China is in the midst of the nutrition transition with increasing rates of obesity and dietary changes. One contributor is the increase in fast food chains within the country. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based instrument that explores influencing factors of fast food consumption in adolescents residing in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study. Value expectancy and theory of planned behaviour were utilised to explore influencing factors of fast food consumption in the target population. There were 201 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients were used to examine internal reliability of the theory-based questionnaire. Bivariate correlations and a MANOVA were utilised to determine the relationship between theory-based constructs, body mass index (BMI)-for-age and fast food intake frequency as well as to determine differences in theory-based scores among fast food consumption frequency groupings. The theory-based questionnaire showed good reliability. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the theory-based subcategory scores between fast food frequency groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between times per week fast food was consumed and each theory-based subscale score. Using BMI-for-age of 176 participants, 81% were normal weight and 19% were considered overweight or obese. Results showed consumption of fast food to be on average 1.50 ± 1.33 per week. The relationship between BMI-for-age and times per week fast food was consumed was not significant. As the nutrition transition continues and fast food chains expand, it is important to explore factors effecting fast food consumption in China. Interventions targeting influencing factors can be developed to encourage healthy dietary choice in the midst of this transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Assessing cognitive processes with diffusion model analyses: a tutorial based on fast-dm-30

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Lerche, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion models can be used to infer cognitive processes involved in fast binary decision tasks. The model assumes that information is accumulated continuously until one of two thresholds is hit. In the analysis, response time distributions from numerous trials of the decision task are used to estimate a set of parameters mapping distinct cognitive processes. In recent years, diffusion model analyses have become more and more popular in different fields of psychology. This increased popularity is based on the recent development of several software solutions for the parameter estimation. Although these programs make the application of the model relatively easy, there is a shortage of knowledge about different steps of a state-of-the-art diffusion model study. In this paper, we give a concise tutorial on diffusion modeling, and we present fast-dm-30, a thoroughly revised and extended version of the fast-dm software (Voss and Voss, 2007) for diffusion model data analysis. The most important improvement of the fast-dm version is the possibility to choose between different optimization criteria (i.e., Maximum Likelihood, Chi-Square, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov), which differ in applicability for different data sets. PMID:25870575

  5. Secured Fast Handoff in 802.11-Based Wireless Mesh Networks for Pervasive Internet Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Gang; Cao, Jiannong; Yan, Ye; Ji, Yusheng

    Authentication issue has been mostly ignored to ensure fast handoff in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Network (WMN). With the proliferation of WMNs in recent years for practical deployment, secured fast handoff has drawn much attention to enforce authenticated access while reduce the extra delay caused by enabling authentication operations. In this paper, we present an overview on the state-of-the-art advance in this field and tackle the problem from a practical perspective based on experiments and analysis on our real-world testbed HAWK. We propose a novel fast handoff scheme Network-assisted Radio Signature to eliminate probing delay by taking advantage of the characteristic of the actual dynamic topology about mesh routers in WMN. Moreover, we apply an optimistic authentication mechanism Dual Re-authentication to counteract the authentication delay while providing the secured wireless access. In this manner, we have reduced the end-to-end handoff delay of WMN back again to a level below 50ms to achieve secured handoff and support time-sensitive applications. We describe detailed mechanisms, simulation, implementation and experimental results. To our best knowledge, we are the first to achieve such an optimal performance of secured fast handoff.

  6. Study of wave-particle interaction between fast Magnetosonic and energetic electrons based on numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S.

    2015-12-01

    There are many energetic electrons in the radiation belt of Earth. When the geomagnetic activity becomes stronger, the energy flux of energetic electrons will increase to more than ten times in the outer radiation belt, therefore it is very important to study how the energetic electrons generate and the lifetime of energetic electrons for space weather research. The acceleration of electrons in radiation belt is mainly depending on wave-particle interaction: the whistler mode chorus is the main driver for local acceleration mechanism, which could accelerate and loss energetic electrons; the geomagnetic pulsation ULF wave will cause energetic electron inward radial diffusion which will charge the electrons; recently observation results show us that the fast magnetosonic waves may also accelerate energetic electrons. For the reason that we try to study the wave-particle interaction between fast Magnetosonic and energetic electrons based on numerical simulation, in which the most important past is at the storm time the combination of highly warped Earth magnetic field and fast magnetosonic wave field will be applied for the electromagnetic environment of moving test particles. The energy, pitch angle and cross diffusion coefficients will be calculated respectively in this simulation to study how the electrons receive energy from fast magnetosonic wave. The diffusion coefficients within different dipole Earth magnetic field and non-dipole storm magnetic field are compared, while dynamics of electrons at selected initial energys are shown in our study.

  7. Arikan and Alamouti matrices based on fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Ho; Khan, Md Hashem Ali; Kim, Kyeong Jin

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Lee and Hou (IEEE Signal Process Lett 13: 461-464, 2006) proposed one-dimensional and two-dimensional fast algorithms for block-wise inverse Jacket transforms (BIJTs). Their BIJTs are not real inverse Jacket transforms from mathematical point of view because their inverses do not satisfy the usual condition, i.e., the multiplication of a matrix with its inverse matrix is not equal to the identity matrix. Therefore, we mathematically propose a fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform of orders N = 2 k , 3 k , 5 k , and 6 k , where k is a positive integer. Based on the Kronecker product of the successive lower order Jacket matrices and the basis matrix, the fast algorithms for realizing these transforms are obtained. Due to the simple inverse and fast algorithms of Arikan polar binary and Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-binary matrices, which are obtained from BIJTs, they can be applied in areas such as 3GPP physical layer for ultra mobile broadband permutation matrices design, first-order q-ary Reed-Muller code design, diagonal channel design, diagonal subchannel decompose for interference alignment, and 4G MIMO long-term evolution Alamouti precoding design.

  8. CerioFAST{trademark}: An acute toxicity test based on Ceriodaphnia dubia feeding behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Rhodes, K.; Koopman, B.

    1996-02-01

    The authors have developed a rapid acute toxicity test (CerioFAST{trademark}) based on suppression of feeding activity of Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of toxicants. The bioassay consists of a 1-h exposure period to a given toxicant. Yeast cells, stained with a fluorescent dye, are added 20 min before the end of the exposure period. Response to a toxic sample is indicated by the absence of fluorescence in the gut of the daphnids. CerioFAST was compared to the standard 48-h C. dubia acute bioassay, using heavy metals and organic compounds.CerioFAST EC50s of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ag, Zn, and carbofuran were in the 0.01--0.1-mg/L range, whereas EC50s of hexachloroethane, pentachlorophenol, trichlorophenol, and lindane were in the 1--10-mg/L range. CerioFAST EC50s of the heavy metals and organics were well correlated with Ec50s obtained with the 48-h C. dubia bioassay.

  9. Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shu-Ying; Jin, Sheng-Peng; Gao, Xie-Feng; Mu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness are presented. For the purpose of fast response and homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles, oleic acid was used to improve the dispersibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. A homogeneous distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was obtained for nanocomposites with low Fe3O4 loading content. A small agglomeration was observed for nanocomposites with 6 wt% and 9 wt% loading content, leading to a small decline in the mechanical properties. PLAU and its nanocomposites have glass transition around 52 °C, which can be used as the triggering temperature. PLAU and its nanocomposites have shape fixity ratios above 99%, shape recovery ratios above 82% for the first cycle and shape recovery ratios above 91% for the second cycle. PLAU and its nanocomposites also exhibit a fast water bath or magnetic responsiveness. The magnetic recovery time decreases with an increase in the loading content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles due to an improvement in heating performance for increased weight percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites have fast responses in an alternating magnetic field and have potential application in biomedical areas such as intravascular stent.

  10. Fast Traffic Sign Recognition with a Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern Based Feature

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Guo, Yike; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern) based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network) based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed. PMID:25608217

  11. Fast traffic sign recognition with a rotation invariant binary pattern based feature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Guo, Yike; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-19

    Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern) based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network) based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed.

  12. Fast implementation of sparse iterative covariance-based estimation for source localization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilin; Abeida, Habti; Xue, Ming; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Fast implementations of the sparse iterative covariance-based estimation (SPICE) algorithm are presented for source localization with a uniform linear array (ULA). SPICE is a robust, user parameter-free, high-resolution, iterative, and globally convergent estimation algorithm for array processing. SPICE offers superior resolution and lower sidelobe levels for source localization compared to the conventional delay-and-sum beamforming method; however, a traditional SPICE implementation has a higher computational complexity (which is exacerbated in higher dimensional data). It is shown that the computational complexity of the SPICE algorithm can be mitigated by exploiting the Toeplitz structure of the array output covariance matrix using Gohberg-Semencul factorization. The SPICE algorithm is also extended to the acoustic vector-sensor ULA scenario with a specific nonuniform white noise assumption, and the fast implementation is developed based on the block Toeplitz properties of the array output covariance matrix. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the computational gains of the proposed methods.

  13. Flywheel-Based Fast Charging Station – FFCS for Electric Vehicles and Public Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Othman, Ahmed M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper demonstrates novel Flywheel-based Fast Charging Station (FFCS) for high performance and profitable charging infrastructures for public electric buses. The design criteria will be provided for fast charging stations. The station would support the private and open charging framework. Flywheel Energy storage system is utilized to offer advanced energy storage for charging stations to achieve clean public transportation, including electric buses with reducing GHG, including CO2 emission reduction. The integrated modelling and management system in the station is performed by a decision-based control platform that coordinates the power streams between the quick chargers, the flywheel storage framework, photovoltaic cells and the network association. There is a tidy exchange up between the capacity rate of flywheel framework and the power rating of the network association.”

  14. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  15. Performance study of the fast timing Cherenkov detector based on a microchannel plate PMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finogeev, D. A.; Grigoriev, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Karavichev, O. V.; Karavicheva, T. L.; Konevskikh, A. S.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A. N.; Loginov, V. A.; Mayevskaya, A. I.; Melikyan, Yu A.; Morozov, I. V.; Serebryakov, D. V.; Shabanov, A. I.; Slupecki, M.; Tikhonov, A. A.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Prototype of the fast timing Cherenkov detector, applicable in high-energy collider experiments, has been developed basing on the modified Planacon XP85012 MCP-PMT and fused silica radiators. We present the reasons and description of the MCP-PMT modification, timing and amplitude characteristics of the prototype including the summary of the detector’s response on particle hits at oblique angles and MCP-PMT performance at high illumination rates.

  16. Fast Nonlinear Optical Switch Based on Resonant Vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5) Metasurfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    Fast Nonlinear Optical Switch Based on Resonant Vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5) Metasurfaces Samad Jafar-Zanjani,1, a) Jierong Cheng,1, b) Vladimir...Dated: 19 May 2016) A novel low-profile nonlinear metasurface , consisting of a single-layer of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), is proposed and numerically...investigated by a nonlinear full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The metasurface acts as an ultrafast optical switch, being

  17. Accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. W.; Wang, B.; Gao, C.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement method is demonstrated. As a key technique, a simple ambiguity resolving process based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement is used to overcome the contradiction between measurement accuracy and system complexity. The system achieves a high measurement accuracy of 0.2 ps with a 0.1 ps measurement resolution and a large dynamic range up to 50 km as well as no dead zone.

  18. A Fast Method for Embattling Optimization of Ground-Based Radar Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.

    A growing number of space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flight. For the safety of in-orbit spacecraft, a lot of observation facilities are needed to catalog space objects, especially in low earth orbit. Surveillance of Low earth orbit objects are mainly rely on ground-based radar, due to the ability limitation of exist radar facilities, a large number of ground-based radar need to build in the next few years in order to meet the current space surveillance demands. How to optimize the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network is a problem to need to be solved. The traditional method for embattling optimization of ground-based radar surveillance network is mainly through to the detection simulation of all possible stations with cataloged data, and makes a comprehensive comparative analysis of various simulation results with the combinational method, and then selects an optimal result as station layout scheme. This method is time consuming for single simulation and high computational complexity for the combinational analysis, when the number of stations increases, the complexity of optimization problem will be increased exponentially, and cannot be solved with traditional method. There is no better way to solve this problem till now. In this paper, target detection procedure was simplified. Firstly, the space coverage of ground-based radar was simplified, a space coverage projection model of radar facilities in different orbit altitudes was built; then a simplified objects cross the radar coverage model was established according to the characteristics of space objects orbit motion; after two steps simplification, the computational complexity of the target detection was greatly simplified, and simulation results shown the correctness of the simplified results. In addition, the detection areas of ground-based radar network can be easily computed with the

  19. A maxent-stress model for graph layout.

    PubMed

    Gansner, Emden R; Hu, Yifan; North, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In some applications of graph visualization, input edges have associated target lengths. Dealing with these lengths is a challenge, especially for large graphs. Stress models are often employed in this situation. However, the traditional full stress model is not scalable due to its reliance on an initial all-pairs shortest path calculation. A number of fast approximation algorithms have been proposed. While they work well for some graphs, the results are less satisfactory on graphs of intrinsically high dimension, because some nodes may be placed too close together, or even share the same position. We propose a solution, called the maxent-stress model, which applies the principle of maximum entropy to cope with the extra degrees of freedom. We describe a force-augmented stress majorization algorithm that solves the maxent-stress model. Numerical results show that the algorithm scales well, and provides acceptable layouts for large, nonrigid graphs. This also has potential applications to scalable algorithms for statistical multidimensional scaling (MDS) with variable distances.

  20. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  1. Optimal Sensor Layouts in Underwater Locomotory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Retrieving and understanding global flow characteristics from local sensory measurements is a challenging but extremely relevant problem in fields such as defense, robotics, and biomimetics. It is an inverse problem in that the goal is to translate local information into global flow properties. In this talk we present techniques for optimization of sensory layouts within the context of an idealized underwater locomotory system. Using techniques from fluid mechanics and control theory, we show that, under certain conditions, local measurements can inform the submerged body about its orientation relative to the ambient flow, and allow it to recognize local properties of shear flows. We conclude by commenting on the relevance of these findings to underwater navigation in engineered systems and live organisms.

  2. Fast mode decision for multiview video coding based on depth maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernigliaro, Gianluca; Jaureguizar, Fernando; Ortega, Antonio; Cabrera, Julián; García, Narciso

    2009-01-01

    A new fast mode decision (FMD) algorithm for multi-view video coding (MVC) is presented. One of the multiple views is encoded based on traditional methods, which provides a mode decision (MD) map, while encoding of the other views is based on the analysis of the homogeneity of the depth map. This approach reduces the burden of the rate-distortion (RD) motion analysis based on the availability of a depth map, which is assumed to be provided by the acquisition process. Although there is a slight decrease of performance in rate-distortion terms, there is a significant reduction in computational cost.

  3. Accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast imaging of MR compatible metallic devices based on modified fast spin echo sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Caiyun; Xie, Guoxi; Zhang, Yongqin; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Min; Su, Shi; Dong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Ji, Jim

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop an accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast MR imaging method for visualizing MR compatible metallic devices. A modified fast spin echo sequence is used to accelerate data acquisition. Each readout gradient in the modified fast spin echo is slightly shifted by a short distance T shift. Phase changes accumulated within T shift are then used to calculate the susceptibility map by using a kernel deconvolution algorithm with a regularized ℓ1 minimization. To evaluate the proposed fast spin echo method, three phantom experiments were conducted and compared to a spin echo based technique and the gold standard CT for visualizing biopsy needles and brachytherapy seeds. Compared to the spin echo based technique, the data sampling speed of the proposed method was faster by 2-4 times while still being able to accurately visualize and identify the location of the biopsy needle and brachytherapy seeds. These results were confirmed by CT images of the same devices. Results also demonstrated that the proposed fast spin echo method can achieve good visualization of the brachytherapy seeds in positive contrast and in different orientations. It is also capable of correctly differentiating brachytherapy seeds from other similar structures on conventional magnitude images.

  4. Moment feature based fast feature extraction algorithm for moving object detection using aerial images.

    PubMed

    Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2015-01-01

    Fast and computationally less complex feature extraction for moving object detection using aerial images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) remains as an elusive goal in the field of computer vision research. The types of features used in current studies concerning moving object detection are typically chosen based on improving detection rate rather than on providing fast and computationally less complex feature extraction methods. Because moving object detection using aerial images from UAVs involves motion as seen from a certain altitude, effective and fast feature extraction is a vital issue for optimum detection performance. This research proposes a two-layer bucket approach based on a new feature extraction algorithm referred to as the moment-based feature extraction algorithm (MFEA). Because a moment represents the coherent intensity of pixels and motion estimation is a motion pixel intensity measurement, this research used this relation to develop the proposed algorithm. The experimental results reveal the successful performance of the proposed MFEA algorithm and the proposed methodology.

  5. Fast and highly specific DNA-based multiplex detection on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Ivan; Kamleithner, Verena; Schönthaler, Silvia; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Highly specific and fast multiplex detection methods are essential to conduct reasonable DNA-based diagnostics and are especially important to characterise infectious diseases. More than 1000 genetic targets such as antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors and phylogenetic markers have to be identified as fast as possible to facilitate the correct treatment of a patient. In the present work, we developed a novel ligation-based DNA probe concept that was combined with the microarray technology and used it for the detection of bacterial pathogens. The novel linear chain (LNC) probes identified all tested species correctly within 1 h based on their 16S rRNA gene in a 25-multiplex reaction. Genomic DNA was used directly as template in the ligation reaction identifying as little as 10(7) cells without any pre-amplification. The high specificity was further demonstrated characterising a single nucleotide polymorphism leading to no false positive fluorescence signals of the untargeted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants. In comparison to conventional microarray probes, the sensitivity of the novel LNC3 probes was higher by a factor of 10 or more. In summary, we present a fast, simple, highly specific and sensitive multiplex detection method adaptable for a wide range of applications.

  6. Fast and accurate grid representations for atom-based docking with partner flexibility.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Zacharias, Martin

    2017-06-30

    Macromolecular docking methods can broadly be divided into geometric and atom-based methods. Geometric methods use fast algorithms that operate on simplified, grid-like molecular representations, while atom-based methods are more realistic and flexible, but far less efficient. Here, a hybrid approach of grid-based and atom-based docking is presented, combining precalculated grid potentials with neighbor lists for fast and accurate calculation of atom-based intermolecular energies and forces. The grid representation is compatible with simultaneous multibody docking and can tolerate considerable protein flexibility. When implemented in our docking method ATTRACT, grid-based docking was found to be ∼35x faster. With the OPLSX forcefield instead of the ATTRACT coarse-grained forcefield, the average speed improvement was >100x. Grid-based representations may allow atom-based docking methods to explore large conformational spaces with many degrees of freedom, such as multiple macromolecules including flexibility. This increases the domain of biological problems to which docking methods can be applied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Automatic layout of integrated-optics time-of-flight circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett-Fogg, Ruth D.

    1995-04-01

    This work describes the architecture and algorithms used in the computer aided design tool developed for the automatic layout of integrated optic, time of flight circuit designs. This is similar to the layout of electronic VLSI circuits, where total wire length and chip area minimization are the major goals. Likewise, total wire length and chip area minimization are also the goals in the layout of time of flight circuits. However, there are two major differences between the layout of time of flight circuits and VLSI circuits. First, the interconnection lengths of time of flight designs are exactly specified in order to achieve the necessary delays for signal synchronization. Secondly, the switching elements are 120 times longer than they are wide. This highly astigmatic aspect ratio causes severe constraints on how and where the switches are placed. The assumed development of integrated corner turning mirrors allows the use of a parallel, row based device placement architecture and a rectangular, fixed grid track system for the connecting paths. The layout process proceeds in two steps. The first step involves the use of a partial circuit graph representation to place the elements in rows, oriented in the direction of the signal flow. After iterative improvement of the placement, the second step proceeds with the routing of the connecting paths. The main problem in the automatic layout of time of flight circuits is achieving the correct path lengths without overlapping previously routed paths. This problem is solved by taking advantage of a certain degree of variability present in each path, allowing the use of simple heuristics to circumvent previously routed paths.

  8. Ensuring Long Term Access to Remotely Sensed HDF4 Data with Layout Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, M.; Duerr, R.

    2008-12-01

    A preponderance of data from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) are archived in the HDF Version 4 (HDF4) format. The long-term preservation of these data is critical for climate and other scientific studies going many decades into the future. Its rich structure, platform independence, and Application Programming Interfaces (API) and libraries make HDF4 very effective for working with the large and complex collection of EOS data products. Unfortunately, these features are achieved by employing a complex internal byte layout of HDF4 files, so future readability of HDF4 data depends on the preservation of the software that can interpret that layout. Having a way to access HDF4 data independent of a library could improve its viability as an archive format, and consequently give confidence that HDF4 data will be readily accessible forever, even if the HDF4 API and library are gone. To address the need to simplify long-term access to EOS data stored in HDF4, a collaborative study between The HDF Group and NASAs Earth Science Data Centers investigated a new approach to accessing data in HDF4 files based on the creation of independent maps that describe the data in HDF4 files, and tools that can use these maps to recover data from those files. With this approach, relatively simple programs could extract the data from an HDF4 file, bypassing the need for the HDF4 library. This report will describe the HDF4 mapping study, which included an assessment of the range of HDF4 formatted data held by NASA, development of a prototype HDF4 layout mapping language and format, and development of prototype tools to create layout maps and to read HDF4 data using layout maps. The report will also describe future plans to put the layout map approach into practice, including plans to get feedback from the community on the approach, the specification, and other matters.

  9. MetaSensing's FastGBSAR: ground based radar for deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödelsperger, Sabine; Meta, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    The continuous monitoring of ground deformation and structural movement has become an important task in engineering. MetaSensing introduces a novel sensor system, the Fast Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (FastGBSAR), based on innovative technologies that have already been successfully applied to airborne SAR applications. The FastGBSAR allows the remote sensing of deformations of a slope or infrastructure from up to a distance of 4 km. The FastGBSAR can be setup in two different configurations: in Real Aperture Radar (RAR) mode it is capable of accurately measuring displacements along a linear range profile, ideal for monitoring vibrations of structures like bridges and towers (displacement accuracy up to 0.01 mm). Modal parameters can be determined within half an hour. Alternatively, in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) configuration it produces two-dimensional displacement images with an acquisition time of less than 5 seconds, ideal for monitoring areal structures like dams, landslides and open pit mines (displacement accuracy up to 0.1 mm). The MetaSensing FastGBSAR is the first ground based SAR instrument on the market able to produce two-dimensional deformation maps with this high acquisition rate. By that, deformation time series with a high temporal and spatial resolution can be generated, giving detailed information useful to determine the deformation mechanisms involved and eventually to predict an incoming failure. The system is fully portable and can be quickly installed on bedrock or a basement. The data acquisition and processing can be fully automated leading to a low effort in instrument operation and maintenance. Due to the short acquisition time of FastGBSAR, the coherence between two acquisitions is very high and the phase unwrapping is simplified enormously. This yields a high density of resolution cells with good quality and high reliability of the acquired deformations. The deformation maps can directly be used as input into an Early

  10. Coach design for the Korean high-speed train: a systematic approach to passenger seat design and layout.

    PubMed

    Jung, E S; Han, S H; Jung, M; Choe, J

    1998-12-01

    Proper ergonomic design of a passenger seat and coach layout for a high-speed train is an essential component that is directly related to passenger comfort. In this research, a systematic approach to the design of passenger seats was described and the coach layout which reflected the tradeoff between transportation capacity and passenger comfort was investigated for the Korean high-speed train. As a result, design recommendations and specifications of the passenger seat and its layout were suggested. The whole design process is composed of four stages. A survey and analysis of design requirement was first conducted, which formed the base for designing the first and second class passenger seats. Prototypes were made and evaluated iteratively, and seat arrangement and coach layout were finally obtained. The systematic approach and recommendations suggested in this study are expected to be applicable to the seat design for public transportations and to help modify and redesign existing vehicular seats.

  11. CMOS VLSI Layout and Verification of a SIMD Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Jianqing

    1996-01-01

    A CMOS VLSI layout and verification of a 3 x 3 processor parallel computer has been completed. The layout was done using the MAGIC tool and the verification using HSPICE. Suggestions for expanding the computer into a million processor network are presented. Many problems that might be encountered when implementing a massively parallel computer are discussed.

  12. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  13. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  14. Layout and cabling considerations for a large communications antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Layout considerations for a large deep space communications antenna array are discussed. A fractal geometry for the antenna layout is described that provides optimal packing of antenna elements, efficient cable routing, and logical division of the array into identical sub-arrays.

  15. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  16. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica"…

  17. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  18. Two hybrid compaction algorithms for the layout optimization problem.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ren-Bin; Xu, Yi-Chun; Amos, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present two new algorithms for the layout optimization problem: this concerns the placement of circular, weighted objects inside a circular container, the two objectives being to minimize imbalance of mass and to minimize the radius of the container. This problem carries real practical significance in industrial applications (such as the design of satellites), as well as being of significant theoretical interest. We present two nature-inspired algorithms for this problem, the first based on simulated annealing, and the second on particle swarm optimization. We compare our algorithms with the existing best-known algorithm, and show that our approaches out-perform it in terms of both solution quality and execution time.

  19. Simplify to survive: prescriptive layouts ensure profitable scaling to 32nm and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann, Lars; Pileggi, Larry; Hibbeler, Jason; Rovner, Vyacheslav; Jhaveri, Tejas; Northrop, Greg

    2009-03-01

    The time-to-market driven need to maintain concurrent process-design co-development, even in spite of discontinuous patterning, process, and device innovation is reiterated. The escalating design rule complexity resulting from increasing layout sensitivities in physical and electrical yield and the resulting risk to profitable technology scaling is reviewed. Shortcomings in traditional Design for Manufacturability (DfM) solutions are identified and contrasted to the highly successful integrated design-technology co-optimization used for SRAM and other memory arrays. The feasibility of extending memory-style design-technology co-optimization, based on a highly simplified layout environment, to logic chips is demonstrated. Layout density benefits, modeled patterning and electrical yield improvements, as well as substantially improved layout simplicity are quantified in a conventional versus template-based design comparison on a 65nm IBM PowerPC 405 microprocessor core. The adaptability of this highly regularized template-based design solution to different yield concerns and design styles is shown in the extension of this work to 32nm with an increased focus on interconnect redundancy. In closing, the work not covered in this paper, focused on the process side of the integrated process-design co-optimization, is introduced.

  20. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  1. Exact solution for the optimal neuronal layout problem.

    PubMed

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B

    2004-10-01

    Evolution perfected brain design by maximizing its functionality while minimizing costs associated with building and maintaining it. Assumption that brain functionality is specified by neuronal connectivity, implemented by costly biological wiring, leads to the following optimal design problem. For a given neuronal connectivity, find a spatial layout of neurons that minimizes the wiring cost. Unfortunately, this problem is difficult to solve because the number of possible layouts is often astronomically large. We argue that the wiring cost may scale as wire length squared, reducing the optimal layout problem to a constrained minimization of a quadratic form. For biologically plausible constraints, this problem has exact analytical solutions, which give reasonable approximations to actual layouts in the brain. These solutions make the inverse problem of inferring neuronal connectivity from neuronal layout more tractable.

  2. Test of a prototype neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Caiffi, B.; Pompili, F.; Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Cardarelli, R.; Argiro, S.

    2015-07-01

    A prototype of neutron spectrometer based on diamond detectors has been developed. This prototype consists of a {sup 6}Li neutron converter sandwiched between two CVD diamond crystals. The radiation hardness of the diamond crystals makes it suitable for applications in low power research reactors, while a low sensitivity to gamma rays and low leakage current of the detector permit to reach good energy resolution. A fast coincidence between two crystals is used to reject background. The detector was read out using two different electronic chains connected to it by a few meters of cable. The first chain was based on conventional charge-sensitive amplifiers, the other used a custom fast charge amplifier developed for this purpose. The prototype has been tested at various neutron sources and showed its practicability. In particular, the detector was calibrated in a TRIGA thermal reactor (LENA laboratory, University of Pavia) with neutron fluxes of 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s and at the 3 MeV D-D monochromatic neutron source named FNG (ENEA, Rome) with neutron fluxes of 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}s. The neutron spectrum measurement was performed at the TAPIRO fast research reactor (ENEA, Casaccia) with fluxes of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}s. The obtained spectra were compared to Monte Carlo simulations, modeling detector response with MCNP and Geant4. (authors)

  3. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizenga, J.; Seifert, S.; Schreuder, F.; van Dam, H. T.; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Vinke, R.; Schaart, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a 'slow' energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr3:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  4. Fast entropy-based CABAC rate estimation for mode decision in HEVC.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Gang; Wang, Xun

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency video coding (HEVC) seeks the best code tree configuration, the best prediction unit division and the prediction mode, by evaluating the rate-distortion functional in a recursive way and using a "try all and select the best" strategy. Further, HEVC only supports context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC), which has the disadvantage of being highly sequential and having strong data dependencies, as the entropy coder. So, the development of a fast rate estimation algorithm for CABAC-based coding has a great practical significance for mode decision in HEVC. There are three elementary steps in CABAC encoding process: binarization, context modeling, and binary arithmetic coding. Typical approaches to fast CABAC rate estimation simplify or eliminate the last two steps, but leave the binarization step unchanged. To maximize the reduction of computational complexity, we propose a fast entropy-based CABAC rate estimator in this paper. It eliminates not only the modeling and the coding steps, but also the binarization step. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed estimator is able to reduce the computational complexity of the mode decision in HEVC by 9-23 % with negligible PSNR loss and BD-rate increment, and therefore exhibits applicability to practical HEVC encoder implementation.

  5. A fast and powerful release mechanism based on pulse heating of shape memory wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Yoav; Shilo, Doron

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a novel actuator and a new concept for a release mechanism that are especially useful in applications that require fast motion of large masses over long distances. The actuator is based on ultra-fast pulse heating of NiTi wires, which provide a unique combination of large work per volume, short response time and enhanced energy efficiency. The release mechanism utilizes the fast and powerful actuator to form conditions in which the latch (safety pin) moves faster than the deployed device. As a result, the contact between these two masses is disconnected and the resulting friction forces are decreased to approximately zero. The actuator and release mechanism address the two major drawbacks of conventional shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators: slow actuation time and low energy efficiency. Using a dedicated setup, the experimental results validate the disconnection between the masses and map the effects of several variables on the performance of the actuator and release mechanism. In particular, we map the energetic efficiency and find the optimal operating conditions for a successful release using a minimal amount of input energy. At the optimal conditions, the actuator response time and the consumed input energy are smaller by an order of magnitude with respect to performances of previous SMA-based release mechanisms with comparable requirements.

  6. Improved FFT-based numerical inversion of Laplace transforms via fast Hartley transform algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Chyi; Lu, Ming-Jeng; Shieh, Leang S.

    1991-01-01

    The disadvantages of numerical inversion of the Laplace transform via the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT) are identified and an improved method is presented to remedy them. The improved method is based on introducing a new integration step length Delta(omega) = pi/mT for trapezoidal-rule approximation of the Bromwich integral, in which a new parameter, m, is introduced for controlling the accuracy of the numerical integration. Naturally, this method leads to multiple sets of complex FFT computations. A new inversion formula is derived such that N equally spaced samples of the inverse Laplace transform function can be obtained by (m/2) + 1 sets of N-point complex FFT computations or by m sets of real fast Hartley transform (FHT) computations.

  7. Response of a Si-diode-based device to fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Spurný, Frantisek

    2005-02-01

    Semiconductor devices based on a Si-detector are frequently used for charged particle's detection; one application being in the investigation of cosmic radiation fields. From the spectra of energy deposition events in such devices, the total energy deposited by the radiation in silicon can be derived. This contribution presents the results of studies concerning the response of this type of detector to fast neutrons. First, the spectrum of energy deposition was established in fast neutron radiation fields with average energies from 0.5 to 50 MeV. It was found that these spectra vary significantly with the neutron energy. The comparison with the spectra registered in photon beams permitted an estimation of the part of energy deposited that could be attributed to neutrons. It was found that this part increases rapidly with neutron energy. The possibilities to use this type of detector for neutron detection and dosimetry for radiation protection are analysed and discussed.

  8. Preconditioning based on Calderon's formulae for periodic fast multipole methods for Helmholtz' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Kazuki; Nishimura, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    Solution of periodic boundary value problems is of interest in various branches of science and engineering such as optics, electromagnetics and mechanics. In our previous studies we have developed a periodic fast multipole method (FMM) as a fast solver of wave problems in periodic domains. It has been found, however, that the convergence of the iterative solvers for linear equations slows down when the solutions show anomalies related to the periodicity of the problems. In this paper, we propose preconditioning schemes based on Calderon's formulae to accelerate convergence of iterative solvers in the periodic FMM for Helmholtz' equations. The proposed preconditioners can be implemented more easily than conventional ones. We present several numerical examples to test the performance of the proposed preconditioners. We show that the effectiveness of these preconditioners is definite even near anomalies.

  9. Knowledge-based software system for fast yield loss detection in a semiconductor fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Santamaria, Victorino; Recio, Miguel; Merino, Miguel A.; Moreno, Julian; Fernandez, Almudena; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Sanchez, Guillermo; Barrios, Luis J.; del Castillo, Maria D.; Lemus, Lissette; Gonzalez, Angel L.

    1997-09-01

    The comparative analysis of process machines in terms of yield related metrics (such as probe and E-Test data, process and particle data,. ..) is a source of a great deal of information for yield improvement. With this aim we published on SPIE's Microelectronic Manufacturing an Advanced Software System to detect machine-related yield limitors using a comparative analysis. This paper presents the natural expansion of that Software System by converting it into a more knowledge-based tool for fast yield loss detection on a semiconductor fab. The new System performs, in an automatic mode, the comparison among machines for every single step selected in the fabrication routing. The detection of statistically significative differences among machines at every step is performed using algorithms that incorporate the overall analysts experience on our fab. The output of the System allows a fast detection and reaction to yield issues, mainly to those that are still on the initial or baseline stages.

  10. A fast multispectral light synthesiser based on LEDs and a diffraction grating

    PubMed Central

    Belušič, Gregor; Ilić, Marko; Meglič, Andrej; Pirih, Primož

    2016-01-01

    Optical experiments often require fast-switching light sources with adjustable bandwidths and intensities. We constructed a wavelength combiner based on a reflective planar diffraction grating and light emitting diodes with emission peaks from 350 to 630 nm that were positioned at the angles corresponding to the first diffraction order of the reversed beam. The combined output beam was launched into a fibre. The spacing between 22 equally wide spectral bands was about 15 nm. The time resolution of the pulse-width modulation drivers was 1 ms. The source was validated with a fast intracellular measurement of the spectral sensitivity of blowfly photoreceptors. In hyperspectral imaging of Xenopus skin circulation, the wavelength resolution was adequate to resolve haemoglobin absorption spectra. The device contains no moving parts, has low stray light and is intrinsically capable of multi-band output. Possible applications include visual physiology, biomedical optics, microscopy and spectroscopy. PMID:27558155

  11. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chia Jia; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  12. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Chia Jia Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2016-01-22

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  13. A fast quaternion-based orientation optimizer via virtual rotation for human motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Park, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    For real-time ambulatory human motion tracking with low-cost inertial/magnetic sensors, a computationally efficient and robust algorithm for estimating orientation is critical. This paper presents a quaternion-based orientation optimizer for tracking human body motion, using triaxis rate gyro, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals. The proposed optimizer uses a Gauss-Newton (G-N) method for finding the best-fit quaternion. In order to decrease the computing time, the optimizer is formulated using a virtual rotation concept that allows very fast quaternion updates compared to the conventional G-N method. In addition, to guard against the effects of fast body motions and temporary ferromagnetic disturbances, a situational measurement vector selection procedure is adopted in conjunction with the G-N optimizer. The accuracy of orientation estimates is validated experimentally, using arm motion trials.

  14. Dynamical programming based turbulence velocimetry for fast visible imaging of tokamak plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Mishra, K.; Onchi, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.

    2015-03-01

    An orthogonal dynamic programming (ODP) based particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is developed to measure the time resolved flow field of the fluctuating structures at the plasma edge and scrape off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. This non-intrusive technique can provide two dimensional velocity fields at high spatial and temporal resolution from a fast framing image sequence and hence can provide better insights into plasma flow as compared to conventional probe measurements. Applicability of the technique is tested with simulated image pairs. Finally, it is applied to tangential fast visible images of QUEST plasma to estimate the SOL flow in inboard poloidal null-natural divertor configuration. This technique is also applied to investigate the intricate features of the core of the run-away dominated phase following the injection of a large amount of neutrals in the target Ohmic plasma. Development of the ODP-PIV code and its applicability on actual plasma images is reported.

  15. A fast multispectral light synthesiser based on LEDs and a diffraction grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belušič, Gregor; Ilić, Marko; Meglič, Andrej; Pirih, Primož

    2016-08-01

    Optical experiments often require fast-switching light sources with adjustable bandwidths and intensities. We constructed a wavelength combiner based on a reflective planar diffraction grating and light emitting diodes with emission peaks from 350 to 630 nm that were positioned at the angles corresponding to the first diffraction order of the reversed beam. The combined output beam was launched into a fibre. The spacing between 22 equally wide spectral bands was about 15 nm. The time resolution of the pulse-width modulation drivers was 1 ms. The source was validated with a fast intracellular measurement of the spectral sensitivity of blowfly photoreceptors. In hyperspectral imaging of Xenopus skin circulation, the wavelength resolution was adequate to resolve haemoglobin absorption spectra. The device contains no moving parts, has low stray light and is intrinsically capable of multi-band output. Possible applications include visual physiology, biomedical optics, microscopy and spectroscopy.

  16. The speed of feature-based attention: attentional advantage is slow, but selection is fast.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-12-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work on Boolean map theory (Huang & Pashler, 2007), we distinguished between 2 concepts that are often conflated with the term attention, namely the selection of information from stimulus and the following processing optimization (i.e., attentional advantage) of the selected stimulus. Attention, as examined in previous feature-based attention studies, only fits the definition of processing optimization, but does not fit the definition of selection of information. Therefore, it is open to question whether feature-based attention, when defined as selection, is fast or slow. In this study, I systematically measured the speed of feature-based attention in relation to both definitions. Attention was found to be slow (~100 ms) in terms of processing optimization (i.e., attentional advantage) but fast in terms of the selection of information (<50 ms). These results support the view that feature-based attention works by creating a spatial representation (i.e., a Boolean map; Huang & Pashler, 2007) for the stimulus of a feature and a processing optimization of the visual information residing in the region of this spatial representation.

  17. Improvement on post-OPC verification efficiency for contact/via coverage check by final CD biasing of metal lines and considering their location on the metal layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmi; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwangseon; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Sooryong

    2011-04-01

    As IC design complexity keeps increasing, it is more and more difficult to ensure the pattern transfer after optical proximity correction (OPC) due to the continuous reduction of layout dimensions and lithographic limitation by k1 factor. To guarantee the imaging fidelity, resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as off-axis illumination (OAI), different types of phase shift masks and OPC technique have been developed. In case of model-based OPC, to cross-confirm the contour image versus target layout, post-OPC verification solutions continuously keep developed - contour generation method and matching it to target structure, method for filtering and sorting the patterns to eliminate false errors and duplicate patterns. The way to detect only real errors by excluding false errors is the most important thing for accurate and fast verification process - to save not only reviewing time and engineer resource, but also whole wafer process time and so on. In general case of post-OPC verification for metal-contact/via coverage (CC) check, verification solution outputs huge of errors due to borderless design, so it is too difficult to review and correct all points of them. It should make OPC engineer to miss the real defect, and may it cause the delay time to market, at least. In this paper, we studied method for increasing efficiency of post-OPC verification, especially for the case of CC check. For metal layers, final CD after etch process shows various CD bias, which depends on distance with neighbor patterns, so it is more reasonable that consider final metal shape to confirm the contact/via coverage. Through the optimization of biasing rule for different pitches and shapes of metal lines, we could get more accurate and efficient verification results and decrease the time for review to find real errors. In this paper, the suggestion in order to increase efficiency of OPC verification process by using simple biasing rule to metal layout instead of etch model

  18. Variable disparity-motion estimation based fast three-view video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Hwang, Yong Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, variable disparity-motion estimation (VDME) based 3-view video coding is proposed. In the encoding, key-frame coding (KFC) based motion estimation and variable disparity estimation (VDE) for effectively fast three-view video encoding are processed. These proposed algorithms enhance the performance of 3-D video encoding/decoding system in terms of accuracy of disparity estimation and computational overhead. From some experiments, stereo sequences of 'Pot Plant' and 'IVO', it is shown that the proposed algorithm's PSNRs is 37.66 and 40.55 dB, and the processing time is 0.139 and 0.124 sec/frame, respectively.

  19. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Yin, Xindao; Shi, Luyao; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Toumoulin, Christine

    2013-08-01

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors.

  20. Fast-Fourier-transform based numerical integration method for the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fabin; Wang, Anbo

    2006-02-01

    The numerical calculation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is investigated. The implementation of a fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) based direct integration (FFT-DI) method is presented, and Simpson's rule is used to improve the calculation accuracy. The sampling interval, the size of the computation window, and their influence on numerical accuracy and on computational complexity are discussed for the FFT-DI and the FFT-based angular spectrum (FFT-AS) methods. The performance of the FFT-DI method is verified by numerical simulation and compared with that of the FFT-AS method.

  1. A fast learning-based super-resolution method for copper strip defect image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Fan, Xinnan; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a fast pre-classified-based super-resolution model has been proposed to overcome the problems of degraded imaging in weak-target real-time detection system, specialized to copper defect detection. To accurately characterize the defected image, textural features based on the statistical function of gray-gradient are presented. Furthermore, to improve the effectiveness and practicality of the online detection, a concept of pre-classified learning is introduced and an edge smoothness rule is designed. Some experiments are carried out on defect images in different environments and the experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. A VLSI Architecture with Multiple Fast Store-Based Block Parallel Processing for Output Probability and Likelihood Score Computations in HMM-Based Isolated Word Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Shimazaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Naofumi

    This paper presents a memory-efficient VLSI architecture for output probability computations (OPCs) of continuous hidden Markov models (HMMs) and likelihood score computations (LSCs). These computations are the most time consuming part of HMM-based isolated word recognition systems. We demonstrate multiple fast store-based block parallel processing (MultipleFastStoreBPP) for OPCs and LSCs and present a VLSI architecture that supports it. Compared with conventional fast store-based block parallel processing (FastStoreBPP) and stream-based block parallel processing (StreamBPP) architectures, the proposed architecture requires fewer registers and less processing time. The processing elements (PEs) used in the FastStoreBPP and StreamBPP architectures are identical to those used in the MultipleFastStoreBPP architecture. From a VLSI architectural viewpoint, a comparison shows that the proposed architecture is an improvement over the others, through efficient use of PEs and registers for storing input feature vectors.

  3. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  4. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Fault Diagnosis Based on Features Extraction Techniques and FastICA-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ya-Bing; Liu, Chang-Wen; Bi, Feng-Rong; Bi, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xia; Shao, Kang

    2017-07-01

    Numerous vibration-based techniques are rarely used in diesel engines fault diagnosis in a direct way, due to the surface vibration signals of diesel engines with the complex non-stationary and nonlinear time-varying features. To investigate the fault diagnosis of diesel engines, fractal correlation dimension, wavelet energy and entropy as features reflecting the diesel engine fault fractal and energy characteristics are extracted from the decomposed signals through analyzing vibration acceleration signals derived from the cylinder head in seven different states of valve train. An intelligent fault detector FastICA-SVM is applied for diesel engine fault diagnosis and classification. The results demonstrate that FastICA-SVM achieves higher classification accuracy and makes better generalization performance in small samples recognition. Besides, the fractal correlation dimension and wavelet energy and entropy as the special features of diesel engine vibration signal are considered as input vectors of classifier FastICA-SVM and could produce the excellent classification results. The proposed methodology improves the accuracy of feature extraction and the fault diagnosis of diesel engines.

  5. Fast Fourier transform based direct integration algorithm for the linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Liu, Changgeng; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2011-03-01

    The linear canonical transform(LCT) is a parameterized linear integral transform, which is the general case of many well-known transforms such as the Fourier transform(FT), the fractional Fourier transform(FRT) and the Fresnel transform(FST). These integral transforms are of great importance in wave propagation problems because they are the solutions of the wave equation under a variety of circumstances. In optics, the LCT can be used to model paraxial free space propagation and other quadratic phase systems such as lens and graded-index media. A number of algorithms have been presented to fast compute the LCT. When they are used to compute the LCT, the sampling period in the transform domain is dependent on that in the signal domain. This drawback limits their applicability in some cases such as color digital holography. In this paper, a Fast-Fourier-Transform-based Direct Integration algorithm(FFT-DI) for the LCT is presented. The FFT-DI is a fast computational method of the Direct Integration(DI) for the LCT. It removes the dependency of the sampling period in the transform domain on that in the signal domain. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this idea.

  6. Fast Fourier transform based direct integration algorithm for the linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Liu, Changgeng; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2010-07-01

    The linear canonical transform(LCT) is a parameterized linear integral transform, which is the general case of many well-known transforms such as the Fourier transform(FT), the fractional Fourier transform(FRT) and the Fresnel transform(FST). These integral transforms are of great importance in wave propagation problems because they are the solutions of the wave equation under a variety of circumstances. In optics, the LCT can be used to model paraxial free space propagation and other quadratic phase systems such as lens and graded-index media. A number of algorithms have been presented to fast compute the LCT. When they are used to compute the LCT, the sampling period in the transform domain is dependent on that in the signal domain. This drawback limits their applicability in some cases such as color digital holography. In this paper, a Fast-Fourier-Transform-based Direct Integration algorithm(FFT-DI) for the LCT is presented. The FFT-DI is a fast computational method of the Direct Integration(DI) for the LCT. It removes the dependency of the sampling period in the transform domain on that in the signal domain. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this idea.

  7. A CFD-based wind solver for a fast response transport and dispersion model

    SciTech Connect

    Gowardhan, Akshay A; Brown, Michael J; Pardyjak, Eric R; Senocak, Inanc

    2010-01-01

    In many cities, ambient air quality is deteriorating leading to concerns about the health of city inhabitants. In urban areas with narrow streets surrounded by clusters of tall buildings, called street canyons, air pollution from traffic emissions and other sources is difficult to disperse and may accumulate resulting in high pollutant concentrations. For various situations, including the evacuation of populated areas in the event of an accidental or deliberate release of chemical, biological and radiological agents, it is important that models should be developed that produce urban flow fields quickly. For these reasons it has become important to predict the flow field in urban street canyons. Various computational techniques have been used to calculate these flow fields, but these techniques are often computationally intensive. Most fast response models currently in use are at a disadvantage in these cases as they are unable to correlate highly heterogeneous urban structures with the diagnostic parameterizations on which they are based. In this paper, a fast and reasonably accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for complex urban areas has been developed called QUIC-CFD (Q-CFD). This technique represents an intermediate balance between fast (on the order of minutes for a several block problem) and reasonably accurate solutions. The paper details the solution procedure and validates this model for various simple and complex urban geometries.

  8. Fast ellipsometric measurements based on a single crystal photo-elastic modulator.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, R; Petelin, Jaka; Možina, J; Bammer, F

    2010-09-27

    For quality control in high volume manufacturing of thin layers and for tracking of physical and chemical processes, ellipsometry is a common measurement technology. For such kinds of applications we present a novel approach of fast ellipsometric measurements. Instead of a conventional setup that uses a standard photo-elastic modulator, we use a 92 kHz Single Crystal Photo-Elastic Modulator (SCPEM), which is a LiTaO3 crystal with a size of 28 × 9 × 4 mm. This small, simple, and cost-effective solution also offers the advantage of direct control of the retardation via the current amplitude, which is important for repeatability of the measurements. Instead of a Lock-In Amplifier, an automated digital processing based on a fast analog to digital converter controlled by a highly flexible Field Programmable Gate Array is used. This and the extremely compact and efficient polarization modulation allow fast ellipsometric testing where the upper limit of measurement rates is mainly limited by the desired accuracy and repeatability of the measurements. The standard deviation that is related to the repeatability +/-0.002° for dielectric layers can be easily reached.

  9. Accelerated materials design of fast oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei

    Over the past decades, significant research efforts have been dedicated to seeking fast oxygen ion conductor materials, which have important technological applications in electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, and sensors. Recently, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) was reported as a new family of fast oxygen ionic conductor. We will present our first principles computation study aims to understand the O diffusion mechanisms in the NBT material and to design this material with enhanced oxygen ionic conductivity. Using the NBT materials as an example, we demonstrate the computation capability to evaluate the phase stability, chemical stability, and ionic diffusion of the ionic conductor materials. We reveal the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion and identify the intrinsic limiting factors in increasing the ionic conductivity of the NBT materials. Novel doping strategies were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm-1 at 900 K compared to the experimental Mg doped compositions. Our results provide new avenues for the future design of the NBT materials and demonstrate the accelerated design of new ionic conductor materials based on first principles techniques. This computation methodology and workflow can be applied to the materials design of any (e.g. Li +, Na +) fast ion-conducting materials.

  10. Fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Díaz-González, M; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2015-05-15

    Global urban and industrial growth, with the associated environmental contamination, is promoting the development of rapid and inexpensive general toxicity methods. Current microbial methodologies for general toxicity determination rely on either bioluminescent bacteria and specific medium solution (i.e. Microtox(®)) or low sensitivity and diffusion limited protocols (i.e. amperometric microbial respirometry). In this work, fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics is presented, using Escherichia coli as a bacterial model. Ferricyanide reduction kinetic analysis (variation of ferricyanide absorption with time), much more sensitive than single absorbance measurements, allowed for direct and fast toxicity determination without pre-incubation steps (assay time=10 min) and minimizing biomass interference. Dual wavelength analysis at 405 (ferricyanide and biomass) and 550 nm (biomass), allowed for ferricyanide monitoring without interference of biomass scattering. On the other hand, refractive index (RI) matching with saccharose reduced bacterial light scattering around 50%, expanding the analytical linear range in the determination of absorbent molecules. With this method, different toxicants such as metals and organic compounds were analyzed with good sensitivities. Half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) obtained after 10 min bioassay, 2.9, 1.0, 0.7 and 18.3 mg L(-1) for copper, zinc, acetic acid and 2-phenylethanol respectively, were in agreement with previously reported values for longer bioassays (around 60 min). This method represents a promising alternative for fast and sensitive water toxicity monitoring, opening the possibility of quick in situ analysis.

  11. Is the idea of a fast block to polyspermy based on artifact?

    PubMed

    Dale, Brian

    2014-08-01

    This purpose of this review is to look at the experimental evidence, both kinetic and electrophysiological, that led to the hypothesis of a fast electrical block to polyspermy in sea urchin eggs. The idea of a fast partial block, forwarded in the 1950's, that would reduce the receptivity of the egg surface by 1/20th following its interaction with the fertilizing spermatozoon, was based on experiments that treated fertilization as a first order chemical reaction. Here, I outline the criticisms of the Rothschild theory and demonstrate that the hypothesis of a fast partial block to polyspermy is unfounded. Notwithstanding, it was suggested in the 1970's that the membrane depolarization, induced by the fertilizing spermatozoon, prevented the interaction of supernumerary spermatozoa, the fast electrical block to polyspermy. While trans-membrane voltage recording has permitted a better understanding of the sequence of events occurring at fertilization, there is no evidence that depolarization prevents the interaction of supernumerary spermatozoa. Sperm entry is prevented at positive and negative potentials, in the voltage clamp configuration, however this is an artifact caused by the currents injected into the egg employed to hold the voltage constant in a non-physiological range. At permissive voltages, around -20 mV, where the current required to hold the voltage is minimal, only one spermatozoon normally enters the egg. Thus, irrespective of the egg voltage, the fertilizing spermatozoon is, in any case, attached to a privileged interaction site that permits entry and distinguishes it from supernumerary spermatozoa. Competence for monospermy is acquired during oocyte maturation and data on cortical organization in echinoderm eggs points to the actin filament system for regulating sperm entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Raw data based image processing algorithm for fast detection of surface breaking cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sruthi Krishna K., P.; Puthiyaveetil, Nithin; Kidangan, Renil; Unnikrishnakurup, Sreedhar; Zeigler, Mathias; Myrach, Philipp; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Biju, P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to illustrate the contribution of signal processing techniques in the field of Non-Destructive Evaluation. A component's life evaluation is inevitably related to the presence of flaws in it. The detection and characterization of cracks prior to damage is a technologically and economically significant task and is of very importance when it comes to safety-relevant measures. The Laser Thermography is the most effective and advanced thermography method for Non-Destructive Evaluation. High capability for the detection of surface cracks and for the characterization of the geometry of artificial surface flaws in metallic samples of laser thermography is particularly encouraging. This is one of the non-contacting, fast and real time detection method. The presence of a vertical surface breaking crack will disturb the thermal footprint. The data processing method plays vital role in fast detection of the surface and sub-surface cracks. Currently in laser thermographic inspection lacks a compromising data processing algorithm which is necessary for the fast crack detection and also the analysis of data is done as part of post processing. In this work we introduced a raw data based image processing algorithm which results precise, better and fast crack detection. The algorithm we developed gives better results in both experimental and modeling data. By applying this algorithm we carried out a detailed investigation variation of thermal contrast with crack parameters like depth and width. The algorithm we developed is applied for various surface temperature data from the 2D scanning model and also validated credibility of algorithm with experimental data.

  13. ITER plant layout and site services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuyanov, V. A.

    2000-03-01

    The ITER site has not yet been determined. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electrical power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, demineralized water, steam and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radiation exposure of workers and the public. To prevent interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographical centre of the site. The locations of the buildings on the generic site were selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach was used to determine the locations of services above, at and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography, resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment.

  14. Fast Fabrication of Flexible Functional Circuits Based on Liquid Metal Dual-Trans Printing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-25

    A dual-trans method to print the first functional liquid-metal circuit layout on poly(vinyl chloride) film, and then transfer it into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate through freeze phase transition processing for the fabrication of a flexible electronic device. A programmable soft electronic band and a temperature-sensing module wirelessly communicate with a mobile phone, demonstrating the efficiency and capability of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity Land-Based Layout to Mitigate Flood Risk (Case Study in Tempuran Floodplain, Ponorogo Regency) Novia Lusiana1 Bambang Rahadi2 Tunggul Sutanhaji3 1Environmental and Natural Resources Management Graduate Program University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia 23Laboratory of Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia Email : novialusiana@rocketmail.com, jbrahadi@ub.ac.id, tunggulsutanhaji@yahoo.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusiana, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Floods haves frequently hit Indonesia and have had greater negative impacts. In Javaboth the area affected by flooding and the amount of damage caused by floods have increased. At least, five factors, affect the flooding in Indonesia, including rainfall, reduced retention capacity of the watershed, erroneous design of river channel development, silting-up of the river, and erroneous regional layout. The level of the disastrous risks can be evaluated based on the extent of the threat and susceptibility of a region. One methode for risk assessment is Geographical Information System (GIS)-based mapping. Objectives of this research are: 1) evaluating current flood risk in susceptible areas, 2) applying supported land-based layout as effort to mitigate floodrisk, and 3) evaluating floodrisk for the period 2031 in the Tempuran floodplain of Ponorogo Regency. Result show that the area categorized as high risk covers 104. 6 ha (1. 2%), moderate risk covers 2512. 9 ha (28. 4%), low risk covers 3140. 8 ha (35. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 3096. 1 (34. 9%). Using Regional Layout Design for the years 2011 - 2031, the high risk area covers 67. 9 ha (0.8%), moderate risk covers 3033 ha (34. 3%), low risk covers 2770. 8 ha (31, 3%), and the lowest risk covers 2982. 6 ha (34%). Based on supported land suitability, the high-risk areais only 2. 9 ha (0.1%), moderate risk covers of 426. 1 ha (4. 8%), low risk covers 4207. 4 ha (47. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 4218 ha (47. 6%). Flood risk can be mitigated by applying supported land-based layout as shown by the reduced high-risk area, and the fact that > 90% of the areas are categorized as low or lowest risk of disaster. Keywords : Carrying Capacity, Land Capacity, Flood Risk

  16. Fast calculation with point-based method to make CGHs of the polygon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Yuki; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    Holography is one of the three-dimensional technology. Light waves from an object are recorded and reconstructed by using a hologram. Computer generated holograms (CGHs), which are made by simulating light propagation using a computer, are able to represent virtual object. However, an enormous amount of computation time is required to make CGHs. There are two primary methods of calculating CGHs: the polygon-based method and the point-based method. In the polygon-based method with Fourier transforms, CGHs are calculated using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). The calculation of complex objects composed of multiple polygons requires as many FFTs, so unfortunately the calculation time become enormous. In contrast, in the point-based method, it is easy to express complex objects, an enormous calculation time is still required. Graphics processing units (GPUs) have been used to speed up the calculations of point-based method. Because a GPU is specialized for parallel computation and CGH calculation can be calculated independently for each pixel. However, expressing a planar object by the point-based method requires a signi cant increase in the density of points and consequently in the number of point light sources. In this paper, we propose a fast calculation algorithm to express planar objects by the point-based method with a GPU. The proposed method accelerate calculation by obtaining the distance between a pixel and the point light source from the adjacent point light source by a difference method. Under certain speci ed conditions, the difference between adjacent object points becomes constant, so the distance is obtained by only an additions. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more effective than the polygon-based method with FFT when the number of polygons composing an objects are high.

  17. Yield-centric layout optimization with precise quantification of lithographic yield loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kyoh, Suigen; Kinoshita, Koichi; Urakawa, Yukihiro; Morifuji, Eiji; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Inoue, Soichi

    2008-05-01

    Continuous shrinkage of the design rule in LSI devices brings about greater difficulty in the manufacturing process. Since not only process engineers' efforts but also yield-centric layout optimization is becoming increasingly important, such optimization has recently become a focus of interest. One of the approached is lithographic hotspot modification in design data. Using lithography compliance check and a hotspot fixing system in the early stage of design, design with wider process margin can be obtained. In order to achieve higher process yield after hotspot fixing, layout should be carefully optimized to decrease pattern-dependent yield loss. Since yield value for the design will fluctuate sensitively as designed pattern are modified, pattern should be optimized based on a comprehensive consideration of yield loss covering parametric, systematic and random effects. In this work, using lithography simulation, a lithographic yield loss model is defined and applied for precise quantification of process yield loss in 45 nm logic design. Yield loss values of each cell for lithographic, parametric and random effects are estimated, and then layouts through multiple layers are optimized to decrease total yield loss. As a result, litho-yield loss is greatly improved without deteriorating total yield value. Thus, layout is obtained that reflects an awareness of overall process yield.

  18. Learning from graphic designers: using grids as a scaffolding for automatic print layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Liu, Jerry

    2010-02-01

    We describe an approach for automatically laying out content for high quality printed formats such as magazines or brochures, producing an aesthetically pleasing layout that correctly conveys the semantic structure of the content and elicits the desired experiential affect in the reader. The semantic structure of the content includes the reading order graph, the association of illustrations with referring paragraphs, and the preservation of perceived text hierarchies. We appropriate a popular conceptual tool used by graphic designers called the grid. A well-designed grid will cause a pleasing uniformity through all the pages of a publication while still allowing flexibility in the layout of each page. In the space of different automatic layout systems, our approach is somewhere between template-based techniques and generative techniques, with the aesthetics determined by the combination of the grid and a generative algorithm One consequence of using the grid is that it greatly reduces the space of possible layouts from a high dimensional continuous space to a discrete space. Using a simple greedy algorithm, our first results are promising.

  19. Fast orthogonal search method to estimate upper arm Hill-based muscle model parameters.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Katherine C; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Morin, Evelyn L

    2008-01-01

    We propose a methodology to estimate subject-specific physiological parameters of Hill-based models of upper arm muscles. The methodology uses Hill-type candidate functions in the Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS) method to predict force at the wrist during elbow flexion and extension. To this end, surface EMG data from three muscles of the upper arm were recorded from 5 subjects as they performed isometric contractions at different elbow joint angles. Estimated muscle activation level and joint angle were utilized as inputs to the FOS model to obtain subject-specific estimates of optimal joint angle the Gaussian shape parameter for the force-length relationship for each muscle.

  20. Fast Reactor Based on the Self-Sustained Regime of Nuclear Burning Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, S. P.; Mel'nik, Yu. P.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Shul'ga, N. F.

    An approach for description of the space-time evolution of self-organizing nuclear burning wave regime in a critical fast neutron reactor has been developed in the effective multigroup approximation. It is based on solving the non-stationary neutron diffusion equation together with the fuel burn-up equations and the equations of nuclear kinetics for delayed neutron precursor nuclei. The calculations have been carried out in the plane one-dimensional model for a two-zone homogeneous reactor with the metal U-Pu fuel, the Na coolant and constructional material Fe.

  1. Two linear time, low overhead algorithms for graph layout

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Brian; Baumes, Jeff

    2008-01-10

    The software comprises two algorithms designed to perform a 2D layout of a graph structure in time linear with respect to the vertices and edges in the graph, whereas most other layout algorithms have a running time that is quadratic with respect to the number of vertices or greater. Although these layout algorithms run in a fraction of the time as their competitors, they provide competitive results when applied to most real-world graphs. These algorithms also have a low constant running time and small memory footprint, making them useful for small to large graphs.

  2. The perception of surface layout during low level flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Although it is fairly well established that information about surface layout can be gained from motion cues, it is not so clear as to what information humans can use and what specific information they should be provided. Theoretical analyses tell us that the information is in the stimulus. It will take more experiments to verify that this information can be used by humans to extract surface layout from the 2D velocity flow field. The visual motion factors that can affect the pilot's ability to control an aircraft and to infer the layout of the terrain ahead are discussed.

  3. Fast and accurate marker-based projective registration method for uncalibrated transmission electron microscope tilt series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong Gil; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei

    2010-06-21

    This paper presents a fast and accurate marker-based automatic registration technique for aligning uncalibrated projections taken from a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with different tilt angles and orientations. Most of the existing TEM image alignment methods estimate the similarity between images using the projection model with least-squares metric and guess alignment parameters by computationally expensive nonlinear optimization schemes. Approaches based on the least-squares metric which is sensitive to outliers may cause misalignment since automatic tracking methods, though reliable, can produce a few incorrect trajectories due to a large number of marker points. To decrease the influence of outliers, we propose a robust similarity measure using the projection model with a Gaussian weighting function. This function is very effective in suppressing outliers that are far from correct trajectories and thus provides a more robust metric. In addition, we suggest a fast search strategy based on the non-gradient Powell's multidimensional optimization scheme to speed up optimization as only meaningful parameters are considered during iterative projection model estimation. Experimental results show that our method brings more accurate alignment with less computational cost compared to conventional automatic alignment methods.

  4. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  5. A Fast and Precise Indoor Localization Algorithm Based on an Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine †

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics. PMID:25599427

  6. A fast and precise indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-15

    Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.

  7. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation-maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)-a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/.

  8. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Results: Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation–maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)—a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. Availability: A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/ Contact: hvikalo@ece.utexas.edu Supplementary information

  9. XCO2 Retrieval Errors from a PCA-based Approach to Fast Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somkuti, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Natraj, Vijay; Kopparla, Pushkar

    2017-04-01

    Multiple-scattering radiative transfer (RT) calculations are an integral part of forward models used to infer greenhouse gas concentrations in the shortwave-infrared spectral range from satellite missions such as GOSAT or OCO-2. Such calculations are, however, computationally expensive and, combined with the recent growth in data volume, necessitate the use of acceleration methods in order to make retrievals feasible on an operational level. The principle component analysis (PCA)-based approach to fast radiative transfer introduced by Natraj et al. 2005 is a spectral binning method, in which the many line-by-line monochromatic calculations are replaced by a small set of representative ones. From the PCA performed on the optical layer properties for a scene-dependent atmosphere, the results of the representative calculations are mapped onto all spectral points in the given band. Since this RT scheme is an approximation, the computed top-of-atmosphere radiances exhibit errors compared to the "full" line-by-line calculation. These errors ultimately propagate into the final retrieved greenhouse gas concentrations, and their magnitude depends on scene-dependent parameters such as aerosol loadings or viewing geometry. An advantage of this method is the ability to choose the degree of accuracy by increasing or decreasing the number of empirical orthogonal functions used for the reconstruction of the radiances. We have performed a large set of global simulations based on real GOSAT scenes and assess the retrieval errors induced by the fast RT approximation through linear error analysis. We find that across a wide range of geophysical parameters, the errors are for the most part smaller than ± 0.2 ppm and ± 0.06 ppm (out of roughly 400 ppm) for ocean and land scenes respectively. A fast RT scheme that produces low errors is important, since regional biases in XCO2 even in the low sub-ppm range can cause significant changes in carbon fluxes obtained from inversions

  10. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool. PMID:28269871

  11. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  12. GA-Based Autonomous Design of Robust Fast and Precise Positioning Considering Machine Stand Vibration Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nagata, Ryo; Iwasaki, Makoto; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents a novel Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based autonomous compensator design and position command shaping considering the stand vibration suppression for the fast-response and high-precision positioning of mechatronic systems. The positioning system is mainly composed of a robust 2-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) controller based on the coprime factorization description. The feedback compensator based on H∞ design framework in the 2DOF controller ensures the robustness against the variations of resonant vibration mode. The feedforward compensator and position command, on the other hand, can be autonomously designed by the optimization capability of GA, in order to achieve the desired positioning performance and to suppress the machine stand vibration. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal design has been verified by experiments using a table drive system with ball screw.

  13. Fast online and index-based algorithms for approximate search of RNA sequence-structure patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well known that the search for homologous RNAs is more effective if both sequence and structure information is incorporated into the search. However, current tools for searching with RNA sequence-structure patterns cannot fully handle mutations occurring on both these levels or are simply not fast enough for searching large sequence databases because of the high computational costs of the underlying sequence-structure alignment problem. Results We present new fast index-based and online algorithms for approximate matching of RNA sequence-structure patterns supporting a full set of edit operations on single bases and base pairs. Our methods efficiently compute semi-global alignments of structural RNA patterns and substrings of the target sequence whose costs satisfy a user-defined sequence-structure edit distance threshold. For this purpose, we introduce a new computing scheme to optimally reuse the entries of the required dynamic programming matrices for all substrings and combine it with a technique for avoiding the alignment computation of non-matching substrings. Our new index-based methods exploit suffix arrays preprocessed from the target database and achieve running times that are sublinear in the size of the searched sequences. To support the description of RNA molecules that fold into complex secondary structures with multiple ordered sequence-structure patterns, we use fast algorithms for the local or global chaining of approximate sequence-structure pattern matches. The chaining step removes spurious matches from the set of intermediate results, in particular of patterns with little specificity. In benchmark experiments on the Rfam database, our improved online algorithm is faster than the best previous method by up to factor 45. Our best new index-based algorithm achieves a speedup of factor 560. Conclusions The presented methods achieve considerable speedups compared to the best previous method. This, together with the expected

  14. Fast online and index-based algorithms for approximate search of RNA sequence-structure patterns.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Fernando; Kurtz, Stefan; Beckstette, Michael

    2013-07-17

    It is well known that the search for homologous RNAs is more effective if both sequence and structure information is incorporated into the search. However, current tools for searching with RNA sequence-structure patterns cannot fully handle mutations occurring on both these levels or are simply not fast enough for searching large sequence databases because of the high computational costs of the underlying sequence-structure alignment problem. We present new fast index-based and online algorithms for approximate matching of RNA sequence-structure patterns supporting a full set of edit operations on single bases and base pairs. Our methods efficiently compute semi-global alignments of structural RNA patterns and substrings of the target sequence whose costs satisfy a user-defined sequence-structure edit distance threshold. For this purpose, we introduce a new computing scheme to optimally reuse the entries of the required dynamic programming matrices for all substrings and combine it with a technique for avoiding the alignment computation of non-matching substrings. Our new index-based methods exploit suffix arrays preprocessed from the target database and achieve running times that are sublinear in the size of the searched sequences. To support the description of RNA molecules that fold into complex secondary structures with multiple ordered sequence-structure patterns, we use fast algorithms for the local or global chaining of approximate sequence-structure pattern matches. The chaining step removes spurious matches from the set of intermediate results, in particular of patterns with little specificity. In benchmark experiments on the Rfam database, our improved online algorithm is faster than the best previous method by up to factor 45. Our best new index-based algorithm achieves a speedup of factor 560. The presented methods achieve considerable speedups compared to the best previous method. This, together with the expected sublinear running time of the presented

  15. Distributed Function Mining for Gene Expression Programming Based on Fast Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Song; Yue, Dong; Yang, Le-chan; Fu, Xiong; Feng, Ya-zhou

    2016-01-01

    For high-dimensional and massive data sets, traditional centralized gene expression programming (GEP) or improved algorithms lead to increased run-time and decreased prediction accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new improved algorithm called distributed function mining for gene expression programming based on fast reduction (DFMGEP-FR). In DFMGEP-FR, fast attribution reduction in binary search algorithms (FAR-BSA) is proposed to quickly find the optimal attribution set, and the function consistency replacement algorithm is given to solve integration of the local function model. Thorough comparative experiments for DFMGEP-FR, centralized GEP and the parallel gene expression programming algorithm based on simulated annealing (parallel GEPSA) are included in this paper. For the waveform, mushroom, connect-4 and musk datasets, the comparative results show that the average time-consumption of DFMGEP-FR drops by 89.09%%, 88.85%, 85.79% and 93.06%, respectively, in contrast to centralized GEP and by 12.5%, 8.42%, 9.62% and 13.75%, respectively, compared with parallel GEPSA. Six well-studied UCI test data sets demonstrate the efficiency and capability of our proposed DFMGEP-FR algorithm for distributed function mining. PMID:26751200

  16. Fast and robust chromatic dispersion estimation based on temporal auto-correlation after digital spectrum superposition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuchang; Eriksson, Tobias A; Fu, Songnian; Johannisson, Pontus; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A; Ming, Tang; Liu, Deming

    2015-06-15

    We investigate and experimentally demonstrate a fast and robust chromatic dispersion (CD) estimation method based on temporal auto-correlation after digital spectrum superposition. The estimation process is fast, because neither tentative CD scanning based on CD compensation nor specific cost function calculations are used. Meanwhile, the proposed CD estimation method is robust against polarization mode dispersion (PMD), amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and fiber nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed CD estimation method can be used for various modulation formats and digital pulse shaping technique. Only 4096 samples are necessary for CD estimation of single carrier either 112 Gbps DP-QPSK or 224 Gbps DP-16QAM signal with various pulse shapes. 8192 samples are sufficient for the root-raised-cosine pulse with roll-off factor of 0.1. As low as 50 ps/nm standard deviation together with a worst estimation error of about 160 ps/nm is experimentally obtained for 7×112 Gbps DP-QPSK WDM signal after the transmission through 480 km to 9120 km single mode fiber (SMF) loop using different launch powers.

  17. Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA.

    PubMed

    Ba, Dexin; Wang, Benzhang; Zhou, Dengwang; Yin, Mingjing; Dong, Yongkang; Li, Hui; Lu, Zhiwei; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-05-02

    We propose and demonstrate a dynamic Brillouin optical fiber sensing based on the multi-slope assisted fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (F-BOTDA), which enables the measurement of a large strain with real-time data processing. The multi-slope assisted F-BOTDA is realized based on the double-slope demodulation and frequency-agile modulation, which significantly increases the measurement range compared with the single- or double- slope assisted F-BOTDA, while maintaining the advantage of fast data processing and being suitable for real-time on-line monitoring. A maximum strain variation up to 5000με is measured in a 32-m fiber with a spatial resolution of ~1m and a sampling rate of 1kHz. The frequency of the strain is 12.8Hz, which is limited by the rotation rate of the motor used to load the force on the fiber. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency difference between two adjacent probe tones on the measurement error is studied theoretically and experimentally for optimization. For a Brillouin gain spectrum with a 78-MHz width, the optimum frequency difference is ~40MHz. The measurement error of Brillouin frequency shift is less than 3MHz over the whole measurement range (241MHz).

  18. Fiber based fast sparse sampling x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lun, Michael; Li, Changqing

    2017-02-01

    Super fine collimated x-ray beam based x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) has the potential to reconstruct the deeply embedded targets with a spatial resolution of hundreds of micrometers. However, due to the low x-ray photon utilization efficiency and low optical signal sensitivity of the electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, XLCT usually requires a long measurement time. To overcome this limitation, we propose a fiber based, fast XLCT design, in which optical fiber bundles are applied to collect the emitted optical photons on the phantom surface. Highly sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with a cooling unit and pre-amplifier are used to measure the photons from the fiber bundles. The PMT outputs are collected by a high-speed data acquisition board. A linear scan is estimated to take about 130 seconds, thus for an XLCT scan with 6 projections, we require 13 minutes for each section, which makes it feasible to have a whole body scan of XLCT. To validate our design, numerical simulations and phantom experiments have been performed. In numerical simulation studies, we have investigated the effect of the number of optical fiber bundle on the XLCT reconstruction. We found that one optical fiber bundle is sufficient to reconstruct the deeply embedded targets if measurements from 6 projections are used. Phantom experiments with multiple targets have been performed to validate the proposed fast XLCT imaging.

  19. Fast Electromagnetic Analysis of MRI Transmit RF Coils Based on Accelerated Integral Equation Methods.

    PubMed

    Villena, Jorge Fernandez; Polimeridis, Athanasios G; Eryaman, Yigitcan; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L; White, Jacob K; Daniel, Luca

    2016-11-01

    A fast frequency domain full-wave electromagnetic simulation method is introduced for the analysis of MRI coils loaded with the realistic human body models. The approach is based on integral equation methods decomposed into two domains: 1) the RF coil array and shield, and 2) the human body region where the load is placed. The analysis of multiple coil designs is accelerated by introducing the precomputed magnetic resonance Green functions (MRGFs), which describe how the particular body model used responds to the incident fields from external sources. These MRGFs, which are precomputed once for a given body model, can be combined with any integral equation solver and reused for the analysis of many coil designs. This approach provides a fast, yet comprehensive, analysis of coil designs, including the port S-parameters and the electromagnetic field distribution within the inhomogeneous body. The method solves the full-wave electromagnetic problem for a head array in few minutes, achieving a speed up of over 150 folds with root mean square errors in the electromagnetic field maps smaller than 0.4% when compared to the unaccelerated integral equation-based solver. This enables the characterization of a large number of RF coil designs in a reasonable time, which is a first step toward an automatic optimization of multiple parameters in the design of transmit arrays, as illustrated in this paper, but also receive arrays.

  20. A water-based fast integrated mobility spectrometer (WFIMS) with enhanced dynamic size range

    DOE PAGES

    Pinterich, Tamara; Spielman, Steven R.; Hering, Susanne; ...

    2017-06-08

    We developed a water-based fast integrated mobility spectrometer (WFIMS) with enhanced dynamic size range. The WFIMS builds on two established technologies: the fast integrated mobility spectrometer and laminar flow water-based condensation methodology. Inside WFIMS, particles of differing electrical mobility are separated in a drift tube and subsequently enlarged through water condensation. Particle size and concentration are measured via digital imaging at a frame rate of 10 Hz. When we measure particles of different mobilities simultaneously, the WFIMS resolves particle diameters ranging from 8 to 580 nm within 1 s or less. The performance of WFIMS was characterized with differential mobilitymore » analyzer (DMA) classified (NH4)2SO2 particles with diameters ranging from 8 to 265 nm. The mean particle diameters measured by WFIMS were found to be in excellent agreement with DMA centroid diameters. Furthermore, detection efficiency of WFIMS was characterized using a condensation particle counter as a reference and is nearly 100% for particles with diameter greater than 8 nm. In general, measured and simulated WFIMS mobility resolutions are in good agreement. But, some deviations are observed at low particle mobilities, likely due to the non-idealities of the WFIMS electric field.« less

  1. Predictive-based cross line for fast motion estimation in MPEG-4 videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hui; Jiang, Jianmin

    2004-05-01

    Block-based motion estimation is widely used in the field of video compression due to its feature of high processing speed and competitive compression efficiency. In the chain of compression operations, however, motion estimation still remains to be the most time-consuming process. As a result, any improvement in fast motion estimation will enable practical applications of MPEG techniques more efficient and more sustainable in terms of both processing speed and computing cost. To meet the requirements of real-time compression of videos and image sequences, such as video conferencing, remote video surveillance and video phones etc., we propose a new search algorithm and achieve fast motion estimation for MPEG compression standards based on existing algorithm developments. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we adopted MPEG-4 and the prediction line search algorithm as the benchmarks to design the experiments. Their performances are measured by: (i) reconstructed video quality; (ii) processing time. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm provides a competitive alternative to the existing prediction line search algorithm. In comparison with MPEG-4, the proposed algorithm illustrates significant advantages in terms of processing speed and video quality.

  2. Fast polygon-based method for calculating computer-generated holograms in three-dimensional display.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia

    2013-01-01

    In the holographic three-dimensional (3D) display, the numerical synthesis of the computer-generated holograms needs tremendous calculation. To solve the problem, a fast polygon-based method based on two-dimensional Fourier analysis of 3D affine transformation is proposed. From one primitive polygon, the proposed method calculates the diffracted optical field of each arbitrary polygon in the 3D model, where the pseudo-inverse matrix, the interpolation, and the compensation of the power spectral density are employed. The proposed method could save the computation time in the hologram synthesis since it does not need the fast Fourier transform for each polygonal surface and the additional diffusion computation. The numerical simulation and the optical experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The results reveal the proposed method could reconstruct the 3D scene with the solid effect and without the depth limitation. The factors that influence the image quality are discussed, and the thresholds are proposed to ensure the reconstruction quality.

  3. Distributed Function Mining for Gene Expression Programming Based on Fast Reduction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Song; Yue, Dong; Yang, Le-chan; Fu, Xiong; Feng, Ya-zhou

    2016-01-01

    For high-dimensional and massive data sets, traditional centralized gene expression programming (GEP) or improved algorithms lead to increased run-time and decreased prediction accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new improved algorithm called distributed function mining for gene expression programming based on fast reduction (DFMGEP-FR). In DFMGEP-FR, fast attribution reduction in binary search algorithms (FAR-BSA) is proposed to quickly find the optimal attribution set, and the function consistency replacement algorithm is given to solve integration of the local function model. Thorough comparative experiments for DFMGEP-FR, centralized GEP and the parallel gene expression programming algorithm based on simulated annealing (parallel GEPSA) are included in this paper. For the waveform, mushroom, connect-4 and musk datasets, the comparative results show that the average time-consumption of DFMGEP-FR drops by 89.09%%, 88.85%, 85.79% and 93.06%, respectively, in contrast to centralized GEP and by 12.5%, 8.42%, 9.62% and 13.75%, respectively, compared with parallel GEPSA. Six well-studied UCI test data sets demonstrate the efficiency and capability of our proposed DFMGEP-FR algorithm for distributed function mining.

  4. Sample pretreatment and nucleic acid-based detection for fast diagnosis utilizing microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jung-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2012-06-01

    Recently, micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology and micromachining techniques have enabled miniaturization of biomedical devices and systems. Not only do these techniques facilitate the development of miniaturized instrumentation for biomedical analysis, but they also open a new era for integration of microdevices for performing accurate and sensitive diagnostic assays. A so-called "micro-total-analysis-system", which integrates sample pretreatment, transport, reaction, and detection on a small chip in an automatic format, can be realized by combining functional microfluidic components manufactured by specific MEMS technologies. Among the promising applications using microfluidic technologies, nucleic acid-based detection has shown considerable potential recently. For instance, micro-polymerase chain reaction chips for rapid DNA amplification have attracted considerable interest. In addition, microfluidic devices for rapid sample pretreatment prior to nucleic acid-based detection have also achieved significant progress in the recent years. In this review paper, microfluidic systems for sample preparation, nucleic acid amplification and detection for fast diagnosis will be reviewed. These microfluidic devices and systems have several advantages over their large-scale counterparts, including lower sample/reagent consumption, lower power consumption, compact size, faster analysis, and lower per unit cost. The development of these microfluidic devices and systems may provide a revolutionary platform technology for fast sample pretreatment and accurate, sensitive diagnosis.

  5. Fast Multiplexed Readout of Xmon Qubits Part I: Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of a surface code quantum computer requires fast scalable qubit readout. Previous systems have shown accurate readout in continuous wave mode. This neglects the transient response time which is crucial for the operation of the surface code and for measurement accuracy in the presence of finite qubit T1. We have designed a readout system, based on an integrated band pass filter, which achieves very fast transient response while maintaining long qubit T1. Our design uses separate readout resonators for each qubit. This allows individual qubit readout with frequency multiplexing while preventing correlated measurement errors. By connecting each resonator to a single filter the device requires zero additional on chip area and no extra control lines. We present design considerations, theory of operation, and physical layout of the device. With high fidelity gates this system forms the final element needed for a surface code cell.

  6. 32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, TRACED FROM DRAWING BY C.C. MOORE AND CO., ENGINEERS. July 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, etc. Courtesy of Norwood Noonan Company, Chicago, 1930. - Congress Street Bascule Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at Congress Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Ad Layout Students Become "Artists" with Viewer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the use of a projection viewer employed by professional art studios to make revised enlargements or reductions of existing art can improve the appearance of layouts done by creative, but artistically unskilled, students. (KS)

  9. 10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory at Hanford. General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, Washington, 1961. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, sheet 93 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Fuel Tanks, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  15. Ad Layout Students Become "Artists" with Viewer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the use of a projection viewer employed by professional art studios to make revised enlargements or reductions of existing art can improve the appearance of layouts done by creative, but artistically unskilled, students. (KS)

  16. 20. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 19. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 18. BUILDING 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BUILDING 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Layout of barracks, Building No. 909 (right) and Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Layout of barracks, Building No. 909 (right) and Building No. 910 (left), looking 282 degrees west - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  1. A ZnO nanowire-based photo-inverter with pulse-induced fast recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Young Tack; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Im, Seongil

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a fast response photo-inverter comprised of one transparent gated ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) and one opaque FET respectively as the driver and load. Under ultraviolet (UV) light the transfer curve of the transparent gate FET shifts to the negative side and so does the voltage transfer curve (VTC) of the inverter. After termination of UV exposure the recovery of photo-induced current takes a long time in general. This persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is due to hole trapping on the surface of ZnO NWs. Here, we used a positive voltage short pulse after UV exposure, for the first time resolving the PPC issue in nanowire-based photo-detectors by accumulating electrons at the ZnO/dielectric interface. We found that a pulse duration as small as 200 ns was sufficient to reach a full recovery to the dark state from the UV induced state, realizing a fast UV detector with a voltage output.We demonstrate a fast response photo-inverter comprised of one transparent gated ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) and one opaque FET respectively as the driver and load. Under ultraviolet (UV) light the transfer curve of the transparent gate FET shifts to the negative side and so does the voltage transfer curve (VTC) of the inverter. After termination of UV exposure the recovery of photo-induced current takes a long time in general. This persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is due to hole trapping on the surface of ZnO NWs. Here, we used a positive voltage short pulse after UV exposure, for the first time resolving the PPC issue in nanowire-based photo-detectors by accumulating electrons at the ZnO/dielectric interface. We found that a pulse duration as small as 200 ns was sufficient to reach a full recovery to the dark state from the UV induced state, realizing a fast UV detector with a voltage output. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03801g

  2. An algorithm for automated layout of process description maps drawn in SBGN.

    PubMed

    Genc, Begum; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Evolving technology has increased the focus on genomics. The combination of today's advanced techniques with decades of molecular biology research has yielded huge amounts of pathway data. A standard, named the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), was recently introduced to allow scientists to represent biological pathways in an unambiguous, easy-to-understand and efficient manner. Although there are a number of automated layout algorithms for various types of biological networks, currently none specialize on process description (PD) maps as defined by SBGN. We propose a new automated layout algorithm for PD maps drawn in SBGN. Our algorithm is based on a force-directed automated layout algorithm called Compound Spring Embedder (CoSE). On top of the existing force scheme, additional heuristics employing new types of forces and movement rules are defined to address SBGN-specific rules. Our algorithm is the only automatic layout algorithm that properly addresses all SBGN rules for drawing PD maps, including placement of substrates and products of process nodes on opposite sides, compact tiling of members of molecular complexes and extensively making use of nested structures (compound nodes) to properly draw cellular locations and molecular complex structures. As demonstrated experimentally, the algorithm results in significant improvements over use of a generic layout algorithm such as CoSE in addressing SBGN rules on top of commonly accepted graph drawing criteria. An implementation of our algorithm in Java is available within ChiLay library (https://github.com/iVis-at-Bilkent/chilay). ugur@cs.bilkent.edu.tr or dogrusoz@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. An algorithm for automated layout of process description maps drawn in SBGN

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Begum; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Evolving technology has increased the focus on genomics. The combination of today’s advanced techniques with decades of molecular biology research has yielded huge amounts of pathway data. A standard, named the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), was recently introduced to allow scientists to represent biological pathways in an unambiguous, easy-to-understand and efficient manner. Although there are a number of automated layout algorithms for various types of biological networks, currently none specialize on process description (PD) maps as defined by SBGN. Results: We propose a new automated layout algorithm for PD maps drawn in SBGN. Our algorithm is based on a force-directed automated layout algorithm called Compound Spring Embedder (CoSE). On top of the existing force scheme, additional heuristics employing new types of forces and movement rules are defined to address SBGN-specific rules. Our algorithm is the only automatic layout algorithm that properly addresses all SBGN rules for drawing PD maps, including placement of substrates and products of process nodes on opposite sides, compact tiling of members of molecular complexes and extensively making use of nested structures (compound nodes) to properly draw cellular locations and molecular complex structures. As demonstrated experimentally, the algorithm results in significant improvements over use of a generic layout algorithm such as CoSE in addressing SBGN rules on top of commonly accepted graph drawing criteria. Availability and implementation: An implementation of our algorithm in Java is available within ChiLay library (https://github.com/iVis-at-Bilkent/chilay). Contact: ugur@cs.bilkent.edu.tr or dogrusoz@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26363029

  4. TH-E-BRE-08: GPU-Monte Carlo Based Fast IMRT Plan Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y; Tian, Z; Shi, F; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plan optimization needs pre-calculated beamlet dose distribution. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of high computation speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions, particularly in cases with high levels of inhomogeneity, may mislead optimization, hindering the resulting plan quality. It is desire to use Monte Carlo (MC) methods for beamlet dose calculations. Yet, the long computational time from repeated dose calculations for a number of beamlets prevents this application. It is our objective to integrate a GPU-based MC dose engine in lung IMRT optimization using a novel two-steps workflow. Methods: A GPU-based MC code gDPM is used. Each particle is tagged with an index of a beamlet where the source particle is from. Deposit dose are stored separately for beamlets based on the index. Due to limited GPU memory size, a pyramid space is allocated for each beamlet, and dose outside the space is neglected. A two-steps optimization workflow is proposed for fast MC-based optimization. At first step, rough beamlet dose calculations is conducted with only a small number of particles per beamlet. Plan optimization is followed to get an approximated fluence map. In the second step, more accurate beamlet doses are calculated, where sampled number of particles for a beamlet is proportional to the intensity determined previously. A second-round optimization is conducted, yielding the final Result. Results: For a lung case with 5317 beamlets, 10{sup 5} particles per beamlet in the first round, and 10{sup 8} particles per beam in the second round are enough to get a good plan quality. The total simulation time is 96.4 sec. Conclusion: A fast GPU-based MC dose calculation method along with a novel two-step optimization workflow are developed. The high efficiency allows the use of MC for IMRT optimizations.

  5. Intelligent data layout mechanism for high-performance image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Kelvin T.; Tao, Wenchao; Yang, Limin; Kimme-Smith, Carolyn; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Valentino, Daniel J.

    1998-06-01

    Trends in medical imaging indicate that the storage requirements for digital medical datasets require a more efficient, scalable storage architecture for large-scale RIS/PACS to support high-speed retrieval for multiple concurrent clients. As storage and networking technologies mature, the cost of applying such technologies in medical imaging has become more economically viable. We propose to take advantage of such economies of scale in technology to provide an effective network workstation storage solution for achieving (1) faster display and navigation response time, (2) higher server throughput and (3) better data storage management. Full-field direct digital mammography presents a challenging problem in the design of digital workstation systems for screening and diagnosis. Due to the spatial and contrast resolution required for mammography, the digital images are large (exceeding 5K X 6K X 14 bits approximately equals 60MB per image) and therefore difficult to display using commercially available technology. We are developing clinically useful methods of storing, displaying and manipulating large digital images in a medical media server using commercial technology. In this paper we propose an Intelligent Grid-based Data Layout Mechanism to optimize the total response time of a reading by minimizing the speed of image access (data I/O time) and the number of data access requests to the server (queueing effects) during the image navigation. A Navigation Threads Model is developed to characterize the performance of many navigation threads involved in the course of performing a reading session. In our grid-based data layout approach, a large 2D direct-digital mammogram image is divided spatially into many small 2D grids and is stored into an array of magnetic disks to provide parallel grid-based readout services to clients. Such a grid- based approach not only provides fine-granularity control, but also provides a means of collecting statistical information about

  6. 36. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  7. 27. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT AND CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT AND CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS C-1, C-3, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-9 INCL., MIXING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  8. 31. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO U-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  9. 44. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant 8, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  10. 48. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated August 6, 1976 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated August 6, 1976 by Raytheon Company. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-2 - PAVE PAWS TECHNICAL FACILITY - OTIS AFB - EQUIPMENT LAYOUT - SECOND FLOOR AND PLATFORM 2A. DRAWING NO. AW35-46-06 - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 58. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-5 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 3RD, 3A, 4TH LEVELS. DRAWING NO. AL-5 - SHEET 6 OF 21 - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 59. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-6 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 4-A, 5TH & 5-A. DRAWING NO. AL-6 - SHEET 7 OF 21. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 57. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-3 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 1 FLOOR AND 1sr FLOOR ROOF. DRAWING NO. AL-3 - SHEET 4 OF 21. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. Impact of the Bienestar School-Based Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program on Fasting Capillary Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E.; Garcia, Oralia A.; Mobley, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. Design A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Setting Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Participants Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. Intervention The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Results Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (−2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, −6.53 to 2.05 [−0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P = .03). Fitness scores (P = .04) and dietary fiber intake (P = .009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P = .56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P = .52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. Conclusion This intervention showed some positive results, but additional

  15. Simple and fast rail wear measurement method based on structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Sun, Junhua; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guangjun

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a fast and accurate rail wear measurement method based on simple equipments is presented. The inner rail profile is measured by a line structured light vision sensor. Using the centers of the big and small circle from the rail waist profile as control points, the measured rail profile is registered to the reference profile. The rail wear, including the vertical and horizontal rail wear, is computed by comparing the registered measured profile with the reference profile. The method has three key contributions: (1) the rail waist light stripe center points in the images are located fast and accurately by first tracking the region containing the rail waist light stripe using the Kalman filter and then computing the sub-pixel precision image coordinates by Hessian matrix at pixels. (2) The rail waist profile is segmented automatically into arcs of big and small circles by thresholding the normal angle curve of the measured rail waist profile. The centers of the two circles are used as control points for registering the measured rail profile to the reference profile. (3) The fast location of rail wear points in the images is realized by projecting the rail wear constraint points to the image, which simplifies the problem of computing rail wear from 2d image processing to 1d searching along the line segment connecting two rail wear constraint points. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve 500 fps measurement frequency. At a train speed of 350 km/h, the interval between two consecutive measurements is about 190 mm. The system is tested on a real running train, and the measurement results are compared with those rail wear measured manually by special gage. The RMS errors of vertical and horizontal rail wears are 0.34 and 0.30 mm, respectively.

  16. Fast vaccine design and development based on correlates of protection (COPs)

    PubMed Central

    van Els, Cécile; Mjaaland, Siri; Næss, Lisbeth; Sarkadi, Julia; Gonczol, Eva; Smith Korsholm, Karen; Hansen, Jon; de Jonge, Jørgen; Kersten, Gideon; Warner, Jennifer; Semper, Amanda; Kruiswijk, Corine; Oftung, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    New and reemerging infectious diseases call for innovative and efficient control strategies of which fast vaccine design and development represent an important element. In emergency situations, when time is limited, identification and use of correlates of protection (COPs) may play a key role as a strategic tool for accelerated vaccine design, testing, and licensure. We propose that general rules for COP-based vaccine design can be extracted from the existing knowledge of protective immune responses against a large spectrum of relevant viral and bacterial pathogens. Herein, we focus on the applicability of this approach by reviewing the established and up-coming COPs for influenza in the context of traditional and a wide array of new vaccine concepts. The lessons learnt from this field may be applied more generally to COP-based accelerated vaccine design for emerging infections. PMID:25424803

  17. A fast and low-power microelectromechanical system-based non-volatile memory device

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Seung Joo; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.; Park, Yung Woo

    2011-01-01

    Several new generation memory devices have been developed to overcome the low performance of conventional silicon-based flash memory. In this study, we demonstrate a novel non-volatile memory design based on the electromechanical motion of a cantilever to provide fast charging and discharging of a floating-gate electrode. The operation is demonstrated by using an electromechanical metal cantilever to charge a floating gate that controls the charge transport through a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. The set and reset currents are unchanged after more than 11 h constant operation. Over 500 repeated programming and erasing cycles were demonstrated under atmospheric conditions at room temperature without degradation. Multinary bit programming can be achieved by varying the voltage on the cantilever. The operation speed of the device is faster than a conventional flash memory and the power consumption is lower than other memory devices. PMID:21364559

  18. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  19. Sensor fault diagnosis for fast steering mirror system based on Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongju; Bao, Qiliang; Yang, Haifeng; Tao, Sunjie

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, to improve the reliability of a two-axis fast steering mirror system with minimum hardware consumption, a fault diagnosis method based on Kalman filter was developed. The dynamics model of the two-axis FSM was established firstly, and then the state-space form of the FSM was adopted. A bank of Kalman filters for fault detection was designed based on the state-space form. The effects of the sensor faults on the innovation sequence were investigated, and a decision approach called weighted sum-squared residual (WSSR) was adopted to isolate the sensor faults. Sensor faults could be detected and isolated when the decision statistics changed. Experimental studies on a prototype system show that the faulty sensor can be isolated timely and accurately. Meanwhile, the mathematical model of FSM system was used to design fault diagnosis scheme in the proposed method, thus the consumption of the hardware and space is decreased.

  20. Correlated image set compression system based on new fast efficient algorithm of Karhunen-Loeve transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musatenko, Yurij S.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents improved version of our new method for compression of correlated image sets Optimal Image Coding using Karhunen-Loeve transform (OICKL). It is known that Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform is most optimal representation for such a purpose. The approach is based on fact that every KL basis function gives maximum possible average contribution in every image and this contribution decreases most quickly among all possible bases. So, we lossy compress every KL basis function by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) coding with essentially different loss that depends on the functions' contribution in the images. The paper presents new fast low memory consuming algorithm of KL basis construction for compression of correlated image ensembles that enable our OICKL system to work on common hardware. We also present procedure for determining of optimal losses of KL basic functions caused by compression. It uses modified EZW coder which produce whole PSNR (bitrate) curve during the only compression pass.