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Sample records for based metal semiconductor

  1. Hydrogen Sensors Using Nitride-Based Semiconductor Diodes: The Role of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Irokawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C–V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C–V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I–V) characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C–V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations. PMID:22346597

  2. Metal-optic and Plasmonic Semiconductor-based Nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Amit Manmohan

    Over the past few decades, semiconductor lasers have relentlessly followed the path towards miniaturization. Smaller lasers are more energy efficient, are cheaper to make, and open up new applications in sensing and displays, among many other things. Yet, up until recently, there was a fundamental problem with making lasers smaller: purely semiconductor lasers couldn't be made smaller than the diffraction limit of light. In recent years, however, metal-based lasers have been demonstrated in the nanoscale that have shattered the diffraction limit. As optical materials, metals can be used to either reflect light (metal-optics) or convert light to electrical currents (plasmonics). In both cases, metals have provided ways to squeeze light beyond the diffraction limit. In this dissertation, I experimentally demonstrated one nanolaser based on plasmonic transduction and another laser based on metal-optic reflection. To create coherent plasmons, I designed a nanolaser based on a plasmonic bandgap defect state inside a surface plasmonic crystal. In a one-dimensional periodic semiconductor beam, I was able to confine surface plasmons by interrupting the periodicity of the crystal. These confined surface plasmons then underwent laser oscillations in effective mode volumes as small as 0.007 cubic wavelengths. At this electromagnetic volume, energy was squeezed 10 times smaller than those possible in similar photonic crystals that do not utilize metal. This demonstration should pave the way for achieving engineered nanolasers with deep-subwavelength mode volumes and enable plasmonic crystals to become attractive platforms for designing plasmons. After achieving large reductions in electromagnetic mode volumes, I switched to a metal-optics-based nanolaser design to further reduce the physical volumes of small light sources. The semiconductor nanopatch laser achieved laser oscillations with subwavelength-scale physical dimensions (0.019 cubic wavelengths) and effective mode

  3. Optical absorption enhancement of hybrid-plasmonic-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector incorporating metal nanogratings and embedded metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Leong; Karar, Ayman; Alameh, Kamal; Lee, Yong Tak

    2013-01-28

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a high absorption hybrid-plasmonic-based metal semiconductor metal photodetector (MSM-PD) comprising metal nanogratings, a subwavelength slit and amorphous silicon or germanium embedded metal nanoparticles (NPs). Simulation results show that by optimizing the metal nanograting parameters, the subwavelength slit and the embedded metal NPs, a 1.3 order of magnitude increase in electric field is attained, leading to 28-fold absorption enhancement, in comparison with conventional MSM-PD structures. This is 3.5 times better than the absorption of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) based MSM-PD structures employing metal nanogratings and a subwavelength slit. This absorption enhancement is due to the ability of the embedded metal NPs to enhance their optical absorption and scattering properties through light-stimulated resonance aided by the conduction electrons of the NPs.

  4. Nanophotonics Based on Semiconductor-Photonic Crystal/Quantum Dot and Metal-/Semiconductor-Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Kiyoshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Ikeda, Naoki; Tsuya, Daiju; Koide, Yasuo; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Nobuhiko; Ohkouchi, Shunsuke; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Daisuke; Matsui, Takayuki; Miura, Atsushi; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi; Sato, Kazuo

    This paper reviews our recent activities on nanophotonics based on a photonic crystal (PC)/quantum dot (QD)-combined structure for an all-optical device and a metal/semiconductor composite structure using surface plasmon (SP) and negative refractive index material (NIM). The former structure contributes to an ultrafast signal processing component by virtue of new PC design and QD selective-area-growth technologies, while the latter provides a new RGB color filter with a high precision and optical beam-steering device with a wide steering angle.

  5. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  6. Terahertz Modulator based on Metamaterials integrated with Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Varactors

    PubMed Central

    Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Woo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dongju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum, with frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to 3 THz, has attracted wide interest in recent years owing to its potential applications in numerous areas. Significant progress has been made toward the development of devices capable of actively controlling terahertz waves; nonetheless, further advances in device functionality are necessary for employment of these devices in practical terahertz systems. Here, we demonstrate a low voltage, sharp switching terahertz modulator device based on metamaterials integrated with metal semiconductor metal (MSM) varactors, fabricated on an AlGaAs/InGaAs based heterostructure. By varying the applied voltage to the MSM-varactor located at the center of split ring resonator (SRR), the resonance frequency of the SRR-based metamaterial is altered. Upon varying the bias voltage from 0 V to 3 V, the resonance frequency exhibits a transition from 0.52 THz to 0.56 THz, resulting in a modulation depth of 45 percent with an insertion loss of 4.3 dB at 0.58 THz. This work demonstrates a new approach for realizing active terahertz devices with improved functionalities. PMID:27194128

  7. Terahertz Modulator based on Metamaterials integrated with Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Woo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dongju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-05-01

    The terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum, with frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to 3 THz, has attracted wide interest in recent years owing to its potential applications in numerous areas. Significant progress has been made toward the development of devices capable of actively controlling terahertz waves; nonetheless, further advances in device functionality are necessary for employment of these devices in practical terahertz systems. Here, we demonstrate a low voltage, sharp switching terahertz modulator device based on metamaterials integrated with metal semiconductor metal (MSM) varactors, fabricated on an AlGaAs/InGaAs based heterostructure. By varying the applied voltage to the MSM-varactor located at the center of split ring resonator (SRR), the resonance frequency of the SRR-based metamaterial is altered. Upon varying the bias voltage from 0 V to 3 V, the resonance frequency exhibits a transition from 0.52 THz to 0.56 THz, resulting in a modulation depth of 45 percent with an insertion loss of 4.3 dB at 0.58 THz. This work demonstrates a new approach for realizing active terahertz devices with improved functionalities.

  8. Influence of Deuterium Treatments on the Polysilicon-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Sung

    2016-06-01

    The electrical behavior of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky barrier photodetector structure, depending on deuterium treatment, is analyzed by means of the dark current and the photocurrent measurements. Al/Ti bilayer was used as Schottky metal. The deuterium incorporation into the absorption layer, undoped polysilicon, was achieved with annealing process and with ion implantation process, respectively. In the photocurrent-to-dark current ratio measurement, deuterium-ion-implanted photodetector shows over hundred higher than the control device. It means that the heightening of the Schottky barrier and the passivation of grain boundary trap were achieved effectively through the deuterium ion implantation process.

  9. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  10. Numerical investigation of metal-semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor passivated hole contacts based on atomic layer deposited AlO x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Cangming; Xin, Zheng; Ling, Zhi Peng; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    Excellent c-Si tunnel layer surface passivation has been obtained recently in our lab, using atomic layer deposited aluminium oxide (ALD AlO x ) in the tunnel layer regime of 0.9 to 1.5 nm, investigated to be applied for contact passivation. Using the correspondingly measured interface properties, this paper compares the theoretical collection efficiency of a conventional metal-semiconductor (MS) contact on diffused p+ Si to a metal-semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (MSIS) contact on diffused p+ Si or on undoped n-type c-Si. The influences of (1) the tunnel layer passivation quality at the tunnel oxide interface (Q f and D it), (2) the tunnel layer thickness and the electron and hole tunnelling mass, (3) the tunnel oxide material, and (4) the semiconductor capping layer material properties are investigated numerically by evaluation of solar cell efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor.

  11. Flexible perovskite solar cells based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhou, Wenke; Fu, Rui; Pan, Huiyue; Zhao, Qing

    2016-09-14

    The metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is applied to perovskite solar cells, in which the traditional compact layer TiO2 is replaced by Al2O3 as the hole blocking material to realize an all-low-temperature process. Flexible devices based on this structure are also realized with excellent flexibility, which hold 85% of their initial efficiency after bending 100 times.

  12. Retinal Stimulation on Rabbit Using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multichip Flexible Stimulator toward Retinal Prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Asano, Ryosuke; Sugitani, Sachie; Taniyama, Mari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Nakauchi, Kazuaki; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-04-01

    The Functionality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) LSI-based, multichip flexible retinal stimulator was demonstrated in retinal stimulation experiments on rabbits. A 1×4-configured multichip stimulator was fabricated for application to experiments on animals. An experimental procedure including surgical operations was developed, and retinal stimulation was performed with the fabricated multichip stimulator. Neural responses on the visual cortex were successfully evoked by the fabricated stimulator. The stimulator is confirmed to be applicable to acute animal experiments.

  13. Metal-semiconductor-metal neutron detectors based on hexagonal boron nitride epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majety, S.; Li, J.; Cao, X. K.; Dahal, R.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2012-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) possesses extraordinary potential for solid-state neutron detector applications. This stems from the fact that the boron-10 (10B) isotope has a capture cross-section of 3840 barns for thermal neutrons that is orders of magnitude larger than other isotopes. Epitaxial layers of hBN have been synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Experimental measurements indicated that the thermal neutron absorption coefficient and length of natural hBN epilayers are about 0.0036 μm-1 and 277 μm, respectively. To partially address the key requirement of long carrier lifetime and diffusion length for a solid-state neutron detector, micro-strip metal-semiconductor-metal detectors were fabricated and tested. A good current response was generated in these detectors using continuous irradiation with a thermal neutron beam, corresponding to an effective conversion efficiency approaching ~80% for absorbed neutrons.

  14. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    PubMed Central

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  15. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies.

  16. Transmission enhancement based on strong interference in metal-semiconductor layered film for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Du, Kaikai; Mao, Kening; Fang, Xu; Zhao, Ding; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min

    2016-07-12

    A fundamental strategy to enhance optical transmission through a continuous metallic film based on strong interference dominated by interface phase shift is developed. In a metallic film coated with a thin semiconductor film, both transmission and absorption are simultaneously enhanced as a result of dramatically reduced reflection. For a 50-nm-thick Ag film, experimental transmission enhancement factors of 4.5 and 9.5 are realized by exploiting Ag/Si non-symmetric and Si/Ag/Si symmetric geometries, respectively. These planar layered films for transmission enhancement feature ultrathin thickness, broadband and wide-angle operation, and reduced resistance. Considering one of their potential applications as transparent metal electrodes in solar cells, a calculated 182% enhancement in the total transmission efficiency relative to a single metallic film is expected. This strategy relies on no patterned nanostructures and thereby may power up a wide spectrum of energy-harvesting applications such as thin-film photovoltaics and surface photocatalysis.

  17. Transmission enhancement based on strong interference in metal-semiconductor layered film for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Kaikai; Mao, Kening; Fang, Xu; Zhao, Ding; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental strategy to enhance optical transmission through a continuous metallic film based on strong interference dominated by interface phase shift is developed. In a metallic film coated with a thin semiconductor film, both transmission and absorption are simultaneously enhanced as a result of dramatically reduced reflection. For a 50-nm-thick Ag film, experimental transmission enhancement factors of 4.5 and 9.5 are realized by exploiting Ag/Si non-symmetric and Si/Ag/Si symmetric geometries, respectively. These planar layered films for transmission enhancement feature ultrathin thickness, broadband and wide-angle operation, and reduced resistance. Considering one of their potential applications as transparent metal electrodes in solar cells, a calculated 182% enhancement in the total transmission efficiency relative to a single metallic film is expected. This strategy relies on no patterned nanostructures and thereby may power up a wide spectrum of energy-harvesting applications such as thin-film photovoltaics and surface photocatalysis.

  18. Light confinement and absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Stephane; Pardo, Fabrice; Teissier, Roland; Bardou, Nathalie; Dupuis, Christophe; Mahe, Ronan; Ferlazzo, Laurence; Cambril, Edmond; Thierry-Mieg, Veronique; Lemaitre, Aristide; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2005-04-01

    New concepts for efficient light absorption in nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors are analyzed from both theoretical and experimental point of view. They are based on sub-wavelength metallic gratings which allows light confinement in tiny volumes (< 100 nm) close to electrodes (< 100 nm). Two photodetector structures are proposed: (i) a resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector, and (ii) a nanoscale metal-semiconductor grating photodetector. External quantum efficiency as high as 9 % has been obtained in 40 x 100 nm2 cross-section GaAs wires, limited by fabrication technology. These results show promising features for highly efficient and ultrafast photodetectors.

  19. Extended-Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor for Detection of Deoxynivalenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Insu; Lee, Hee-Ho; Choi, Jinhyeon; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Seo, Sang-Ho; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present an extended-gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-based biosensor for the detection of deoxynivalenol using a null-balancing circuit. An extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor was fabricated by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and its characteristics were measured. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly, instead of measuring the drain current of the sensor. Au was used as the gate metal, which has a chemical affinity with thiol, which leads to the immobilization of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA). The SAM was used to immobilize the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The carboxyl group of the SAM was bound to the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The anti-deoxynivalenol antibody and deoxynivalenol were bound by their antigen-antibody reaction. The measurements were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) solution. A standard Ag/AgCl electrode was employed as a reference electrode. The bindings of a SAM, anti-deoxynivalenol antibody, and deoxynivalenol caused a variation in the output voltage of the extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement was performed to verify the interaction among the SAM, deoxynivalenol-antibody, and deoxynivalenol.

  20. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nevedomskiy, V. N. Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.

    2015-12-15

    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.

  1. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  2. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  3. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  4. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-07

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  5. High responsivity A-plane GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for polarization-sensitive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, A.; Rivera, C.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Imer, B.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    2009-05-25

    The fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on A-plane GaN grown on R-plane sapphire substrates is reported. These photodetectors take advantage of the in-plane crystal anisotropy, which results in linear dichroism near the band gap energy. The high resistivity of the A-plane GaN material leads to extremely low dark currents. For an optimized finger spacing of 1 {mu}m, dark current density and responsivity at 30 V are 0.3 nA/mm{sup 2} and 2 A/W, respectively. A maximum polarization sensitivity ratio of 1.8 was determined. In a differential configuration, the full width at half maximum of the polarization-sensitive region is 8.5 nm.

  6. The role of the substrate on the dispersion in accumulation in III-V compound semiconductor based metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2015-09-07

    Dispersion in accumulation is a widely observed phenomenon in metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks based on III-V compound semiconductors. The physical origin of this phenomenon is attributed to border traps located in the dielectric material adjacent to the semiconductor. Here, we study the role of the semiconductor substrate on the electrical quality of the first layers at atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectrics. For this purpose, either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} dielectrics with variable thicknesses were deposited simultaneously on two technology important semiconductors—InGaAs and InP. Significantly larger dispersion was observed in InP based gate stacks compared to those based on InGaAs. The observed difference is attributed to a higher border trap density in dielectrics deposited on InP compared to those deposited on InGaAs. We therefore conclude that the substrate plays an important role in the determination of the electrical quality of the first dielectric monolayers deposited by ALD. An additional observation is that larger dispersion was obtained in HfO{sub 2} based capacitors compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based capacitors, deposited on the same semiconductor. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower conduction band offset rather than to a higher border trap density.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ferromagnetic nitride-based semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, A.

    2007-09-01

    This review summarizes the state-of-the-art in the search for room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors based on transition-metal- and rare-earth-doped nitrides. The major methods of synthesis are reported, together with an overview of the magnetic, structural, electrical and optical characterization of the materials systems, where available. The controversial experimental results concerning the actual value of the apparent Curie temperature in magnetically doped nitrides are highlighted, the inadequacy of standard characterization methods alone and the necessity of a possibly exhaustive structural investigation of the systems are proven and underlined. Furthermore, the dependence on the fabrication parameters of the magnetic ions incorporation into the semiconductor matrix is discussed, with special attention to the fundamental concepts of solubility limit and spinodal decomposition. It is argued that high-temperature ferromagnetic features in magnetically doped nitrides result from the presence of nanoscale regions containing a high concentration of the magnetic constituents. Various functionalities of these multicomponent systems are listed. Moreover, we give an extensive overview on the properties of single magnetic-impurity states in the nitride host. The understanding of this limit is crucial when considering the most recent suggestions for the control of the magnetic ion distribution—and consequently of the magnetic response—through the Fermi level engineering as well as to indicate roads for achieving high-temperature ferromagnetism in the systems containing a uniform distribution of magnetic ions.

  8. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  9. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  10. A micromachined thermo-optical light modulator based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun

    In this research, a micromachined thermo-optical light modulator was realized based on the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film. VO2 undergoes a reversible phase transition at approximately 68°C, which is accompanied with drastic changes in its electrical and optical properties. The sharp electrical resistivity change can be as great as five orders. Optically, VO2 film will switch from a transparent semiconductor phase to a reflective metal phase upon the phase transition. The light modulator in this research exploits this phase transition related optical switching by using surface micromachined low-thermal-mass pixels to achieve good thermal isolations, which ensures that each pixel can be individually switched without cross talking. In operation, the pixel temperature was controlled by integrated resistor on each pixel or spatially addressed thermal radiation sources. Active VO2 thin film was synthesized by thermal oxidation of e-beam evaporated vanadium metal film. The oxidized film exhibits a phase transition at ˜65°C with a hysteresis of about 15°C. A transmittance switching from ˜90% to ˜30% in the near infrared and a reflectance switching from ˜50% to ˜15% in the visible have been achieved. The surface microstructure was studied and correlated to its optical properties. A study on the hysteresis loop reveals that the VO2 can be repetitively switched between the "on" and "off" states. The micromachined thermal isolation pixel was a bridge-like silicon dioxide platform suspended with narrow supporting legs. The pixel design was optimized with both thermal and optical simulations. The VO2 light modulator was fabricated by surface micromachining based on dry processing. Silicon dioxide was deposited on a polyimide sacrificial layer by PECVD and patterned to form the structural pixel. Vanadium film was e-beam evaporated and patterned with lift-off process. It was thermally oxidized into VO2 at 390°C. The thermal

  11. Metal-semiconductor-metal transition in zigzag carbon nanoscrolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haixia; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Dangqi; Gong, Baihua; Zhang, Erhu; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Similar to rolling up paper, carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) can be rolled from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using physical approaches. Owing to their peculiar one-dimensional nanostructures, CNSs have attracted great attention over the past few years. In this study, we have investigated the effects of bending deformation on the electronic properties of zigzag CNSs (ZCNSs) during the rolling process from zigzag GNRs (ZGNRs) by means of first-principles calculations. It is found that a metal-semiconductor-metal transition is observed. By analyzing charge density and density of states, the origin of this electronic property transition is discussed. Furthermore, we find that the metal-semiconductor-metal transition in ZCNSs is independent of ribbon width as well as spin-orbit interaction. Our results of the metal-semiconductor-metal transition in the ZCNSs are robust and may open potential applications in nano-electromechanical devices based on the ZCNSs.Similar to rolling up paper, carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs) can be rolled from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using physical approaches. Owing to their peculiar one-dimensional nanostructures, CNSs have attracted great attention over the past few years. In this study, we have investigated the effects of bending deformation on the electronic properties of zigzag CNSs (ZCNSs) during the rolling process from zigzag GNRs (ZGNRs) by means of first-principles calculations. It is found that a metal-semiconductor-metal transition is observed. By analyzing charge density and density of states, the origin of this electronic property transition is discussed. Furthermore, we find that the metal-semiconductor-metal transition in ZCNSs is independent of ribbon width as well as spin-orbit interaction. Our results of the metal-semiconductor-metal transition in the ZCNSs are robust and may open potential applications in nano-electromechanical devices based on the ZCNSs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07628

  12. Metal Contacts on Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    alkali metal Na. The transition metals are all highly reactive with clean InP, and give a range of Schottky barriers between ohmic and 0.4 eV. We have...also investigated Schottky barriers for thick films of these metals deposited on clean cleaved (110) InP, surfaces, by I-V and C-V technLqueSg) This...interesting case. When deposited on clean GaAs (110) surfaces it yields a Schottky barrier height comparable with those for metals such as A, Ni, Ap and Au

  13. Metal-oxide-semiconductor based gas sensors: screening, preparation, and integration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qin, Ziyu; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) based gas sensors have been considered a promising candidate for gas detection over the past few years. However, the sensing properties of MOS-based gas sensors also need to be further enhanced to satisfy the higher requirements for specific applications, such as medical diagnosis based on human breath, gas detection in harsh environments, etc. In these fields, excellent selectivity, low power consumption, a fast response/recovery rate, low humidity dependence and a low limit of detection concentration should be fulfilled simultaneously, which pose great challenges to the MOS-based gas sensors. Recently, in order to improve the sensing performances of MOS-based gas sensors, more and more researchers have carried out extensive research from theory to practice. For a similar purpose, on the basis of the whole fabrication process of gas sensors, this review gives a presentation of the important role of screening and the recent developments in high throughput screening. Subsequently, together with the sensing mechanism, the factors influencing the sensing properties of MOSs involved in material preparation processes were also discussed in detail. It was concluded that the sensing properties of MOSs not only depend on the morphological structure (particle size, morphology, pore size, etc.), but also rely on the defect structure and heterointerface structure (grain boundaries, heterointerfaces, defect concentrations, etc.). Therefore, the material-sensor integration was also introduced to maintain the structural stability in the sensor fabrication process, ensuring the sensing stability of MOS-based gas sensors. Finally, the perspectives of the MOS-based gas sensors in the aspects of fundamental research and the improvements in the sensing properties are pointed out.

  14. Photocapacitive light sensor based on metal-YMnO3-insulator-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, A.; Choudhary, O. S.; Skorupa, I.; Bürger, D.; Lawerenz, A.; Lei, Y.; Zeng, H.; Abendroth, B.; Stöcker, H.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.

    2016-02-01

    Technology of light sensors, due to the wide range of applications, is a dynamically developing branch of both science and industry. This work presents concept of photodetectors based on a metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor, a structure which has not been thoroughly explored in the field of photodetectors. Functionality of the presented light sensor exploits the effects of photocapacitive phenomena, ferroelectric polarization, and charge trapping. This is accomplished by an interplay between polarization alignment, subsequent charge distribution, and charge trapping processes under given illumination condition and gate voltage. Change of capacitance serves as a read out parameter indicating the wavelength and intensity of the illuminating light. The operational principle of the proposed photocapacitive light sensor is demonstrated in terms of capacitance-voltage and capacitance-time characteristics of an Al/YMnO3/SiNx/p-Si structure exposed to green, red, and near infrared light. Obtained results are discussed in terms of optical properties of YMnO3 and SiNx layers contributing to the performance of photodetectors. Presented concept of light sensing might serve as the basis for the development of more advanced photodetectors.

  15. Experimental characterization of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-based Coulter counter

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Manoj; Xu, Dongyan; Kang, Yuejun; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Li, Dongqing; Li, Deyu

    2008-01-01

    We report the detailed characterization of an ultrasensitive microfluidic device used to detect the translocation of small particles through a sensing microchannel. The device connects a fluidic circuit to the gate of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and detects particles by monitoring the MOSFET drain current modulation instead of the modulation in the ionic current through the sensing channel. The minimum volume ratio of the particle to the sensing channel detected is 0.006%, which is about ten times smaller than the lowest detected volume ratio previously reported in the literature. This volume ratio is detected at a noise level of about 0.6% of the baseline MOSFET drain current, clearly showing the amplification effects from the fluidic circuits and the MOSFETs. We characterize the device sensitivity as a function of the MOSFET gate potential and show that its sensitivity is higher when the MOSFET is operating below its threshold gate voltage than when it is operating above the threshold voltage. In addition, we demonstrate that the device sensitivity linearly increases with the applied electrical bias across the fluidic circuit. Finally, we show that polystyrene beads and glass beads with similar sizes can be distinguished from each other based on their different translocation times, and the size distribution of microbeads can be obtained with accuracy comparable to that of direct scanning electron microscopy measurements. PMID:19479001

  16. Silicon-on-insulator-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated optoelectronic platform for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Scherer, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.

  17. Silicon-on-insulator-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated optoelectronic platform for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Scherer, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.

  18. Circular Metal/Semiconductor/Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A.; Towe, Elias; Bishop, William L.; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1995-01-01

    Metal/semiconductor/metal (MSM) photodetectors with multiple concentric circular electrodes developed. Some electrical characteristics expected superior to those of older MSM photodetectors containing interdigitated straight electrodes. Response times smaller and shorter, and breakdown voltages larger. Decrease in capacitance allows greater signal-detection bandwidth. Important advantage in fiber-optic telecommunication systems, in which photodectors central components in receiver circuits. Increasing bandwidth of such photodetector enables receiver to handle larger number of channels or increased information rate in each channel.

  19. Unusual electronic transport and magnetism in titanium oxide based semiconductors and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shixiong

    The main objective of this thesis was to explore the structural, electrical, magnetic and optical properties of titanium based novel oxide thin films, such as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), so as to be able to realize optoelectronics and spintronics applications. I demonstrated that niobium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) in its epitaxial anatase phase grown at certain condition is an intrinsic transparent conducting oxide, with both its conductivity and transparency comparable to that of the commercial transparent electrode In-Sn-O being widely used in current optoelectronic devices. I investigated the growth parameter dependence of structure and conductivity of this material. It was found that the growth temperature is a crucial parameter for the structural quality as well as the electron mobility, while the oxygen partial pressure is essential for the conduction electron concentration. The excellent conductivity of niobium doped TiO2 should be attributed to the extremely high solubility of niobium in the TiO2 matrix as well as a very shallow donor level created in the TiO2 band gap. I investigated several important oxide based DMS systems, such as niobium and cobalt dual doped TiO2, transition metal (TM) element doped SrTiO3 etc. I found that niobium dual doping is an effective way to introduce carriers into the classical Co: TiO2 system, which provides the feasibility of studying the RKKY interaction in this system by chemical doping. Our detailed characterization of TM doped SrTiO3 questioned the intrinsic nature of the ferromagnetism observed by other groups. By a systematic study of Hall effect on superparamagnetic Co-(La,Sr)TiO 3 thin films, I was able to demonstrate that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall effect is a way to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic DMS. A Kondo effect was observed in niobium doped TiO2 grown at certain condition. The origin of magnetic moments in this system was suggested

  20. Mechanisms of current flow in metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, T. V. Gol'dberg, Yu. A.

    2007-11-15

    Published data on the properties of metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts and mechanisms of current flow in these contacts (thermionic emission, field emission, thermal-field emission, and also current flow through metal shunts) are reviewed. Theoretical dependences of the resistance of an ohmic contact on temperature and the charge-carrier concentration in a semiconductor were compared with experimental data on ohmic contacts to II-VI semiconductors (ZnSe, ZnO), III-V semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN, GaAs, GaP, InP), Group IV semiconductors (SiC, diamond), and alloys of these semiconductors. In ohmic contacts based on lightly doped semiconductors, the main mechanism of current flow is thermionic emission with the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height equal to 0.1-0.2 eV. In ohmic contacts based on heavily doped semiconductors, the current flow is effected owing to the field emission, while the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height is equal to 0.3-0.5 eV. In alloyed In contacts to GaP and GaN, a mechanism of current flow that is not characteristic of Schottky diodes (current flow through metal shunts formed by deposition of metal atoms onto dislocations or other imperfections in semiconductors) is observed.

  1. Optical waveguide beam splitters based on hybrid metal-dielectric-semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunyun; Liang, Junwu; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhou, Zidong; Li, Honglai; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Peng; Yang, Yankun; Guo, Pengfei; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liao, Lei; Pan, Anlian

    2015-11-01

    Miniature integration is desirable for the future photonics circuit. Low-dimensional semiconductor and metal nanostructures is the potential building blocks in compact photonic circuits for their unique electronic and optical properties. In this work, a hybrid metal-dielectric-semiconductor nanostructure is designed and fabricated to realizing a nano-scale optical waveguide beam splitter, which is constructed with the sandwiched structure of a single CdS nanoribbon/HfO2 thin film/Au nanodisk arrays. Micro-optical investigations reveal that the guided light outputting at the terminal end of the CdS ribbon is well separated into several light spots. Numerical simulations further demonstrate that the beam splitting mechanism is attributed to the strong electromagnetic coupling between the Au nanodisks and light guided in the nanoribbon. The number of the split beams (light spots) at the terminal end of the nanoribbon is mainly determined by the number of the Au nanodisk rows, as well as the distance of the blank region between the nanodisks array and the end of the CdS ribbon, owing to the interference between the split beams. These optical beam splitters may find potential applications in high-density integrated photonic circuits and systems.

  2. Monolithic integration of GaN-based light-emitting diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yang, Zu-Po; Chen, Pin-Guang; Hsieh, Yung-An; Yao, Yung-Chi; Liao, Ming-Han; Lee, Min-Hung; Wang, Mei-Tan; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2014-10-20

    In this study, we report a novel monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Without additionally introducing complicated epitaxial structures for transistors, the MOSFET is directly fabricated on the exposed n-type GaN layer of the LED after dry etching, and serially connected to the LED through standard semiconductor-manufacturing technologies. Such monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device is able to circumvent undesirable issues that might be faced by other kinds of integration schemes by growing a transistor on an LED or vice versa. For the performances of resulting device, our monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device exhibits good characteristics in the modulation of gate voltage and good capability of driving injected current, which are essential for the important applications such as smart lighting, interconnection, and optical communication.

  3. Semiconductor-metal transition in thin VO2 films grown by ozone based atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelberg, Geert; Schaekers, Marc; Martens, Koen; Xie, Qi; Deduytsche, Davy; De Schutter, Bob; Blasco, Nicolas; Kittl, Jorge; Detavernier, Christophe

    2011-04-01

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide (VO2) have been grown by a low temperature atomic layer deposition process at 150 °C using tetrakis[ethylmethylamino]vanadium as a vanadium source and ozone as reactant gas. Films deposited on SiO2 were amorphous, but during a thermal treatment at 450 °C tetragonal VO2(R) was formed. During in situ x-ray diffraction measurements, the semiconductor-metal transition was observed as a reversible transition between VO2(M1) and VO2(R) near 67 °C. Correlated with this phase change, a reversible change in resistivity was observed of more than two orders of magnitude for a film of 42 nm thickness.

  4. Microwave Tunable Metamaterial Based on Semiconductor-to-Metal Phase Transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Ma, He; Lan, Chuwen; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Ji

    2017-07-18

    A microwave tunable metamaterial utilizing the semiconductor-to-metal transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) is proposed, experimentally demonstrated and theoretically scrutinized. Basic concept of the design involves the combination of temperature-dependent hysteresis in VO2 with resonance induced heating, resulting in a nonlinear response to power input. A lithographically prepared gold split-rings resonator (SRR) array deposited with VO2 thin film is fabricated. Transmission spectra analysis shows a clear manifestation of nonlinearity, involving power-dependence of resonant frequency as well as transmitted intensity at both elevated and room temperature. Simulation performed with CST Microwave Studio conforms with the findings. The concept may find applications in transmission modulation and frequency tuning devices working under microwave frequency bands.

  5. DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuitry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chih-Feng; Agarwal, Vinay; Kim, Taehoon; Sonkusale, Sameer; Busnaina, Ahmed; Chen, Michelle; Dokmeci, Mehmet R

    2010-03-05

    We present integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry as nanoscale chemical sensors. SWNTs were assembled onto CMOS circuitry via a low voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) process. Besides, bare SWNTs are reported to be sensitive to various chemicals, and functionalization of SWNTs with biomolecular complexes further enhances the sensing specificity and sensitivity. After decorating ss-DNA on SWNTs, we have found that the sensing response of the gas sensor was enhanced (up to approximately 300% and approximately 250% for methanol vapor and isopropanol alcohol vapor, respectively) compared with bare SWNTs. The SWNTs coupled with ss-DNA and their integration on CMOS circuitry demonstrates a step towards realizing ultra-sensitive electronic nose applications.

  6. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2013-12-14

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  7. Realization of Mg(x=0.15)Zn(1-x=0.85)O-based metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector on quartz and sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Dhar, S.; Varughese, B.; Takeuchi, I.; Venkatesan, T.; Vispute, R. D.

    2005-07-01

    In this article we present the growth of hexagonal phase MgZnO on nonconventional substrates such as quartz and on sapphire for comparison of the device property. We are reporting the realization of MgZnO-based UV detector on quartz by the pulsed laser deposition technique. MgZnO films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling techniques. The morphology of the films is studied by atomic force microscopy. The metal-semiconductor-metal device was fabricated on the MgZnO film to study the device photoresponse under proper UV irradiation.

  8. Search for effective spin injection heterostructures based on half-metal Heusler alloys/gallium arsenide semiconductors: A theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Chockalingam

    Efficient electrical spin injection from half-metal (HM) electrodes into semiconducting (SC) channel material is a desirable aspect in spintronics, but a challenging one. Half-metals based on the Heusler alloy family are promising candidates as spin sources due to their compatibility with compound SCs, and very high Curie temperatures. Numerous efforts were made in the past two decades to grow atomically abrupt interfaces between HM_Heusler and SC heterostructures. However, diffusion of magnetic impurities into the semiconductor, defects and disorder near the interface, and formation of reacted phases were great challenges. A number of theoretical efforts were undertaken to understand the role of such material defects in destroying the half-metallicity and also to propose promising half-metal/SC heterostructures based on first principles. This dissertation summarizes the investigations undertaken to decode the complexity of, and to understand the various physical properties of, a number of real-world Heusler/SC heterostructure samples, based on the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) approach. In addition, it summarizes various results from the first principles-based search for promising half-metal/SC heterostructures. First, I present results from DFT-based predictive models of actual Co 2MnSi (CMS)/GaAs heterostructures grown in (001) texture. I investigate the physical, chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties to understand the complexity of these structures and to pinpoint the origin of interfacial effects, when present. Based on the investigations of such models, I discuss the utility of those actual samples in spintronic applications. Next, I summarise the results from an ab initio DFT-based survey of 6 half-Heusler half-metal/GaAs heterostructure models in (110) texture, since compound semiconductors such as GaAs have very long spin lifetime in (110) layering. I show 3 half-Heusler alloys (CoVAs, NiMnAs, and RhFeGe), that when interfaced with Ga

  9. Noble metal-free hydrogen-evolving photocathodes based on small molecule organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozan, A.; Bourgeteau, T.; Tondelier, D.; Geffroy, B.; Jousselme, B.; Artero, V.

    2016-09-01

    Organic semiconductors have great potential for producing hydrogen in a sustainable and economically-viable manner because they rely on readily available materials with highly tunable properties. We demonstrate here the relevance of heterojunctions to the construction of H2-evolving photocathodes, exclusively based on earth-abundant elements. Boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride proved a very promising acceptor in that perspective. It absorbs a part of the solar spectrum complementary to α-sexithiophene as a donor, thus generating large photocurrents and providing a record onset potential for light-driven H2 evolution under acidic aqueous conditions using a nanoparticulate amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalyst.

  10. Gain mechanism and carrier transport in high responsivity AlGaN-based solar blind metal semiconductor metal photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Kalra, Anisha; Solanke, Swanand V.; Mohta, Neha; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Nath, Digbijoy N.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the highest responsivity for III-nitride Metal Semiconductor Metal solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire. Devices on unintentionally doped AlGaN epilayers grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition exhibited sharp absorption cut-off in the range of 245-290 nm. Very high responsivity >5 A/W at 10 V bias was achieved with visible rejection exceeding three orders of magnitude for front illumination. Compared to the responsivity values reported in the literature for state-of-the-art solar-blind photodetectors, this work presents the highest values of responsivity at a given bias and up to sub-250 nm detection threshold. The high responsivity is attributed to an internal gain mechanism operating on these devices. The reverse-bias leakage current across these samples was found to be dominated by thermionic field emission at low biases and Poole-Frenkel emission from a deep trap level (0.7 eV from the conduction band-edge for Al0.50Ga0.50 N) at high biases.

  11. Development of Room Temperature Excitonic Lasing From ZnO and MgZnO Thin Film Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suja, Mohammad Zahir Uddin

    Room temperature excitonic lasing is demonstrated and developed by utilizing metal-semiconductor-metal devices based on ZnO and MgZnO materials. At first, Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54x1018 cm-3, a low resistivity of 0.6 O cm and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm2 V -1 s-1 at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as XRD, XPS, Raman and absorption are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. To overcome the stability issue of p-type ZnO film, alternate devices other than p-n junction has been developed. Electrically driven plasmon-exciton coupled random lasing is demonstrated by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on Cu-doped ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence studies show that emission efficiencies have been enhanced significantly due to coupling between ZnO excitons and Ag surface plasmons. With the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO MSM structures, internal quantum

  12. Analysis of Interface Charge Densities for High-k Dielectric Materials based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, N. P.; Thakur, R. R.; Maity, Reshmi; Thapa, R. K.; Baishya, S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the interface charge densities (Dit) are studied and analyzed for ultra thin dielectric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices using different high-k dielectric materials such as Al2O3, ZrO2 and HfO2. The Dit have been calculated by a new approach using conductance method and it indicates that by reducing the thickness of the oxide, the Dit increases and similar increase is also found by replacing SiO2 with high-k. For the same oxide thickness, SiO2 has the lowest Dit and found to be the order of 1011cm-2eV-1. Linear increase in Dit has been observed as the dielectric constant of the oxide increases. The Dit is found to be in good agreement with published fabrication results at p-type doping level of 1×1017cm-3. Numerical calculations and solutions are performed by MATLAB and device simulation is done by ATLAS.

  13. Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yannan; Huang, Huolin; Yang, Weifeng; Wu, Zhengyun

    2011-01-01

    The titanium dioxide (TiO2) films prepared by sol-gel processing were used to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors. A very low dark current of 5.38 pA (current density of 3.84 nA/cm2) at 5 V bias is obtained, which is ascribed to the high effective Schottky barrier between Au and TiO2 films. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the concentration of oxygen vacancies is very low in the surface of the TiO2 films, which is responsible for the high effective Schottky barrier. The devices exhibit a cutoff wavelength at about 380 nm and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (340 versus 400 nm) of three orders of magnitude. The peak responsivity of the devices is 17.5 A/W at 5 V bias, indicating the presence of internal photoconductive gain induced by desorption of oxygen on the TiO2 surface.

  14. Nonvolatile Memory Effect in Indium Gallium Arsenide-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices Using II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P.-Y.; Gogna, M.; Suarez, E.; Karmakar, S.; Al-Amoody, F.; Miller, B. I.; Jain, F. C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the successful use of ZnSe/ZnS/ZnMgS/ZnS/ZnSe as a gate insulator stack for an InGaAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device, and demonstrates the threshold voltage shift required in nonvolatile memory devices using a floating gate quantum dot layer. An InGaAs-based nonvolatile memory MOS device was fabricated using a high- κ II-VI tunnel insulator stack and self-assembled GeO x -cladded Ge quantum dots as the charge storage units. A Si3N4 layer was used as the control gate insulator. Capacitance-voltage data showed that, after applying a positive voltage to the gate of a MOS device, charges were being stored in the quantum dots. This was shown by the shift in the flat-band/threshold voltage, simulating the write process of a nonvolatile memory device.

  15. Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ghusoon M.; Chakrabarti, P.

    2010-07-01

    The article reports fabrication, characterization, and testing of the performance of ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetectors under varying thermal treatment. The ZnO thin film was grown on p-type Si ⟨100⟩ substrate by using sol-gel technique. The electrical and optical characteristics of MIS photodetector were studied. The study revealed that the performance of the device improves with increasing postmetal deposition annealing temperature up to 250 °C approximately. For annealing temperature beyond 250 °C the performance of the device degrades drastically. The variation in the electrical and photoresponse properties of MIS photodetector can be attributed to combined effects of interfacial reaction and phase transition during the annealing process.

  16. Half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akai, H; Ogura, M

    2006-07-14

    The possibility of half-metallic antiferromagnetism, a special case of ferrimagnetism with a compensated magnetization, in the diluted magnetic semiconductors is highlighted on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation. As typical examples, the electrical and magnetic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors doped with 3d transition metal ion pairs--(V, Co) and (Fe, Cr)--are discussed.

  17. Performance improvement of GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes grown on Si(111) substrate by thermal cycle annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    A simple thermal cycle annealing (TCA) process was used to improve the quality of GaN grown on a Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and etch pit density (EPD) results revealed that using more process cycles, the defect density cannot be further reduced. However, the performance of GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes (PDs) prepared on Si substrates showed significant improvement. With a two-cycle TCA process, it is found that the dark current of the device was only 1.46 × 10-11 A, and the photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio was about 1.33 × 105 at 5 V. Also, the UV/visible rejection ratios can reach as high as 1077.

  18. Electronic states of semiconductor/metal/semiconductor quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, M. L.; Maserjian, J.

    Quantum size effects are calculated in thin layered semiconductor-metal-semi-conductor structures using an ideal free-electron model for the metal layer. The physical insight thereby gained is used to make projections for the behavior of real material systems. The results suggest new quantum well structures having device applications. Structures with sufficiently high quality interfaces should exhibit effects such as negative differential resistance due to tunneling between allowed states. Similarly, optical detection by intersubband absorption may be possible. We also predict that ultrathin metal layers can behave as high density dopant sheets.

  19. High Speed Heterostructure Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Nabet, B.; Chen, X.; Quaranta, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we review the properties of a class of metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors based on heterojunction structures. Particularly, an AlGaAs/GaAs device is detailed in which the absorption region is in the GaAs layer, and a two-dimensional electron gas is formed at the heterointerface due toδ-doping of the widegap material. This heterostructure metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector also contains an AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector that forms a resonant cavity for detection at 850 nm. The beneficial effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs absorption layer in terms of speed and sensitivity is demonstrated by comparing samples with and without doping in the AlGaAs layer. The design and the physical properties of the grown epitaxial structure are presented, together with the static and dynamic characteristics of the device in time domain. In particular, photocurrent spectra exhibit a 30 nm wide peak at 850 nm, and time response measurements give a bandwidth over 30 GHz. A combination of very low dark current and capacitance, fast response, wavelength selectivity, and compatibility with high electron mobility transistors makes this device suitable for a number of application areas, such as Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, wavelength division multiplexing, remote sensing, and medical applications.

  20. Stimuli responsive release of metalic nanoparticles on semiconductor substrates.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Cordoba, Miguel; Topal, Özge; Allara, David L; Kalkan, A Kaan; Demirel, Melik C

    2012-04-10

    Optically active metal nanoparticles have been of recent and broad interest for applications to biomarker detection because of their ability to enable high sensitivity enhancements in various optical detection techniques. Here, we report stimuli responsive release of metallic nanoparticles on a semiconductor thin film array structure based on pH change. The metallic nanoparticles are obtained by a simple redox procedure on the semiconductor surface. This approach allows controlling nanoparticle surface coatings in situ for biomolecule conjugation, such as DNA probes on nanoparticles, and rapid stimuli responsive release of these nanoparticles upon pH change.

  1. CdSe Nanowire-Based Flexible Devices: Schottky Diodes, Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors, and Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weifeng; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Zhiwei; Li, Yanping; Yao, Li; Wang, Yilun; Dai, Lun

    2015-06-24

    Novel CdSe nanowire (NW)-based flexible devices, including Schottky diodes, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs), and inverters, have been fabricated and investigated. The turn-on voltage of a typical Schottky diode is about 0.7 V, and the rectification ratio is larger than 1 × 10(7). The threshold voltage, on/off current ratio, subthreshold swing, and peak transconductance of a typical MESFET are about -0.3 V, 4 × 10(5), 78 mV/dec, and 2.7 μS, respectively. The inverter, constructed with two MESFETs, exhibits clear inverting behavior with the gain to be about 28, 34, and 38, at the supply voltages (V(DD)) of 3, 5, and 7 V, respectively. The inverter also shows good dynamic behavior. The rising and falling times of the output signals are about 0.18 and 0.09 ms, respectively, under 1000 Hz square wave signals input. The performances of the flexible devices are stable and reliable under different bending conditions. Our work demonstrates these flexible NW-based Schottky diodes, MESFETs, and inverters are promising candidate components for future portable transparent nanoelectronic devices.

  2. A Three-Stage Inverter-Based Stacked Power Amplifier in 65 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiumarsi, Hamid; Mizuochi, Yutaka; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A three-stage inverter-based stacked power amplifier (PA) in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is proposed to overcome low breakdown voltage problem of scaled CMOS technologies. Unlike previous reported stacked PAs which radio frequency choke (RFC) was inevitable, we proposed stacked nMOS and pMOS transistors which effectively eliminates use of RFC. By properly setting self-biased circuits' and transistors' parameters, output impedance could reach up to 50 Ω which together with not employing the RFC makes this topology very appealing for the scalable PA realization. As a proof of concept, a three-stage PA using 65 nm CMOS technology is implemented. With a 6 V power supply for the third stage, the fabricated PA shows a small-signal gain of 36 dB, a saturated output power of 16 dBm and a maximum power added efficiency of 10% at 1 GHz. Using a 7.5 V of power supply, saturated output power reaches 18 dBm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported inverter-based stacked PA.

  3. Optical Properties of Planar Nanostructures Based on Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanov, A. G.; Toropov, N. A.; Vartanyan, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    The optical properties of a composite material consisting of a thin polymer film, which is activated by semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and silver nanoparticles, on a transparent dielectric substrate have been investigated. It is revealed that the presence of silver nanoparticles leads to an increase in the QD absorption (by a factor of 4) and in the fluorescence intensity (by a factor of 10), whereas the fluorescence time drops by a factor of about 10. Excitation of the composite medium by a pulsed laser is found to result in narrowing of the fluorescence band and a sublinear dependence of its intensity on the pulse energy. In the absence of silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence spectrum of QDs is independent of the excitation-pulse energy density, and the fluorescence intensity depends linearly on the pulse energy in the entire range of energy densities, up to 75 mJ/cm2.

  4. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu{sub 2}O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex; Regan, William Raymond

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu{sub 2}O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu{sub 2}O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date.

  5. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaddo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  6. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  7. Flexible germanium nanomembrane metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Munho; Seo, Jung-Hun; Yu, Zongfu; Ma, Zhenqiang; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate flexible Ge nanomembrane (Ge NM) based metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes. The effect of uniaxial tensile strain on Ge NM based photodiodes was investigated using bending fixtures. Dark current density is decreased from 21.5 to 4.8 mA/cm{sup 2} at 3 V by a tensile strain of 0.42% while photon responsivity is increased from 0.2 to 0.45 A/W at the wavelength of 1.5 μm. Enhanced responsivity is also observed at longer wavelengths up to 1.64 μm. The uniaxial tensile strain effectively reduces the direct bandgap energy of the Ge NM, leading to a shift of the absorption edge toward a longer wavelength.

  8. Metal-insulator-semiconductor optoelectronic fibres.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Mehmet; Sorin, Fabien; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Viens, Jeff; Hart, Shandon D; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2004-10-14

    The combination of conductors, semiconductors and insulators with well-defined geometries and at prescribed length scales, while forming intimate interfaces, is essential in most functional electronic and optoelectronic devices. These are typically produced using a variety of elaborate wafer-based processes, which allow for small features, but are restricted to planar geometries and limited coverage area. In contrast, the technique of fibre drawing from a preformed reel or tube is simpler and yields extended lengths of highly uniform fibres with well-controlled geometries and good optical transport characteristics. So far, this technique has been restricted to particular materials and larger features. Here we report on the design, fabrication and characterization of fibres made of conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials in intimate contact and in a variety of geometries. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to construct a tunable fibre photodetector comprising an amorphous semiconductor core contacted by metallic microwires, and surrounded by a cylindrical-shell resonant optical cavity. Such a fibre is sensitive to illumination along its entire length (tens of meters), thus forming a photodetecting element of dimensionality one. We also construct a grid of such fibres that can identify the location of an illumination point. The advantage of this type of photodetector array is that it needs a number of elements of only order N, in contrast to the conventional order N2 for detector arrays made of photodetecting elements of dimensionality zero.

  9. Improved interface properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with thin Ga-oxide interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Asahara, Ryohei; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-06-01

    The impact of thin Ga-oxide (GaOx) interlayers on the electrical properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was systematically investigated. Thin thermal oxides formed at around 900 °C were found to be beneficial for improving the electrical properties of insulator/GaN interfaces, despite the fact that thermal oxidation of GaN surfaces at high temperatures proceeds by means of grain growth. Consequently, well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics of SiO2/GaOx/n-GaN stacked MOS capacitors with an interface state density (Dit) as low as 1.7 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were demonstrated. Moreover, the Dit value was further reduced for the SiO2/GaOx/GaN capacitor with a 2-nm-thick sputter-deposited GaOx interlayer. These results clearly indicate the intrinsically superior nature of the oxide/GaN interfaces and provide plausible guiding principles for fabricating high-performance GaN-MOS devices with thin GaOx interlayers.

  10. Steady-state characteristics and transient response of MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector with three types of electrode structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhen, Qinghong; Tang, Qing; Yang, Yintang; Guo, Lixin; Ding, Kai; Huang, Feng

    2013-07-29

    Detailed studies of MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector with different electrode structures are performed. A two-dimensional physical model is established based on the Poisson's equation and time-dependent continuity equations, which is verified by our experimental data of conventional electrode MSM detector. The steady-state characteristics and transient response of semicircular and triangular electrode MSM detectors are also investigated by this model. Compared with the conventional electrode, semicircular and triangular electrode devices exhibit a substantial improvement on the photocurrent. At a bias of 10 V, the steady-state saturated photocurrents for semicircular and triangular electrode devices are 14.69 nA and 24.37 nA respectively, corresponding to a 20.5% and 100% increase over the conventional electrode detector. Meanwhile, the transient peak photocurrents reach 31.38 nA and 52.09 nA respectively, both of which are notably larger than that of conventional device.

  11. Characteristic Improvements of ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector on Flexible Substrate with ZnO Cap Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liang-Wen; Wu, Cheng-Zhi; Lin, Chih-Ming; Meen, Teen-Hang; Lam, Kin-Tak; Peng, Shi-Ming; Young, Sheng-Joue; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2010-05-01

    In this work, ZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with and without a ZnO cap layer were fabricated on flexible substrates of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) for comparative analysis. The ZnO films were prepared by a low-temperature sputtering process. The photodetector with a ZnO cap layer (stack structure: ZnO/Ag/ZnO/PET) shows a much higher UV-to-visible rejection ratio of 1.56 ×103 than that without. This can be attributed to the photocurrents that are not only significantly increased in the UV region but also slightly suppressed in the visible region for such a novel structure. With an incident wavelength of 370 nm and an applied bias of 3 V, the responsivities of both photodetectors with and without a ZnO cap layer are 3.80 ×10-2 and 2.36 ×10-3 A/W, which correspond to quantum efficiencies of 1.13 and 0.07%, respectively. The Schottky barrier height at the Ag/ZnO interface is also determined to be 0.782 eV.

  12. Characteristic Improvements of ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector on Flexible Substrate with ZnO Cap Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang-Wen Ji,; Cheng-Zhi Wu,; Chih-Ming Lin,; Teen-Hang Meen,; Kin-Tak Lam,; Shi-Ming Peng,; Sheng-Joue Young,; Chien-Hung Liu,

    2010-05-01

    In this work, ZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with and without a ZnO cap layer were fabricated on flexible substrates of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) for comparative analysis. The ZnO films were prepared by a low-temperature sputtering process. The photodetector with a ZnO cap layer (stack structure: ZnO/Ag/ZnO/PET) shows a much higher UV-to-visible rejection ratio of 1.56 × 103 than that without. This can be attributed to the photocurrents that are not only significantly increased in the UV region but also slightly suppressed in the visible region for such a novel structure. With an incident wavelength of 370 nm and an applied bias of 3 V, the responsivities of both photodetectors with and without a ZnO cap layer are 3.80 × 10-2 and 2.36 × 10-3 A/W, which correspond to quantum efficiencies of 1.13 and 0.07%, respectively. The Schottky barrier height at the Ag/ZnO interface is also determined to be 0.782 eV.

  13. Recent progress on ZnO-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and their application in transparent integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Heiko; Lajn, Alexander; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Schein, Friedrich; Zhang, Zhipeng; Grundmann, Marius

    2010-12-14

    Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) are widely known from opaque high-speed GaAs or high-power SiC and GaN technology. For the emerging field of transparent electronics, only metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were considered so far. This article reviews the progress of high-performance MESFETs in oxide electronics and reflects the recent advances of this technique towards transparent MESFET circuitry. We discuss design prospects as well as limitations regarding device performance, reliability and stability. The presented ZnO-based MESFETs and inverters have superior properties compared to MISFETs, i.e., high channel mobilities and on/off-ratios, high gain, and low uncertainty level at comparatively low operating voltages. This makes them a promising approach for future low-cost transparent electronics.

  14. Multilevel metallization method for fabricating a metal oxide semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, B. R., Jr.; Feltner, W. R.; Bouldin, D. L.; Routh, D. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved method is described of constructing a metal oxide semiconductor device having multiple layers of metal deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low dc voltages and low substrate temperatures. The method provides multilevel interconnections and cross over between individual circuit elements in integrated circuits without significantly reducing the reliability or seriously affecting the yield.

  15. Model of coherent transport in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. I.; Danilyuk, A. L.

    1997-08-01

    A kinetic model of coherent transport with self-organized carrier transfer via midband gap semiconductor states in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure at room temperature is proposed. The coherent transport at room temperature can be a result of continuous oscillations of charge carriers at midband gap semiconductor states.

  16. Controlling the interface charge density in GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures by plasma oxidation of metal layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Herwig Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Pécz, Béla; Kovács, András; Heuken, Michael

    2015-06-07

    In recent years, investigating and engineering the oxide-semiconductor interface in GaN-based devices has come into focus. This has been driven by a large effort to increase the gate robustness and to obtain enhancement mode transistors. Since it has been shown that deep interface states act as fixed interface charge in the typical transistor operating regime, it appears desirable to intentionally incorporate negative interface charge, and thus, to allow for a positive shift in threshold voltage of transistors to realise enhancement mode behaviour. A rather new approach to obtain such negative charge is the plasma-oxidation of thin metal layers. In this study, we present transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis as well as electrical data for Al-, Ti-, and Zr-based thin oxide films on a GaN-based heterostructure. It is shown that the plasma-oxidised layers have a polycrystalline morphology. An interfacial amorphous oxide layer is only detectable in the case of Zr. In addition, all films exhibit net negative charge with varying densities. The Zr layer is providing a negative interface charge density of more than 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup –2} allowing to considerably shift the threshold voltage to more positive values.

  17. CMOS array design automation techniques. [metal oxide semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P.; Feller, A.; Noto, R.; Lombardi, T.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

  18. Synthesis of Nanoscopic Metal and Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Gregor Shih-Ji.

    Over the last twenty years technological advances have allowed miniaturized solid state physics devices to become part of our daily life, predominantly in the form of electronics. As the trend of miniaturization continues new challenges lie on the horizon. The properties of matter itself change as atomic dimensions are approached, and the larger surface area to volume ratio make interfaces increasingly more important. At the same time the cost of producing these electronics is becoming increasingly prohibitive; the cost of constructing an integrated circuit fabrication facility is now over a billion dollars!. Scientifically this poses two challenges: (i) understanding how the electronic and optical properties of matter change with decreasing size and (ii) finding new ways to form relevant materials on this size scale with control over their properties. Fortunately the availability of the personal computer assisted in the development of a new scientific instrument, the scanning probe microscope. This instrument, developed only in 1981 by Binning and Rohrer, uses a probe tip held extremely close to the surface of interest and maps its topography based on electrical current or repulsive/attractive force. It allows for extremely high resolution imaging of a surface, down to the atomic scale, and can be used to physically and chemically modify a surface. I have used this instrumentation in conjunction with conventional electrochemical techniques to synthesize and characterize metals and semiconductors on the nanometer (one one-billionth of a meter) scale. Characterization by laser spectroscopy (for the optical properties of the semiconductors) and a variety of surface science techniques (to determine chemical information) was undertaken as well. This dissertation details the techniques used to synthesize these nanostructures, and considers their properties in light of existing theory.

  19. Fermi level dependent native defect formation: Consequences for metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1988-02-01

    The amphoteric native defect model of the Schottky barrier formation is used to analyze the Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces for submonolayer metal coverages. It is assumed that the energy required for defect generation is released in the process of surface back-relaxation. Model calculations for metal/GaAs interfaces show a weak dependence of the Fermi level pinning on the thickness of metal deposited at room temperature. This weak dependence indicates a strong dependence of the defect formation energy on the Fermi level, a unique feature of amphoteric native defects. This result is in very good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that a very distinct asymmetry in the Fermi level pinning on p- and n-type GaAs observed at liquid nitrogen temperatures can be understood in terms of much different recombination rates for amphoteric native defects in those two types of materials. Also, it is demonstrated that the Fermi level stabilization energy, a central concept of the amphoteric defect system, plays a fundamental role in other phenomena in semiconductors such as semiconductor/semiconductor heterointerface intermixing and saturation of free carrier concentration. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Theoretical Study of the Noble Metals on Semiconductor Surfaces and Titanium-Base Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yungui

    The electronic and structural properties of the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Ag/Si(111) and ( sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^ circ Au/Si(111) surfaces are investigated using first principles total energy calculations. We have tested almost all experimentally proposed structural models for both surfaces and found the energetically most favorable model for each of them. The lowest energy model structure of the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Ag/Si(111) surface consists of a top layer of Ag atoms arranged as "honeycomb -chained-trimers" lying above a distorted "missing top layer" Si(111) substrate. The coverage of Ag is 1 monolayer (ML). We find that the honeycomb structure observed in STM images arise from the electronic charge densities of an empty surface band near the Fermi level. The electronic density of states of this model gives a "pseudo-gap" around the Fermi level, which is consistent with experimental results. The lowest energy model for the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Au/Si(111) surface is a conjugate honeycomb-chained-trimer (CHCT-1) configuration which consists of a top layer of trimers formed by 1 ML Au atoms lying above a "missing top layer" Si(111) substrate with a honeycomb-chained-trimer structure for its first layer. The structures of Au and Ag are in fact quite similar and belong to the same class of structural models. However, small variation in the structural details gives rise to quite different observed STM images, as revealed in the theoretical calculations. The electronic charge density from bands around the Fermi level for the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Au/Si(111) surface also gives a good description of the images observed in STM experiments. First principles calculations are performed to study the electronic and structural properties of a series of Ti-base binary alloys TiFe, TiNi, TiPd, TiMo, and TiAu in the B2 structure. Calculations are also done for Ti in bcc structure and hypothetical B2-structured TiAl, TiAg, and TiCu. Our results show correlation between the

  1. GaN membrane metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetector.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Konstantinidis, G; Dragoman, M; Neculoiu, D; Kostopoulos, A; Androulidaki, M; Kayambaki, M; Vasilache, D

    2008-04-01

    GaN is a wide-bandgap semiconductor with still unexplored capabilities for ultraviolet detection. To exploit GaN properties better for ultraviolet detection, a metal-semiconductor-metal-type photodetector structure was designed and manufactured on a 2.2 microm thin GaN membrane fabricated by micromachining techniques. As a result, a very low dark current (30 pA at 3 V) and a maximum responsivity of 14 mA/W at a wavelength of 370 nm were obtained.

  2. Responsivity drop due to conductance modulation in GaN metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky based UV photodetectors on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Wang, Zilong; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare; Lihuang, Tng; Kian Siong, Ang

    2016-09-01

    GaN Schottky metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetectors were fabricated on a 600 nm thick GaN layer, grown on 100 mm Si (111) substrate using an ammonia-MBE growth technique. In this report, the effect of device dimensions, applied bias and input power on the linearity of the GaN Schottky-based MSM photodetectors on Si substrate were investigated. Devices with larger interdigitated spacing, ‘S’ of 9.0 μm between the fingers resulted in good linearity and flat responsivity characteristics as a function of input power with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of ˜33% at an applied bias of 15 V and an input power of 0.8 W m-2. With the decrease of ‘S’ to 3.0 μm, the EQE was found to increase to ˜97%. However, devices showed non linearity and drop in responsivity from flatness at higher input power. Moreover, the position of dropping from flatter responsivity was found to shift to lower powers with increased bias. The drop in the responsivity was attributed to the modulation of conductance in the MSM due to the trapping of electrons at the dislocations, resulting in the formation of depletion regions around them. In devices with lower ‘S’, both the image force reduction and the enhanced collection efficiency increased the photocurrent as well as the charging of the dislocations. This resulted in the increased depletion regions around the dislocations leading to the modulation of conductance and non-linearity.

  3. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-10-18

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.

  4. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K. George

    2016-01-01

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided. PMID:27752651

  5. Monolayer MXenes: promising half-metals and spin gapless semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guoying; Ding, Guangqian; Li, Jie; Yao, Kailun; Wu, Menghao; Qian, Meichun

    2016-04-01

    Half-metals and spin gapless semiconductors are promising candidates for spintronic applications due to the complete (100%) spin polarization of electrons around the Fermi level. Based on recent experimental and theoretical findings of graphene-like monolayer transition metal carbides and nitrides (also known as MXenes), we demonstrate using first-principles calculations that monolayers Ti2C and Ti2N exhibit nearly half-metallic ferromagnetism with the magnetic moments of 1.91 and 1.00μB per formula unit, respectively, while monolayer V2C is a metal with unstable antiferromagnetism, and monolayer V2N is a nonmagnetic metal. Interestingly, under a biaxial strain, there is a phase transition from a nearly half-metal to truly half-metal, spin gapless semiconductor, and metal for monolayer Ti2C. Monolayer Ti2N is still a nearly half-metal under a suitable biaxial strain. Large magnetic moments can be induced by the biaxial tensile and compressive strains for monolayer V2C and V2N, respectively. We also show that the structures of these four monolayer MXenes are stable according to the calculated formation energy and phonon spectrum. Our investigations suggest that, unlike monolayer graphene, monolayer MXenes Ti2C and Ti2N without vacancy, doping or external electric field exhibit intrinsic magnetism, especially the half-metallic ferromagnetism and spin gapless semiconductivity, which will stimulate further studies on possible spintronic applications for new two-dimensional materials of MXenes.

  6. rf-microwave switches based on reversible semiconductor-metal transition of VO2 thin films synthesized by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas-Bouchiat, F.; Champeaux, C.; Catherinot, A.; Crunteanu, A.; Blondy, P.

    2007-11-01

    Microwave switching devices based on the semiconductor-metal transition of VO2 thin films were developped on two types of substrates (C-plane sapphire and SiO2/Si), and in both shunt and series configurations. Under thermal activation, the switches achieved up to 30-40dB average isolation of the radio-frequency (rf) signal on 500MHz -35GHz frequency band with weak insertion losses. These VO2-based switches can be electrically activated with commutation times less than 100ns, which make them promising candidates for realizing efficient and simple rf switches.

  7. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  8. SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector based on single-hole counting.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Inokawa, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    In this Letter, a scaled-down silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is characterized as a photon detector, where photogenerated individual holes are trapped below the negatively biased gate and modulate stepwise the electron current flowing in the bottom channel induced by the positive substrate bias. The output waveforms exhibit clear separation of current levels corresponding to different numbers of trapped holes. Considering this capability of single-hole counting, a small dark count of less than 0.02 s(-1) at room temperature, and low operation voltage of 1 V, SOI MOSFET could be a unique photon-number-resolving detector if the small quantum efficiency were improved.

  9. Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Domínguez, R.; Abujetas, D. R.; Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many fascinating properties predicted for metamaterials (negative refraction, superlensing, electromagnetic cloaking,…) were experimentally demonstrated. Unfortunately, the best achievements have no direct translation to the optical domain, without being burdened by technological and conceptual difficulties. Of particular importance within the realm of optical negative-index metamaterials (NIM), is the issue of simultaneously achieving strong electric and magnetic responses and low associated losses. Here, hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires are proposed as building blocks of optical NIMs. The metamaterial thus obtained, highly isotropic in the plane normal to the nanowires, presents a negative index of refraction in the near-infrared, with values of the real part well below −1, and extremely low losses (an order of magnitude better than present optical NIMs). Tunability of the system allows to select the operating range in the whole telecom spectrum. The design is proven in configurations such as prisms and slabs, directly observing negative refraction. PMID:23514968

  10. HfxAlyO ternary dielectrics for InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2017-07-01

    The electrical properties of HfxAlyO compound dielectric films and the HfxAlyO/InGaAs interface are reported for various dielectric film compositions. Despite the same trimethylaluminum (TMA) pre-deposition treatment, dispersion in accumulation and capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis increased with hafnium content. Different kinds of border traps were identified as being responsible for the phenomena. After anneal, the density of states in the HfxAlyO/InGaAs interface varied quite weakly with dielectric film composition. The optimal composition for obtaining high inversion charge density in metal oxide semiconductor gate stacks is determined by a tradeoff between leakage and dielectric constant, with the optimum atomic cation ratio ([Hf]/[Al]) of ˜1.

  11. Effective control on flat band voltage of epitaxial lanthanide oxide based metal oxide semiconductor capacitors by interfacial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Apurba; Fissel, A.; Osten, H. J.

    2013-05-01

    Present work addresses the issue of flat band voltage instability engendered by the presence of large number of fixed charges and interface traps at and close to the interface of metal oxide semiconductor capacitors. We show that submonolayer of C incorporation onto Si surface prior to epitaxial lanthanide oxides (Ln2O3: Gd2O3, Nd2O3) deposition can significantly improve their electrical properties. Ultraviolet photoelectric spectroscopy shows that most of the intrinsic surface states that stem from the dangling bonds on Si surface disappear after passivation with C. The flat band voltage of Pt/Gd2O3/Si MOS capacitors can be tuned in a controlled manner by systematic incorporation of C onto Si surface, effectively at Gd2O3-Si interface.

  12. Ratiometric, filter-free optical sensor based on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor buried double junction photodiode.

    PubMed

    Yung, Ka Yi; Zhan, Zhiyong; Titus, Albert H; Baker, Gary A; Bright, Frank V

    2015-07-16

    We report a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit (CMOS IC) with a buried double junction (BDJ) photodiode that (i) provides a real-time output signal that is related to the intensity ratio at two emission wavelengths and (ii) simultaneously eliminates the need for an optical filter to block Rayleigh scatter. We demonstrate the BDJ platform performance for gaseous NH3 and aqueous pH detection. We also compare the BDJ performance to parallel results obtained by using a slew scanned fluorimeter (SSF). The BDJ results are functionally equivalent to the SSF results without the need for any wavelength filtering or monochromators and the BDJ platform is not prone to errors associated with source intensity fluctuations or sensor signal drift. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  14. New Concentric Electrode Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, Elias

    1996-01-01

    A new metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector geometry is proposed. The new device has concentric metal electrodes which exhibit a high degree of symmetry and a design flexibility absent in the conventional MSM device. The concentric electrodes are biased to alternating potentials as in the conventional interdigitated device. Because of the high symmetry configuration, however, the new device also has a lower effective capacitance. This device and the conventional MSM structure are analyzed within a common theoretical framework which allows for the comparison of the important performance characteristics.

  15. Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyoungsik; Lakhani, Amit; Wu, Ming C

    2010-04-26

    We report on near infrared semiconductor nanopatch lasers with subwavelength-scale physical dimensions (0.019 cubic wavelengths) and effective mode volumes (0.0017 cubic wavelengths). We observe lasing in the two most fundamental optical modes which resemble oscillating electrical and magnetic dipoles. The ultra-small laser volume is achieved with the presence of nanoscale metal patches which suppress electromagnetic radiation into free-space and convert a leaky cavity into a highly-confined subwavelength optical resonator. Such ultra-small lasers with metallodielectric cavities will enable broad applications in data storage, biological sensing, and on-chip optical communication.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  17. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard; Münzenrieder, Niko; Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  18. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  19. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  20. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  1. Toward metal-organic insulator-semiconductor solar cells, based on molecular monolayer self-assembly on n-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Har-Lavan, Rotem; Ron, Izhar; Thieblemont, Florent; Cahen, David

    2009-01-01

    Alkyl chain molecules on n-Si were used to test the concept of hybrid metal-organic insulator-semiconductor (MOIS) solar cells. Test structures were made by binding alkyl chain molecules via Si-O-C bonds to oxide-free n-Si surfaces, using self-assembly. With thiol groups at the terminals away from the Si, binding of Au nanoparticles, followed by electroless Au plating yields semitransparent top contacts. First cells give, under 25 mW/cm2 white light illumination, open-circuit voltage Voc=0.48 V and fill factor FF=0.58. Because with sulfur termination the molecules have a dipole that limits inversion of the Si, we also used methyl-terminated monolayers. Even though then we can work, at this point, only with a Hg top contact, without chemical bond to the molecules, we get, using only radiation (˜AM 1.5) collected around the contact, the expected higher Voc=0.54 V, and respectable 0.8 FF, justifying further MOIS cell development.

  2. A customized metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensor array for onion quality evaluation: system development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C; Li, Changying

    2015-01-12

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  3. Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Prucnal, S.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Tyagulskii, S.; Kanjilal, A.; Voelskow, M.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

    2009-12-01

    The anomalous wear-out phenomena of Eu-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor devices were investigated. It will be shown that in contrast to other rare earth elements the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of Eu-implanted SiO2 layers can rise under constant current injection before the known EL quenching will start. Under certain circumstances, this rise may amount up to two orders of magnitude. The EL behavior will be correlated with the microstructural and electrical properties of the devices. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were applied to trace the development of Eu/Eu oxide clusters and the diffusion of Eu to the interfaces of the gate oxide layer. The hydrogen profile within the SiO2-SiON interface region was determined by nuclear reaction analysis. Current-voltage characteristics, EL decay times, and the progression of the voltage and the EL spectrum with increasing charge injection were measured to study charge and trapping phenomena in the oxide layer to reveal details of the EL excitation mechanism. A first qualitative model for the anomalous life time behavior is proposed.

  4. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C.; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  5. Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Prucnal, S.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Tyagulskii, S.; Kanjilal, A.; Voelskow, M.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

    2009-12-15

    The anomalous wear-out phenomena of Eu-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor devices were investigated. It will be shown that in contrast to other rare earth elements the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of Eu-implanted SiO{sub 2} layers can rise under constant current injection before the known EL quenching will start. Under certain circumstances, this rise may amount up to two orders of magnitude. The EL behavior will be correlated with the microstructural and electrical properties of the devices. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were applied to trace the development of Eu/Eu oxide clusters and the diffusion of Eu to the interfaces of the gate oxide layer. The hydrogen profile within the SiO{sub 2}-SiON interface region was determined by nuclear reaction analysis. Current-voltage characteristics, EL decay times, and the progression of the voltage and the EL spectrum with increasing charge injection were measured to study charge and trapping phenomena in the oxide layer to reveal details of the EL excitation mechanism. A first qualitative model for the anomalous life time behavior is proposed.

  6. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Nanowire Network Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Oener, Sebastian Z; van de Groep, Jorik; Macco, Bart; Bronsveld, Paula C P; Kessels, W M M; Polman, Albert; Garnett, Erik C

    2016-06-08

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) junctions provide the charge separating properties of Schottky junctions while circumventing the direct and detrimental contact of the metal with the semiconductor. A passivating and tunnel dielectric is used as a separation layer to reduce carrier recombination and remove Fermi level pinning. When applied to solar cells, these junctions result in two main advantages over traditional p-n-junction solar cells: a highly simplified fabrication process and excellent passivation properties and hence high open-circuit voltages. However, one major drawback of metal-insulator-semiconductor solar cells is that a continuous metal layer is needed to form a junction at the surface of the silicon, which decreases the optical transmittance and hence short-circuit current density. The decrease of transmittance with increasing metal coverage, however, can be overcome by nanoscale structures. Nanowire networks exhibit precisely the properties that are required for MIS solar cells: closely spaced and conductive metal wires to induce an inversion layer for homogeneous charge carrier extraction and simultaneously a high optical transparency. We experimentally demonstrate the nanowire MIS concept by using it to make silicon solar cells with a measured energy conversion efficiency of 7% (∼11% after correction), an effective open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 560 mV and estimated short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 33 mA/cm(2). Furthermore, we show that the metal nanowire network can serve additionally as an etch mask to pattern inverted nanopyramids, decreasing the reflectivity substantially from 36% to ∼4%. Our extensive analysis points out a path toward nanowire based MIS solar cells that exhibit both high Voc and Jsc values.

  7. Improvement of Surge Protection by Using an AlGaN/GaN-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Varactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferng, Yi-Cherng; Chang, Liann-Be; Das, Atanu; Lin, Ching-Chi; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Kuei, Ping-Yu; Chow, Lee

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a varactor with metal-semiconductor-metal diodes on top of the (NH4)2S/P2S5-treated AlGaN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas epitaxial structure (MSM-2DEG) is proposed to the surge protection for the first time. The sulfur-treated MSM-2DEG varactor properties, including current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and frequency response of the proposed surge protection circuit, are presented. To verify its capability of surge protection, we replace the metal oxide varistor (MOV) and resistor (R) in a state-of-the-art surge protection circuit with the sulfur-treated MSM-2DEG varactor under the application conditions of system-level surge tests. The measured results show that the proposed surge protection circuit, consisted of a gas discharge arrester (GDA) and a sulfur-treated MSM-2DEG varactor, can suppress an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) voltage of 4000 to 360 V, a reduction of 91%, whereas suppression is to 1780 V, a reduction of 55%, when using only a GDA.

  8. (Plasmonic Metal Core)/(Semiconductor Shell) Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Caihong

    Over the past several years, integration of metal nanocrystals that can support localized surface plasmon has been demonstrated as one of the most promising methods to the improvement of the light-harvesting efficiency of semiconductors. Ag and Au nanocrystals have been extensively hybridized with semiconductors by either deposition or anchoring. However, metal nanocrystals tend to aggregate, reshape, detach, or grow into large nanocrystals, leading to a loss of the unique properties seen in the original nanocrystals. Fortunately, core/shell nanostructures, circumventing the aforementioned problems, have been demonstrated to exhibit superior photoactivities. To further improve the light-harvesting applications of (plasmonic metal core)/(semiconductor shell) nanostructures, it is vital to understand the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the preparation processes, design novel hybrid nanostructures, and improve their light-harvesting performances. In this thesis, I therefore studied the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the formation of (Ag core)/(Ag2S shell) nanostructures. Moreover, I also prepared (noble metal core)/(TiO2 shell) nanostructures and investigated their plasmonic properties and photon-harvesting applications. Clear understanding of the sulfidation process can enable fine control of the plasmonic properties as well as the structural composition of Ag/Ag 2S nanomaterials. Therefore, I investigated the plasmonic and structural variations during the sulfidation process of Ag nanocubes both experimentally and numerically. The sulfidation reactions were carried out at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Electrodynamic simulations were also employed to study the variations of the plasmonic properties and plasmon modes. Both experiment and simulation results revealed that sulfidation initiates at the vertices of Ag nanocubes. Ag nanocubes are then gradually truncated and each nanocube becomes a nanosphere eventually. The cubic

  9. Characterization of GaN-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors by comparing electroluminescence, photoionization, and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, N.; Grillo, V.; Salviati, G.; Manfredi, M.; Pavesi, M.; Chini, A.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2002-09-01

    We report on a methodological comparison between photocurrent (PC), electroluminescence (EL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) investigations on GaN metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The purpose of this work is to show the effectiveness and the complementarity of these experimental techniques and to investigate the presence and nature of electron traps which limit the performances of the devices. PC measurements reveal four distinct energy levels, located at 1.75, 2.32, 2.67, and 3.15 eV, responsible for current collapse. The 1.75 eV level has also been observed in low temperature EL curves. The 2.32 and 2.67 eV levels, on the basis of the comparison with CL and EL results, can be correlated with the so-called "yellow band," located at 2.2 eV. The origin of 1.75 and 3.15 eV levels is at present unknown, however a nonradiative nature has been attributed to the 3.15 eV level, due to the absence of this signature in both CL and EL spectra. The luminescence measurements also reveal the presence of the donor-acceptor pair emission at 3.27 eV and the near-band-edge transition at 3.45 eV. EL measurements show a series of emission peaks in the energy range between 1 and 1.4 eV, while the CL spectra reveal a broadband at 2.8 eV, which arises mainly from the semi-insulating layer. This result has been obtained by increasing the energy of the CL electron beam, allowing us to investigate both the conduction channel and the layers underneath it.

  10. Development of new generation of perovskite based noble metal/semiconductor photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Peichuan

    In recent decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted a growing attention as a possible alternative to existing methods of hydrogen production, hydrocarbon conversion and organic compound oxidation. Many types of photocatalysts have been developed and tested for photocatalytic applications. However, most of them do not have notable activity in visible light region, which limits their practical applications. Development of photocatalysts, which can be activated by visible light provides a promising way forward to utilize both UV and visible portions of solar spectrum. In this thesis, two main methods to advance visible light driven photocatalysis, such as bandgap modification through doping and co-catalyst development, are investigated. The photocatalysts studied in this thesis included CdS and SrTiO3, which were extensively investigated and characterized. Rhodium doped strontium titanate was synthesized through different preparation methods. The synthesized samples have been investigated by various characterization techniques including XRD, TEM, STEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of preparation conditions, such as doping concentration, calcination temperature and pH have been investigated and optimized. In addition, the photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production of the samples synthesized by different preparation methods were also studied. Among the preparation methods, polymerizable complex (PC) method was found to be the most effective synthesis method for SrTiO3: Rh. The samples prepared by PC method had higher photocatalytic activity as compared to that of samples synthesized by solid state reaction method and hydrothermal method. The reasons might be attributed to more effective doping and higher surface area. The results of this work suggest that PC method can also be applied to develop other perovskite materials for photocatalytic applications. Co-catalyst development for enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen production is also

  11. Phase reactions at semiconductor metallization interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, A. S.; Ko, D. H.; Sinclair, R.

    1990-11-01

    During, or following, the fabrication of a microelectronic device, it is possible for the material phases at critical interfaces to react with one another, and so alter the elec-trical performance. This is particularly important for metallization contacts to semi-conductors and for multilevel interconnects. The present article shows that application of phase diagram principles can successfully predict the mutual stability or chemical reactivity in such circumstances. Since most relevant phase diagrams are not available, it is shown how they may be calculated from known thermochemical data, or deduced from observations on thin-film reactions. The article is illustrated by the behavior of titanium silicide with a diffusion barrier layer (TiN) and the surrounding dielectric SiO2. In addition the Al-Si-O-N and W-N-Ga-As systems are described, and metastable amor-phous phase formation at the Ti-Si interface is discussed.

  12. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Sk Masiul Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P.; Chakraborty, S.

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.

  13. Leakage Current Mechanism of InN-Based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures with Al2O3 as Dielectric Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhang, G. Z.; Xu, Y.; Gan, X. W.; Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, T.; Wu, H.; Liu, C.

    2016-01-01

    InN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures were prepared with Al2O3 as the gate oxides. Surface morphologies of InN films are improved with increasing Mg doping concentrations. At high frequencies, the measured capacitance densities deviate from the real ones with turning frequencies inversely proportional to series resistances. An ultralow leakage current density of 1.35 × 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 V is obtained. Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is the main mechanism of the leakage current at high fields, while Schottky emission dominates at low fields. Capacitance densities shift with different biases, indicating that the InN-based MIS structures can serve as potential candidates for MIS field-effect transistors.

  14. Electronic states of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor quantum-well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, M. L.; Maserjian, J.

    1988-05-01

    Quantum-size effects are calculated in thin layered semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures using an ideal free-electron model for the metal layer. The results suggest new quantum-well structures having device applications. Structures with sufficiently high-quality interfaces should exhibit effects such as negative differential resistance due to tunneling between allowed states. Similarly, optical detection by intersubband absorption may be possible. Ultrathin metal layers are predicted to behave as high-density dopant sheets.

  15. Ferromagnet/semiconductor based spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dipankar

    Spintronics is an emerging field which is great interest for its potential to provide high-speed and low-power novel devices and eventually replace and/or complement conventional silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Spin-based optoelectronic devices provide improved laser performance and polarized light sources for secure communication. Spintronics has therefore received a lot of interest with the potential for conventional and novel applications. Spintronics has been investigated both in all-metal and semiconductor based platforms. Spin-based ferromagnet/semiconductor heterojunction devices are particularly attractive compared to all-metal spintronic devices due to the versatility and the long electron spin coherence time in semiconductors. Here we have investigated semiconductor based spintronic devices for logic, memory and communication applications. We have demonstrated electrical injection and detection of spin in a MnAs/GaAs lateral spin valve. A peak magnetoresistance of 3.6% at 10 K and 1.1% at 125 K have been measured in these devices. Spin polarization in semiconductors is usually very small and difficult to detect. We have therefore theoretically designed and experimentally demonstrated a spin-current amplifier to alleviate this problem. A spin polarization of 100% has been measured at 150 K in these devices. We have emphasized the importance of finite sizes of ferromagnetic contact pads in terms of two-dimensional spin-diffusion in lateral spintronic devices, which enhances spin-polarization. We have discovered a new phenomenon observing electrically driven spin-dynamics of paramagnetic impurities. We have demonstrated a spin-capacitor using this novel phenomenon. In this study we have also demonstrated a spin-polarized quantum dot spin-laser which is a fundamental spin-based optoelectronic device. An output circular polarization of 8% and threshold current reduction of 14% have been measured at 200 K. We have also demonstrated

  16. Growth and characterization of rutile TiO2 nanorods on various substrates with fabricated fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector based on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-07-01

    Rutile-phase titanium dioxide nanorods (NRs) were synthesized successfully on p-type silicon (Si) (1 1 1), c-plane sapphire (Al2O3), glass coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass, and quartz substrates via chemical bath deposition method. All substrates were seeded with a TiO2 seed layer synthesized with a radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system prior to NRs growth. The effect of substrate type on structural, morphological, and optical properties of rutile TiO2 NRs was studied. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses showed the tetragonal rutile structure of the synthesized TiO2 NRs. Optical properties were examined with photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of the grown rutile NRs on all substrates, with the spectra exhibiting one strong ultraviolet emission peak intensity compared with broad visible peak. The optimal sample of rutile NRs was grown on Si substrate. Thus, a fast-response metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet (UV) detector was fabricated. Upon exposure to 365 nm light (2.3 mW/cm2) at 5 V bias, the device displays 2.62 × 10-5 A photocurrent, and the response and recovery times are calculated as 18.5 and 19.1 ms, respectively. These results demonstrate that the fabricated high-quality photodiode is a promising candidate as a low-cost UV photodetector for commercially integrated photoelectronic applications.

  17. Thermal conductivity switch: Optimal semiconductor/metal melting transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangnam; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-10-01

    Scrutinizing distinct solid/liquid (s /l ) and solid/solid (s /s ) phase transitions (passive transitions) for large change in bulk (and homogenous) thermal conductivity, we find the s /l semiconductor/metal (S/M) transition produces the largest dimensionless thermal conductivity switch (TCS) figure of merit ZTCS (change in thermal conductivity divided by smaller conductivity). At melting temperature, the solid phonon and liquid molecular thermal conductivities are comparable and generally small, so the TCS requires localized electron solid and delocalized electron liquid states. For cyclic phase reversibility, the congruent phase transition (no change in composition) is as important as the thermal transport. We identify X Sb and X As (X =Al , Cd, Ga, In, Zn) and describe atomic-structural metrics for large ZTCS, then show the superiority of S/M phonon- to electron-dominated transport melting transition. We use existing experimental results and theoretical and ab initio calculations of the related properties for both phases (including the Kubo-Greenwood and Bridgman formulations of liquid conductivities). The 5 p orbital of Sb contributes to the semiconductor behavior in the solid-phase band gap and upon disorder and bond-length changes in the liquid phase this changes to metallic, creating the large contrast in thermal conductivity. The charge density distribution, electronic localization function, and electron density of states are used to mark this S/M transition. For optimal TCS, we examine the elemental selection from the transition, basic, and semimetals and semiconductor groups. For CdSb, addition of residual Ag suppresses the bipolar conductivity and its ZTCS is over 7, and for Zn3Sb2 it is expected to be over 14, based on the structure and transport properties of the better-known β -Zn4Sb3 . This is the highest ZTCS identified. In addition to the metallic melting, the high ZTCS is due to the electron-poor nature of II-V semiconductors, leading to the

  18. A reliable extraction method for source and drain series resistances in silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on radio-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new extraction method for source and drain (S/D) series resistances of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on small-signal radio-frequency (RF) analysis. The proposed method can be applied to the extraction of S/D series resistances for SNW MOSFETs with finite off-state channel resistance as well as gate bias-dependent on-state resistive components realized by 3-dimensional (3-D) device simulation. The series resistances as a function of frequency and gate voltage are presented and compared with the results obtained by an existing method with infinite off-state channel resistance model. The accuracy of the newly proposed parameter extraction method has been successfully verified by Z22- and Y-parameters up to 100 GHz operation frequency.

  19. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  20. Vibronic states in organic semiconductors based on non-metal naphthalocyanine. Detection of heterocyclic phthalocyanine compounds in a flexible dielectric matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2012-01-15

    The vibronic properties of semiconductor structures based on non-metal naphthalocyanine molecules are studied using IR and Raman spectroscopy methods. New absorption lines in the transmission spectra of such materials are detected and identified. Three transmission lines are observed in the range 2830-3028 cm{sup -1}, which characterize carbon-hydrogen bonds of peripheral molecular groups. Their spectral positions are 2959, 2906, and 2866 cm{sup -1}. It is detected that the phthalocyanine ring can also exhibit its specific vibronic properties in the Raman spectra at 767, 717, and 679 cm{sup -1}. The naphthalocyanine molecule in the organic dielectric matrix of microfibers is described using IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the set of vibrations characterizing the isoindol group, pyrrole ring, naphtha group, and C-H bonds, allows an accurate enough description of the vibronic states of the naphthalocyanine complex in complex heterostructures to be made. The spectral range with fundamental modes, characterizing a naphthalocyanine semiconductor in a heterostructure, is 600-1600 cm{sup -1}. A comparison of the compositions of complex systems with a similar heterostructure containing lutetium diphthalocyanine demonstrated few errors.

  1. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 100 kg/m(3,) respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spintronic effects in metallic, semiconductor, metal oxide and metal semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovsky, A. M.

    2008-02-01

    Spintronics is a rapidly growing field focusing on phenomena and related devices essentially dependent on spin transport. Some of them are already an established part of microelectronics. We review recent theoretical and experimental advances in achieving large spin injection efficiency (polarization of current) and accumulated spin polarization. These include tunnel and giant magnetoresistance, spin-torque and spin-orbit effects on electron transport in various heterostructures. We give a microscopic description of spin tunneling through oxide and modified Schottky barriers between a ferromagnet (FM) and a semiconductor (S). It is shown that in such FM-S junctions electrons with a certain spin projection can be efficiently injected into (or extracted from) S, while electrons with the opposite spin can accumulate in S near the interface. The criterion for efficient injection is opposite to a known Rashba criterion, since the barrier should be rather transparent. In degenerate semiconductors, extraction of spin can proceed at low temperatures. We mention a few novel spin-valve ultrafast devices with small dissipated power: a magnetic sensor, a spin transistor, an amplifier, a frequency multiplier, a square-law detector and a source of polarized radiation. We also discuss effects related to spin-orbital interactions, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE) and a recently predicted positive magnetoresistance accompanying SHE. Some esoteric devices such as 'spinFET', interacting spin logic and spin-based quantum computing are discussed and problems with their realization are highlighted. We demonstrate that the so-called 'ferroelectric tunnel junctions' are unlikely to provide additional functionality because in all realistic situations the ferroelectric barrier would be split into domains by the depolarizing field.

  3. Metal-oxide-semiconductor plasmonic nanorod lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shangjr

    2017-02-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions hold the key to the developments of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as photonic integrated circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is constrained to the diffraction limit. In the past few years, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures can break this limit. In this presentation, I will report on the recent progress of plasmonic nanolasers using MOS structures. In particular, by using alloy-composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN) core-shell nanorods as the nanolaser gain media in the full visible spectrum, we are able to demonstrate full-color nanolasers that can be operated with ultralow CW lasing thresholds and single lasing modes. Full-color lasing in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique autotuning mechanism based on a property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for choice of metals in the MOS structures, epitaxial Ag films and giant colloidal Ag crystals have been shown by us to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible spectral range. Recently, we have also succeeded in developing InGaN/GaN nanorod array plasmonic lasers based on a metal (Au)-all-around MOS structure, which can be fabricated easily on a wafer scale. I will present the latest results in these developments.

  4. Fabrication of porous materials (metal, metal oxide and semiconductor) through an aerosol-assisted route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hiesang

    Porous materials have gained attraction owing to their vast applications in catalysts, sensors, energy storage devices, bio-devices and other areas. To date, various porous materials were synthesized through soft and hard templating approaches. However, a general synthesis method for porous non-oxide materials, metal alloys and semiconductors with tunable structure, composition and morphology has not been developed yet. To address this challenge, this thesis presents an aerosol method towards the synthesis of such materials and their applications for catalysis, hydrogen storage, Li-batteries and photo-catalysis. The first part of this thesis presents the synthesis of porous metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors with controlled pore structure, crystalline structure and morphology. In these synthesis processes, metal salts and organic ligands were employed as precursors to create porous metal-carbon frameworks. During the aerosol process, primary metal clusters and nanoparticles were formed, which were coagulated/ aggregated forming the porous particles. Various porous particles, such as those of metals (e.g., Ni, Pt, Co, Fe, and Ni xPt(1-x)), metal oxides (e.g., Fe3O4 and SnO2) and semiconductors (e.g., CdS, CuInS2, CuInS 2x-ZnS(1-x), and CuInS2x-TiO2(1-x)) were synthesized. The morphology, porous structure and crystalline structure of the particles were regulated through both templating and non-templating methods. The second part of this thesis explores the applications of these materials, including propylene hydrogenation and H2 uptake capacity of porous Ni, NiPt alloys and Ni-Pt composites, Li-storage of Fe3O4 and SnO2, photodegradation of CuInS2-based semiconductors. The effects of morphology, compositions, and porous structure on the device performance were systematically investigated. Overall, this dissertation work unveiled a simple synthesis approach for porous particles of metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, and semiconductors with controlled

  5. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  6. Thienoacene-based organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Takimiya, Kazuo; Shinamura, Shoji; Osaka, Itaru; Miyazaki, Eigo

    2011-10-11

    Thienoacenes consist of fused thiophene rings in a ladder-type molecular structure and have been intensively studied as potential organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the last decade. They are reviewed here. Despite their simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thienoacene-based OFETs are rather diverse. This Review focuses on four classes of thienoacenes, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures, and elucidates the molecular electronic structure of each class. The packing structures of thienoacenes and the thus-estimated solid-state electronic structures are correlated to their carrier transport properties in OFET devices. With this perspective of the molecular structures of thienoacenes and their carrier transport properties in OFET devices, the structure-property relationships in thienoacene-based organic semiconductors are discussed. The discussion provides insight into new molecular design strategies for the development of superior organic semiconductors. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bulk gallium nitride based electronic devices: Schottky diodes, Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetectors and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) is one of most promising semiconductor materials for high power, high temperature and high frequency applications. Due to the lack of native substrates for homoepitaxial growth, GaN electronic devices have been conventionally fabricated on epitaxial GaN layers grown on foreign substrates, mostly sapphire. This scheme complicates the fabrication process and compromises the device performance due to the large amount of native defects within the heteroepitaxial layer. In order to fabricate devices with improved performance and simplified fabrication processes, it is desirable to utilize high quality bulk GaN substrates. Recent developments in Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) technology have enabled the successful growth of free-standing GaN wafers with very low dislocation densities. This dissertation reports some developments in the device fabrication, performance and simulation based on bulk GaN substrates. We have fabricated vertical geometry Schottky diodes with a full backside ohmic contact using a bulk GaN substrate. The absence of the sapphire substrate, improved ohmic contact scheme and the vertical transport mode greatly enhance the forward current conduction of the bulk GaN Schottky diode. The device also displays a high reverse breakdown voltage and ultrafast reverse recovery characteristics. The low dislocation density of the substrate allows the fabrication of Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetectors with ultralow dark currents. The large band gap of GaN provides the intrinsic "visible blindness" of the UV photodetector. The device displays a reasonably high responsivity and a good linearity of photocurrent with UV irradiance. We have also fabricated MOS capacitors using a thermally oxidized bulk GaN substrate. The thermal gallium oxide is characterized and its oxidation mechanism and etching process are explored. The thermal grown Ga2O 3/GaN interface displays a relatively lower interface density of state as compared to the

  8. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  9. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, John A.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  10. The MSFC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (including multilevel interconnect metallization) process handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouldin, D. L.; Eastes, R. W.; Feltner, W. R.; Hollis, B. R.; Routh, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication techniques for creation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Examples of C-MOS integrated circuits manufactured at MSFC are presented with functional descriptions of each. Typical electrical characteristics of both p-channel metal oxide semiconductor and n-channel metal oxide semiconductor discrete devices under given conditions are provided. Procedures design, mask making, packaging, and testing are included.

  11. Thin Semiconductor/Metal Films For Infrared Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Nagendra, Channamallappa L.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral responses of absorbers and reflectors tailored. Thin cermet films composites of metals and semiconductors undergoing development for use as broadband infrared reflectors and absorbers. Development extends concepts of semiconductor and dielectric films used as interference filters for infrared light and visible light. Composite films offer advantages over semiconductor films. Addition of metal particles contributes additional thermal conductivity, reducing thermal gradients and associated thermal stresses, with resultant enhancements of thermal stability. Because values of n in composite films made large, same optical effects achieved with lesser thicknesses. By decreasing thicknesses of films, one not only decreases weights but also contributes further to reductions of thermal stresses.

  12. Thin Semiconductor/Metal Films For Infrared Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Nagendra, Channamallappa L.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral responses of absorbers and reflectors tailored. Thin cermet films composites of metals and semiconductors undergoing development for use as broadband infrared reflectors and absorbers. Development extends concepts of semiconductor and dielectric films used as interference filters for infrared light and visible light. Composite films offer advantages over semiconductor films. Addition of metal particles contributes additional thermal conductivity, reducing thermal gradients and associated thermal stresses, with resultant enhancements of thermal stability. Because values of n in composite films made large, same optical effects achieved with lesser thicknesses. By decreasing thicknesses of films, one not only decreases weights but also contributes further to reductions of thermal stresses.

  13. Metal Organic-Chemical Vapor Deposition fabrication of semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    1980-08-01

    The metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) process was studied and implemented in detail. Single crystal GaAs, and Ga(x)Al(1-x)As films were grown on GaAs by depositing metal organic alkyl gallium compounds in the presence of an arsine mixture. The metal organic chemical vapor deposition process allowed formation of the semiconductor compound directly on the heated substrate in only one hot temperature zone. With MO-CVD, semiconductor films can be efficiently produced by a more economical, less complicated process which will lend itself more easily than past fabrication procedures, to high quantity, high quality reproduction techniques of semiconductor lasers. Clearly MO-CVD is of interest to the communication industry where semiconductor lasers are used extensively in fiber optic communication systems, and similarly to the solar energy business where GaAs substrates are used as photoelectric cells.

  14. Hybrid Semiconductor Nanowire-Metallic Yagi-Uda Antennas.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Casadei, Alberto; Grzela, Grzegorz; Matteini, Federico; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Rüffer, Daniel; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Gómez Rivas, Jaime

    2015-08-12

    We demonstrate the directional emission of individual GaAs nanowires by coupling this emission to Yagi-Uda optical antennas. In particular, we have replaced the resonant metallic feed element of the nanoantenna by an individual nanowire and measured with the microscope the photoluminescence of the hybrid structure as a function of the emission angle by imaging the back focal plane of the objective. The precise tuning of the dimensions of the metallic elements of the nanoantenna leads to a strong variation of the directionality of the emission, being able to change this emission from backward to forward. We explain the mechanism leading to this directional emission by finite difference time domain simulations of the scattering efficiency of the antenna elements. These results cast the first step toward the realization of electrically driven optical Yagi-Uda antenna emitters based on semiconductors nanowires.

  15. Transition-Metal Substitution Doping in Synthetic Atomically Thin Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jian; Kim, Young Duck; Liang, Liangbo; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Chow, Phil; Tan, Jiawei; Li, Baichang; Li, Lu; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Lu, Toh-Ming; Meunier, Vincent; Hone, James; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-09-20

    Semiconductor impurity doping has enabled an entire generation of technology. The emergence of alternative semiconductor material systems, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), requires the development of scalable doping strategies. We report an unprecedented one-pot synthesis for transition-metal substitution in large-area, synthetic monolayer TMDCs. Electron microscopy, optical and electronic transport characterization and ab initio calculations indicate that our doping strategy preserves the attractive qualities of TMDC monolayers, including semiconducting transport and strong direct-gap luminescence. These results are expected to encourage exploration of transition-metal substitution in two-dimensional systems, potentially enabling next-generation optoelectronic technology in the atomically-thin regime.

  16. Transition-Metal Substitution Doping in Synthetic Atomically Thin Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jian; Kim, Young Duck; Liang, Liangbo; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Chow, Phil; Tan, Jiawei; Li, Baichang; Li, Lu; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Lu, Toh-Ming; Meunier, Vincent; Hone, James; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-09-20

    Semiconductor impurity doping has enabled an entire generation of technology. The emergence of alternative semiconductor material systems, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), requires the development of scalable doping strategies. We report an unprecedented one-pot synthesis for transition-metal substitution in large-area, synthetic monolayer TMDCs. Electron microscopy, optical and electronic transport characterization and ab initio calculations indicate that our doping strategy preserves the attractive qualities of TMDC monolayers, including semiconducting transport and strong direct-gap luminescence. These results are expected to encourage exploration of transition-metal substitution in two-dimensional systems, potentially enabling next-generation optoelectronic technology in the atomically-thin regime.

  17. Integrated photo-responsive metal oxide semiconductor circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban D. (Inventor); Dargo, David R. (Inventor); Lyons, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An infrared photoresponsive element (RD) is monolithically integrated into a source follower circuit of a metal oxide semiconductor device by depositing a layer of a lead chalcogenide as a photoresistive element forming an ohmic bridge between two metallization strips serving as electrodes of the circuit. Voltage from the circuit varies in response to illumination of the layer by infrared radiation.

  18. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Chen, Gang [Carlisle, MA; Poudel, Bed [West Newton, MA; Kumar, Shankar [Newton, MA; Wang, Wenzhong [Beijing, CN; Dresselhaus, Mildred [Arlington, MA

    2009-09-08

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  19. Metal-Semiconductor Nanocomposites for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-07

    the modified phonon and alloy scattering parameters in the modeling to explain the thermoelectric properties of this material. For example, we...near future. 2. Cross-plane thermoelectric properties of perovskite oxide metal/semiconductor superlattices ( Purdue /UCSC) The cross-plane...It therefore became critical that Purdue optimize this characterization technique to extract material properties which show the potential of metal

  20. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  1. Performance optimization of a free space optical interconnect system with a metal-semiconductor-metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ababneh, Nedal; Khader, Ateka

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we study the possibility and the potentiality of using metal semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSM-PD) in three-dimensional parallel free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and time response are used as performance measures to optimize the geometry of MSM-PD used in FSOI systems. Both SNR and time response are evaluated, analyzed, and their dependence on feature parameters of the MSM-PD, including finger size, spacing, and number of fingers, are considered. Based on the results obtained, we show that the use of MSM-PD in FSOI improves the interconnect speed at a given acceptable SNR.

  2. A silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector macromodel for circuit simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheri, Lucio; Scandiuzzo, Mauro; Betta, Gian-Franco Dalla; Stoppa, David; Nisi, Fabrizio De; Gonzo, Lorenzo; Simoni, Andrea

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, numerical device simulations are used to get insight into the DC and dynamic behavior of a CMOS metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector, to be used as a mixing device for active pixels based on a differential read-out concept. On the basis of simulation results, a simple electrical macromodel of the photosensor has been defined and implemented in the Cadence package using Spectre AHDL. The proposed macromodel is shown to accurately reproduce the numerical device simulation predictions in all the considered operation modes.

  3. Modeling of wide-area thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for LIDAR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinz, Andreas P.; Morrison, Charles B.; Zhu, Zheng

    1998-07-01

    We report calculations of the collection current of interdigitated InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors. We show how interdigital spacing and thickness of the semiconductor layer influence the collection current. Both front and back illumination of devices carried on thin film membranes by means of epitaxial liftoff are examined.

  4. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2015-08-01

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2-6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ˜20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ˜190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform's useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  5. Three-Dimensional Flexible Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Logic Circuits Based On Two-Layer Stacks of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yudan; Li, Qunqing; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Li, Guanhong; Jin, Yuanhao; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-02-23

    We have proposed and fabricated stable and repeatable, flexible, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film transistor (TFT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits based on a three-dimensional (3D) structure. Two layers of SWCNT-TFT devices were stacked, where one layer served as n-type devices and the other one served as p-type devices. On the basis of this method, it is able to save at least half of the area required to construct an inverter and make large-scale and high-density integrated CMOS circuits easier to design and manufacture. The 3D flexible CMOS inverter gain can be as high as 40, and the total noise margin is more than 95%. Moreover, the input and output voltage of the inverter are exactly matched for cascading. 3D flexible CMOS NOR, NAND logic gates, and 15-stage ring oscillators were fabricated on PI substrates with high performance as well. Stable electrical properties of these circuits can be obtained with bending radii as small as 3.16 mm, which shows that such a 3D structure is a reliable architecture and suitable for carbon nanotube electrical applications in complex flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  6. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers.

    PubMed

    Hoidn, Oliver R; Seidler, Gerald T

    2015-08-01

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2-6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ∼20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ∼190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform's useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  7. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-11-14

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis.

  8. Optoelectronic Systems Based on InGaAs Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Smart-Pixel Arrays and Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Andrew C.; Yang, Tsung-Yi; Gourlay, James; Dines, Julian A. B.; Forbes, Mark G.; Prince, Simon M.; Baillie, Douglas A.; Neilson, David T.; Williams, Rhys; Wilkinson, Lucy C.; Smith, George R.; Desmulliez, Mark P. Y.; Buller, Gerald S.; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.; Waddie, Andrew; Underwood, Ian; Stanley, Colin R.; Pottier, Francois; Vgele, Brigitte; Sibbett, Wilson

    1998-05-01

    Free-space optical interconnects have been identified as a potentially important technology for future massively parallel-computing systems. The development of optoelectronic smart pixels based on InGaAs AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well modulators and detectors flip-chip solder-bump bonded onto complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits and the design and construction of an experimental processor in which the devices are linked by free-space optical interconnects are described. For demonstrating the capabilities of the technology, a parallel data-sorting system has been identified as an effective demonstrator. By use of Batcher s bitonic sorting algorithm and exploitation of a perfect-shuffle optical interconnection, the system has the potential to perform a full sort on 1024, 16-bit words in less than 16 s. We describe the design, testing, and characterization of the smart-pixel devices and free-space optical components. InGaAs CMOS smart-pixel, chip-to-chip communication has been demonstrated at 50 Mbits s. It is shown that the initial system specifications can be met by the component technologies.

  9. Note: A disposable x-ray camera based on mass produced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensors and single-board computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoidn, Oliver R.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2015-08-15

    We have integrated mass-produced commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and off-the-shelf single-board computers into an x-ray camera platform optimized for acquisition of x-ray spectra and radiographs at energies of 2–6 keV. The CMOS sensor and single-board computer are complemented by custom mounting and interface hardware that can be easily acquired from rapid prototyping services. For single-pixel detection events, i.e., events where the deposited energy from one photon is substantially localized in a single pixel, we establish ∼20% quantum efficiency at 2.6 keV with ∼190 eV resolution and a 100 kHz maximum detection rate. The detector platform’s useful intrinsic energy resolution, 5-μm pixel size, ease of use, and obvious potential for parallelization make it a promising candidate for many applications at synchrotron facilities, in laser-heating plasma physics studies, and in laboratory-based x-ray spectrometry.

  10. a Study of Some Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maani, Colette

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aim of this study was to investigate a number of specific metal-semiconductor interfaces with the goal of understanding the mechanism responsible for Schottky barrier formation at these interfaces. Metal contacts of group III, gallium, and group V, antimony were evaporated onto the clean cleaved indium phosphide(110) surface. Techniques of low energy electron defraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultra violet and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, current-voltage and capacitance -voltage measurements were used to probe the structural, chemical and electronic nature of the metal-semiconductor interfaces formed. In addition metal contacts of Al, Ag, Au and Sn were evaporated onto the clean cleaved gallium phosphide(110) surface. Techniques of current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and photoresponse measurements were used in order to determine barrier height. The study of Ga and Sb on InP(110) was used to investigate the importance of chemical reactivity, growth mode, defect formation and interdiffusion at the interface. The investigation of a range of metals on GaP(110) was an attempt to understand metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier formation in terms of this wide band gap material. Both studies were used to test the relevance of various proposed models of Schottky barrier formation at metal-semiconductor interfaces. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. A room-temperature magnetic semiconductor from a ferromagnetic metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Hongxia; Shi, Jin-an; Wang, Zhongchang; Song, Cheng; Wang, Xiangrong; Lu, Siyuan; Zhou, Xiangjun; Gu, Lin; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Chen, Mingwei; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2016-01-01

    Emerging for future spintronic/electronic applications, magnetic semiconductors have stimulated intense interest due to their promises for new functionalities and device concepts. So far, the so-called diluted magnetic semiconductors attract many attentions, yet it remains challenging to increase their Curie temperatures above room temperature, particularly those based on III–V semiconductors. In contrast to the concept of doping magnetic elements into conventional semiconductors to make diluted magnetic semiconductors, here we propose to oxidize originally ferromagnetic metals/alloys to form new species of magnetic semiconductors. We introduce oxygen into a ferromagnetic metallic glass to form a Co28.6Fe12.4Ta4.3B8.7O46 magnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above 600 K. The demonstration of p–n heterojunctions and electric field control of the room-temperature ferromagnetism in this material reflects its p-type semiconducting character, with a mobility of 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. Our findings may pave a new way to realize high Curie temperature magnetic semiconductors with unusual multifunctionalities. PMID:27929059

  12. A room-temperature magnetic semiconductor from a ferromagnetic metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Hongxia; Shi, Jin-An; Wang, Zhongchang; Song, Cheng; Wang, Xiangrong; Lu, Siyuan; Zhou, Xiangjun; Gu, Lin; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Chen, Mingwei; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2016-12-01

    Emerging for future spintronic/electronic applications, magnetic semiconductors have stimulated intense interest due to their promises for new functionalities and device concepts. So far, the so-called diluted magnetic semiconductors attract many attentions, yet it remains challenging to increase their Curie temperatures above room temperature, particularly those based on III-V semiconductors. In contrast to the concept of doping magnetic elements into conventional semiconductors to make diluted magnetic semiconductors, here we propose to oxidize originally ferromagnetic metals/alloys to form new species of magnetic semiconductors. We introduce oxygen into a ferromagnetic metallic glass to form a Co28.6Fe12.4Ta4.3B8.7O46 magnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above 600 K. The demonstration of p-n heterojunctions and electric field control of the room-temperature ferromagnetism in this material reflects its p-type semiconducting character, with a mobility of 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. Our findings may pave a new way to realize high Curie temperature magnetic semiconductors with unusual multifunctionalities.

  13. Effect of Remote Oxygen Scavenging on Electrical Properties of Ge-Based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadida, Sivan; Nyns, Laura; Van Elshocht, Sven; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Remote oxygen scavenging has been studied in a metal/high- k dielectric/GeO2/Ge stack, where a thin Ti layer inserted into the metal/high- k dielectric interface serves as the scavenger. First, we established that remote oxygen scavenging indeed occurs specifically in the studied HfO2/Al2O3/GeO2/Ge stack. It was also established that the source for oxygen is decomposition of the GeO2 layer. Then, the effect of remote oxygen scavenging of the GeO2 layer on the electrical characteristics of the metal/oxide/Ge capacitors was investigated. The electrical properties were studied in comparison with identical gate stacks with a Pt electrode, before and after annealing. Although a decrease in effective oxide thickness was demonstrated as a result of this process, clear degradation of the interface electrical quality was observed after scavenging. Initiation of the scavenging process was witnessed upon deposition of Ti at room temperature, emphasizing that this process could not be controlled.

  14. High temperature behavior of multi-region direct current current-voltage spectroscopy and relationship with shallow-trench-isolation-based high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  15. Spin-dependent transport properties of a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaki, Toshiki Asahara, Hirokatsu; Ohya, Shinobu Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-12-14

    We fabricate a vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin-MOSFET) structure, which is composed of an epitaxial single-crystal heterostructure with a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs source/drain, and investigate its spin-dependent transport properties. We modulate the drain-source current I{sub DS} by ∼±0.5% with a gate-source voltage of ±10.8 V and also modulate I{sub DS} by up to 60% with changing the magnetization configuration of the GaMnAs source/drain at 3.5 K. The magnetoresistance ratio is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the previous studies on spin MOSFETs. Our result shows that a vertical structure is one of the hopeful candidates for spin MOSFET when the device size is reduced to a sub-micron or nanometer scale.

  16. Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of semiconductor quantum dot - metal nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzis, A. F.; Kosionis, S. G.; Boviatsis, J.; Paspalakis, E.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study nonlinear optical effects of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle coupled via long-range Coulomb interaction. We solve the relevant density matrix equations in steady state and use proper perturbation theory to obtain closed-form analytical expressions for the nonlinear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the entire coupled system, up to fifth order. We also investigate the influence of the material of the semiconductor and the impact of the interparticle distance on the form of the spectra of the nonlinear susceptibilities.

  17. Multilayers of zinc-blende half-metals with semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavropoulos, Ph; Galanakis, I.; Dederichs, P. H.

    2004-06-01

    We report on first-principles calculations for multilayers of zinc-blende half-metallic ferromagnets CrAs and CrSb with III-V and II-VI semiconductors, in the [001] orientation. We examine the ideal and tetragonalized structures, as well as the case of an intermixed interface. We find that, as a rule, half-metallicity can be conserved throughout the heterostructures, provided that the character of the local coordination and bonding is not disturbed. We describe a mechanism operative at the interfaces with semiconductors that can also give a non-integer spin moment per interface transition atom, and derive a simple rule for evaluating it.

  18. Noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalyst: hydrogen doped semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiangchao; Dai, Ying; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2014-01-01

    The unique capacity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) offers a new opportunity to overcome the limited efficiency of semiconductor photocatalyst. Here we unravel that LSPR, which usually occurs in noble metal nanoparticles, can be realized by hydrogen doping in noble-metal-free semiconductor using TiO2 as a model photocatalyst. Moreover, its LSPR is located in infrared region, which supplements that of noble metal whose LSPR is generally in the visible region, making it possible to extend the light response of photocatalyst to infrared region. The near field enhancement is shown to be comparable with that of noble-metal nanoparticles, indicating that highly enhanced light absorption rate can be expected. The present work can provide a key guideline for the creation of highly efficient noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalysts and have a much wider impact in infrared bioimaging and spectroscopy where infrared LSPR is essential. PMID:24496400

  19. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-15

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 100 kg/m{sup 3,} respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. - Highlights: • Waste MOCVD dust is treated through mechanochemical leaching. • GaN is hardly leached, and converted to NaGaO{sub 2} through ball milling and annealing. • Process for gallium recovery from waste MOCVD dust has been developed. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} is revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process is reported.

  20. Modeling of Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duen Ho, Fat; Macleod, Todd C.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics for a MFSFET (metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistor) is very different than a conventional MOSFET and must be modeled differently. The drain current has a hysteresis shape with respect to the gate voltage. The position along the hysteresis curve is dependent on the last positive or negative polling of the ferroelectric material. The drain current also has a logarithmic decay after the last polling. A model has been developed to describe the MFSFET drain current for both gate voltage on and gate voltage off conditions. This model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay. The model is based on the shape of the Fermi-Dirac function which has been modified to describe the MFSFET's drain current. This is different from the model proposed by Chen et. al. and that by Wu.

  1. Ultrafast photoinduced charge separation in metal-semiconductor nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Mongin, Denis; Shaviv, Ehud; Maioli, Paolo; Crut, Aurélien; Banin, Uri; Del Fatti, Natalia; Vallée, Fabrice

    2012-08-28

    Hybrid nano-objects formed by two or more disparate materials are among the most promising and versatile nanosystems. A key parameter in their properties is interaction between their components. In this context we have investigated ultrafast charge separation in semiconductor-metal nanohybrids using a model system of gold-tipped CdS nanorods in a matchstick architecture. Experiments are performed using an optical time-resolved pump-probe technique, exciting either the semiconductor or the metal component of the particles, and probing the light-induced change of their optical response. Electron-hole pairs photoexcited in the semiconductor part of the nanohybrids are shown to undergo rapid charge separation with the electron transferred to the metal part on a sub-20 fs time scale. This ultrafast gold charging leads to a transient red-shift and broadening of the metal surface plasmon resonance, in agreement with results for free clusters but in contrast to observation for static charging of gold nanoparticles in liquid environments. Quantitative comparison with a theoretical model is in excellent agreement with the experimental results, confirming photoexcitation of one electron-hole pair per nanohybrid followed by ultrafast charge separation. The results also point to the utilization of such metal-semiconductor nanohybrids in light-harvesting applications and in photocatalysis.

  2. Absorption properties of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Ehud; Schubert, Olaf; Alves-Santos, Marcelo; Goldoni, Guido; Di Felice, Rosa; Vallée, Fabrice; Del Fatti, Natalia; Banin, Uri; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2011-06-28

    The optical response of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanoparticles exhibits different behaviors due to the proximity between the disparate materials. For some hybrid systems, such as CdS-Au matchstick-shaped hybrids, the particles essentially retain the optical properties of their original components, with minor changes. Other systems, such as CdSe-Au dumbbell-shaped nanoparticles, exhibit significant change in the optical properties due to strong coupling between the two materials. Here, we study the absorption of these hybrids by comparing experimental results with simulations using the discrete dipole approximation method (DDA) employing dielectric functions of the bare components as inputs. For CdS-Au nanoparticles, the DDA simulation provides insights on the gold tip shape and its interface with the semiconductor, information that is difficult to acquire by experimental means alone. Furthermore, the qualitative agreement between DDA simulations and experimental data for CdS-Au implies that most effects influencing the absorption of this hybrid system are well described by local dielectric functions obtained separately for bare gold and CdS nanoparticles. For dumbbell shaped CdSe-Au, we find a shortcoming of the electrodynamic model, as it does not predict the "washing out" of the optical features of the semiconductor and the metal observed experimentally. The difference between experiment and theory is ascribed to strong interaction of the metal and semiconductor excitations, which spectrally overlap in the CdSe case. The present study exemplifies the employment of theoretical approaches used to describe the optical properties of semiconductors and metal nanoparticles, to achieve better understanding of the behavior of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanoparticles.

  3. Semiconductor Metal-Organic Frameworks: Future Low-Bandgap Materials.

    PubMed

    Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with low density, high porosity, and easy tunability of functionality and structural properties, represent potential candidates for use as semiconductor materials. The rapid development of the semiconductor industry and the continuous miniaturization of feature sizes of integrated circuits toward the nanometer (nm) scale require novel semiconductor materials instead of traditional materials like silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide etc. MOFs with advantageous properties of both the inorganic and the organic components promise to serve as the next generation of semiconductor materials for the microelectronics industry with the potential to be extremely stable, cheap, and mechanically flexible. Here, a perspective of recent research is provided, regarding the semiconducting properties of MOFs, bandgap studies, and their potential in microelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Plasmonic nanostructured metal-oxide-semiconductor reflection modulators.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Anthony; Chen, Chengkun; Hassan, Sa'ad; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2015-04-08

    We propose a plasmonic surface that produces an electrically controlled reflectance as a high-speed intensity modulator. The device is conceived as a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on silicon with its metal structured as a thin patch bearing a contiguous nanoscale grating. The metal structure serves multiple functions as a driving electrode and as a grating coupler for perpendicularly incident p-polarized light to surface plasmons supported by the patch. Modulation is produced by charging and discharging the capacitor and exploiting the carrier refraction effect in silicon along with the high sensitivity of strongly confined surface plasmons to index perturbations. The area of the modulator is set by the area of the incident beam, leading to a very compact device for a strongly focused beam (∼2.5 μm in diameter). Theoretically, the modulator can operate over a broad electrical bandwidth (tens of gigahertz) with a modulation depth of 3 to 6%, a loss of 3 to 4 dB, and an optical bandwidth of about 50 nm. About 1000 modulators can be integrated over a 50 mm(2) area producing an aggregate electro-optic modulation rate in excess of 1 Tb/s. We demonstrate experimentally modulators operating at telecommunications wavelengths, fabricated as nanostructured Au/HfO2/p-Si capacitors. The modulators break conceptually from waveguide-based devices and belong to the same class of devices as surface photodetectors and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  5. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... Manufacturing Corporation of China; Integrated Device Technology, Inc. of San Jose, California; and...

  6. Solution-phase synthesis of metal and/or semiconductor homojunction/heterojunction nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiumei; Hu, Guanqi; Hu, Jianqiang

    2011-05-01

    The design and architecture of programmable metal-semiconductor nanostructures with excellent optoelectronic properties from metal and semiconductor building blocks with nanoscale dimensions have been a key aim of material scientists due to their central roles in the fabrication of electronic, optical, and optoelectronic nanodevices. This review focuses on the latest advances in the solution-phase synthesis of metal and/or semiconductor homojunction/heterojunction nanomaterials. It begins with the simplest construction of metal/metal and semiconductor/semiconductor homojunctions, and then highlights the synthetic design of metal/metal and semiconductor/semiconductor heterojunction nanostructures with different building blocks. Special emphasis is placed on metal/semiconductor heterojunction nanomaterials, which are the most challenging and promising nanomaterials for future applications in optoelectronic nanodevices. Finally, this review concludes with personal perspectives on the directions for future research in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Metal/Semiconductor hybrid nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruibin; Li, Benxia; Fang, Caihong; Wang, Jianfang

    2014-08-20

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of semiconductor and plasmonic metal components are receiving extensive attention. They display extraordinary optical characteristics that are derived from the simultaneous existence and close conjunction of localized surface plasmon resonance and semiconduction, as well as the synergistic interactions between the two components. They have been widely studied for photocatalysis, plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, biotechnology, and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of (plasmonic metal)/semiconductor hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. The preparation of the hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the semiconductor type, as well as the nanostructure morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then elucidated. Lastly, possible future research in this burgeoning field is discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. MEED studies of thin metal film covered semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, G.

    1991-06-01

    Results of observations of thin metal films deposited on clean surfaces of semiconductors, such as Si, GaAs and GaP, in the early stage of deposition in UHV, are reported with particular emphasis on in-situ MEED observations at 1-5 kV using a grazing angle of incidence. Various atomic rearrangements and reconstructions due to thin metal deposits were observed, for example: 2 × 1 and 4 × 5 reconstruction of Ni on a clean Si(110)16 × 2 surface, and formation of a one-dimensional lattice of Ag on a coplanar plane of GaAs (001) and GaP (001) and (011). These results are also discussed in terms of surface structures with special emphasis on the early stages of metal deposition and on the metal/semiconductor interface.

  9. Solar blind metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors using quasi-alloy of BGaN/GaN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srour, H.; Salvestrini, J. P.; Ahaitouf, A.; Gautier, S.; Moudakir, T.; Assouar, B.; Abarkan, M.; Hamady, S.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2011-11-01

    Large internal gains that can be obtained in wide band gap semiconductors-based (GaN and ZnO types) Schottky and/or metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors are generally accompanied by large dark current and time response. We show that, using quasi-alloy of BGaN/GaN superlattices as the active layer, the dark current can be lowered while maintaining high internal gain (up to 3 × 104) for optical power in the nW range and low time response (few tens of ns) for optical power in the W range. Furthermore, the boron incorporation allows the tuning of the cutoff wavelength.

  10. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  11. Abrupt Depletion Layer Approximation for the Metal Insulator Semiconductor Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Determines the excess surface change carrier density, surface potential, and relative capacitance of a metal insulator semiconductor diode as a function of the gate voltage, using the precise questions and the equations derived with the abrupt depletion layer approximation. (Author/GA)

  12. Abrupt Depletion Layer Approximation for the Metal Insulator Semiconductor Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Determines the excess surface change carrier density, surface potential, and relative capacitance of a metal insulator semiconductor diode as a function of the gate voltage, using the precise questions and the equations derived with the abrupt depletion layer approximation. (Author/GA)

  13. Photocatalysis-Based Nanoprobes Using Noble Metal-Semiconductor Heterostructure for Visible Light-Driven in Vivo Detection of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Lihua; Zeng, Xiaofan; Wang, Hao; Hai, Jun; Yang, Xiangliang; Wang, Baodui; Zhu, Yanhong

    2017-07-18

    The development of sensitive and reliable methods to monitor the presence of mercuric ions in cells and organisms is of great importance to biological research and biomedical applications. In this work, we propose a strategy to construct a solar-driven nanoprobe using a 3D Au@MoS2 heterostructure as a photocatalyst and rhodamine B (RB) as a fluorescent and color change reporter molecule for monitoring Hg(2+) in living cells and animals. The sensing mechanism is based on the photoinduced electron formation of gold amalgam in the 3D Au@MoS2 heterostructure under visible light illumination. This formation is able to remarkably inhibit the photocatalytic activity of the heterostructure toward RB decomposition. As a result, "OFF-ON" fluorescence and color change are produced. Such characteristics enable this new sensing platform to sensitively and selectively detect Hg(2+) in water by fluorescence and colorimetric methods. The detection limits of the fluorescence assay and colorimetric assay are 0.22 and 0.038 nM for Hg(2+), respectively; these values are well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (10 nM). For the first time, such photocatalysis-based sensing platform is successfully used to monitor Hg(2+) in live cells and mice. Our work therefore opens a promising photocatalysis-based analysis methodology for highly sensitive and selective in vivo Hg(2+) bioimaging studies.

  14. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks.

  15. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate that—by changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on state—it is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  16. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-06-08

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters ( including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. Lastly, this study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks.

  17. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-06-08

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters ( including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring themore » underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. Lastly, this study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks.« less

  18. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianxiao; Steinsultz, Nat; Ouyang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband plasmonic nanostructures is crucial for the development of solid-state quantum devices with optimum performance. However, existing methods typically employ top-down fabrication, which restrict scalable and feasible manipulation of nitrogen-vacancy centres. Here, we develop a general bottom-up approach to fabricate an emerging class of freestanding nanodiamond-based hybrid nanostructures with external functional units of either plasmonic nanoparticles or excitonic quantum dots. Precise control of the structural parameters (including size, composition, coverage and spacing of the external functional units) is achieved, representing a pre-requisite for exploring the underlying physics. Fine tuning of the emission characteristics through structural regulation is demonstrated by performing single-particle optical studies. This study opens a rich toolbox to tailor properties of quantum emitters, which can facilitate design guidelines for devices based on nitrogen-vacancy centres that use these freestanding hybrid nanostructures as building blocks. PMID:27273426

  19. Electronic Nose Based on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Red Meat

    PubMed Central

    El Barbri, Noureddine; Llobet, Eduard; El Bari, Nezha; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an electronic nose for the quality control of red meat. Electronic nose and bacteriological measurements are performed to analyse samples of beef and sheep meat stored at 4°C for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) based classification techniques are used to investigate the performance of the electronic nose system in the spoilage classification of red meats. The bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The SVM models built classified meat samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” (microbial counts < 6 log10 cfu/g) and “spoiled” (microbial counts ≥ 6 log10 cfu/g). The preliminary results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts (TVC) show that the shelf-life of beef and sheep meats stored at 4 °C are 7 and 5 days, respectively. The electronic nose system coupled to SVM could discriminate between unspoiled/ spoiled beef or sheep meats with a success rate of 98.81 or 96.43 %, respectively. To investigate whether the results of the electronic nose correlated well with the results of the bacteriological analysis, partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were built and validated. Good correlation coefficients between the electronic nose signals and bacteriological data were obtained, a clear indication that the electronic nose system can become a simple and rapid technique for the quality control of red meats. PMID:27879699

  20. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  1. Characterization and stability of the interfaces between manganese-based metals and compound semiconductors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Jessica Lynn

    The interfacial interactions between MBE-grown Mn and Mn-based contacts and GaAs(001) substrates were characterized as a function of growth and post-growth annealing conditions. Mn was found to be thermodynamically unstable on GaAs with interfacial reactions initially resulting in the formation of an intermediate Mn3GaAs phase that decomposes into Mn2As and delta-MnGa. Both reacted phases are epitaxial on GaAs with Mn2As(001)<100>//GaAs(001)<110> and delta-MnGa(001)<100>//GaAs(001)<110>, and the extent of the reactions is limited by the rate of Mn diffusion through the reacted region. Further annealing results in segregation of the delta-MnGa phase to the sample surface and of the Mn2As phase to the GaAs interface. A thin film ternary phase diagram for the Mn-Ga-As system was derived with Mn2As and delta-MnGa as the thermodynamically stable phases in contact with GaAs. The extent of reactions was quantified on the atomic scale from sequential XPS measurements acquired during the growth process. For Mn growth at 95°C and below, the interfacial reaction layer reaches a maximum thickness during the initial growth stages, but at a growth temperature of 250°C the interfacial layer continues to increase in thickness as the Mn is deposited. A partial monolayer of arsenic was found to continuously segregate to the Mn surface regardless of the growth temperature. Epitaxial films of delta-MnGa were shown to be thermodynamically stable in contact with GaAs, although the structure of the first few atomic layers of the film at the GaAs interface was different from the rest of the delta-MnGa film. The films were ferromagnetic with an out-of-plane magnetization, and produced electroluminescence polarization signals of 5% in remanence when used as contacts in spin-LED devices. The ferromagnetic ternary phase alloy Co2MnGe was also grown epitaxially on GaAs. Similar to delta-MnGa, Co2MnGe was shown to be stable on GaAs yet still have a thin, distinctive interfacial layer. A

  2. Record performance of electrical injection sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor lasers at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ding, K; Hill, M T; Liu, Z C; Yin, L J; van Veldhoven, P J; Ning, C Z

    2013-02-25

    We demonstrate a continuous wave (CW) sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor laser with electrical injection at room temperature (RT). Our metal-cavity laser with a cavity volume of 0.67λ3 (λ = 1591 nm) shows a linewidth of 0.5 nm at RT, which corresponds to a Q-value of 3182 compared to 235 of the cavity Q, the highest Q under lasing condition for RT CW operation of any sub-wavelength metallic-cavity laser. Such record performance provides convincing evidences of the feasibility of RT CW sub-wavelength metallic-cavity lasers, thus opening a wide range of practical possibilities of novel nanophotonic devices based on metal-semiconductor structures.

  3. Thermodynamically stable Metal/III-V compound-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. S.; Lince, J. R.; Tsai, C. T.; Pugh, J. H.

    1986-02-01

    Chemical reactions that occur at a metal/III-V compound-semiconductor interface should be minimized if the change in Gibbs free energy of the bulk materials with respect to any possible reaction products is positive. However, the large positive change in entropy caused by vaporization of the highly volatile group V elements is a very important contribution to the Gibbs free energy of these systems, especially at higher temperatures. Thus, a particular metal/III-V compound-semiconductor interface may be thermodynamically stable at one temperature, but unstable with respect to sublimation of elemental group V species at a higher temperature if the enthalpy change for the reaction is positive. Examination of bulk phase diagrams makes it possible to rationalize the reaction products observed and to predict which will be the most stable interface for any particular metal/III-V system.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  5. Boosting photoresponse in silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector using semiconducting quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Chandan; Kim, Yonghwan; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-11-01

    Silicon based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors have faster photogeneration and carrier collection across the metal-semiconductor Schottky contacts, and CMOS integratibility compared to conventional p-n junction photodetectors. However, its operations are limited by low photogeneration, inefficient carrier-separation, and low mobility. Here, we show a simple and highly effective approach for boosting Si MSM photodetector efficiency by uniformly decorating semiconducting CdSe quantum dots on Si channel (Si-QD). Significantly higher photocurrent on/off ratio was achieved up to over 500 compared to conventional Si MSM photodetector (on/off ratio ~5) by increasing photogeneration and improving carrier separation. Furthermore, a substrate-biasing technique invoked wide range of tunable photocurrent on/off ratio in Si-QD photodetector (ranging from 2.7 to 562) by applying suitable combinations of source-drain and substrate biasing conditions. Strong photogeneration and carrier separation were achieved by employing Stark effect into the Si-QD hybrid system. These results highlight a promising method for enhancing Si MSM photodetector efficiency more than 100 times and simultaneously compatible with current silicon technologies.

  6. Boosting photoresponse in silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector using semiconducting quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Chandan; Kim, Yonghwan; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Silicon based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors have faster photogeneration and carrier collection across the metal-semiconductor Schottky contacts, and CMOS integratibility compared to conventional p-n junction photodetectors. However, its operations are limited by low photogeneration, inefficient carrier-separation, and low mobility. Here, we show a simple and highly effective approach for boosting Si MSM photodetector efficiency by uniformly decorating semiconducting CdSe quantum dots on Si channel (Si-QD). Significantly higher photocurrent on/off ratio was achieved up to over 500 compared to conventional Si MSM photodetector (on/off ratio ~5) by increasing photogeneration and improving carrier separation. Furthermore, a substrate-biasing technique invoked wide range of tunable photocurrent on/off ratio in Si-QD photodetector (ranging from 2.7 to 562) by applying suitable combinations of source-drain and substrate biasing conditions. Strong photogeneration and carrier separation were achieved by employing Stark effect into the Si-QD hybrid system. These results highlight a promising method for enhancing Si MSM photodetector efficiency more than 100 times and simultaneously compatible with current silicon technologies. PMID:27886274

  7. SEM evaluation of metallization on semiconductors. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fresh, D. L.; Adolphsen, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test method for the evaluation of metallization on semiconductors is presented and discussed. The method has been prepared in MIL-STD format for submittal as a proposed addition to MIL-STD-883. It is applicable to discrete devices and to integrated circuits and specifically addresses batch-process oriented defects. Quantitative accept/reject criteria are given for contact windows, other oxide steps, and general interconnecting metallization. Figures are provided that illustrate typical types of defects. Apparatus specifications, sampling plans, and specimen preparation and examination requirements are described. Procedures for glassivated devices and for multi-metal interconnection systems are included.

  8. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are…

  9. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are…

  10. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  11. Biomolecular detection using a metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Buzatu, Petre; Aulombard, Roger; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla; Cloitre, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    In this work, our attention was drawn towards developing affinity-based electrical biosensors, using a MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Semiconductor (SC) surfaces must be prepared before the incubations with biomolecules. The peptides route was adapted to exceed and bypass the limits revealed by other types of surface modification due to the unwanted unspecific interactions. As these peptides reveal specific recognition of materials, then controlled functionalization can be achieved. Peptides were produced by phage display technology using a library of M13 bacteriophage. After several rounds of bio-panning, the phages presenting affinities for GaAs SC were isolated; the DNA of these specific phages were sequenced, and the peptide with the highest affinity was synthesized and biotinylated. To explore the possibility of electrical detection, the MESFET fabricated with the GaAs SC were used to detect the streptavidin via the biotinylated peptide in the presence of the bovine Serum Albumin. After each surface modification step, the IDS (current between the drain and the source) of the transistor was measured and a decrease in the intensity was detected. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used in order to prove the specificity of this peptide and the specific localisation of biomolecules. In conclusion, the feasibility of producing an electrical biosensor using a MESFET has been demonstrated. Controlled placement, specific localization and detection of biomolecules on a MESFET transistor were achieved without covering the drain and the source. This method of functionalization and detection can be of great utility for biosensing application opening a new way for developing bioFETs (Biomolecular Field-Effect Transistor).

  12. P-Channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based on polarization-induced two-dimensional hole gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexiong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen

    2016-03-29

    The concept of p-channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (FET) using a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced by polarization effect is demonstrated. The existence of 2DHG near the lower interface of InGaN/GaN heterostructure is verified by theoretical simulation and capacitance-voltage profiling. The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) with Al2O3 gate dielectric shows a drain-source current density of 0.51 mA/mm at the gate voltage of -2 V and drain bias of -15 V, an ON/OFF ratio of two orders of magnitude and effective hole mobility of 10 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. The normal operation of MOSFET without freeze-out at 8 K further proves that the p-channel behavior is originated from the polarization-induced 2DHG.

  13. Effect of nitrogen incorporation into Al-based gate insulators in AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2016-10-01

    The superior physical and electrical properties of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) gate dielectrics on AlGaN/GaN substrates in terms of thermal stability, reliability, and interface quality were demonstrated by direct AlON deposition and subsequent annealing. Nitrogen incorporation into alumina was proven to be beneficial both for suppressing intermixing at the insulator/AlGaN interface and reducing the number of electrical defects in Al2O3 films. Consequently, we achieved high-quality AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with improved stability against charge injection and a reduced interface state density as low as 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The impact of nitrogen incorporation into the insulator will be discussed on the basis of experimental findings.

  14. Device and Circuit Codesign Strategy for Application to Low-Noise Amplifier Based on Silicon Nanowire Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seongjae Cho,; Hee-Sauk Jhon,; Jung Hoon Lee,; Se Hwan Park,; Hyungcheol Shin,; Byung-Gook Park,

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a full-range approach from device level to circuit level design is performed for RF application of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Both DC and AC analyses have been conducted to confirm the advantages of an SNW MOSFET over the conventional planar (CPL) MOSFET device having dimensional equivalence. Besides the intrinsic characteristic parameters, the extrinsic resistance and capacitance caused by wiring components are extracted from each device. On the basis of these intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, a multi-fingered 5.8 GHz low-noise amplifier (LNA) design adopting SNW MOSFETs has been achieved, which shows an improved gain of 17.5 dB and a noise figure of 3.1 dB over a CPL MOSFET LNA.

  15. Magnetization dynamics and spin diffusion in semiconductors and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywinski, Lukasz

    2007-12-01

    Spintronics is an emerging field of research focused on introducing the electron spin degree of freedom into electronics. Its aims include devising new means of magnetization manipulation in ferromagnets and creating systems in which the electrical expression of spin-related phenomena is possible. In this dissertation we present theoretical work important for both of these goals. In a process of ultrafast light-induced demagnetization the magnetization of a ferromagnet decreases on a sub-picosecond time-scale following an excitation by a strong laser pulse. We present a theory of this phenomenon which is applicable to ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors. Using it we qualitatively explain the experimental results obtained recently in these materials. We also give a theory of ultrafast demagnetization in transition metals, in which we put previously proposed approaches on a sound conceptual basis, and analyze a new mechanism of demagnetization due to emission of spin waves by hot carriers. Recent progress in growth of metal-semiconductor interfaces has enabled efficient spin-polarized transport between metallic ferromagnets and semiconductors such as GaAs. We present a theory of diffusive spin transport in such metal-semiconductor structures. In contrast to popular one-dimensional approach, we take into account realistic two-dimensional lateral geometry of these systems. We also focus on room temperature regime. Our analysis of spin accumulation achievable in systems of sub-micron dimensions leads to a proposal of a new family of spintronic devices with multiple ferromagnetic terminals in contact with a semiconductor channel. We show that in a three-terminal "spin transistor" digital electric expression of spin accumulation is possible. We also calculate the time-dependent spin transport induced by rotation of one of the magnets in this system, and we show that electrical sensing of magnetization dynamics is realistic in metal-semiconductor structures. An

  16. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  17. Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A.; Henderson, Eric J.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO3 leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  18. Dynamical excitonic effects in metals and semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Del Sole, Rodolfo

    2003-10-24

    The dynamics of an electron-hole pair induced by the time-dependent screened Coulomb interaction is discussed. In contrast to the case where the static electron-hole interaction is considered we demonstrate the occurrence of important dynamical excitonic effects in the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. This is illustrated in the calculated absorption spectra of noble metals (copper and silver) and silicon. Dynamical corrections strongly affect the spectra, partially canceling dynamical self-energy effects and leading to good agreement with experiment.

  19. Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fine, George F.; Cavanagh, Leon M.; Afonja, Ayo; Binions, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. PMID:22219672

  20. The realization of half-metal and spin-semiconductor for metal adatoms on arsenene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng; Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2016-12-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the adsorption of 15 different metal adatoms on silicenelike arsenene. The adsorption energies, geometries, density of states, dipole moments, work functions, net magnetic moments and Bader charges transferred from adatoms to arsenene sheet are calculated. All of the 15 metal adatoms on arsenene have binding energies larger than cohesive energies of the bulk metal, implying that stable adsorbates can be formed. As a result of the localized states originating from adatoms, the adsorption systems show a rich variety of electronic properties, such as metal, half-metal, semiconducting, and spin-semiconducting behaviors. The Co doped arsenene displays a half-metal property. The adsorption of Cu, Ag, and Au turns semiconducting arsenene into a narrow gap spin-semiconductor. These results indicate potential applications of functionalizations of silicenelike arsenene with metal adatoms, in particular for spintronics and dilute magnetic semiconductor materials.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod using template synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong; Hong, Junki; Chung, Ilsub

    2009-07-15

    The authors attempted to fabricate and characterize one dimensional metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) nanorod using a template. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) and polypyrrole (Ppy) were chosen as n-type and p-type semiconductor materials, respectively, whereas Au was chosen as a metal electrode. The fabrication of the nanorod was achieved by ''template synthesis'' method using polycarbonate membrane. The structure of the fabricated nanorod was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, the electrical properties of MSM nanorods were characterized using scanning probe microscopy (Seiko Instruments, SPA 300 HV) by probing with a conductive cantilever. I-V characteristics as a function of the temperature give the activation energy, as well as the barrier height of a metal-semiconductor contact, which is useful to understand the conduction mechanism of MSM nanorods.

  2. Spin-Orbit Interaction in Metals, Elementary Semiconductors, and Semisonductor Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mašović, D. R.; Vukajilović, F. R.

    1983-06-01

    The general analytic formulas for matrix elements of spin-orbit interaction in metals, elementary semiconductors, and binary semiconductor compounds which belongs to cubic crystal systems are obtained on the basis of Roothaan-Hartree-Fock atomic orbitals.

  3. Radiation hardening of metal-oxide semi-conductor (MOS) devices by boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1974-01-01

    Technique using boron effectively protects metal-oxide semiconductor devices from ionizing radiation without using shielding materials. Boron is introduced into insulating gate oxide layer at semiconductor-insulator interface.

  4. A Nanocrystallite Si based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photosensors and Solar Energy Transformers with Enhanced Responsivity at UV-blue Wavelengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    Based MOS Diode by Interfacial Precipitated Si Nano-Pyramids”, 2006 Integrated Photonics Research and Applications (IPRA) and Nanophotonics (NANO...Jen Chou, “Anomalous Absorption of Silicon Nanocrystals in Silicon-rich SiO1.25 Matrix Precipitated by CO2 Laser Annealing”, 2006 Integrated Photonics Research

  5. Amorphous metallizations for high-temperature semiconductor device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J. D.; Perepezko, J. H.; Nordman, J. E.; Kang-Jin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The initial results of work on a class of semiconductor metallizations which appear to hold promise as primary metallizations and diffusion barriers for high temperature device applications are presented. These metallizations consist of sputter-deposited films of high T sub g amorphous-metal alloys which (primarily because of the absence of grain boundaries) exhibit exceptionally good corrosion-resistance and low diffusion coefficients. Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, W-Si, and Mo-Si were deposited on Si, GaAs, GaP, and various insulating substrates. The films adhere extremely well to the substrates and remain amorphous during thermal cycling to at least 500 C. Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements indicate atomic diffussivities in the 10 to the -19th power sq cm/S range at 450 C.

  6. Exploiting Semiconductor to Metallic Phase Transformation in Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Ohmic contact Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappera, Rajesh; Voiry, Damien; Jen, Wesley; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Gupta, Gautam; Mohite, Aditya; Chhowalla, Manish; Material Science department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA Team; CenterIntegrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87544, US Team

    2014-03-01

    Achieving ohmic contacts to transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, WSe2 and MoSe2) has been a challenge for researchers owing to the formation of a large Schottky barrier between metal and semiconductor. This results in low on-currents, mobilities and sub-threshold swings in the devices made with these materials. Here we report a universal strategy using chemical approach to reversibly transform the semiconducting phase (2H) to metallic phase (1T). Taking advantage of the metallic phase, we have fabricated hybrid transistors, which have 1T phase contacts and semiconducting 2H phase of the material as the channel. The metallic phase dramatically reduces the Schottky barrier between the metal and the semiconductor thereby mitigating the high contact resistance issues. This strategy should be applicable to several other applications such as catalysis, supercapacitors and batteries. Detailed synthesis, structural, electrical and optical characterization will be described.

  7. Printing Peptide arrays with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Felix F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Muenster, Bastian; Striffler, Jakob; Liu, Fanny C; Ralf Bischoff, F; Doersam, Edgar; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    : In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art peptide array technologies, comparing the spot technique, lithographical methods, and microelectronic chip-based approaches. Based on this analysis, we describe a novel peptide array synthesis method with a microelectronic chip printer. By means of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip, charged bioparticles can be patterned on its surface. The bioparticles serve as vehicles to transfer molecule monomers to specific synthesis spots. Our chip offers 16,384 pixel electrodes on its surface with a spot-to-spot pitch of 100 μm. By switching the voltage of each pixel between 0 and 100 V separately, it is possible to generate arbitrary particle patterns for combinatorial molecule synthesis. Afterwards, the patterned chip surface serves as a printing head to transfer the particle pattern from its surface to a synthesis substrate. We conducted a series of proof-of-principle experiments to synthesize high-density peptide arrays. Our solid phase synthesis approach is based on the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl protection group strategy. After melting the particles, embedded monomers diffuse to the surface and participate in the coupling reaction to the surface. The method demonstrated herein can be easily extended to the synthesis of more complicated artificial molecules by using bioparticles with artificial molecular building blocks. The possibility of synthesizing artificial peptides was also shown in an experiment in which we patterned biotin particles in a high-density array format. These results open the road to the development of peptide-based functional modules for diverse applications in biotechnology.

  8. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. |; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K.; Suo, Z.

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  9. Role of direct electron-phonon coupling across metal-semiconductor interfaces in thermal transport via molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by significant interest in metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator interfaces and superlattices for energy conversion applications, we developed a molecular dynamics-based model that captures the thermal transport role of conduction electrons in metals and heat transport across these types of interface. Key features of our model, denoted eleDID (electronic version of dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom), are the natural description of interfaces and free surfaces and the ability to control the spatial extent of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling. Non-local e-ph coupling enables the energy of conduction electrons to be transferred directly to the semiconductor/insulator phonons (as opposed to having to first couple to the phonons in the metal). We characterize the effect of the spatial e-ph coupling range on interface resistance by simulating heat transport through a metal-semiconductor interface to mimic the conditions of ultrafast laser heating experiments. Direct energy transfer from the conduction electrons to the semiconductor phonons not only decreases interfacial resistance but also increases the ballistic transport behavior in the semiconductor layer. These results provide new insight for experiments designed to characterize e-ph coupling and thermal transport at the metal-semiconductor/insulator interfaces.

  10. Role of direct electron-phonon coupling across metal-semiconductor interfaces in thermal transport via molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-07-21

    Motivated by significant interest in metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator interfaces and superlattices for energy conversion applications, we developed a molecular dynamics-based model that captures the thermal transport role of conduction electrons in metals and heat transport across these types of interface. Key features of our model, denoted eleDID (electronic version of dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom), are the natural description of interfaces and free surfaces and the ability to control the spatial extent of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling. Non-local e-ph coupling enables the energy of conduction electrons to be transferred directly to the semiconductor/insulator phonons (as opposed to having to first couple to the phonons in the metal). We characterize the effect of the spatial e-ph coupling range on interface resistance by simulating heat transport through a metal-semiconductor interface to mimic the conditions of ultrafast laser heating experiments. Direct energy transfer from the conduction electrons to the semiconductor phonons not only decreases interfacial resistance but also increases the ballistic transport behavior in the semiconductor layer. These results provide new insight for experiments designed to characterize e-ph coupling and thermal transport at the metal-semiconductor/insulator interfaces.

  11. All-Graphene Planar Self-Switching MISFEDs, Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-01-01

    Graphene normally behaves as a semimetal because it lacks a bandgap, but when it is patterned into nanoribbons a bandgap can be introduced. By varying the width of these nanoribbons this band gap can be tuned from semiconducting to metallic. This property allows metallic and semiconducting regions within a single Graphene monolayer, which can be used in realising two-dimensional (2D) planar Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor field effect devices. Based on this concept, we present a new class of nano-scale planar devices named Graphene Self-Switching MISFEDs (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Diodes), in which Graphene is used as the metal and the semiconductor concurrently. The presented devices exhibit excellent current-voltage characteristics while occupying an ultra-small area with sub-10 nm dimensions and an ultimate thinness of a single atom. Quantum mechanical simulation results, based on the Extended Huckel method and Nonequilibrium Green's Function Formalism, show that a Graphene Self-Switching MISFED with a channel as short as 5 nm can achieve forward-to-reverse current rectification ratios exceeding 5000. PMID:24496307

  12. Magnetoresistive properties of nanostructured magnetic metals, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, N. I.; Romashev, L. N.; Naumov, S. V.; Saranin, A. A.; Zotov, A. V.; Olyanich, D. A.; Kotlyar, V. G.; Utas, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider methods for controlling magnetoresistive parameters of magnetic metal superlattices, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors. By reducing the thickness of ferromagnetic layers in superlattices (e.g., Fe layers in Fe/Cr superlattices), it is possible to form superparamagnetic clustered-layered nanostructures with a magnetoresistance weakly depending on the direction of the external magnetic field, which is very important for applications of such type of materials. Producing Mn vacancies and additionally annealing lanthanum manganites in the oxygen atmosphere, it is possible to increase their magnetoresistance by more than four orders of magnitude. By changing the thickness of p- n junction in the structure of ferromagnetic semiconductors, their magnetoresistance can be increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  13. Multiparameter admittance spectroscopy for metal-oxide-semiconductor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscator, J.; Raeissi, B.; Engström, O.

    2009-09-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is extended for measuring capacitance and conductance on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as a function of gate voltage, frequency, and temperature. An automatic setup has been designed for collecting data along these dimensions in one measurement cycle. The theory for admittance spectroscopy has been developed by starting from basic charge carrier statistics. Using numerical integration of energy dependent parameters instead of the commonly used analytical solution, conductance dispersion curves are obtained which do not need to be adjusted by assuming lateral surface potential variations at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Also, we find that interface state densities extracted by using traditional methods are four times lower than those obtained by using our theory. Experimental data presented in three-dimensional plots are compared with theoretical calculations, revealing the possibilities and limitations of the conductance method.

  14. A comparison between HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates and ternary HfxAlyO compound as the dielectric material in InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Igor; Pokroy, Boaz; Eizenberg, Moshe; Ritter, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We compare the electrical properties of HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates with those of the ternary HfxAlyO compound in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The dielectrics were deposited by atomic layer deposition on InGaAs. Water, ozone, and oxygen plasma were tested as oxygen precursors, and best results were obtained using water. The total dielectric thickness was kept constant in our experiments. It was found that the effective dielectric constant increased and the leakage current decreased with the number of periods. Best results were obtained for the ternary compound. The effect of the sublayer thicknesses on the electrical properties of the interface was carefully investigated, as well as the role of post-metallization annealing. Possible explanations for the observed trends are provided. We conclude that the ternary HfxAlyO compound is more favorable than the nano-laminates approach for InGaAs based MOS transistor applications.

  15. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOEpatents

    Zutavern, Fred J.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Buttram, Malcolm T.; Mar, Alan; Helgeson, Wesley D.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Baca, Albert G.; Chow, Weng W.; Vawter, G. Allen

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  16. Water-soluble semiconductor nanocrystals cap exchanged with metalated ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Snee, Preston T

    2011-01-25

    We report a novel method for cap exchange of emissive semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) using thiol functional ligands metalated with zinc. Utilizing this method, the NCs can be several times brighter and much more resistant to precipitation compared to control samples. This method has been applied using a variety of caps such as dihydrolipoic acid and cysteine. Our data suggest that the improved properties of the metalated cap exchanged NCs are due to a ligand metathesis process occurring at the NC surface where the zinc complex reacts with NC surface bound ligands, gently removing them and replacing them with another cap. Overall, the use of metalated ligands helps resolve many long-standing issues concerning the application of small cap exchanged NCs for biological imaging.

  17. Ion Implantation Effects on the Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapsir, Andrie Setiawan

    1988-12-01

    In this thesis, the effects of ion implantation on metal-semiconductor interfaces are studied. Hydrogen ions have been used as the implanted species. The implantation is carried out on Al/n-Si Schottky contacts. Electrical characterizations, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements, and the ^{15}N hydrogen profiling technique have been used to study the effects of ion implantation. It is demonstrated that the defect centers in the depletion region created by hydrogen implantation have more likely negative or possibly neutral signatures, rather than a positive signature as has been previously speculated. These negatively charged centers compensate for the positive donor resulting in a widening of the depletion region and reduction in the capacitance of the metal-semiconductor contacts. The tendency of hydrogen to passivate its own damage which results in the recovery of electronic transport across the metal-semiconductor junction upon low temperature heat treatment is also demonstrated. In connection with the behavior of hydrogen in silicon, in the second part of this thesis, detailed theoretical calculations on the hydrogen passivation of defects in silicon are carried out. A particular type of defect, namely, a substitutional sulfur in silicon, is chosen and is studied using the modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap (MINDO/3) molecular orbital method. It is found that the sulfur center can be passivated using one or two hydrogen atoms. The calculations indicate that the most stable positions of the hydrogen atoms are between the sulfur and its silicon neighbors. The hydrogens bond to the nearest silicon atoms and only weakly interact with the sulfur. Thermochemistry considerations predict that a single hydrogen passivates the sulfur center, provided these centers are in abundance in the silicon. Hydrogen ion implantation has also been carried out on Schottky contacts having a large difference in metal work function, Ti/p-Si and Pt

  18. Development of a Fully Integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Image Sensor-Based Device for Real-Time In vivo Fluorescence Imaging inside the Mouse Hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, David C.; Nakagawa, Takuma; Tokuda, Takashi; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Tamura, Hideki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ohta, Jun

    2007-04-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated the potential of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imaging device for use in imaging of the mouse brain. We showed that the device is capable of detecting fluorescence signal inside the mouse brain and successfully imaged real-time protease activity inside the hippocampus. In this work, we have improved the imaging device by integrating an excitation light source in the form of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode chip and an injection needle onto the sensor chip. This results in a compact single device imaging system for minimal invasive imaging inside the mouse brain. Also experimental repeatability is improved which enabled us to successful perform calibration of fluorophore concentration using the device. Fluorescence imaging experiments inside the brain phantom as well as in the mouse brain show that the device is capable of real time fluorescence detection. Using the device, we found that diffusion rate of chemical injected into the brain is smaller than 10 pmol/min. This work is expected to lead to the successful use of a CMOS imaging device for the study of the functions of the brain.

  19. P-Channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based on polarization-induced two-dimensional hole gas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kexiong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    The concept of p-channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (FET) using a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced by polarization effect is demonstrated. The existence of 2DHG near the lower interface of InGaN/GaN heterostructure is verified by theoretical simulation and capacitance-voltage profiling. The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) with Al2O3 gate dielectric shows a drain-source current density of 0.51 mA/mm at the gate voltage of −2 V and drain bias of −15 V, an ON/OFF ratio of two orders of magnitude and effective hole mobility of 10 cm2/Vs at room temperature. The normal operation of MOSFET without freeze-out at 8 K further proves that the p-channel behavior is originated from the polarization-induced 2DHG. PMID:27021054

  20. Optical control of capacitance in a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode with embedded metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Ankonina, G.; Kauffmann, Y.; Atiya, G.; Kaplan, W. D.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor with flat capacitance voltage characteristics and a small quadratic voltage capacitance coefficient. The device characteristics resemble a metal-insulator-metal diode except that here the capacitance depends on illumination and exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The device incorporates Fe nanoparticles (NPs), mixed with SrF2, which are embedded in an insulator stack of SiO2 and HfO2. Positively charged Fe ions induce dipole type traps with an electronic polarization that is enhanced by photogenerated carriers injected from the substrate and/or by inter nanoparticle exchange of carriers. The obtained characteristics are compared with those of five other MIS structures: two based on Fe NPs, one with and the other without SrF2 sublayers. Additionally, devices contain Co NPs embedded in SrF2 sublayers, and finally, two structures have no NPs, with one based on a stack of SiO2 and HfO2 and the other which also includes SrF2. Only structures containing Fe NPs, which are incorporated into SrF2, yield a voltage independent capacitance, the level of which can be changed by illumination. These properties are essential in radio frequency/analog mixed signal applications.

  1. Optical control of capacitance in a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode with embedded metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mikhelashvili, V; Ankonina, G; Kauffmann, Y; Atiya, G; Kaplan, W D; Padmanabhan, R; Eisenstein, G

    2017-06-07

    This paper describes a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor with flat capacitance voltage characteristics and a small quadratic voltage capacitance coefficient. The device characteristics resemble a metal-insulator-metal diode except that here the capacitance depends on illumination and exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The device incorporates Fe nanoparticles (NPs), mixed with SrF2, which are embedded in an insulator stack of SiO2 and HfO2. Positively charged Fe ions induce dipole type traps with an electronic polarization that is enhanced by photogenerated carriers injected from the substrate and/or by inter nanoparticle exchange of carriers. The obtained characteristics are compared with those of five other MIS structures: two based on Fe NPs, one with and the other without SrF2 sublayers. Additionally, devices contain Co NPs embedded in SrF2 sublayers, and finally, two structures have no NPs, with one based on a stack of SiO2 and HfO2 and the other which also includes SrF2. Only structures containing Fe NPs, which are incorporated into SrF2, yield a voltage independent capacitance, the level of which can be changed by illumination. These properties are essential in radio frequency/analog mixed signal applications.

  2. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Metal-Semiconductor Diode Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We study recently reported drain current Id-drain voltage Vd characteristics of a carbon nanotube metal semiconductor diode device with the gate voltage Vg applied to modulate the carrier density in the nanotube. The diode was kink-shaped at the metal-semiconductor interface. It was shown that (1) larger negative Vg blocked Id more effectively in the negative Vd region, resulting in the rectifying Id-Vd characteristics, and that (2) positive Vg allowed Id in the both Vd polarities, resulting in the non-rectifying characteristics. The negative Vd was the Schottky reverse direction, judging from the negligible Id behavior for a wide region of -4 V less than Vd less than 0 V, with Vg = -4 V. Such negative Vg would attract positive charges from the metallic electrodes (charge reservoir) to the nanotube and lower the nanotube Fermi energy (EF). With larger negative Vg, the experiment showed that the Schottky forward direction (Vd greater than 0) had a smaller turn-on voltage and the Schottky reverse direction (Vd less than 0) was more resistant to the tunneling breakdown. Therefore, the majority carriers in the transport would be electrons since they can see a lower tunneling barrier (shallower built-in potential) in the forward direction when EF is lowered, and a thicker tunneling barrier (Schottky barrier) in the reverse direction due to the reduction in the electron density when EF is lowered.

  3. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Manso, Miguel; Torres-Costa, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented. PMID:22346691

  4. Giant geometrically amplified piezoresistance in metal-semiconductor hybrid resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ole; Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik V.

    2008-12-01

    We show that very high geometrically amplified piezoresistance can indeed be obtained in microstructured metal-semiconductor hybrid devices, even significantly higher amplification factors than the factor of approximately 8 demonstrated recently by Rowe and co-workers may be achieved. However, we also show that this amplification cannot be used to realize high sensitivity sensor devices due to limitation of the applied voltage across the device when the transfer resistance is smaller than the total resistance of the device. In that case, the sensitivity in units of V V-1 Pa-1 is always less than the sensitivity of conventional piezoresistors fabricated in the same piezoresistive material.

  5. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Szyszka, A. E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-28

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  6. Semiconductor-Based Nanotechnology Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    30–November 3, 2011, Scottsdale, Arizona. 9. Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal-doped ZnO; Lytia A. Smith**, Theron R. Fereday...12. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Sol-gel Powders; Amanda R. Snyder**, Lytia A. Smith**, Theron R. Fereday**, Jerry D. Harris, Aaron Thurber...Chemical Society (San Francisco, California, March 21 - 25, 2010). 13. Growth and Characterization of ZnO Thin Films; Theron Fereday**, Lytia Smith

  7. Broadband terahertz generation using the semiconductor-metal transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Charipar, Nicholas A. Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-01-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of broadband terahertz emitters based on the semiconductor-metal transition in thin film VO{sub 2} (vanadium dioxide). With the appropriate geometry, picosecond electrical pulses are generated by illuminating 120 nm thick VO{sub 2} with 280 fs pulses from a femtosecond laser. These ultrafast electrical pulses are used to drive a simple dipole antenna, generating broadband terahertz radiation.

  8. Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Electron Pump for Quantum Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehl, X.; Voisin, B.; Charron, T.; Clapera, P.; Ray, S.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Djordjevic, S.; Devoille, L.; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.

    2013-04-01

    Electron pumps capable of delivering a current higher than 100 pA with sufficient accuracy are likely to become the direct mise en pratique of the possible new quantum definition of the ampere. We present here single-island hybrid metal-semiconductor transistor pumps that combine the simplicity and efficiency of Coulomb blockade in metals with the unsurpassed performances of silicon switches. Robust and simple pumping at 650 MHz and 0.5 K is demonstrated. The pumped current obtained over a voltage-bias range of 1.4 mV corresponds to a relative deviation of 5×10-4 from the calculated value, well within the 1.5×10-3 uncertainty of the measurement setup. Multicharge pumping can be performed. The simple design that is fully integrated into an industrial microelectronics process makes it an ideal candidate for national measurement institutes to realize and share a future quantum ampere.

  9. Metal oxide semiconductors in PEC splitting of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsangi, Vibha R.

    2007-09-01

    With hydrogen being accepted as fuel for the future, the world is looking forward to development of clean and sustainable methods of its production from renewable energy. In this context, area of research in the PEC splitting of water assumes great significance and the challenge is to develop corrosion resistant, chemically stable semiconductor that absorbs sunlight in the visible region and also has the band edges matching to the redox level of water. The advent of nanotechnology has opened new vistas in the production of semiconductor with large surface area for solar energy absorption and other favourable properties, which has lead to restudy the old workhorses, viz α-Fe IIO 3 and TiO II in the PEC splitting of water. This communication reports the study on metal oxides, towards the photoelectrochemical splitting of water as function of material properties and characteristics of semiconductor- electrolyte junction, viz; particle size, suitable dopants, crystalline phase, surface morphology, resistivity, bandgap, donor density and flatband potential. Effect of sensitizers and surface modification has also been investigated. Both the techniques of surface modification: (i) depositing metal dots and (ii) swift heavy ion irradiation in α-Fe IIO 3 were observed to be much effective in improving the photoresponse of the material. α-Fe IIO 3 thin films prepared using spray pyrolysis having Zn dots (dot height: 260 Å) on its surface exhibited the best of photocurrent density (1.82 mA/cm2), at 0.6 V applied bias. Nitrogen doped nanostructured TiO II prepared by sol gel method exhibited much better photoresponse as compared to any other dopant.

  10. Wide-area thin film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Charles B.; Glinz, Andreas P.; Zhu, Zheng; Bechtel, James H.; Frimel, Steven M.; Roenker, Kenneth P.

    1998-04-01

    Novel interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal structures offer new approaches for the development of broad-area, high-speed photodetectors to be used in optical free space communications and light detection and ranging applications. Inherent advantages include: lower capacitance than typical p-i-n structures, a wide dynamic range, and ease of fabrication. We have constructed broad area metal- semiconductor-metal photodetectors (MSM-PDs) by means of epitaxial liftoff and grafting technologies. Two computer models have been used to examine the effects of design parameters on the performance of broad-area, high-speed MSM- PD devices. The first model indicates that inverting the membrane so that the electrodes are placed between the non- conducting host substrate and the semiconductor material improves the signal-to-noise ration of the device, expanding its dynamic range. This model suggests that processing of the backside of the semiconductor material with antireflection coatings further improves device performance. Carrier collection behavior described by the second model suggests new electrode configurations for improved high speed operation which can only be applied to an inverted MSM-PD carried on a thin film membrane. A number of different fully passivated large area MSM-PD configurations have been fabricated and tested. Initial dark current data are compared favorably to published results.

  11. Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martino, T.; Klavetter, E.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1993-08-01

    Synthesis of metal or semiconductor nanoclusters in microheterogeneous oil-continuous inverse micelle systems is discussed. We focus on synthesis and catalytic properties of palladium, iron, and iron sulfide nanoclusters. Cluster size-control is achieved by changing the micelle size which is determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and chosen to produce cluster in size range of 1-20 nm. Cluster sizes were determined by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Cluster structure was determined by either x-ray or electron diffraction. In the case of Fe nanoclusters the crystal structure depended on the chemical nature of the surfactant micelle used in the synthesis, illustrating the important role of the surfactant during the growth process. Results of in-situ pyrene hydrogenation using size-selected Pd clusters show a significant increase in activity/total surface area as the size decreases. These clusters also proved effective as unsupported catalysts for direct coal hydropyrolysis, even at very low metal concentrations. Synthesis and optical features of a new semiconductor cluster material, FeS{sub 2}, is discussed with regard to its use in photocatalysis. Application of FeS{sub 2} in coal hydrogenolysis reactions has improved yields of short chain hydrocarbons significantly compared to conventional FeS{sub 2} powders.

  12. Comparison between highly doped semiconductor and metal infrared antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanxiang; Lai, Jianjun; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Changhong

    2015-10-01

    Optical antenna can strongly enhance the interaction of light with matter by their ability to localize electromagnetic fields on nano-metric scale. This allows for the engineering of absorption capabilities to visible and infrared detectors with very small active areas. In this study, we focused on the study of metal and semiconductor infrared antennas for nano-bolometer application. The infrared antennas are applied for increasing the effective absorbing across section, enhancing the field intensity at the gap of the antennas and improving the absorbance of bolometer materials located at the gap. We perform numerical simulation of the characteristics of infrared antennas and analysis the influence of various parameters of antennas (length, wide, and material types) and optimized these parameters to achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna. We also highlight the comparisons of field enhancement of infrared antenna materials between metal and highly doped semiconductor and discuss some practical issues related to the application of infrared antenna for infrared detectors.

  13. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  14. Rapid Three-Dimensional Printing in Water Using Semiconductor-Metal Hybrid Nanoparticles as Photoinitiators.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Amol Ashok; Halivni, Shira; Waiskopf, Nir; Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Soreni-Harari, Michal; Bergbreiter, Sarah; Banin, Uri; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2017-07-12

    Additive manufacturing processes enable fabrication of complex and functional three-dimensional (3D) objects ranging from engine parts to artificial organs. Photopolymerization, which is the most versatile technology enabling such processes through 3D printing, utilizes photoinitiators that break into radicals upon light absorption. We report on a new family of photoinitiators for 3D printing based on hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoparticles. Unlike conventional photoinitiators that are consumed upon irradiation, these particles form radicals through a photocatalytic process. Light absorption by the semiconductor nanorod is followed by charge separation and electron transfer to the metal tip, enabling redox reactions to form radicals in aerobic conditions. In particular, we demonstrate their use in 3D printing in water, where they simultaneously form hydroxyl radicals for the polymerization and consume dissolved oxygen that is a known inhibitor. We also demonstrate their potential for two-photon polymerization due to their giant two-photon absorption cross section.

  15. Theoretical Calculations Supporting Investigation of Metal Contacts to Ultrasmall Semiconductor Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR * I STRUCTURES* Fernando Flores Departamento de Fisica del Estado S6lido Universidad Aut6noma Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain CONTRACT: DAJA 45-84...project is to perform ab initio electronic structure calculations of the metal-III-V semi- conductor interface as the semiconductor layer becomes very thin...states. .e- Compared with the usual metal- semiconductor junctions I we have the additional problem associated with the different interfaces * I of the

  16. Generalized Electron Counting in Determination of Metal-Induced Reconstruction of Compound Semiconductor Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lixin; Wang, E. G.; Xue, Qi-Kun; Zhang, S. B.; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on theoretical analysis, first-principles calculations, and experimental observations, we establish a generic guiding principle, embodied in generalized electron counting (GEC), that governs the surface reconstruction of compound semiconductors induced by different metal adsorbates. Within the GEC model, the adsorbates serve as an electron bath, donating or accepting the right number of electrons as the host surface chooses a specific reconstruction that obeys the classic electron-counting model. The predictive power of the GEC model is illustrated for a wide range of metal adsorbates.

  17. Coupled exciton-plasmon polaritons at a semiconductor-metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Halevi, P.

    1992-10-01

    An interface between a pure semiconductor and a metal may bind coupled exciton-plasmon polaritons. These propagate above the longitudinal exciton frequency and, therefore, may be excited by direct incidence of p-polarized light on a thin metallic film on top of the semiconductor as a substrate. Our numerical results for ZnO/Ag incorporate spatial dispersion.

  18. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Metal-Semiconductor Diode Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We study recently reported drain current I(sub d)-drain voltage V(sub d) characteristics of a carbon nanotube metal-semiconductor diode device with the gate voltage V(sub g) applied to modulate the carrier density in the nanotube. The diode was kink-shaped at the metal-semiconductor interface. It was shown that (1) larger negative V(sub g) blocked I(sub d) more effectively in the negative V(sub d) region, resulting in the rectifying I(sub d)-V(sub d) characteristics, and that (2) positive V(sub g) allowed I(sub d) in the both V(sub d) polarities, resulting in the non-rectifying characteristics. The negative V(sub d) was the Schottky reverse direction, judging from the negligible I(sub d) behavior for a wide region of -4 V (is less than) V(sub d) (is less than) 0 V, with V(sub g) = -4 V. Such negative V(sub g) would attract positive charges from the metallic electrodes (charge reservoir) to the nanotube and lower the nanotube Fermi energy (E(sub F)). With larger negative V(sub g), the experiment showed that the Schottky forward direction (V(sub d) (is greater than) 0) had a smaller turn-on voltage and the Schottky reverse direction (V(sub d) (is less than) 0) was more resistant to the tunneling breakdown. Therefore, the majority carriers in the transport would be electrons since they can see a lower tunneling barrier (shallower built-in potential) in the forward direction when E(sub F) is lowered, and a thicker tunneling barrier (Schottky barrier) in the reverse direction due to the reduction in the electron density when E(sub F) is lowered.

  19. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-25

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  20. Design and control of interface reaction between Al-based dielectrics and AlGaN layer in AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-07-01

    Important clues for achieving well-behaved AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Al-based gate dielectrics were systematically investigated on the basis of electrical and physical characterizations. We found that low-temperature deposition of alumina insulators on AlGaN surfaces is crucial to improve the interface quality, thermal stability, and variability of MOS devices by suppressing Ga diffusion into the gate oxides. Moreover, aluminum oxynitride grown in a reactive nitric atmosphere was proven to expand the optimal process window that would improve the interface quality and to enhance immunity against charge injection into the gate dielectrics. The results constitute common guidelines for achieving high-performance and reliable AlGaN/GaN MOS devices.

  1. Spin-Seebeck Effect in III-V Based Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Christopher M.; Myers, Roberto C.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    The spin-Seebeck effect has now been observed in metals^1 (NiFe), semiconductors^2 (GaMnAs), and insulators^3 (YIG). It consists of a thermally generated spin distribution that is phonon driven. Here we extend our measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect to other group III-V based magnetic semiconductors and present measurements of conventional thermomagnetic and galvanomagnetic properties as well as the spin-Seebeck effect. Work supported by the National Science Foundation, NSF-CBET-1133589 1. K. Uchida, et al., Nature 455 778 (2008) 2. C.M. Jaworski et al., Nature Materials 8 898 (2010), Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 186601 (2011) 3. K. Uchida, et al., Nature Materials 8 893 (2010)

  2. Incorporation of sol-gel-derived Mg into InZnO semiconductor thin films for metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Wu, Po-Hsien

    2017-03-01

    We incorporated Mg into InZnO (MIZO) semiconductor thin films and fabricated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetectors by the sol-gel method. The effects of incorporating Mg into IZO films on the electrical and UV photoresponse properties were investigated and photoconductive UV detectors were realized using IZO-based films. The Mg content ([Mg]/[In + Zn]) was varied from 0 to 20% in the resultant solutions. Each as-coated sol-gel film was preheated at 300 °C for 10 min and annealed at 450 °C for 2 h to form dense oxide films. Results showed that all as-prepared IZO-based films had an amorphous phase structure, displayed a flat surface, and exhibited a high visible transmittance (≥90.0%). We found that UV light illumination increased the photocurrents in all IZO-based films, and that MIZO photodetectors exhibited better photocurrent generation than pure IZO photodetectors. The 20% Mg-doped IZO photodetectors exhibited the highest I light-to-I dark ratio (8.57) and the highest percentage of sensitivity (756.9).

  3. First-principles study of semiconductor and metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho

    In this dissertation, we study the electronic and geometric structure of semiconductors and metal surfaces based on quantum mechanical first-principles calculations. We determine the geometry of vacancy defects of hydrogen adsorbed on a Pd(111) surface by treating the motion of a hydrogen atom, in addition to electrons, quantum mechanically. The calculated ground state wave function has high probability density in the hcp site located at the center of the vacancy instead of the fcc sites where the potential is minimum and hydrogen atoms on a Pd(111) surface normally adsorb. The geometry of quantum mechanically determined divacancy provides a simple and clear explanation for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of these defects that appear as three-lobed objects as observed in recent experiments [Mitsui, et al, Nature 422, 705 (2003)]. We employ the same principle to successfully elucidate the STM images of larger size vacancy defects. Our model also provides a compelling argument to explain the unusual recent experimental result that aggregates of three or more hydrogen vacancies are much more active in adsorption of hydrogen molecules while two-vacancy defects are never inactive. The InAs (110) surfaces appear lower than GaSb in STM images. This height difference is caused primarily by differences in the electronic structure of the two materials according to our calculations in a good agreement with measurements. In contrast, local variations in the apparent height of (110) surface atoms at InSb- or GaAs-like interfaces arise primarily from geometric distortions associated with local differences in bond length. The arsenic atoms adsorb preferably at the bridge sites between the dimerized Sb atoms on Sb-terminating (001) surfaces. Indium atoms, on the other hand, have somewhat equal probabilities at a few different sites on Ga-terminating (001) surfaces. Our calculated energies for atomic intermixing indicate that anion exchanges are exothermic for As

  4. Degradation properties in metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Eiichi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Yanai, Hisayoshi

    1981-10-01

    Degradation properties in metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) structures are investigated using mainly p-channel MNOS transistors. A model is proposed on the basis of various experimental results, attributing the degradation to the passage of hole current through the SiO2 layer, followed by creation of hole traps in the SiO2 layer, and creation of interface states at the Si-SiO2 interface. A theoretical treatment of the enhancement of hole conduction in the degraded SiO2 layer of the p-channel thick-oxide MNOS transistor is performed, and the hole traps created in the SiO2 layer appear to be E' centers when the experimental results are fitted to the theoretical calculations. The nature of the interface states created by write-erase (W/E) cycling is also discussed, comparing the experimental results using a p- and an n-channel MNOS transistor.

  5. Metal-semiconductor interfacial reactions - Ni/Si system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, N. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Mayer, J. W.; Ullrich, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and channeling measurements with MeV He-4(+) ions have been used to probe the structure of the interface in the Ni/Si system. It is found that reactions occur where Ni is deposited on Si at 10 to the -10th torr: Si atoms are displaced from lattice sites, the Ni atoms are in an Si-rich environment, and the Ni/Si interface is graded in composition. Composition gradients are present at both interfaces in the Si/Ni2/Si/Ni system. For the Ni-Si system, cooling the substrate to 100 K slows down the reaction rate. The temperature dependence of the interfacial reactivity indicates the kinetic nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  6. Extraordinary electroconductance in metal-semiconductor hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Newaz, A K M; Wu, Jian; Solin, S A; Kavasseri, V R; Jin, N; Ahmed, I S; Adesida, I

    2008-06-30

    We report the phenomenon of extraordinary electroconductance in microscopic metal-semiconductor hybrid structures fabricated from GaAs epitaxial layer and a Ti thin film shunt. Four-lead Van der Pauw structures show a gain of 5.2% in electroconductance under +2.5 kVcm with zero shunt bias. The increase in the sample conductance results from the thermionic field emission of electrons and the geometrical amplification. A model provides good agreement with the experimental data and clearly demonstrates the geometry dependence of the field effect in extraordinary electroconductance (EEC). The differences between EEC devices and field effect transistors, such as junction field effect transistor (FET) and Schottky barrier gate FET, are discussed.

  7. Metal-semiconductor interfacial reactions - Ni/Si system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, N. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Mayer, J. W.; Ullrich, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and channeling measurements with MeV He-4(+) ions have been used to probe the structure of the interface in the Ni/Si system. It is found that reactions occur where Ni is deposited on Si at 10 to the -10th torr: Si atoms are displaced from lattice sites, the Ni atoms are in an Si-rich environment, and the Ni/Si interface is graded in composition. Composition gradients are present at both interfaces in the Si/Ni2/Si/Ni system. For the Ni-Si system, cooling the substrate to 100 K slows down the reaction rate. The temperature dependence of the interfacial reactivity indicates the kinetic nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  8. NO2 sensitive Au gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippini, D.; Aragón, R.; Weimar, U.

    2001-08-01

    Au gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are sensitive to NO2 in air up to 200 ppm, depending on operating temperature (100 °C to 200 °C), gate thickness (50 to 900 nm), and morphology. In the absence of catalytic properties or lattice diffusivity, a model invoking molecular surface adsorption and grain boundary diffusion is proposed, which quantitatively describes the transient and steady state response of the devices. Sensitivity is given by the arrival of the diffusing species to the gate-dielectric interface, where capacitive coupling of the adsorbed molecules induces work function changes, which shift the flat band voltage positively, opposite that observed for H2 with Pd gates, consistently with an oxidizing, rather than reducing, character.

  9. EDITORIAL: Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Phillips, Jamie; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Ma, Jack; Sabarinanthan, Jayshri; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-12-01

    This special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics reports proceedings from the Frontiers in Semiconductor-Based Devices Symposium, held in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Pallab Bhattacharya by his former doctoral students. The symposium took place at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor on 6-7 December 2009. Pallab Bhattacharya has served on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for 25 years. During this time, he has made pioneering contributions to semiconductor epitaxy, characterization of strained heterostructures, self-organized quantum dots, quantum-dot optoelectronic devices, and integrated optoelectronics. Professor Bhattacharya has been recognized for his accomplishments by membership of the National Academy of Engineering, by chaired professorships (Charles M Vest Distinguished University Professor and James R Mellor Professor of Engineering), and by selection as a Fellow of the IEEE, among numerous other honors and awards. Professor Bhattacharya has also made remarkable contributions in education, including authorship of the textbook Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Prentice Hall, 2nd edition) and the production of 60 PhD students (and counting). In fact, this development of critical human resources is one of the biggest impacts of Professor Bhattacharya's career. His guidance and dedication have shaped the varied professional paths of his students, many of whom currently enjoy successful careers in academia, industry, and government around the world. This special cluster acknowledges the importance of Professor Bhattacharya's influence as all of the contributions are from his former doctoral students. The symposium reflects the significant impact of Professor Bhattacharya's research in that the topics span diverse, critical research areas, including: semiconductor lasers and modulators, nanoscale quantum structure-based devices, flexible CMOS-based

  10. Novel optoelectronic devices based on single semiconductor nanowires (nanobelts).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Gan, Lin; Meng, Hu; Dai, Yu; Guo, Xuefeng; Qin, Guogang

    2012-04-13

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) or nanobelts (NBs) have attracted more and more attention due to their potential application in novel optoelectronic devices. In this review, we present our recent work on novel NB photodetectors, where a three-terminal metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) device structure was exploited. In contrast to the common two-terminal NB (NW) photodetectors, the MESFET-based photodetector can make a balance among overall performance parameters, which is desired for practical device applications. We also present our recent work on graphene nanoribbon/semiconductor NW (SNW) heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by taking advantage of both graphene and SNWs, we have fabricated, for the first time, the graphene-based nano-LEDs. This achievement opens a new avenue for developing graphene-based nano-electroluminescence devices. Moreover, the novel graphene/SNW hybrid devices can also find use in other applications, such as high-sensitivity sensor and transparent flexible devices in the future.

  11. Characterization of Edge Contact: Atomically Resolved Semiconductor-Metal Lateral Boundary in MoS2.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeokshin; Lee, Kiyoung; Heo, Jinseong; Oh, Youngtek; Lee, Hyangsook; Appalakondaiah, Samudrala; Ko, Wonhee; Kim, Hyo Won; Jung, Jin-Wook; Suh, Hwansoo; Min, Hongki; Jeon, Insu; Hwang, Euyheon; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2017-09-18

    Despite recent efforts for the development of transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based high-performance thin-film transistors, device performance has not improved much, mainly because of the high contact resistance at the interface between the 2D semiconductor and the metal electrode. Edge contact has been proposed for the fabrication of a high-quality electrical contact; however, the complete electronic properties for the contact resistance have not been elucidated in detail. Using the scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques, the edge contact, as well as the lateral boundary between the 2D semiconducting layer and the metalized interfacial layer, are investigated, and their electronic properties and the energy band profile across the boundary are shown. The results demonstrate a possible mechanism for the formation of an ohmic contact in homojunctions of the transition-metal dichalcogenides semiconductor-metal layers and suggest a new device scheme utilizing the low-resistance edge contact. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metal-seeded growth of III-V semiconductor nanowires: towards gold-free synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Kimberly A.; Caroff, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    Semiconductor nanowires composed of III-V materials have enormous potential to add new functionality to electronics and optical applications. However, integration of these promising structures into applications is severely limited by the current near-universal reliance on gold nanoparticles as seeds for nanowire fabrication. Although highly controlled fabrication is achieved, this metal is entirely incompatible with the Si-based electronics industry. In this Feature we review the progress towards developing gold-free bottom-up synthesis techniques for III-V semiconductor nanowires. Three main categories of nanowire synthesis are discussed: selective-area epitaxy, self-seeding and foreign metal seeding, with main focus on the metal-seeded techniques. For comparison, we also review the development of foreign metal seeded synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires. Finally, directions for future development and anticipated important trends are discussed. We anticipate significant development in the use of foreign metal seeding in particular. In addition, we speculate that multiple different techniques must be developed in order to replace gold and to provide a variety of nanowire structures and properties suited to a diverse range of applications.

  13. Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au/Ga2O3/GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Hua; Chang, Mu-Tung; Chien, Yu-Jen; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2008-10-01

    Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au-Ga2O3-GaN heterostructure nanowires were successfully fabricated by an in situ two-step process. The Au-Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by the reaction of Ga powder, a mediated Au thin layer, and a SiO2 substrate at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, these core-shell nanowires were nitridized in ambient ammonia to form a GaN coating layer at 600 degrees C. The GaN shell is a single crystal, an atomic flat interface between the oxide and semiconductor that ensures that the high quality of the MOS device is achieved. These novel 1D nitride-based MOS nanowires may have promise as building blocks to the future nitride-based vertical nanodevices.

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2D semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Wang, Kai; ...

    2016-11-17

    With the advanced progress achieved in the field of nanotechnology, localized surface plasmons resonances (LSPRs) are actively considered to improve the efficiency of metal-based photocatalysis, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Here, we report on the exchange of energy and electric charges in a hybrid composed of a two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayer and an array of aluminum (Al) nanodisks. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy results indicate that within ~830 fs after photoexcitation of the 2D-WS2 semiconductor, energy transfer from the 2D-WS2 excitons excites the plasmons of the Al array. Then, upon the radiative and/or nonradiative damping of these excited plasmons, energy and/or electron transfermore » back to the 2D-WS2 semiconductor takes place as indicated by an increase in the reflected probe at the 2D exciton transition energies at later time-delays. This simultaneous exchange of energy and charges between the metal and the 2D-WS2 semiconductor resulted in an extension of the average lifetime of the 2D-excitons from ~15 to ~58 ps in absence and presence of the Al array, respectively. Furthermore, the indirectly excited plasmons were found to live as long as the 2D-WS2 excitons exist. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to generate exciton-plasmons coupling in a hybrid nanostructure may open new opportunities for optoelectronic applications such as plasmonic-based photodetection and photocatalysis.« less

  15. Progress in ion torrent semiconductor chip based sequencing.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Barry; Rothberg, Jonathan M

    2012-12-01

    In order for next-generation sequencing to become widely used as a diagnostic in the healthcare industry, sequencing instrumentation will need to be mass produced with a high degree of quality and economy. One way to achieve this is to recast DNA sequencing in a format that fully leverages the manufacturing base created for computer chips, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip fabrication, which is the current pinnacle of large scale, high quality, low-cost manufacturing of high technology. To achieve this, ideally the entire sensory apparatus of the sequencer would be embodied in a standard semiconductor chip, manufactured in the same fab facilities used for logic and memory chips. Recently, such a sequencing chip, and the associated sequencing platform, has been developed and commercialized by Ion Torrent, a division of Life Technologies, Inc. Here we provide an overview of this semiconductor chip based sequencing technology, and summarize the progress made since its commercial introduction. We described in detail the progress in chip scaling, sequencing throughput, read length, and accuracy. We also summarize the enhancements in the associated platform, including sample preparation, data processing, and engagement of the broader development community through open source and crowdsourcing initiatives. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris

    2014-10-27

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO{sub 2} metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  17. High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Ali K; Nayfeh, Ammar M; Saraswat, Krishna C; Yonehara, Takao; Marshall, Ann; McIntyre, Paul C

    2006-09-01

    We demonstrate extremely efficient germanium-on-silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with responsivities (R) as high as 0.85 A/W at 1.55 microm and 2V reverse bias. Ge was directly grown on Si by using a novel heteroepitaxial growth technique, which uses multisteps of growth and hydrogen annealing to reduce surface roughness and threading dislocations that form due to the 4.2% lattice mismatch. Photodiodes on such layers exhibit reverse dark currents of 100 mA/cm2 and external quantum efficiency up to 68%. This technology is promising to realize monolithically integrated optoelectronics.

  18. Simulation of Submicronmeter Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodiodes no Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Donaldson, W.R.; Hsiang, T.Y.

    2004-09-15

    Ultrafast metal Semiconductor metal ultraviolet photodetectors on GaN with 0.3-mm finger width and spacing were fabricated and packaged with a specially designed fast circuit. The assembly was simulated using a distributed circuit approach with optical illumination at l = 270 nm. This is the first theoretical simulation report of this effect in ultrafast ultraviolet photodetectors on GaN. Comparison of simulations and measurements was made in a wide range of optical energies, and a close agreement was achieved with a single energy-scaling factor.

  19. Electrical properties of hybrid (ferromagnetic metal)-(layered semiconductor) Ni/p-GaSe structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtinov, A. P. Vodopyanov, V. N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Netyaga, V. V.; Lytvyn, O. S.

    2010-02-15

    Two-barrier Ni/n-Ga2Se3/p-GaSe structures with nanoscale Ni-alloy grains caused by reactions at the 'metal-layered semiconductor' interface were formed after growing Ni layers on the p-GaSe (0001) surface. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of hybrid structures were studied in the temperature range of 220-350 K. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the bias voltage was studied at various temperatures. The frequency dependences of the impedance at high frequencies (f = 10{sup 6} Hz) are discussed in terms of the phenomena of spin injection and extraction in structures with an ultrathin spin-selective Ni/n-Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} barrier and the effects of spin diffusion and relaxation in the semiconductor substrate. The room-temperature phenomena of the Coulomb blockade and negative differential capacitance were detected. These phenomena are explained based on an analysis of transport processes in a narrow region near the 'ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor' interface, where nanoscale grains are arranged.

  20. Empirical study of the metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics deduced from a microscopic model of memory traps

    SciTech Connect

    Ngai, K.L.; Hsia, Y.

    1982-07-15

    A graded-nitride gate dielectric metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) memory transistor exhibiting superior device characteristics is presented and analyzed based on a qualitative microscopic model of the memory traps. The model is further reviewed to interpret some generic properties of the MNOS memory transistors including memory window, erase-write speed, and the retention-endurance characteristic features.

  1. Empirical study of the metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics deduced from a microscopic model of memory traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Kia L.; Hsia, Yukun

    1982-07-01

    A graded-nitride gate dielectric metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) memory transistor exhibiting superior device characteristics is presented and analyzed based on a qualitative microscopic model of the memory traps. The model is further reviewed to interpret some generic properties of the MNOS memory transistors including memory window, erase-write speed, and the retention-endurance characteristic features.

  2. Deep-level spectroscopy in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, A.; Muñoz, E.; Chauveau, J. M.; Hierro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study we present a method for measuring bulk traps using deep-level spectroscopy techniques in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. We will focus on deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), although this can be extended to deep-level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and similar techniques. These methods require the modulation of a depletion region either from a Schottky junction or from a highly asymmetric p-n junction, junctions that may not be realizable in many current material systems. This is the case of wide-bandgap semiconductor families that present a doping asymmetry or have a high residual carrier concentration or surface carrier accumulation, such as InGaN or ZnO. By adding a thin insulating layer and forming an MIS structure this problem can be circumvented and DLTS/DLOS can be performed under certain conditions. A model for the measurement of bulk traps in MIS structures is thus presented, focusing on the similarities with standard DLTS, maintaining when possible links to existing knowledge on DLTS and related techniques. The model will be presented from an equivalent circuit point of view. The effect of the insulating layer on DLTS is evaluated by a combination of simulations and experiments, developing methods for the measurement of these type of devices. As a validation, highly doped ZnO:Ga MIS devices have been successfully characterized and compared with a reference undoped sample using the methods described in this work, obtaining the same intrinsic levels previously reported in the literature but in material doped as high as 1× {{10}18} cm-3.

  3. Adjustable metal-semiconductor transition of FeS thin films by thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Ganhua; Polity, Angelika; Volbers, Niklas; Meyer, Bruno K.; Mogwitz, Boris; Janek, Juergen

    2006-12-25

    FeS polycrystalline thin films were prepared on float glass at 500 deg. C by radio-frequency reactive sputtering. The influence of vacuum annealing on the metal-semiconductor transition of FeS films was investigated. It has been found that with the increase of the annealing temperature from 360 to 600 deg. C, the metal-semiconductor transition temperature of FeS films first decreases and then increases, associated with first a reduction and then an enhancement of hysteresis width. The thermal stress is considered to give rise to the abnormal change of the metal-semiconductor transition of the FeS film during annealing.

  4. Theoretical Calculations Supporting Investigation of Metal Contacts to Ultra-Small Semiconductor Structures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS SUPPORTING INVESTIGATION OF M4ETAL CONTACTS TO ULTRA-SHALL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES by0 F.Flores, G.Platero, J.SAnchez-Dehesa...distribution unlimited 86 1 1,5 04 7 THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS SUPPORTING INVESTIGATIONr OF METAL CONTACTS TO ULTRA-SMALL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES by...34Anion induced surface states for the ideal (100)-faces of GaAs, AlAs and GaSb" 3. Paper No.2: "Electronic structure of (100)- semiconductor

  5. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  6. Gate tunneling current and quantum capacitance in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with graphene gate electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yanbin; Shekhawat, Aniruddh; Behnam, Ashkan; Pop, Eric; Ural, Ant

    2016-11-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p-type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized. It is found that Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range 77-300 K. The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes. In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness. These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  7. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  8. Negative capacitance in optically sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor-metal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Eisenstein, G.

    2016-12-01

    We report a strong negative capacitance effect in back to back combination of a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure and a metal-semiconductor junction, which is fabricated on an n type Silicon-on-Insulator substrate. The MIS capacitor comprises a SiO2-HfO2 insulator stack with embedded Pt nanoparticles. The capacitor undergoes a voltage stress process and thereby turns into a varactor and a photodetector. The negative capacitance is observed only under illumination in structures that employ a Schottky back contact. A symmetric double or an asymmetric single negative capacitance peak is observed depending on the nature of illumination. The phenomenon is attributed to the modulation of the semiconductor conductance due to photo generated carriers and their incorporation in trapping/de-trapping processes on interfacial and post filamentation induced defects in the insulator stack. The frequency range of the observed effect is limited to 100 kHz. Large ratios of light to dark and maximum to minimum of negative capacitances as well as of the obtained sensitivity to the applied voltage are, respectively, 105, more than 100, and 10-15. These were measured at 10 kHz under illumination at 365 nm with a power of 2.5 × 10-6 W.

  9. General atomistic approach for modeling metal-semiconductor interfaces using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stradi, Daniele; Martinez, Umberto; Blom, Anders; Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Metal-semiconductor contacts are a pillar of modern semiconductor technology. Historically, their microscopic understanding has been hampered by the inability of traditional analytical and numerical methods to fully capture the complex physics governing their operating principles. Here we introduce an atomistic approach based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function, which includes all the relevant ingredients required to model realistic metal-semiconductor interfaces and allows for a direct comparison between theory and experiments via I -Vbias curve simulations. We apply this method to characterize an Ag/Si interface relevant for photovoltaic applications and study the rectifying-to-Ohmic transition as a function of the semiconductor doping. We also demonstrate that the standard "activation energy" method for the analysis of I -Vbias data might be inaccurate for nonideal interfaces as it neglects electron tunneling, and that finite-size atomistic models have problems in describing these interfaces in the presence of doping due to a poor representation of space-charge effects. Conversely, the present method deals effectively with both issues, thus representing a valid alternative to conventional procedures for the accurate characterization of metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  10. Semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating VCSELs: new concept of emission mirror enabling vertical current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-02-01

    We propose semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating (SMSG) which can be implemented as VCSEL mirror. Such new type of SMSG plays a double role of the electric contact and mirror simultaneously. It facilitates high optical power reflectance, perfectly vertical current injection. Such construction eliminates the inbuilt current confinement and allows scaling of emitted power by simple variation of SMSG spatial dimensions. To give the credibility to proposed design we perform numerical analysis of VCSEL with SMSG using fully vectorial optical model. We discuss properties of the proposed design realized in arsenide-based material configuration.

  11. Strain-induced semiconductor to metal transition in few-layer black phosphorus from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Weiwei; Li, Tongwei; Wang, Hui; Yong, Yongliang; Sun, Jinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Electronic structures of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) with biaxial strain are investigated by using methods based on density functional theory. The compressive strain can result in a semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) for few-layer BP, whereas the tensile strain only affects the band gaps. The critical compressive strain for the SMT is larger in the thinner 2D BP. The band structures and charge densities are calculated in order to provide imperative understanding on SMT. With the compressive strain, the energy of conduction bands moves down, which is induced by the structural change and is essential reason of SMT.

  12. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor humidity sensor using surface conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok-Ho; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Ko, Seung-Deok; Lee, Seok-Hee; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2012-03-01

    This letter presents a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based humidity sensor which does not use any specific materials to sense the relative humidity. We simply make use of the low pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) silicon dioxide's surface conductance change. When the gate is biased and then floated, the electrical charge in the gate is dissipated through the LPCVD silicon dioxide's surface to the surrounding ground with a time constant depending on the surface conductance which, in turn, varies with humidity. With this method, extremely high sensitivity was achieved—the charge dissipation speed increased thousand times as the relative humidity increased.

  13. Exciton polaritons in one-dimensional metal-semiconductor photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Islas, R; Flores-Desirena, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2008-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the coupling of exciton with light in a one-dimensional photonic crystal. The unit cell of the crystal consists of two alternating layers, namely a metallic layer and a semiconductor one. The frequency-dependent dielectric function of the metal is described by the Drude model, whereas for the semiconductor we use a nonlocal excitonic dielectric function. The polariton dispersion for s-polarized modes in the metal-semiconductor photonic crystal is compared with that for a dielectric-semiconductor photonic crystal. Because of the metal layers, a low-frequency gap appears in the photonic band structure. The presence of the semiconductor gives rise to photonic bands associated with the coupling of light with size-quantized excitón states. At frequencies above the longitudinal exciton frequency, the photonic band structure exhibits anticrossing phenomena produced by the upper exciton-polariton mode and size-quantized excitons. It is found that the anticrossing phenomena in the metal-semiconductor photonic crystal occur at higher frequencies in comparison with the dielectric-semiconductor case.

  14. Nanostructured target fabrication with metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Antici, P.

    2015-10-01

    The development of ultra-intense high-energy (≫1 J) short (<1 ps) laser pulses in the last decade has enabled the acceleration of high-energy short-pulse proton beams. A key parameter for enhancing the acceleration regime is the laser-to-target absorption, which heavily depends on the target structure and material. In this work, we present the realization of a nanostructured target with a sub-laser wavelength nano-layer in the front surface as a possible candidate for improving the absorption. The nanostructured film was realized by a simpler and cheaper method than using conventional lithographic techniques: A colloidal solution of metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) was produced by laser ablation and, after a heating and sonication process, was spray-dried on the front surface of an aluminum target. The obtained nanostructured film with a thickness of 1 μm appears, at morphological and chemical analysis, uniformly nanostructured and distributed on the target surface without the presence of oxides or external contaminants. Finally, the size of the NPs can be tuned from tens to hundreds of nanometers simply by varying the growth parameters (i.e., irradiation time, fluence, and laser beam energy).

  15. Fabrication of Metal-Semiconductor Heterostructures in Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyun

    The increasing demand for fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gases require clean energy sources and more efficient utilization of energy. Thermoelectric materials provide a means toward achieving these goals since they convert heat, including waste heat, directly into an electric potential difference. Metal-semiconductor heterostructures can work as Schottky barriers in thermoelectric materials to increase thermoelectric efficiency. In this project, nickel silicide phases were introduced into silicon nanowires (SiNWs) to build up the Schottky barrier. SiNW arrays were fabricated using a metal-assisted chemical process, creating SiNWs about 200 nm in diameter and 30im in length. Different methods were adopted for nickel deposition: electroless nickel deposition, electro nickel deposition, E-beam deposition, and thermal evaporation. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that depositing nickel on SiNWs in an aqueous solution without electricity is a simple way to deposit nickel particles, and the morphology of nickel particles depends on the concentration of the deposition bath. However, an aqueous solution will cause oxidation of the SiNWs and hinder the formation of nickel silicide. To solve this problem, depositing nickel on SiNWs in organic solutions inside an oxygen-free glove box is a way to prevent oxidation, and nickel can diffuse into silicon substrates easily via annealing when there no oxidation layer on the surface of SiNWs. The dominant phase formed in these samples is NiSi2 after being annealed at 650°C for one hour in a tube furnace.

  16. Evaluation of new metal-insulator-semiconductor varistor: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Modine, F.A.

    1988-08-01

    A new, composite varistor material containing a metal, an insulator, and a semiconductor was evaluated. Although other constituents can be substituted, the materials that were investigated contained varying proportions of nickel metal, silicon dioxide, and silicon carbide in a silicon rubber binder. The material has rubber-like flexibility and is easily formed into complex shapes. A higher leakage resistivity (/approximately/10/sup 12/ ohm cm) and greater nonlinearity (/approximately/10) than for commercial silicon carbide varistors will permit the material to be used as a gapless surge suppressor. The breakdown voltage (1 kV/cm-10 kV/cm) and other properties of the material vary with composition. High-current capability (>200 A/cm/sup 2/) and good energy absorption (>40 J/cm/sup 3/) are found. The material exhibits a low-temperature coefficient (/approximately/4 x 10/sup -3//K) and a low dielectric constant (/approximately/10) with no observed loss peak. These dielectric properties are suited to high-frequency applications, such as antenna protection. The material has a response time (<1 ns) that should provide some protection against fast pulses generated by nuclear and directed-beam weapons. At this stage, the physics of the material are mostly conjecture, but the electrical conduction is almost certainly controlled by grain-boundary barriers. However, the conduction is not thermally activated, and it probably has a percolative character. The material will not replace zinc oxide varistors at this time, but it will find specialized applications in which its flexibility, formability, and frequency response are advantageous. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Investigation of the properties of semiconductor wafer bonding in multijunction solar cells via metal-nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayagaki, Takeshi; Makita, Kikuo; Mizuno, Hidenori; Sugaya, Takeyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor wafer bonding has gained attention for its use in the design of efficient optoelectronic devices. Here, we report the observation of the properties of semiconductor wafer bonding via metal nanoparticle arrays based on the current-voltage and reflectance measurements of multijunction solar cells. Based on our observation of temporal changes in current-voltage characteristics and reflectance, we have revealed that reduced contact resistance at the bonded interface involves two processes: van der Waals bonding, which occurs within a few minutes, and diffusion bonding of metal nanoparticles, which occurs in a time scale of days. The mechanism of wafer bonding via metal nanoparticles is discussed based on its dynamical aspects, including the roles of liquid capillarity and alloy formation at the interface.

  18. Ultraviolet random lasing from asymmetrically contacted MgZnO metal-semiconductor-metal device

    SciTech Connect

    Morshed, Muhammad M.; Suja, Mohammad; Zuo, Zheng; Liu, Jianlin

    2014-11-24

    Nitrogen-doped Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.88}O nanocrystalline thin film was grown on c-plane sapphire substrate. Asymmetric Ni/Au and Ti/Au Schottky contacts and symmetric Ni/Au contacts were deposited on the thin film to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) laser devices. Current-voltage, photocurrent, and electroluminescence characterizations were performed. Evident random lasing with a threshold current of ∼36 mA is demonstrated only from the asymmetric MSM device. Random lasing peaks are mostly distributed between 340 and 360 nm and an output power of 15 nW is measured at 43 mA injection current. The electron affinity difference between the contact metal and Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.88}O:N layer plays an important role for electron and hole injection and subsequent stimulated random lasing.

  19. Rectification and Photoconduction Mapping of Axial Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces Embedded in GaAs Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrù, Marta; Piazza, Vincenzo; Rubini, Silvia; Roddaro, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have emerged as an important enabling technology and are today used in many advanced device architectures, with an impact both for what concerns fundamental science and in view of future applications. One of the key challenges in the development of nanowire-based devices is the fabrication of reliable nanoscale contacts. Recent developments in the creation of metal-semiconductor junctions by thermal annealing of metallic electrodes offer promising perspectives. Here, we analyze the optoelectronic properties of nano-Schottky barriers obtained thanks to the controlled formation of metallic AuGa regions in GaAs nanowire. The junctions display a rectifying behavior and their transport characteristics are analyzed to extract the average ideality factor and barrier height in the current architecture. The presence, location, and properties of the Schottky junctions are cross-correlated with spatially resolved photocurrent measurements. Broadband light emission is reported in the reverse breakdown regime; this observation, combined with the absence of electroluminescence at forward bias, is consistent with the device unipolar nature.

  20. Photocatalytic activity enhanced by plasmonic resonant energy transfer from metal to semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Scott K; Li, Jiangtian; Meng, Fanke; Senty, Tess R; Suri, Savan; Zhi, Mingjia; Li, Ming; Bristow, Alan D; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-09-12

    Plasmonic metal nanostructures have been incorporated into semiconductors to enhance the solar-light harvesting and the energy-conversion efficiency. So far the mechanism of energy transfer from the plasmonic metal to semiconductors remains unclear. Herein the underlying plasmonic energy-transfer mechanism is unambiguously determined in Au@SiO(2)@Cu(2)O sandwich nanostructures by transient-absorption and photocatalysis action spectrum measurement. The gold core converts the energy of incident photons into localized surface plasmon resonance oscillations and transfers the plasmonic energy to the Cu(2)O semiconductor shell via resonant energy transfer (RET). RET generates electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor by the dipole-dipole interaction between the plasmonic metal (donor) and semiconductor (acceptor), which greatly enhances the visible-light photocatalytic activity as compared to the semiconductor alone. RET from a plasmonic metal to a semiconductor is a viable and efficient mechanism that can be used to guide the design of photocatalysts, photovoltaics, and other optoelectronic devices.

  1. Reaction-diffusion optoelectronics based on dispersed semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. V.; Gradova, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Since many dispersed semiconductors are capable of light energy conversion and possess photocatalytic and luminescent properties, and any discreet light-sensitive medium can be applied for the positional-sensitive light flux registration (similar to pixels and voxels in semiconductor-based image recording), the use of chemically active dispersed semiconductors allows to perform a direct signal / image registration based on light-sensitive reaction-diffusion redox systems without conventional CCD / CMOS devices. The image capturing in this case will correspond to the formation of the metastable dissipative structures in the active medium, with their morphological properties determined by the flux gradient and provided by the corresponding dispersed semiconductor medium sensitivity.

  2. GaN metal-semiconductor-metal UV sensor with multi-layer graphene as Schottky electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Kang, Sang-Bum; Cha, Hyeon-Gu; Won, Chul-Ho; Hong, Seul-Ki; Cho, Byung-Jin; Park, Hongsik; Lee, Jung-Hee; Hahm, Sung-Ho

    2015-06-01

    We fabricated a GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM)-type UV sensor using a multilayer graphene as transparent Schottky electrodes. The fabricated GaN MSM UV sensor showed a high photo-to-dark current contrast ratio of 3.9 × 105 and a UV-to-visible rejection ratio of 1.8 × 103 at 7 V. The as-fabricated GaN MSM UV sensor with graphene electrodes has a low bias dependence of maximum photoresponsivity and a noise-like response at a visible wavelength in the 500 nm region. These problems were successfully solved by treatment with a buffered oxide etcher (BOE), and the photoresponse characteristics of the fabricated GaN MSM UV sensor after the treatment were better than those before the treatment.

  3. Synthesis of a Nano-Silver Metal Ink for Use in Thick Conductive Film Fabrication Applied on a Semiconductor Package

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, JS; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail. PMID:24830317

  4. Synthesis of a nano-silver metal ink for use in thick conductive film fabrication applied on a semiconductor package.

    PubMed

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, Js; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail.

  5. Role of the dielectric for the charging dynamics of the dielectric/barrier interface in AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures under forward gate bias stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lagger, P.; Steinschifter, P.; Reiner, M.; Stadtmüller, M.; Denifl, G.; Ostermaier, C.; Naumann, A.; Müller, J.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J.; Pogany, D.

    2014-07-21

    The high density of defect states at the dielectric/III-N interface in GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures causes tremendous threshold voltage drifts, ΔV{sub th}, under forward gate bias conditions. A comprehensive study on different dielectric materials, as well as varying dielectric thickness t{sub D} and barrier thickness t{sub B}, is performed using capacitance-voltage analysis. It is revealed that the density of trapped electrons, ΔN{sub it}, scales with the dielectric capacitance under spill-over conditions, i.e., the accumulation of a second electron channel at the dielectric/AlGaN barrier interface. Hence, the density of trapped electrons is defined by the charging of the dielectric capacitance. The scaling behavior of ΔN{sub it} is explained universally by the density of accumulated electrons at the dielectric/III-N interface under spill-over conditions. We conclude that the overall density of interface defects is higher than what can be electrically measured, due to limits set by dielectric breakdown. These findings have a significant impact on the correct interpretation of threshold voltage drift data and are of relevance for the development of normally off and normally on III-N/GaN high electron mobility transistors with gate insulation.

  6. Density functional studies on wurtzite piezotronic transistors: influence of different semiconductors and metals on piezoelectric charge distribution and Schottky barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical-electrical coupling properties of piezoelectric semiconductors endow these materials with novel device applications in microelectromechanical systems, sensors, human-computer interfaces, etc. When an applied strain is exerted on a piezoelectric semiconductor, piezoelectric charges are generated at the surface or interface of the semiconductor, which can be utilized to control the electronic transport characteristics. This is the fundamental working mechanism of piezotronic devices, called the piezotronic effect. In the present report, a series of piezotronic transistors composed of different electrode metals and semiconductors is examined using density functional theory calculation. It is found that the influence of semiconductors on the piezotronic effect is larger than the impact of metals, and GaN and CdS are promising candidates for piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices, respectively. The width of the piezoelectric charge distribution obtained in the present study can be used as a parameter in classical finite-element-method based simulations, which provide guidance on designing high-performance piezotronic devices.

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2D semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Wang, Kai; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lin, Ming -Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Xiao, Kai; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-11-17

    With the advanced progress achieved in the field of nanotechnology, localized surface plasmons resonances (LSPRs) are actively considered to improve the efficiency of metal-based photocatalysis, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Here, we report on the exchange of energy and electric charges in a hybrid composed of a two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayer and an array of aluminum (Al) nanodisks. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy results indicate that within ~830 fs after photoexcitation of the 2D-WS2 semiconductor, energy transfer from the 2D-WS2 excitons excites the plasmons of the Al array. Then, upon the radiative and/or nonradiative damping of these excited plasmons, energy and/or electron transfer back to the 2D-WS2 semiconductor takes place as indicated by an increase in the reflected probe at the 2D exciton transition energies at later time-delays. This simultaneous exchange of energy and charges between the metal and the 2D-WS2 semiconductor resulted in an extension of the average lifetime of the 2D-excitons from ~15 to ~58 ps in absence and presence of the Al array, respectively. Furthermore, the indirectly excited plasmons were found to live as long as the 2D-WS2 excitons exist. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to generate exciton-plasmons coupling in a hybrid nanostructure may open new opportunities for optoelectronic applications such as plasmonic-based photodetection and photocatalysis.

  8. Equivalent circuit modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes with transparent conductor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommel, Sean L.; Erby, David N.; Gao, Wei; Berger, Paul R.; Zydzik, George J.; Rhodes, W. W.; O'Bryan, H. M.; Sivco, Deborah L.; Cho, Alfred Y.

    1997-04-01

    Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with electrodes fabricated from the transparent conductor cadmium tin oxide (CTO) have been shown to double photoresponsivity. Their bandwidths, however, are significantly lower than those of MSMs fabricated with standard Ti/Au contacts. Though MSMs are generally believed to be limited by the transit time of electrons, it is possible the larger resistivity of CTO has become a significant factor, making the MSMs RC time constant limited instead. Previous models of MSMs only account for one of the two back-to-back Schottky diodes. A new model which takes into account both the forward and reverse biased junctions has been developed from the small signal model of a Schottky diode. This new model was fit to data obtained from S-parameter measurements, and incorporates both the transit time response and RC time constant response.

  9. Lossless propagation in metal-semiconductor-metal plasmonic waveguides using quantum dot active medium.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, K; Granpayeh, N; Ahmadi, V; Pahlavan, S

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze and simulate the lossless propagation of lightwaves in the active metal-semiconductor-metal plasmonic waveguides (MSMPWs) at the wavelength range of 1540-1560 nm using a quantum dot (QD) active medium. The Maxwell's equations are solved in the waveguide, and the required gains for achieving lossless propagation are derived. On the other hand, the rate equations in quantum dot active regions are solved by using the Runge-Kutta method, and the achievable optical gain is derived. The analyses results show that the required optical gain for lossless propagation in MSMPWs is achievable using the QD active medium. Also, by adjusting the active medium parameters, the MSMPWs loss can be eliminated in a specific bandwidth, and the propagation length increases obviously.

  10. Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangzi; Liu, Caixia; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Tao, Chen; Shen, Liang; Zhou, Jingran; Fei, Yongfeng; Ruan, Shengping

    2009-03-01

    In this letter, metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) TiO2 ultraviolet (UV) detectors with Ni electrodes have been fabricated. TiO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. At 5 V bias, the dark current of the detector with Ni electrode was 1.83 nA. High photoresponse of 889.6 A/W was found under irradiation of 260 nm UV light, which was much higher than those of other wide bandgap UV detectors with MSM structure. The high photoresponse was due to the great internal gain caused by the hole trapping at interface. The rise time of the device was 13.34 ms and the fall time was 11.43 s.

  11. DOE/BES/NSET annual report on growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Raid Edward; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Shelnutt, John Allen; Yang, Yi; Nuttall, H. Eric; Watt, Richard K.; Singl, Anup K.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Wang, Zhongchun; van Swol, Frank B.; Pereira, Eulalia; Qiu, Yan; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Xu, Huifang; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2003-10-01

    Our overall goal is to understand and develop a novel light-driven approach to the controlled growth of unique metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures to provide metal nucleation and growth centers. Photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location and morphology of the metal nanostructures grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods used for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, the photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition and the synthesis of the new nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, the University of New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled synthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on three thematic research areas: (1) the creation of nanoscale structures for realizing novel phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding nanoscale processes in the environment, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation. Our goals for FY03 have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic platinum nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient

  12. Effects of series and parallel resistances on the C-V characteristics of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Rejaiba; Mohamed, Ben Amar; Adel, Matoussi

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the electrical behavior of the Al/SiO2/Si MOS structure. We have used the complex admittance method to develop an analytical model of total capacitance applied to our proposed equivalent circuit. The charge density, surface potential, semiconductor capacitance, flatband and threshold voltages have been determined by resolving the Poisson transport equations. This modeling is used to predict in particular the effects of frequency, parallel and series resistance on the capacitance-voltage characteristic. Results show that the variation of both frequency and parallel resistance causes strong dispersion of the C-V curves in the inversion regime. It also reveals that the series resistance influences the shape of C-V curves essentially in accumulation and inversion modes. A significant decrease of the accumulation capacitance is observed when R s increases in the range 200-50000 Ω. The degradation of the C-V magnitude is found to be more pronounced when the series resistance depends on the substrate doping density. When R s varies in the range 100 Ω-50 kΩ, it shows a decrease in the flatband voltage from -1.40 to -1.26 V and an increase in the threshold voltage negatively from -0.28 to -0.74 V, respectively. Good agreement has been observed between simulated and measured C-V curves obtained at high frequency. This study is necessary to control the adverse effects that disrupt the operation of the MOS structure in different regimes and optimizes the efficiency of such electronic device before manufacturing.

  13. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of two identical semiconductor nanowires and metal film with semi-cylinder ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Rui; Ye, Han

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) consisting of a thin metal film sandwiched between two identical cylindrical semiconductor nanowires is proposed and investigated numerically. With two air grooves carved symmetrically on the upper and lower surfaces of the metal film and two nanoscale semi-cylindrical ridges formed, the structured metal film and the semiconductor nanowires are embedded in a low-index silicon-dioxide medium. Based on the finite element method, our simulation results show that the proposed HPW can achieve a propagation length longer than 1000 μm in all circumstances, as well as a mode area as small as 5.21 × 10-4 λ 2, and an excellent figure of merit. The high-performance of the novel HPW may provide theoretical guidance for further research of HPW and related applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  14. Electro-optic metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Roney; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a CMOS-compatible electro-optic Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator is investigated using electromagnetic and carrier transport simulations. Each arm of the Mach-Zehnder device comprises a metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) structure on a buried oxide substrate. Quantum mechanical effects at the oxide/semiconductor interfaces were considered in the calculation of electron density profiles across the structure, in order to determine the refractive index distribution and its dependence on applied bias. This information was used in finite element simulations of the electromagnetic modes within the MISIM structure in order to determine the Mach-Zehnder arm lengths required to achieve destructive interference and the corresponding propagation loss incurred by the device. Both inversion and accumulation mode devices were investigated, and the layer thicknesses and height were adjusted to optimise the device performance. A device loss of <8 dB is predicted for a MISIM structure with a 25 nm thick silicon layer, for which the device length is <3 μm, and <5 dB loss is predicted for the limiting case of a 5 nm thick silicon layer in a 1.2 μm long device: in both cases, the maximum operating voltage is 7.5 V.

  15. Electrostatic analysis of n-doped SrTiO{sub 3} metal-insulator-semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerbeek, A. M. Banerjee, T.; Hueting, R. J. E.

    2015-12-14

    Electron doped SrTiO{sub 3}, a complex-oxide semiconductor, possesses novel electronic properties due to its strong temperature and electric-field dependent permittivity. Due to the high permittivity, metal/n-SrTiO{sub 3} systems show reasonably strong rectification even when SrTiO{sub 3} is degenerately doped. Our experiments show that the insertion of a sub nanometer layer of AlO{sub x} in between the metal and n-SrTiO{sub 3} interface leads to a dramatic reduction of the Schottky barrier height (from around 0.90 V to 0.25 V). This reduces the interface resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude. The derived electrostatic analysis of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (n-SrTiO{sub 3}) system is consistent with this trend. When compared with a Si based MIS system, the change is much larger and mainly governed by the high permittivity of SrTiO{sub 3}. The non-linear permittivity of n-SrTiO{sub 3} leads to unconventional properties such as a temperature dependent surface potential non-existent for semiconductors with linear permittivity such as Si. This allows tuning of the interfacial band alignment, and consequently the Schottky barrier height, in a much more drastic way than in conventional semiconductors.

  16. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors. PMID:22778599

  17. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: Band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu Nam Hai, Pham

    2014-03-15

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics is an emerging field, in which we try to utilize spin degrees of freedom as well as charge transport in materials and devices. While metal-based spin-devices, such as magnetic-field sensors and magnetoresistive random access memory using giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, are already put to practical use, semiconductor-based spintronics has greater potential for expansion because of good compatibility with existing semiconductor technology. Many semiconductor-based spintronics devices with useful functionalities have been proposed and explored so far. To realize those devices and functionalities, we definitely need appropriate materials which have both the properties of semiconductors and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs), which are alloy semiconductors containing magnetic atoms such as Mn and Fe, are one of the most promising classes of materials for this purpose and thus have been intensively studied for the past two decades. Here, we review the recent progress in the studies of the most prototypical III-V based FMS, p-type (GaMn)As and its heterostructures with focus on tunneling transport, Fermi level, and bandstructure. Furthermore, we cover the properties of a new n-type FMS, (In,Fe)As, which shows electron-induced ferromagnetism. These FMS materials having zinc-blende crystal structure show excellent compatibility with well-developed III-V heterostructures and devices.

  18. Assembling non-ferromagnetic materials to ferromagnetic architectures using metal-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ji; Liu, Chunting; Chen, Kezheng

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a facile and versatile solution route was used to fabricate room-temperature ferromagnetic fish bone-like, pteridophyte-like, poplar flower-like, cotton-like Cu@Cu2O architectures and golfball-like Cu@ZnO architecture. The ferromagnetic origins in these architectures were found to be around metal-semiconductor interfaces and defects, and the root cause for their ferromagnetism lay in charge transfer processes from metal Cu to semiconductors Cu2O and ZnO. Owing to different metallization at their interfaces, these architectures exhibited different ferromagnetic behaviors, including coercivity, saturation magnetization as well as magnetic interactions.

  19. Assembling non-ferromagnetic materials to ferromagnetic architectures using metal-semiconductor interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji; Liu, Chunting; Chen, Kezheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a facile and versatile solution route was used to fabricate room-temperature ferromagnetic fish bone-like, pteridophyte-like, poplar flower-like, cotton-like Cu@Cu2O architectures and golfball-like Cu@ZnO architecture. The ferromagnetic origins in these architectures were found to be around metal-semiconductor interfaces and defects, and the root cause for their ferromagnetism lay in charge transfer processes from metal Cu to semiconductors Cu2O and ZnO. Owing to different metallization at their interfaces, these architectures exhibited different ferromagnetic behaviors, including coercivity, saturation magnetization as well as magnetic interactions. PMID:27680286

  20. Calculated electronic structures and Néel temperatures of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Ogura, M; Takahashi, C; Akai, H

    2007-09-12

    The possibility of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors of II-VI compounds is investigated on the basis of first-principles electronic structure calculation. The electronic structures of ZnS, ZnSe, ZnO, CdS and CdSe doped with two kinds of 3d transition metal ions are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method and their magnetic transition temperatures are determined using a cluster-type approximation. It is predicted that II-VI compound semiconductors doped with two kinds of magnetic ions might be good candidates for half-metallic antiferromagnets.

  1. Photoluminescence mechanisms of metallic Zn nanospheres, semiconducting ZnO nanoballoons, and metal-semiconductor Zn/ZnO nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Han; Patil, Ranjit A.; Devan, Rupesh S.; Liu, Zhe-An; Wang, Yi-Ping; Ho, Ching-Hwa; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2014-01-01

    We utilized a thermal radiation method to synthesize semiconducting hollow ZnO nanoballoons and metal-semiconductor concentric solid Zn/ZnO nanospheres from metallic solid Zn nanospheres. The chemical properties, crystalline structures, and photoluminescence mechanisms for the metallic solid Zn nanospheres, semiconducting hollow ZnO nanoballoons, and metal-semiconductor concentric solid Zn/ZnO nanospheres are presented. The PL emissions of the metallic Zn solid nanospheres are mainly dependent on the electron transitions between the Fermi level (EF) and the 3d band, while those of the semiconducting hollow ZnO nanoballoons are ascribed to the near band edge (NBE) and deep level electron transitions. The PL emissions of the metal-semiconductor concentric solid Zn/ZnO nanospheres are attributed to the electron transitions across the metal-semiconductor junction, from the EF to the valence and 3d bands, and from the interface states to the valence band. All three nanostructures are excellent room-temperature light emitters. PMID:25382186

  2. Nonvolatile and tunable switching of lateral photo-voltage triggered by laser and electric pulse in metal dusted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peiqi; Gan, Zhikai; Huang, Xu; Mei, Chunlian; Huang, Meizhen; Xia, Yuxing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the innate stabilization of built-in potential in p–n junction or metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, the sensitivity and linearity of most lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) devices is always fixed after fabrication. Here we report a nonvolatile and tunable switching effect of lateral photo-voltage (LPV) in Cu dusted ultrathin metal-oxide-semiconductor structure. With the stimulation of electric pulse and local illumination, the sensitivity and linearity of LPV can be adjusted up and down in a nonvolatile manner. This phenomenon is attributed to a controllable change of the Schottky barrier formed between the metal layer and silicon substrate, including the consequent change of film resistivity. This work may widely improve the performance of existing LPE-based devices and suggest new applications for LPE in other areas. PMID:27535351

  3. Nonvolatile and tunable switching of lateral photo-voltage triggered by laser and electric pulse in metal dusted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiqi; Gan, Zhikai; Huang, Xu; Mei, Chunlian; Huang, Meizhen; Xia, Yuxing; Wang, Hui

    2016-08-18

    Owing to the innate stabilization of built-in potential in p-n junction or metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, the sensitivity and linearity of most lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) devices is always fixed after fabrication. Here we report a nonvolatile and tunable switching effect of lateral photo-voltage (LPV) in Cu dusted ultrathin metal-oxide-semiconductor structure. With the stimulation of electric pulse and local illumination, the sensitivity and linearity of LPV can be adjusted up and down in a nonvolatile manner. This phenomenon is attributed to a controllable change of the Schottky barrier formed between the metal layer and silicon substrate, including the consequent change of film resistivity. This work may widely improve the performance of existing LPE-based devices and suggest new applications for LPE in other areas.

  4. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics. PMID:26783194

  5. Irradiation effects of graphene-enhanced gallium nitride (GaN) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Miller, Ruth; Suria, Ateeq; Broad, Nicholas; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are used for applications such as flame detection, space navigation, biomedical and environmental monitoring. Robust operation within large ranges of temperatures, radiation, salinity and/or corrosive chemicals require sensor materials with the ability to withstand and function reliably within these extreme harsh environments. For example, spacecraft can utilize a sun sensor (light-based sensor) to assist with determination of orientation and may be exposed to both ionizing radiation and extreme temperature swings during operation. Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide bandgap semiconductor material, has material properties enabling visible-blindness, tunable cutoff wavelength selection based on ternary alloy mole fraction, high current density, thermal/chemical stability and high radiation tolerance due to the strength of the chemical bond. Graphene, with outstanding electrical, optical and mechanical properties and a flat absorption spectrum from 300 to 2,500 nm, has potential use as a transparent conductor for GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors. Here, graphene-enhanced MSM UV photodetectors are fabricated with transparent and conductive graphene interdigitated electrodes on thin film GaN-on-sapphire substrates serving as back-to-back Schottky contacts. We report on the irradiation response of graphene/GaN-based MSM UV photodetectors up to 750 krad total ionizing dose (TID) then tested under dark and UV light (365 nm) conditions. In addition, based on current-voltage measurements from 75 krad to 750 krad TID, calculated photodetector responsivity values change slightly by 25% and 11% at -5 V and -2 V, respectively. These initial findings suggest that graphene/GaN MSM UV photodetectors could potentially be engineered to reliably operate within radiation environments.

  6. Geometrically enhanced extraordinary magnetoresistance in semiconductor-metal hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, T. H.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-12-01

    Extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) arises in hybrid systems consisting of semiconducting material with an embedded metallic inclusion. We have investigated such systems with the use of finite-element modeling, with our results showing good agreement to existing experimental data. We show that this effect can be dramatically enhanced by over four orders of magnitude as a result of altering the geometry of the conducting region. The significance of this result lies in its potential application to EMR magnetic field sensors utilizing more familiar semiconducting materials with nonoptimum material parameters, such as silicon. Our model has been extended further with a geometry based on the microstructure of the silver chalcogenides, consisting of a randomly sized and positioned metallic network with interspersed droplets. This model has shown a large and quasilinear magnetoresistance analogous to experimental findings.

  7. Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films in field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Koshi Dehm, Simone; Hahn, Horst

    2013-12-16

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films consisting of an amorphous oxide semiconductor and a number of aluminum dots in different diameters and arrangements are formed by electron beam lithography and employed for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Experimental and computational demonstrations systematically reveal that the field-effect mobility of the TFTs enhances but levels off as the dot density increases, which originates from variations of the effective channel length that strongly depends on the electric field distribution in a transistor channel.

  8. A biological semiconductor based on electrical percolation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel biological semiconductor (BSC) based on electrical percolation through a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network, which can measure biological interactions directly and electronically. In Electrical Percolation, the passage of current through the conductive network is dependent upon the continuity of the network. Molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. A BSC is fabricated by immobilizing a pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex directly on a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). We used the BSC for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding, showing that, at slightly above the electrical percolation threshold of the network, binding of a specific antigen dramatically increases the electrical resistance. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, we demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. The new BSCs may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:20361741

  9. Biological semiconductor based on electrical percolation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghui; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a novel biological semiconductor (BSC) based on electrical percolation through a multilayer three-dimensional carbon nanotube-antibody bionanocomposite network, which can measure biological interactions directly and electronically. In electrical percolation, the passage of current through the conductive network is dependent upon the continuity of the network. Molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. A BSC is fabricated by immobilizing a prefunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody bionanocomposite directly on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexiglass or acrylic). We used the BSC for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding, showing that, at slightly above the electrical percolation threshold of the network, binding of a specific antigen dramatically increases the electrical resistance. Using anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a "gate" and SEB as an "actuator", we demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/mL. The new BSCs may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create "biological central processing units (CPUs)" with multiple BSC elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously.

  10. Enhancement of superconductivity near the pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition in the BiS₂-based superconductors LnO₀.₅F₀.₅BiS₂ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Wolowiec, C T; White, B D; Jeon, I; Yazici, D; Huang, K; Maple, M B

    2013-10-23

    Measurements of electrical resistivity were performed between 3 and 300 K at various pressures up to 2.8 GPa on the BiS2-based superconductors LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=Pr, Nd). At lower pressures, PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2 exhibit superconductivity with critical temperatures Tc of 3.5 and 3.9 K, respectively. As pressure is increased, both compounds undergo a transition at a pressure Pt from a low Tc superconducting phase to a high Tc superconducting phase in which Tc reaches maximum values of 7.6 and 6.4 K for PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, respectively. The pressure-induced transition is characterized by a rapid increase in Tc within a small range in pressure of ∼0.3 GPa for both compounds. In the normal state of PrO0.5F0.5BiS2, the transition pressure Pt correlates with the pressure where the suppression of semiconducting behaviour saturates. In the normal state of NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, Pt is coincident with a semiconductor-metal transition. This behaviour is similar to the results recently reported for the LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce) compounds. We observe that Pt and the size of the jump in Tc between the two superconducting phases both scale with the lanthanide element in LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

  11. Nanogranular metallic Fe oxygen deficient TiO2-δ composite films: a room temperature, highly carrier polarized magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S. D.; Widom, A.; Miller, K. E.; McHenry, M. E.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2008-05-01

    Nanogranular metallic iron (Fe) and titanium dioxide (TiO2-δ) were sequentially deposited on (100) lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates in a low oxygen chamber pressure using a pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLD) technique. By sequential deposition, ≈10 nm diameter metallic Fe spherical grains were suspended within a TiO2-δ matrix. The films show ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization of 3100 G at room temperature. Our estimate of the saturation magnetization based on the size and distribution of the Fe spheres agreed with the measured value. The film composite structure was characterized as a p-type magnetic semiconductor at 300 K with a carrier density of the order of ≈1022 cm-3. The hole carriers were excited at the interface between the nanogranular Fe and TiO2-δ matrix, similar to holes excited in the metal/n-type semiconductor interface commonly observed in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. From the large anomalous Hall effect measured in these films, we observed that the holes at the interface were strongly spin polarized. Structure and magnetotransport properties suggested that these PLD films have potential spintronics applications.

  12. Hybrid metal-semiconductor cavities for multi-band perfect light absorbers and excellent electric conducting interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenping; Chen, Jian; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Guiqiang; Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Zhengqi

    2017-08-01

    It is desirable for optoelectronic devices to have the capability to simultaneously achieve excellent optical and electric features. Nevertheless, most investigations were performed separately for photon and electron management. In this work, we numerically propose and demonstrate a hybrid metal-semiconductor interface, which offers multi-band perfect light absorption and simultaneously retains the naturally perfect electrical conductivity of a flat metal film. Multi-band anti-reflection and near-unity light absorption is observed in this hybrid metal-semiconductor cavity based absorber (HMSA). Our results show that, the maximal absorption above 97% and the naturally perfect electric conductivity are realizable, suggesting the capability of providing both excellent optical and electric properties. Optical Mie-like resonances in the semiconductor cavities and the hybrid coupling with plasmonic resonances by the metal resonators cooperatively support strong optical field confinement effects, which eventually create the light trapped in the HMSA. These features indicate a platform wherein excellent electrical conducting and multispectral light absorption are designed for potential optoelectronic applications.

  13. Moderate bending strain induced semiconductor to metal transition in Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, M. Golam; Patil, Sunil R.; Anantram, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    A moderate amount of bending strains, ∼3% is found to be enough to induce the semiconductor-metal transition in Si nanowires of ∼4 nm diameter. The influence of bending on silicon nanowires of 1 nm to 4.3 nm diameter is investigated using molecular dynamics and quantum transport simulations. Local strains in nanowires are analyzed along with the effect of bending strain and nanowire diameter on electronic transport and the transmission energy gap. Interestingly, relatively wider nanowires are found to undergo semiconductor-metal transition at relatively lower bending strains. The effect of bending strain on electronic properties is then compared with the conventional way of straining, i.e. uniaxial, which shows that bending is a much more efficient way of straining to enhance the electronic transport and also to induce the semiconductor-metal transition in experimentally realizable Si nanowires.

  14. Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Cid Bartolomeu; Silvério da Silva, Diego; Alves de Assumpção, Thiago Alexandre; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Mariano da Silva, Davinson

    2013-01-01

    Germanium- and tellurium-based glasses have been largely studied due to their recognized potential for photonics. In this paper, we review our recent studies that include the investigation of the Stokes and anti-Stokes photoluminescence (PL) in different glass systems containing metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). In the case of the samples with metallic NPs, the enhanced PL was attributed to the increased local field on the rare-earth ions located in the proximity of the NPs and/or the energy transfer from the metallic NPs to the rare-earth ions. For the glasses containing silicon NPs, the PL enhancement was mainly due to the energy transfer from the NPs to the Er(3+) ions. The nonlinear (NL) optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold NPs were also investigated. The experiments in the pico- and subpicosecond regimes revealed enhanced values of the NL refractive indices and large NL absorption coefficients in comparison with the films without gold NPs. The reported experiments demonstrate that germanate and tellurite glasses, having appropriate rare-earth ions doping and NPs concentration, are strong candidates for PL-based devices, all-optical switches, and optical limiting.

  15. Enhanced Optical Properties of Germanate and Tellurite Glasses Containing Metal or Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Cid Bartolomeu; Silvério da Silva, Diego; Alves de Assumpção, Thiago Alexandre; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Mariano da Silva, Davinson

    2013-01-01

    Germanium- and tellurium-based glasses have been largely studied due to their recognized potential for photonics. In this paper, we review our recent studies that include the investigation of the Stokes and anti-Stokes photoluminescence (PL) in different glass systems containing metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). In the case of the samples with metallic NPs, the enhanced PL was attributed to the increased local field on the rare-earth ions located in the proximity of the NPs and/or the energy transfer from the metallic NPs to the rare-earth ions. For the glasses containing silicon NPs, the PL enhancement was mainly due to the energy transfer from the NPs to the Er3+ ions. The nonlinear (NL) optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold NPs were also investigated. The experiments in the pico- and subpicosecond regimes revealed enhanced values of the NL refractive indices and large NL absorption coefficients in comparison with the films without gold NPs. The reported experiments demonstrate that germanate and tellurite glasses, having appropriate rare-earth ions doping and NPs concentration, are strong candidates for PL-based devices, all-optical switches, and optical limiting. PMID:23710138

  16. Surface plasmon based engineering of semiconductor nanowire optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspetti, Carlos Octavio

    Semiconductor nanowires combine the material properties of semiconductors, which are ubiquitous in modern technology, with nanoscale dimensions and as such, are firmly poised at the forefront of nanotechnology research. The rich physics of semiconductor nanowire optics, in particular, arises from the increased interaction between light and matter that occurs when light is confined to dimensions below the size of its wavelength, in other words, when the nanowire serves as a light trapping optical cavity, which itself is also a source of light. Light confinement is taken to new extremes by coupling to the surface plasmon modes of metallic nanostructures, where light acquires mixed photonic and electronic character, and which may focus light to deep-subwavelength regions amenable to the dimensions of the electron wave. This thesis examines how the integration of "plasmonic optical cavities" and semiconductor nanowires leads to substantial modification (and enhancement) of the optical properties of the same, resulting in orders-of-magnitude faster and more efficient light emission with colors that may be tuned as a function of optical cavity geometry. Furthermore, this method is applied to nanowires composed of both direct and indirect bandgap semiconductor materials resulting in applications such as light emission from high-energy states in light emitting materials, highly enhanced broadband light emission from nominally non-light emitting (dark) materials, and broadband (and anomalous) enhancement of light absorption in various materials, all the while maintaining the unifying theme of employing integrated plasmonic-semiconductor optical cavities to achieve tailored optical properties. We begin with a review of the electromagnetic properties of optical cavities, surface plasmon-enhanced light emission in semiconductors, and the key physical properties of semiconductor nanowires. It goes without saying that this thesis work resides at the interface between optical

  17. Control of excitonic population inversion in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2013-06-01

    We study the potential for controlled population inversion in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. We show that the widely used method of population inversion by a π pulse can be modified for small interparticle distances. This modification depends strongly on the pulse duration. We also present analytical solutions of the nonlinear density matrix equations, for specific pulse envelopes, which lead to efficient excitonic population inversion in the quantum dot for several distances between the semiconductor quantum dot and the metal nanoparticle.

  18. Electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors in air- and water-stable ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zein el-Abedin, Sherif; Endres, Frank

    2006-01-16

    In addition to their stability, the advantages of air- and water-stable ionic liquids over chloroaluminate ionic liquids, which were intensively investigated in the past, are that they are easy to dry, purify, and handle. Moreover, some of these ionic liquids have an extremely large electrochemical window of more than 5 V, and hence they give access to the electrodeposition of many metals and semiconductors, such as Ta, Ti, Si, and Ge. The results to date for the electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors in the most popular air- and water-stable ionic liquids are presented.

  19. Interfacial engineering of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions for efficient and stable photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digdaya, Ibadillah A.; Adhyaksa, Gede W. P.; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Garnett, Erik C.; Smith, Wilson A.

    2017-06-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting can potentially provide an efficient route for large-scale renewable energy conversion and storage. It is essential for such a system to provide a sufficiently high photocurrent and photovoltage to drive the water oxidation reaction. Here we demonstrate a photoanode that is capable of achieving a high photovoltage by engineering the interfacial energetics of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions. We evaluate the importance of using two metals to decouple the functionalities for a Schottky contact and a highly efficient catalyst. We also illustrate the improvement of the photovoltage upon incidental oxidation of the metallic surface layer in KOH solution. Additionally, we analyse the role of the thin insulating layer to the pinning and depinning of Fermi level that is responsible to the resulting photovoltage. Finally, we report the advantage of using dual metal overlayers as a simple protection route for highly efficient metal-insulator-semiconductor photoanodes by showing over 200 h of operational stability.

  20. Reaction Current Phenomenon in Bifunctional Catalytic Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Mohammad Amin

    Energy transfer processes accompany every elementary step of catalytic chemical processes on material surface including molecular adsorption and dissociation on atoms, interactions between intermediates, and desorption of reaction products from the catalyst surface. Therefore, detailed understanding of these processes on the molecular level is of great fundamental and practical interest in energy-related applications of nanomaterials. Two main mechanisms of energy transfer from adsorbed particles to a surface are known: (i) adiabatic via excitation of quantized lattice vibrations (phonons) and (ii) non-adiabatic via electronic excitations (electron/hole pairs). Electronic excitations play a key role in nanocatalysis, and it was recently shown that they can be efficiently detected and studied using Schottky-type catalytic nanostructures in the form of measureable electrical currents (chemicurrents) in an external electrical circuit. These nanostructures typically contain an electrically continuous nanocathode layers made of a catalytic metal deposited on a semiconductor substrate. The goal of this research is to study the direct observations of hot electron currents (chemicurrents) in catalytic Schottky structures, using a continuous mesh-like Pt nanofilm grown onto a mesoporous TiO2 substrate. Such devices showed qualitatively different and more diverse signal properties, compared to the earlier devices using smooth substrates, which could only be explained on the basis of bifunctionality. In particular, it was necessary to suggest that different stages of the reaction are occurring on both phases of the catalytic structure. Analysis of the signal behavior also led to discovery of a formerly unknown (very slow) mode of the oxyhydrogen reaction on the Pt/TiO2(por) system occurring at room temperature. This slow mode was producing surprisingly large stationary chemicurrents in the range 10--50 microA/cm2. Results of the chemicurrent measurements for the bifunctional

  1. The friction behavior of semiconductors Si and GaAs in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.

    1984-01-01

    The friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals was studied. Five transition and two nontransition metals, titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, and silver, slid on a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Four metals, indium, nickel, copper and silver, slid on a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Experiments were conducted in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 7th power N/sq cm (10 to the minus 9th power torr). The results indicate that the sliding of silicon on the transition metals exhibits relatively higher friction than for the nontransition metals in contact with silicon. There is a clear correlation between friction and Schottky barrier height formed at the metal silicon interface for the transition metals. Transition metals with a higher barrier height on silicon had a lower friction. The same effect of barrier height was found for the friction of gallium arsenide in contact with metals.

  2. Si nanowire metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors as efficient light harvesters.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonho; Kim, Hyunjin; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dang, Cuong H; Zhang, Yue; Choi, Young Jin; Nurmikko, Arto; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-03-05

    Novel ITO-Si nanowire (NW) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photodetectors were fabricated by using n-type Si NWs as detection units and ITO films as top gate electrodes. Measurements on the Si NW based device reveal a significant photoresponse, including photocurrent generation with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of approximately 35% at a peak wavelength of 600 nm at zero external bias, and with an EQE of 70% at a peak wavelength of 800 nm at - 0.5 V bias. The NW device shows a flat and low reflectance and almost constant EQE up to a 60 degrees incident angle of illumination, demonstrating efficient visible-light harvesting by the Si NW antenna.

  3. Semiconductor to metal transition by tuning the location of N2AA in armchair graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Quan; Luo, Kai-Wu; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Xu, Liang

    2014-02-01

    The electronic band structures and transport properties of N2AA-doped armchair graphene nanoribbons (aGNRs) with two quasi-adjacent substitutional nitrogen atoms incorporated in pairs of neighboring carbon atoms in the same sublattice A are investigated by using non-equilibrium Green function formalism in combination with density functional theory. The results show that the coupling effect between the Pz orbitals of carbon and nitrogen atoms plays an important role in the transition between semiconductor and metal by different locations of N2AA-doped aGNRs. And the striking negative differential resistance behaviors can be found in such devices. These tremendous properties suggest potential application of N2AA-doped aGNRs in graphene-based nanoelectronic devices.

  4. Photoconduction efficiencies of metal oxide semiconductor nanowires: The material's inherent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Wang, W. C.; Chan, C. H.; Lu, M. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, L. C.

    2013-11-01

    The photoconduction (PC) efficiencies of various single-crystalline metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated and compared based on the materials' inherent properties. The defined PC efficiency (normalized gain) of SnO2 NWs is over one to five orders of magnitude higher than that of its highly efficient counterparts such as ZnO, TiO2, WO3, and GaN. The inherent property of the material allowed the photoconductive gain of an SnO2 single-NW photodetector to easily reach 8 × 108 at a low bias of 3.0 V and a low light intensity of 0.05 Wm-2, which is the optimal reported value so far for the single-NW photodetectors. The probable physical origins, such as charged surface state density and surface band bending, that caused the differences in PC efficiencies and carrier lifetimes are also discussed.

  5. Strong coupling among semiconductor quantum dots induced by a metal nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), we investigate the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in a metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in an SQD-MNP coupled system. We propose a quantum transformation method to strongly reveal the exciton energy shift and the modified decay rate of SQD as well as the coupling among SQDs. To obtain these parameters, a simple system composed of an SQD, an MNP, and a weak signal light is designed. Furthermore, we consider a model to demonstrate the coupling of two SQDs mediated by SPP field under two cases. It is shown that two SQDs can be entangled in the presence of MNP. A high concurrence can be achieved, which is the best evidence that the coupling among SQDs induced by SPP field in MNP. This scheme may have the potential applications in all-optical plasmon-enhanced nanoscale devices. PMID:22297024

  6. Novel half-metal and spin gapless semiconductor properties in N-doped silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fu-bao; Zhang, Chang-wen; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-shi

    2013-04-01

    We carry out a spin polarized first-principles study on the energetic and electronic properties of zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) doped with N atoms, as well as N and Si vacancy (VSi) complexes. The formation energy analysis shows that the doped N atom and N-VSi complex prefer the edge sites in ZSiNRs. Due to breaking the degeneracy of the spin-polarization in ZSiNR, the substitution of N for Si atom exhibits a spin gapless semiconductor (SGS) property. When the N-VSi complex is introduced forming so called pyridine- and pyrrole-like structure in ZSiNR, they also exhibit half-metal or SGS behaviors with 100% spin-polarized currents in the Fermi level. These interesting properties may further stimulate potential applications of silicene-based nanostructures in nanoelectronics.

  7. Semiconductor nanostructure-based photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genqiang; Finefrock, Scott; Liang, Daxin; Yadav, Gautam G.; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2011-06-01

    Substantial efforts have been devoted to design, synthesize, and integrate various semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. In this article, we will review the recent progress in this exciting area and cover the material chemistry and physics related to all-inorganic nanostructure solar cells, hybrid inorganic nanostructure-conductive polymer composite solar cells, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Semiconductor nanostructure-based photovoltaic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genqiang; Finefrock, Scott; Liang, Daxin; Yadav, Gautam G; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2011-06-01

    Substantial efforts have been devoted to design, synthesize, and integrate various semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. In this article, we will review the recent progress in this exciting area and cover the material chemistry and physics related to all-inorganic nanostructure solar cells, hybrid inorganic nanostructure-conductive polymer composite solar cells, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Transition-Metal Substitution Doping in Synthetic Atomically Thin Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Kim, Young Duck; Liang, Liangbo; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Chow, Phil; Tan, Jiawei; Li, Baichang; Li, Lu; Sumpter, Bobby G; Lu, Toh-Ming; Meunier, Vincent; Hone, James; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-11-01

    Large-area "in situ" transition-metal substitution doping for chemical-vapor-deposited semiconducting transition-metal-dichalcogenide monolayers deposited on dielectric substrates is demonstrated. In this approach, the transition-metal substitution is stable and preserves the monolayer's semiconducting nature, along with other attractive characteristics, including direct-bandgap photoluminescence.

  10. Charge transport in nanoscale "all-inorganic" networks of semiconductor nanorods linked by metal domains.

    PubMed

    Lavieville, Romain; Zhang, Yang; Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Manna, Liberato; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Krahne, Roman

    2012-04-24

    Charge transport across metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is a crucial issue in nanoelectronics. Chains of semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represent an ideal model system in this respect, because the metal-semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem and does not manifest solely as the contact to the macroscopic external electrodes. Here we investigate charge transport mechanisms in all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks fabricated via self-assembly in solution, in which CdSe nanorods were linked to each other by Au nanoparticles. Thermal annealing of our devices changed the morphology of the networks and resulted in the removal of small Au domains that were present on the lateral nanorod facets, and in ripening of the Au nanoparticles in the nanorod junctions with more homogeneous metal-semiconductor interfaces. In such thermally annealed devices the voltage dependence of the current at room temperature can be well described by a Schottky barrier lowering at a metal semiconductor contact under reverse bias, if the spherical shape of the gold nanoparticles is considered. In this case the natural logarithm of the current does not follow the square-root dependence of the voltage as in the bulk, but that of V(2/3). From our fitting with this model we extract the effective permittivity that agrees well with theoretical predictions for the permittivity near the surface of CdSe nanorods. Furthermore, the annealing improved the network conductance at cryogenic temperatures, which could be related to the reduction of the number of trap states.

  11. Experimental test for the conductivity properties from the Casimir force between metal and semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.; Mohideen, U.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2006-08-15

    The experimental investigation of the Casimir force between a large metallized sphere and semiconductor plate is performed using an atomic force microscope. Improved calibration and measurement procedures permitted a reduction in the role of different uncertainties. Rigorous statistical procedures are applied for the analysis of random, systematic, and total experimental errors at 95% confidence. The theoretical Casimir force is computed for semiconductor plates with different conductivity properties, taking into account all theoretical uncertainties discussed in the literature. The comparison between experiment and theory is done at both 95% and 70% confidence. It is demonstrated that the theoretical results computed for the semiconductor plate used in experiment are consistent with the data. At the same time, the theory describing a dielectric plate is excluded by experiment at 70% confidence. Thus, the Casimir force is proved to be sensitive to the conductivity properties of semiconductors.

  12. Effect of realistic metal electronic structure on the lower limit of contact resistivity of epitaxial metal-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, Ganesh Chris Bowen, R.

    2014-08-04

    The effect of realistic metal electronic structure on the lower limit of resistivity in [100] oriented n-Si is investigated using full band Density Functional Theory and Semi-Empirical Tight Binding calculations. It is shown that the “ideal metal” assumption may fail in some situations and, consequently, underestimate the lower limit of contact resistivity in n-Si by at least an order of magnitude at high doping concentrations. The mismatch in transverse momentum space in the metal and the semiconductor, the so-called “valley filtering effect,” is shown to be sensitive to the details of the transverse boundary conditions for the unit cells used. The results emphasize the need for explicit inclusion of the metal atomic and electronic structure in the atomistic modeling of transport across metal-semiconductor contacts.

  13. Dynamically reconfigurable metal-semiconductor Yagi-Uda nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelev, Roman S.; Sergaeva, Olga N.; Baranov, Denis G.; Krasnok, Alexander E.; Alù, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the properties of a tunable Yagi-Uda nanoantenna composed of metal-dielectric (Ag-Ge) core-shell nanoparticles. We show that, due to the combination of two types of resonances in each nanoparticle, such hybrid Yagi-Uda nanoantenna can operate in two different regimes. Besides the conventional nonresonant operation regime at low frequencies, characterized by highly directive emission in the forward direction, there is another one at higher frequencies caused by a hybrid magneto-electric response of the core-shell nanoparticles. This regime is based on the excitation of the van Hove singularity, and emission in this regime is accompanied by high values of directivity and Purcell factor within the same narrow frequency range. Our analysis reveals the possibility of flexible dynamical tuning of the hybrid nanoantenna emission pattern via electron-hole plasma excitation by 100 fs pump pulse with relatively low peak intensities ˜200 MW cm-2 .

  14. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-09

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  15. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  16. Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Optoelectronics Based on van der Waals Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yoon; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and black phosphorous have drawn tremendous attention as an emerging optical material due to their unique and remarkable optical properties. In addition, the ability to create the atomically-controlled van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures enables realizing novel optoelectronic devices that are distinct from conventional bulk counterparts. In this short review, we first present the atomic and electronic structures of 2D semiconducting TMDCs and their exceptional optical properties, and further discuss the fabrication and distinctive features of vdW heterostructures assembled from different kinds of 2D materials with various physical properties. We then focus on reviewing the recent progress on the fabrication of 2D semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on vdW heterostructures including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting devices. Finally, we highlight the perspectives and challenges of optoelectronics based on 2D semiconductor heterostructures. PMID:28335321

  17. Study of gain phenomenon in lateral metal-semiconductor-metal detectors for indirect conversion medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Allec, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; Chen, Feng; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-03-01

    Previously, metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) lateral amorphous selenium (a-Se) detectors have been proposed for indirect detector medical imaging applications. These detectors have raised interest due to their high-speed and photogain. The gain measured from these devices was assumed to have been photoconductive gain; however the origin of this gain was not fully understood. In addition, whether or not there was any presence of photocurrent multiplication gain was not investigated. For integration-type applications photocurrent multiplication gain is desirable since the total collected charge can be greater than the total number of absorbed photons. In order to fully appreciate the value of MSM devices and their benefit for different applications, whether it is counting or integration applications, we need to investigate the responsible mechanisms of the observed response. In this paper, we systematically study, through experimental and theoretical means, the nature of the photoresponse and its responsible mechanisms. This study also exposes the possible means to increase the performance of the device and under what conditions it will be most beneficial.

  18. Plasmonic effect-enhanced Ag nanodisk incorporated ZnO/Si metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong; Yun, Ju-Hyung

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present the enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) photodetection of Ag-ZnO thin film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The surface morphological, optical, structural, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated by various characterization techniques. With this Ag-ZnO thin film structure and proper geometry of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) interdigitated structure design, photocurrent enhancement has been accomplished. MSM-photodetectors (PDs) using structures of Ag-ZnO gave a 30 times higher magnitude photocurrent at 340 nm of the wavelength. Plasmon-induced hot electrons contributed to improved spectral response to the UV region, while absorption and scattering effect enhanced broadband improvement to a response in the VIS-IR spectrum range. The improvement of Ag-ZnO PD in comparison with ZnO is attributed to the surface plasmon effect using Ag nanodisks. These results indicate that Ag-ZnO thin films can serve as excellent ultraviolet-PD and a very promising candidate for practical applications.

  19. Characterization and modeling analysis for metal-semiconductor-metal GaAs diodes with Pd/SiO₂ mixture electrode.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shih-Wei; Lai, Shih-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Characterization and modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaAs diodes using to evaporate SiO₂ and Pd simultaneously as a mixture electrode (called M-MSM diodes) compared with similar to evaporate Pd as the electrode (called Pd-MSM diodes) were reported. The barrier height (φ(b)) and the Richardson constant (A*) were carried out for the thermionic-emission process to describe well the current transport for Pd-MSM diodes in the consideration of the carrier over the metal-semiconductor barrier. In addition, in the consideration of the carrier over both the metal-semiconductor barrier and the insulator-semiconductor barrier simultaneously, thus the thermionic-emission process can be used to describe well the current transport for M-MSM diodes. Furthermore, in the higher applied voltage, the carrier recombination will be taken into discussion. Besides, a composite-current (CC) model is developed to evidence the concepts. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  20. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  1. Optical Design of Plant Canopy Measurement System and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional High-Speed Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarto, Anthony; VanZeghbroeck, Bart; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical designs for the prototype plant canopy architecture measurement system, including specified component and parts lists, are presented. Six single Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) detectors are mounted in high-speed packages.

  2. Observation of quantum oscillation of work function in ultrathin-metal/semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Takhar, Kuldeep; Meer, Mudassar; Khachariya, Dolar; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2015-09-15

    Quantization in energy level due to confinement is generally observed for semiconductors. This property is used for various quantum devices, and it helps to improve the characteristics of conventional devices. Here, the authors have demonstrated the quantum size effects in ultrathin metal (Ni) layers sandwiched between two large band-gap materials. The metal work function is found to oscillate as a function of its thickness. The thermionic emission current bears the signature of the oscillating work function, which has a linear relationship with barrier heights. This methodology allows direct observation of quantum oscillations in metals at room temperature using a Schottky diode and electrical measurements using source-measure-units. The observed phenomena can provide additional mechanism to tune the barrier height of metal/semiconductor junctions, which are used for various electronic devices.

  3. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  4. Unimolecular, soluble semiconductor nanoparticle-based biosensors for thrombin using charge/electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Swain, Marla D; Octain, Jashain; Benson, David E

    2008-12-01

    Duplex DNA was attached to semiconductor nanoparticles providing selective detection of thrombin. Using the method reported here, semiconductor nanoparticles can have selective sensory functions for a host of additional analytes in the future. The system uses one DNA strand that selectively binds an analyte (thrombin), while the complementary DNA strand contains a redox-active metal complex. The accessibility of the metal complex to the nanoparticle surface is increased upon thrombin binding due to unravelling of the duplex DNA secondary structure. Increased interactions between the metal complex and the nanoparticle surface will decrease nanoparticle emission intensity, through charge transfer. Initially, water-soluble nanoparticles with carboxylate-terminated monolayers showed thrombin-specific responses in emission intensity (-30% for 1:1 nanoparticle to DNA, +50% for 1:5). Despite the selective responses, the thrombin binding isotherms indicated multiple binding equilibria and more than likely nanoparticle aggregation. The need for a nonaggregative system comes from the potential employment of these sensors in live cell or living system fluorescence assays. By changing the nanoparticle capping ligand to provide an ethylene glycol-terminated monolayer, the binding isotherms fit a two-state binding model with a thrombin dissociation constant of 3 nM in a physiologically relevant buffer. This article demonstrates the need to consider capping ligand effects in designing biosensors based on semiconductor nanoparticles and demonstrates an initial DNA-attached semiconductor nanoparticle system that uses DNA-analyte binding interactions (aptamers).

  5. Formation of heteroepitaxy in different shapes of Au-CdSe metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Pradhan, Narayan; Patra, Amitava

    2013-10-25

    Formation of heteroepitaxy and designing different-shaped heterostructured nanomaterials of metal and semiconductor in solution remains a frontier area of research. However, it is evident that the synthesis of such materials is not straightforward and needs a selective approach to retain both metal and semiconductor identities in the reaction system during heterostructure formation. Herein, the epitaxial growth of semiconductor CdSe on selected facets of metal Au seeds is reported and different shapes (flower, tetrapod, and core/shell) hetero-nanostructures are designed. These results are achieved by controlling the reaction parameters, and by changing the sequence and timing for introduction of different reactant precursors. Direct evidence of the formation of heteroepitaxy between {111} facets of Au and (0001) of wurtzite CdSe is observed during the formation of these three heterostructures. The mechanism of the evolution of these hetero-nanostructures and formation of their heteroepitaxy with the planes having minimum lattice mismatch are also discussed. This shape-control growth mechanism in hetero-nanostructures should be helpful to provide more information for establishing the fundamental study of heteroepitaxial growth for designing new nanomaterials. Such metal-semiconductor nanostructures may have great potential for nonlinear optical properties, in photovoltaic devices, and as chemical sensors.

  6. Thermoelectric figure of merit of a material consisting of semiconductor or metal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, V. F.

    2013-07-15

    It is found that the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit of a material consisting of a large number of ball-shaped semiconductor or metal particles can be much more than unity. The introduction of an insulator into the space between the particles is shown to sharply increase the power of the converter of heat energy into electric current energy.

  7. Metal-organic semiconductor interfacial barrier height determination from internal photoemission signal in spectral response measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and convenient evaluation methods of the interfacial barrier ϕb for charge carriers in metal semiconductor (MS) junctions are important for designing and building better opto-electronic devices. This becomes more critical for organic semiconductor devices where a plethora of molecules are in use and standardised models applicable to myriads of material combinations for the different devices may have limited applicability. In this paper, internal photoemission (IPE) from spectral response (SR) in the ultra-violet to near infra-red range of different MS junctions of metal-organic semiconductor-metal (MSM) test structures is used to determine more realistic MS ϕb values. The representative organic semiconductor considered is [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and the metals considered are Al and Au. The IPE signals in the SR measurement of the MSM device are identified and separated before it is analysed to estimate ϕb for the MS junction. The analysis of IPE signals under different bias conditions allows the evaluation of ϕb for both the front and back junctions, as well as for symmetric MSM devices.

  8. Ultrahigh quality factor in a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Kumano, Hidekazu; Suemune, Ikuo

    2015-12-15

    We numerically and theoretically investigate electrodynamics of a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity. The electrodynamics of a cavity mode is discussed from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, which clarifies the condition for high Q factor. Using numerical calculations, we optimize the cavity structure and show that the Q factor can be increased up to 1,700,000. Our study suggests that the metal-embedded cavity is a promising candidate for cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) devices.

  9. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, S K; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R

    2013-06-21

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.

  10. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, Sk; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R.

    2013-05-01

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity. Electronic supplementary information available: Characterization details of coating and

  11. Π Band Dispersion along Conjugated Organic Nanowires Synthesized on a Metal Oxide Semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Surface-confined dehalogenation reactions are versatile bottom-up approaches for the synthesis of carbon-based nanostructures with predefined chemical properties. However, for devices generally requiring low-conductivity substrates, potential applications are so far severely hampered by the necessity of a metallic surface to catalyze the reactions. In this work we report the synthesis of ordered arrays of poly(p-phenylene) chains on the surface of semiconducting TiO2(110) via a dehalogenative homocoupling of 4,4″-dibromoterphenyl precursors. The supramolecular phase is clearly distinguished from the polymeric one using low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy as the substrate temperature used for deposition is varied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of C 1s and Br 3d core levels traces the temperature of the onset of dehalogenation to around 475 K. Moreover, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and tight-binding calculations identify a highly dispersive band characteristic of a substantial overlap between the precursor’s π states along the polymer, considered as the fingerprint of a successful polymerization. Thus, these results establish the first spectroscopic evidence that atomically precise carbon-based nanostructures can readily be synthesized on top of a transition-metal oxide surface, opening the prospect for the bottom-up production of novel molecule–semiconductor devices. PMID:27115554

  12. Is DNA a metal, semiconductor or insulator? A theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-Gonzalez, Rafael; Fonseca-Romero, Karen; Plazas, Carlos; Grupo de Óptica e Información Cuántica Team

    Over the last years, scientific interest for designing and making low dimensional electronic devices with traditional or novel materials has been increased. These experimental and theoretical researches in electronic properties at molecular scale are looking for developing efficient devices able to carry out tasks which are currently done by silicon transistors and devices. Among the new materials DNA strands are highlighted, but the experimental results have been contradictories pointing to behaviors as conductor, semiconductor or insulator. To contribute to the understanding of the origin of the disparity of the measurements, we perform a numerical calculation of the electrical conductance of DNA segments, modeled as 1D disordered finite chains. The system is described into a Tight binding model with nearest neighbor interactions and a s orbital per site. Hydration effects are included as random variations of self-energies. The electronic current as a function of applied bias is calculated using Launder formalism, where the transmission probability is determined into the transfer matrix formalism. We find a conductor-to-semiconductor-to-insulator transition as a function of the three effects taken into account: chain size, intrinsic disorder, and hydration We thank Fundación para la Promoción de la Investigación y la Tecnología, Colombia, and Dirección de Investigación de Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, for partial financial support.

  13. Semiconductor-to-metallic flipping in a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–graphene based smart nano-system: Temperature/microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain; Mahmood, Nasir; Mujahid, Muhammad

    2015-01-15

    Zn-(FeO{sub 2}){sub 2}–graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis with different percentages of graphene. The structure of the nanocomposite was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural growth and morphological aspects were analyzed using scanning/transmission electron microscopy, revealing marvelous micro-structural features of the assembled nano-system resembling a maple leaf. To determine the composition, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy revealed the improved dielectric properties of the nano-composite compared to those of the parent functional nanocrystals. Temperature gradient dielectric spectroscopy was used over the spectral range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz to reveal the phenomenological effect that the nanosystem flips from its usual semiconductor nature to a metallic nature with sensing temperature. Electrical conductivity and dielectric analysis indicated that the dielectric loss and the dielectric permittivity increased at room temperature. This extraordinary switching capability of the functionalized graphene nanosystem opens up a new dimension for engineering advanced and efficient smart composite materials. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-(FeO{sub 2}){sub 2}–graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis. • The synthesized nano-system exhibits marvelous leaf like microstructure. • These nano-composites show improved magneto dielectric response. • This engineered smart nano-system shows phenomenological flipping from semiconductor like nature to metallic behavior.

  14. Features of high-frequency measurements of the impedance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with an ultrathin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, E. I.; Levashova, A. I.; Levashov, S. A.; Chucheva, G. V.

    2015-04-15

    The possibilities of using the data of high-frequency measurements of the impedance of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures with an ultrathin insulating layer for determining the parameters of the semiconductor and the tunneling characteristics of the insulator are considered. If the accuracy of the experiment makes it possible to record both the active and reactive impedance components, the thickness of the surface depletion layer, the resistance of the semiconductor base portion, the differential tunnel conductivity of the insulating layer, and the differential tunneling-stimulated current of the generation of electron-hole pairs are calculated using the values of the capacitance and conduction of the structure measured at two frequencies. In the case, where the values of the active component of the impedance is beyond the accuracy of measurements, analysis of the parameters is possible upon four-frequency organization of the experiment from the values of only the capacitances with an increased accuracy of their measurements. A test for the necessary accuracy of data of such an experiment is formulated. If the test fails, it is possible to determine only the capacitance of the surface depletion layer in the semiconductor and, in this case, it is sufficient to implement only the single-frequency experiment.

  15. Radiation induced failures of complementary metal oxide semiconductor containing pacemakers: a potentially lethal complication

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, A.A.; Serago, C.F.; Schwade, J.G.; Abitbol, A.A.; Margolis, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    New multi-programmable pacemakers frequently employ complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). This circuitry appears more sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation when compared to the semiconductor circuits used in older pacemakers. A case of radiation induced runaway pacemaker in a CMOS device is described. Because of this and other recent reports of radiation therapy-induced CMOS type pacemaker failure, these pacemakers should not be irradiated. If necessary, the pacemaker can be shielded or moved to a site which can be shielded before institution of radiation therapy. This is done to prevent damage to the CMOS circuit and the life threatening arrythmias which may result from such damage.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of a Au/PMMA/Sb metal-organic insulator-semiconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandeira, M. C.; Guimarães, J. G.

    2014-05-01

    This work shows the growth and characterization of a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-Au heterostructure. The adsorption of a PMMA thin-film using layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was made on a Au thin-film formed by sputtering deposition on a glass substrate. Topographic, frictional effects and electrical characterizations were obtained using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). Using the SPM silicon doped antimony probe as the semiconductor, a metal-organic insulator-semiconductor (MOIS) structure was characterized by its current-voltage curve showing a diode-like characteristic.

  17. Enhanced adhesion of films to semiconductors or metals by high energy bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, Thomas A. (Inventor); Qiu, Yuanxun (Inventor); Mendenhall, Marcus H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Films (12) of a metal such as gold or other non-insulator materials are firmly bonded to other non-insulators such as semiconductor substrates (10), suitably silicon or gallium arsenide by irradiating the interface with high energy ions. The process results in improved adhesion without excessive doping and provides a low resistance contact to the semiconductor. Thick layers can be bonded by depositing or doping the interfacial surfaces with fissionable elements or alpha emitters. The process can be utilized to apply very small, low resistance electrodes (78) to light-emitting solid state laser diodes (60) to form a laser device 70.

  18. MBE Growth of Ferromagnetic Metal/Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Spintronics

    ScienceCinema

    Palmstrom, Chris [University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    Electrical transport and spin-dependent transport across ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts is crucial in the realization of spintronic devices. Interfacial reactions, the formation of non-magnetic interlayers, and conductivity mismatch have been attributed to low spin injection efficiency. MBE has been used to grow epitaxial ferromagnetic metal/GA(1-x)AL(x)As heterostructures with the aim of controlling the interfacial structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. In situ, STM, XPS, RHEED and LEED, and ex situ XRD, RBS, TEM, magnetotransport, and magnetic characterization have been used to develop ferromagnetic elemental and metallic compound/compound semiconductor tunneling contacts for spin injection. The efficiency of the spin polarized current injected from the ferromagnetic contact has been determined by measuring the electroluminescence polarization of the light emitted from/GA(1-x)AL(x)As light-emitting diodes as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. Interfacial reactions during MBE growth and post-growth anneal, as well as the semiconductor device band structure, were found to have a dramatic influence on the measured spin injection, including sign reversal. Lateral spin-transport devices with epitaxial ferromagnetic metal source and drain tunnel barrier contacts have been fabricated with the demonstration of electrical detection and the bias dependence of spin-polarized electron injection and accumulation at the contacts. This talk emphasizes the progress and achievements in the epitaxial growth of a number of ferromagnetic compounds/III-V semiconductor heterostructures and the progress towards spintronic devices.

  19. Chemical reactions at metallic and metal/semiconductor interfaces stimulated by pulsed laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, E. J.; Caudano, R.

    1992-01-01

    Multilayer Al/Sb thin films have been evaporated on GaSb single crystals in ultra-high vacuum and pulsed-laser irradiated in-situ above the energy density threshold for surface melting. Superficial and interfacial chemical reactions have been characterized in-situ by Auger electron spectroscopy; and later, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy profiling, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The chemical reaction between the Al and Sb films is considered as a model reaction for laser-assisted synthesis of high-purity intermetallic compounds. The observation of a strong interfacial reaction between the melted film and the substrate is also a subject of great concern for optical data recording and laser alloying of ohmic contacts on semiconductors. We show that a suitable choice of the substrate and adding a low surface tension element into the metallic film can improve its stability during melting, and prevent inhomogeneous reaction and formation of holes, cracks and particles. Finally, other solutions are suggested to improve the control of these reactions.

  20. Semiconductor-to-metal transition in rutile TiO2 induced by tensile strain

    DOE PAGES

    Benson, Eric E.; Miller, Elisa M.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, we report the first observation of a reversible, degenerate doping of titanium dioxide with strain, which is referred to as a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Application of tensile strain to a ~50 nm film of rutile TiO2 thermally grown on a superelastic nitinol (NiTi intermetallic) substrate causes reversible degenerate doping as evidenced by electrochemistry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Cyclic voltammetry and impedance measurements show behavior characteristic of a highly doped n-type semiconductor for unstrained TiO2 transitioning to metallic behavior under tensile strain. The transition reverses when strain is removed. Valence band XPS spectra show thatmore » samples strained to 5% exhibit metallic-like intensity near the Fermi level. Strain also induces a distinct transition in CAFM current-voltage curves from rectifying (typical of an n-type semiconductor) to ohmic (metal-like) behavior. We propose that strain raises the energy distribution of oxygen vacancies (n-type dopants) near the conduction band and causes an increase in carrier concentration. As the carrier concentration is increased, the width of the depletion region is reduced, which then permits electron tunneling through the space charge barrier resulting in the observed metallic behavior.« less

  1. Using x-ray diffraction to identify precipitates in transition metal doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; von Borany, J.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, room temperature ferromagnetism was often observed in transition metal doped semiconductors, which were claimed as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Nowadays intensive activities are devoted to clarify wether the observed ferromagnetism stems from carrier mediated magnetic impurities, ferromagnetic precipitates, or spinodal decomposition. In this paper, we have correlated the structural and magnetic properties of transition metal doped ZnO, TiO2, and Si, prepared by ion implantation. Crystalline precipitates, i.e., transition metal (Co, Ni) and Mn-silicide nanocrystals, are responsible for the magnetism. Additionally due to their orientation nature with respect to the host, these nanocrystals in some cases are not detectable by conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD). This nature results in the pitfall of using XRD to exclude magnetic precipitates in DMS materials.

  2. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; ...

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  3. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen; Yu, Changlin; Zhou, Wanqin; zhu, Lihua; Xie, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, with the fast development of global industrial development, various organic pollutants discharged in water have become a major source of environmental pollution in waste fields. Photocatalysis, as green and environmentally friendly technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation due to its efficient degradation rate. However, the practical application of traditional semiconductor photocatalysts, e.g. TiO2, ZnO, is limited by their weak visible light adsorption due to their wide band gaps. Nowadays, the study in photocatalysts focuses on new and narrow band gap semiconductors. Among them, Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Most of Ag-based semiconductors could exhibit high initial photocatalytic activity. But they easy suffer from poor stability because of photochemical corrosion. Design heterojunction, increasing specific surface area, enriching pore structure, regulating morphology, controlling crystal facets, and producing plasmonic effects were considered as the effective strategies to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag-based photocatalyts. Moreover, combining the superior properties of carbon materials (e.g. carbon quantum dots, carbon nano-tube, carbon nanofibers, graphene) with Ag-based semiconductor could produce high efficient composite photocatalyts.

  4. One-dimensional quantum transport in hybrid metal-semiconductor nanotube systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelin, Maxim; Bondarev, Igor

    We study the inter-play between the intrinsic 1D conductance of metallic atomic wires (AWs) and plasmon mediated near-field effects for semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (CNs) that encapsulate AWs of finite length. We use the matrix Green's functions formalism to develop an electron transfer theory for such a hybrid quasi-1D metal-semiconductor nanotube system. The theory predicts Fano resonances in electron transmission through the system. That is the AW-CN near-field interaction blocks some of the pristine AW transmission band channels to open up new coherent channels in the CN forbidden gap outside the pristine AW transmission band. This makes the entire hybrid system transparent in the energy domain where neither of the individual pristine constituents, neither AW nor CN, are transparent. The effect can be used to control electron charge transfer in semiconducting CN based devices for nanoscale energy conversion, separation and storage. Nsf-ECCS-1306871 (M.G.), DOE-DE-SC0007117 (I.B.).

  5. Localized dielectric breakdown and antireflection coating in metal-oxide-semiconductor photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Li; Hsu, Hsien-Yi; Li, Xiaohan; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Ye; Lee, Jack C.; Bard, Allen J.; Yu, Edward T.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based photoelectrodes for solar fuel production have attracted great interest over the past decade, with the major challenge being silicon's vulnerability to corrosion. A metal-insulator-semiconductor architecture, in which an insulator film serves as a protection layer, can prevent corrosion but must also allow low-resistance carrier transport, generally leading to a trade-off between stability and efficiency. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a general method to decouple the two roles of the insulator by employing localized dielectric breakdown. This approach allows the insulator to be thick, which enhances stability, while enabling low-resistance carrier transport as required for efficiency. This method can be applied to various oxides, such as SiO2 and Al2O3. In addition, it is suitable for silicon, III-V compounds, and other optical absorbers for both photocathodes and photoanodes. Finally, the thick metal-oxide layer can serve as a thin-film antireflection coating, which increases light absorption efficiency.

  6. Thiazole-based organic semiconductors for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Fan, Haijun; Li, Yongfang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2012-06-19

    Over the past two decades, organic semiconductors have been the subject of intensive academic and commercial interests. Thiazole is a common electron-accepting heterocycle due to electron-withdrawing nitrogen of imine (C=N), several moieties based on thiazole have been widely introduced into organic semiconductors, and yielded high performance in organic electronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in the area of thiazole-based organic semiconductors, particularly thiazole, bithiazole, thiazolothiazole and benzobisthiazole-based small molecules and polymers, for applications in organic field-effect transistors, solar cells and light-emitting diodes. The remaining problems and challenges, and the key research direction in near future are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improved Radio Frequency Power Characteristics of Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Compatible Asymmetric-Lightly-Doped-Drain Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsu; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Chen, Y. J.; Chin, Albert

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized and modeled the radio frequency (RF) power performance of a 0.18 µm asymmetric-lightly-doped-drain metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDD MOSFET). In comparison with the conventional 0.18 µm MOSFET, this asymmetric-LDD device shows a larger power density of 0.54 W/mm, and 8 dB better adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) linearity at 2.4 GHz from the improved twice DC breakdown voltage of 6.9 V. These significant improvements of RF power performance in the asymmetric-LDD transistor are important for the medium RF power amplifier application.

  8. Towards a metal-semiconductor transition in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Anders; de Brito Mota, F.; Rivelino, R.

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) heterosheets built from silicon and boron may exhibit an intrinsic metallic behavior. From density-functional-theory computer simulations, we have demonstrated that a 2D honeycomb binary compound (h-SiB), which exhibits robust structural and thermal stabilities, maintains its metallicity by increasing hydrogen coverages at 25%, 50%, and 75% on boron or silicon sublattices. However, under a total hydrogenation condition (100%) on B or Si sites, h-SiB opens a well-defined bandgap, meaning that it is possible to obtain a metal-insulator transition at zero temperature in 2D. Additional calculations show that the hydrogenation on B sublattices is energetically more favorable than on silicon.

  9. Crystal Phases in Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Nanowire Devices.

    PubMed

    David, J; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Ercolani, D; Sorba, L; Beltram, F; Gemmi, M; Roddaro, S

    2017-04-12

    We investigate the metallic phases observed in hybrid metal-GaAs nanowire devices obtained by controlled thermal annealing of Ni/Au electrodes. Devices are fabricated onto a SiN membrane compatible with transmission electron microscopy studies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows us to show that the nanowire body includes two Ni-rich phases that thanks to an innovative use of electron diffraction tomography can be unambiguously identified as Ni3GaAs and Ni5As2 crystals. The mechanisms of Ni incorporation leading to the observed phenomenology are discussed.

  10. Two-dimensional ferromagnet/semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenide contacts: p-type Schottky barrier and spin-injection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-12-01

    We study the ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts formed by transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, focusing on semiconducting MoS2 and WS2 and ferromagnetic VS2. We investigate the degree of p-type doping and demonstrate tuning of the Schottky barrier height by vertical compressive pressure. An analytical model is presented for the barrier heights that accurately describes the numerical findings and is expected to be of general validity for all transition metal dichalcogenide metal/semiconductor contacts. Furthermore, magnetic proximity effects induce a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level in the semiconductor where the spin splitting increases up to 0.70 eV for increasing pressure.

  11. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; ...

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of themore » exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.« less

  12. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of the exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.

  13. Passivation of impurities in semiconductors by hydrogen and light metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislason, Hafliði P.

    1997-01-01

    Books as well as numerous articles have been written about hydrogen passivation in classical semiconductors such as Si and GaAs. The subject has gained a renewed interest recently since hydrogen is widely considered to saturate the hole conductivity of the wide bandgap semiconductors GaN and ZnSe which are currently most promising for blue light emitting devices. Other group-I impurities are capable of compensating the electrical conductivity of semiconductors both through directly neutralising (passivating) the impurity or providing space charge of polarity opposite to that of the dominating one. The paper reviews the similarities and differences between hydrogen and its light metallic neighbour in the periodic table, lithium. Also we provide a comparison with the heavier interstitial copper which is known for its ability to passivate shallow acceptors. Finally fundamental differences between shallow-level and deep level passivation will be addressed.

  14. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of the exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.

  15. The Effect of Interfacial Dipoles on the Metal-Double Interlayers-Semiconductor Structure and Their Application in Contact Resistivity Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Gwang-Sik; Choi, Changhwan; Choi, Rino; Yu, Hyun-Yong

    2016-12-28

    We demonstrate the contact resistance reduction for III-V semiconductor-based electrical and optical devices using the interfacial dipole effect of ultrathin double interlayers in a metal-interlayers-semiconductor (M-I-S) structure. An M-I-S structure blocks metal-induced gap states (MIGS) to a sufficient degree to alleviate Fermi level pinning caused by MIGS, resulting in contact resistance reduction. In addition, the ZnO/TiO2 interlayers of an M-I-S structure induce an interfacial dipole effect that produces Schottky barrier height (ΦB) reduction, which reduces the specific contact resistivity (ρc) of the metal/n-type III-V semiconductor contact. As a result, the Ti/ZnO(0.5 nm)/TiO2(0.5 nm)/n-GaAs metal-double interlayers-semiconductor (M-DI-S) structure achieved a ρc of 2.51 × 10(-5) Ω·cm(2), which exhibited an ∼42 000× reduction and an ∼40× reduction compared to the Ti/n-GaAs metal-semiconductor (M-S) contact and the Ti/TiO2(0.5 nm)/n-GaAs M-I-S structure, respectively. The interfacial dipole at the ZnO/TiO2 interface was determined to be approximately -0.104 eV, which induced a decrease in the effective work function of Ti and, therefore, reduced ΦB. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the M-DI-S structure also confirmed the existence of the interfacial dipole. On the basis of these results, the M-DI-S structure offers a promising nonalloyed Ohmic contact scheme for the development of III-V semiconductor-based applications.

  16. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christine S; Rai, Kunal; Garber, Manuel; Hollinger, Andrew; Robbins, Dana; Anderson, Scott; Macbeth, Alyssa; Tzou, Austin; Carneiro, Mauricio O; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Russ, Carsten; Hacohen, Nir; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Chin, Lynda; Regev, Aviv; Amit, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of a semiconductor-based, non-optical DNA sequencing technology promises scalable, low-cost and rapid sequence data production. The technology has previously been applied mainly to genomic sequencing and targeted re-sequencing. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing for sensitive, efficient and rapid chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) through the application of sample preparation methods that are optimized for ChIP-seq on the Ion Torrent platform. We leverage this method for epigenetic profiling of tumour tissues.

  17. A comprehensive study of charge trapping in organic field-effect devices with promising semiconductors and different contact metals by displacement current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoyi, Sibani; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Kang, Myeong Jin; Takimiya, Kazuo; Klauk, Hagen; Tiwari, Shree Prakash

    2016-02-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study on the charge-carrier injection and trapping behavior was performed using displacement current measurements in long-channel capacitors based on four promising small-molecule organic semiconductors (pentacene, DNTT, C10-DNTT and DPh-DNTT). In thin-film transistors, these semiconductors showed charge-carrier mobilities ranging from 1.0 to 7.8 cm2 V-1 s-1. The number of charges injected into and extracted from the semiconductor and the density of charges trapped in the device during each measurement were calculated from the displacement current characteristics and it was found that the density of trapped charges is very similar in all devices and of the order 1012 cm-2, despite the fact that the four semiconductors show significantly different charge-carrier mobilities. The choice of the contact metal (Au, Ag, Cu, Pd) was also found to have no significant effect on the trapping behavior.

  18. Future of Semiconductor Based Thermal Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, R J; Cheung, C L; Reinhardt, C E; Wang, T F

    2006-02-22

    Thermal neutron detectors have seen only incremental improvements over the last decades. In this paper we overview the current technology of choice for thermal neutron detection--{sup 3}He tubes, which suffer from, moderate to poor fieldability, and low absolute efficiency. The need for improved neutron detection is evident due to this technology gap and the fact that neutrons are a highly specific indicator of fissile material. Recognizing this need, we propose to exploit recent advances in microfabrication technology for building the next generation of semiconductor thermal neutron detectors for national security requirements, for applications requiring excellent fieldability of small devices. We have developed an innovative pathway taking advantage of advanced processing and fabrication technology to produce the proposed device. The crucial advantage of our Pillar Detector is that it can simultaneously meet the requirements of high efficiency and fieldability in the optimized configuration, the detector efficiency could be higher than 70%.

  19. Ferroelectric-field-effect-enhanced electroresistance in metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zheng; Li, Chen; Wu, Di; Li, Aidong; Ming, Naiben

    2013-07-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs), composed of two metal electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric barrier, have attracted much attention as promising candidates for non-volatile resistive memories. Theoretical and experimental works have revealed that the tunnelling resistance switching in FTJs originates mainly from a ferroelectric modulation on the barrier height. However, in these devices, modulation on the barrier width is very limited, although the tunnelling transmittance depends on it exponentially as well. Here we propose a novel tunnelling heterostructure by replacing one of the metal electrodes in a normal FTJ with a heavily doped semiconductor. In these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs, not only the height but also the width of the barrier can be electrically modulated as a result of a ferroelectric field effect, leading to a greatly enhanced tunnelling electroresistance. This idea is implemented in Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructures, in which an ON/OFF conductance ratio above 10(4), about one to two orders greater than those reported in normal FTJs, can be achieved at room temperature. The giant tunnelling electroresistance, reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention observed in these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs suggest their great potential in non-destructive readout non-volatile memories.

  20. Extraordinary Magnetoresistance in Hybrid Semiconductor-Metal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, T. H.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    We show that extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) arises in systems consisting of two components; a semiconducting ring with a metallic inclusion embedded. The important aspect of this discovery is that the system must have a quasi-two-dimensional character. Using the same materials and geometries for the samples as in experiments by Solin et al.1,2, we show that such systems indeed exhibit a huge magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance arises due to the switching of electrical current paths passing through the metallic inclusion. Diagrams illustrating the flow of the current density within the samples are utilised in discussion of the mechanism responsible for the magnetoresistance effect. Extensions are then suggested which may be applicable to the silver chalcogenides. Our theory offers an excellent description and explanation of experiments where a huge magnetoresistance has been discovered2,3.

  1. Extraordinary Magnetoresistance in Hybrid Semiconductor-Metal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, T. H.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-12-01

    We show that extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) arises in systems consisting of two components; a semiconducting ring with a metallic inclusion embedded. The important aspect of this discovery is that the system must have a quasi-two-dimensional character. Using the same materials and geometries for the samples as in experiments by Solin et al.1,2, we show that, such systems indeed exhibit a huge magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance arises due to the switching of electrical current paths passing through the metallic inclusion. Diagrams illustrating the flow of the current density within the samples are utilised in discussion of the mechanism responsible for the magnetoresistance effect. Extensions are then suggested which may be applicable to the silver chalcogenides. Our theory offers an excellent description and explanation of experiments where a huge magnetoresistance has been discovered2,3.

  2. Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces and Patterns in Functionalized Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek; Penev, Evgeni; Yakobson, Boris

    2010-03-01

    Functionalization offers a novel way to modify the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene. Specific topology is essential to achieve devices with the desired features. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate stability of several such configurations, (in single and double sided functionalized graphene) and analyze their electronic and magnetic properties. We show that ``nanoroads'' [1] and ``nanodots'' [2] of pristine graphene can be carved in the electrically insulating matrix of fully hydrogenated carbon sheet (graphane) [1]. Such one-dimensional roads display individual characteristics and, depending upon zigzag or armchair orientation, can be metallic or semiconducting. Furthermore, the wide enough zigzag roads become magnetic with energetically similar ferro- and antiferromagnetic states. Engineering magnetic, metallic, and semiconducting elements within the same mechanically intact sheet of graphene presents a new opportunity for applications. [1] A. K. Singh and B. I. Yakobson, Nano Lett., 9, 1540 (2009). [2] A. K. Singh, E. S. Penev, and B. I. Yakobson submitted.

  3. The local metallicity of gadolinium doped compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón Santana, J. A.; Liu, Pan; Wang, Xianjie; Tang, J.; McHale, S. R.; Wooten, D.; McClory, J. W.; Petrosky, J. C.; Wu, J.; Palai, R.; Losovjy, Ya B.; Dowben, P. A.

    2012-11-01

    The local metallicities of Hf0.97Gd0.03O2, Ga0.97Gd0.03N, Eu0.97Gd0.04O and EuO films were studied through a comparison of the findings from constant initial state spectroscopy using synchrotron light. Resonant enhancements, corresponding to the 4d → 4f transitions of Eu and Gd, were observed in some of the valence band photoemission features. The resonant photoemission intensity enhancements for the Gd 4f photoemission features are far stronger for the more insulating host systems than for the metallic system Eu0.96Gd0.04O. The evidence seems to suggest a correlation between the effective screening in the films and the resonant photoemission process.

  4. Theoretical maximum efficiency of solar energy conversion in plasmonic metal-semiconductor heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Scott K; Bristow, Alan D; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-11-28

    Plasmonics can enhance solar energy conversion in semiconductors by light trapping, hot electron transfer, and plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET). The multifaceted response of the plasmon and multiple interaction pathways with the semiconductor makes optimization challenging, hindering design of efficient plasmonic architectures. Therefore, in this paper we use a density matrix model to capture the interplay between scattering, hot electrons, and dipole-dipole coupling through the plasmon's dephasing, including both the coherent and incoherent dynamics necessary for interactions on the plasmon's timescale. The model is extended to Shockley-Queisser limit calculations for both photovoltaics and solar-to-chemical conversion, revealing the optimal application of each enhancement mechanism based on plasmon energy, semiconductor energy, and plasmon dephasing. The results guide application of plasmonic solar-energy harvesting, showing which enhancement mechanism is most appropriate for a given semiconductor's weakness, and what nanostructures can achieve the maximum enhancement.

  5. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  6. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  7. Mechanistic Studies of Charge Injection from Metallic Electrodes into Organic Semiconductors Mediated by Ionic Functionalities: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo; Mikhailovsky, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    Metal-organic semiconductor interfaces are important because of their ubiquitous role in determining the performance of modern electronics such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), fuel cells, batteries, field effect transistors (FETs), and organic solar cells. Interfaces between metal electrodes required for external wiring to the device and underlying organic structures directly affect the charge carrier injection/collection efficiency in organic-based electronic devices primarily due to the mismatch between energy levels in the metal and organic semiconductor. Environmentally stable and cost-effective electrode materials, such as aluminum and gold typically exhibit high potential barriers for charge carriers injection into organic devices leading to increased operational voltages in OLEDs and FETs and reduced charge extraction in photovoltaic devices. This leads to increased power consumption by the device, reduced overall efficiency, and decreased operational lifetime. These factors represent a significant obstacle for development of next generation of cheap and energy-efficient components based on organic semiconductors. It has been noticed that introduction of organic materials with conjugated backbone and ionic pendant groups known as conjugated poly- and oligoelectrolytes (CPEs and COEs), enables one to reduce the potential barriers at the metal-organic interface and achieve more efficient operation of a device, however exact mechanisms of the phenomenon have not been understood. The goal of this project was to delineate the function of organic semiconductors with ionic groups as electron injection layers. The research incorporated a multidisciplinary approach that encompassed the creation of new materials, novel processing techniques, examination of fundamental electronic properties and the incorporation of the resulting knowledgebase into development of novel organic electronic devices with increased efficiency, environmental stability, and reduced

  8. Composite THz materials using aligned metallic and semiconductor microwires, experiments and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mazhorova, Anna; Gu, Jian Feng; Dupuis, Alexandre; Peccianti, Marco; Tsuneyuki, Ozaki; Morandotti, Roberto; Minamide, Hiroaki; Tang, Ming; Wang, Yuye; Ito, Hiromasa; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-11-22

    We report fabrication method and THz characterization of composite films containing either aligned metallic (tin alloy) microwires or chalcogenide As2Se3 microwires. The microwire arrays are made by stack-and-draw fiber fabrication technique using multi-step co-drawing of low-melting-temperature metals or semiconductor glasses together with polymers. Fibers are then stacked together and pressed into composite films. Transmission through metamaterial films is studied in the whole THz range (0.1-20 THz) using a combination of FTIR and TDS. Metal containing metamaterials are found to have strong polarizing properties, while semiconductor containing materials are polarization independent and could have a designable high refractive index. Using the transfer matrix theory, we show how to retrieve the complex polarization dependent refractive index of the composite films. Finally, we study challenges in the fabrication of metamaterials with sub-micrometer metallic wires by repeated stack-and-draw process by comparing samples made using 2, 3 and 4 consecutive drawings. When using metallic alloys we observe phase separation effects and nano-grids formation on small metallic wires.

  9. Metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures for plasmonic hot-carrier optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Plasmonic hot-electron devices are attractive candidates for light-energy harvesting and photodetection applications. For solid state devices, the most compact and straightforward architecture is the metal-semiconductor Schottky junction. However convenient, this structure introduces limitations such as the elevated dark current associated to thermionic emission, or constraints for device design due to the finite choice of materials. In this work we theoretically consider the metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction as a candidate for plasmonic hot-carrier photodetection and solar cells. The presence of the insulating layer can significantly reduce the dark current, resulting in increased device performance with predicted solar power conversion efficiencies up to 9%. For photodetection, the sensitivity can be extended well into the infrared by a judicious choice of the insulating layer, with up to 300-fold expected enhancement in detectivity.

  10. Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Govorov, Alexander O; Bryant, Garnett W

    2006-10-06

    Modern nanotechnology opens the possibility of combining nanocrystals of various materials with very different characteristics in one superstructure. Here we study theoretically the optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles. Excitons and plasmons in such a hybrid molecule become strongly coupled and demonstrate novel properties. At low incident light intensity, the exciton peak in the absorption spectrum is broadened and shifted due to incoherent and coherent interactions between metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. At high light intensity, the absorption spectrum demonstrates a surprising, strongly asymmetric shape. This shape originates from the coherent internanoparticle Coulomb interaction and can be viewed as a nonlinear Fano effect which is quite different from the usual linear Fano resonance.

  11. Field-induced activation of metal oxide semiconductor for low temperature flexible transparent electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony; Haglund, Amada; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip

    Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as an active channel material in thin film transistors due to their high carrier mobility, and excellent large-area uniformity. Here, we report the athermal activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels by an electric field-induced oxygen migration via gating through an ionic liquid. Using field-induced activation, a transparent flexible thin film transistor is demonstrated on a polyamide substrate with transistor characteristics having a current ON-OFF ratio exceeding 108, and saturation field effect mobility of 8.32 cm2/(V.s) without a post-deposition thermal treatment. This study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as an athermal alternative to traditional post-deposition thermal annealing for metal oxide electronic devices suitable for transparent and flexible polymer substrates. Materials Science and Technology Division, ORBL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  12. Recent progress on metal core@semiconductor shell nanocomposites as a promising type of photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2012-04-07

    The creation of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) has attracted considerable attention and developed into an increasingly important research area at the frontier of advanced materials chemistry. CSNs, which are nanoscaled assemblies with a chemical composition that is different on the surface compared to the core region, have found versatile applications in many fields, such as electrooptics, quantum dots, microscopy labels, drug delivery, chemical sensors, nanoreactors and catalysis. This review is primarily focused on the applications of metal core@semiconductor shell nanocomposites in heterogeneous photocatalysis, including photocatalytic nonselective processes for environmental remediation, selective organic transformations to fine chemicals and water splitting to clean hydrogen energy. It is hoped that this minireview can inspire multidisciplinary research interest in the precisely morphology-controlled synthesis of a variety of metal core@semiconductor shell nanoassemblies and their wide applications in the realm of heterogeneous photocatalysis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. DNA detection using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor ring oscillator circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocanda, Martin; Abdel-Motaleb, Ibrahim

    2010-10-01

    A DNA detection scheme has been implemented that utilizes a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ring oscillator circuit. The detector oscillates at a fundamental frequency when using a nonhybridized single-strand DNA probe layer. Upon hybridization with a complimentary DNA strand, the oscillator output exhibits an increased frequency shift, indicating a genetic match. The probe assembly consists of a p-GaAs substrate containing a pulsed laser deposition-applied barium strontium titanate layer and an overlying sodium dodecyl sulfate lipid layer that serves to anchor a functionalized oligonucleotide probe. The oscillator circuit consisting of cascaded discrete complimentary n-channel and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors was implemented using passive components arranged in a T-network to provide the associated fundamental time constant.

  14. Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

    1998-10-14

    GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

  15. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Diode Consisting of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun; Oh, Hye Min; Bang, Seungho; Jeong, Hyeon Jun; An, Sung-Jin; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Yun, Seok Joon; Kim, Ki Kang; Park, Jin Cheol; Lee, Young Hee; Lerondel, Gilles; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2016-03-09

    We present a novel metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode consisting of graphene, hexagonal BN, and monolayer MoS2 for application in ultrathin nanoelectronics. The MIS heterojunction structure was fabricated by vertically stacking layered materials using a simple wet chemical transfer method. The stacking of each layer was confirmed by confocal scanning Raman spectroscopy and device performance was evaluated using current versus voltage (I-V) and photocurrent measurements. We clearly observed better current rectification and much higher current flow in the MIS diode than in the p-n junction and the metal-semiconductor diodes made of layered materials. The I-V characteristic curve of the MIS diode indicates that current flows mainly across interfaces as a result of carrier tunneling. Moreover, we observed considerably high photocurrent from the MIS diode under visible light illumination.

  16. Recent progress on metal core@semiconductor shell nanocomposites as a promising type of photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2012-03-01

    The creation of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) has attracted considerable attention and developed into an increasingly important research area at the frontier of advanced materials chemistry. CSNs, which are nanoscaled assemblies with a chemical composition that is different on the surface compared to the core region, have found versatile applications in many fields, such as electrooptics, quantum dots, microscopy labels, drug delivery, chemical sensors, nanoreactors and catalysis. This review is primarily focused on the applications of metal core@semiconductor shell nanocomposites in heterogeneous photocatalysis, including photocatalytic nonselective processes for environmental remediation, selective organic transformations to fine chemicals and water splitting to clean hydrogen energy. It is hoped that this minireview can inspire multidisciplinary research interest in the precisely morphology-controlled synthesis of a variety of metal core@semiconductor shell nanoassemblies and their wide applications in the realm of heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  17. Metal-inducd assembly of a semiconductor-island lattice: Getruncated pyramids on Au-patterned Si

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.T.; Liddle, J.A.; Minor, A.; Radmilovic, V.; Yi,D.O.; Greaney, P.A.; Long, K.N.; Chrzan, D.C.; Dubon, O.D.

    2005-08-28

    We report the two-dimensional alignment of semiconductor islands using rudimentary metal patterning to control nucleation and growth. In the Ge on Si system, a square array of sub-micron Au dots on the Si (001) surface induces the assembly of deposited Ge adatoms into an extensive island lattice. Remarkably, these highly ordered Ge islands form between the patterned Au dots and are characterized by a unique truncated pyramidal shape. A model based on patterned diffusion barriers explains the observed ordering and establishes general criteria for the broader applicability of such a directed assembly process to quantum dot ordering.

  18. Turn-off Transient Analysis of a Double Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Device Considering Quasi Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Min; Kuo, James

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports the turn-off transient of a double diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (DMOS) device considering the quasi-saturation behavior. Based on the two-dimensional (2D) simulation result, during the input ramp-down period of 100 ps, the accumulated electrons below the gate oxide are pushed toward the p region below the lateral channel toward the source, causing a surge in source current. After the input ramp-down period, these electrons are withdrawn from the drain by the quasi-saturation current.

  19. Ring resonator based narrow-linewidth semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for using ring resonators to produce narrow linewidth hybrid semiconductor lasers. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the narrow linewidths are produced by combining the semiconductor gain chip with a narrow pass band external feedback element. The semi conductor laser is produced using a ring resonator which, combined with a Bragg grating, acts as the external feedback element. According to another embodiment of the present invention, the proposed integrated optics ring resonator is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO.sub.2 /SiON/SiO.sub.2 waveguide technology.

  20. Long-wavelength metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with transparent and opaque electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuth, Walter A.; Adesida, Ilesanmi; Caneau, Catherine

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of transparent and opaque electrode InAlAs/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes (MSMPDs) for operation at 1.31 and 1.55 micrometers . The transparent materials are indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and cadmium-tin-oxide (CTO) and the opaque material is Ti-Au. The rf magnetron sputtered films of ITO and CTO, deposited at a substrate temperature of 300 degrees C, exhibited as-deposited resistivities of 5.6(DOT)10-3 (Omega) (DOT)cm and 1.0(DOT)10-3 (Omega) (DOT)cm, respectively. The resistivity of the ITO and CTO films dropped to 1.1(DOT)10-3 (Omega) (DOT)cm and 5.2(DOT)10-4 (Omega) (DOT)cm, respectively, after a 4 minute 400 degree C anneal in an N2 ambient. The interdigitated ITO and CTO electrodes were made by etching in a methane:hydrogen (1 to 3) plasma. The responsivity of 1 micrometers finger by 1 micrometers spacing (1 by 1 micrometers ), 50 X 50 micrometers 2 active area, MSMPDs was 0.40 A/W for the Ti-Au, 0.66 A/W for the CTO, and 0.69 A/W for the ITO MSMPDs. The Ti-Au, CTO and ITO MSMPDs had 3- dB cut-off frequencies of 14.0 GHz, 7.5 GHz, and 5.0 GHz, respectively, from time-domain measurements performed at 1.3 micrometers and 11.26 GHz, 4.00 GHz, and 2.61 GHz, respectively, from frequency-domain measurements performed at 1.55 micrometers . Discrepencies between the 3-dB cut-off frequency obtained from the time-domain and the frequency-domain measurements are attributed to the time-domain measurement system's inability to accurately resolve low frequency behavior (below 2 GHz) and space charge effects.

  1. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  2. Metal ions to control the morphology of semiconductor nanoparticles: copper selenide nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Zamani, Reza; Ibáñez, Maria; Cadavid, Doris; Shavel, Alexey; Morante, Joan Ramon; Arbiol, Jordi; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-03-27

    Morphology is a key parameter in the design of novel nanocrystals and nanomaterials with controlled functional properties. Here, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to tune the morphology of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles. We illustrate the underlying mechanism by preparing copper selenide nanocubes in the presence of Al ions. We further characterize the plasmonic properties of the obtained nanocrystals and demonstrate their potential as a platform to produce cubic nanoparticles with different composition by cation exchange.

  3. Time-Resolved Studies of the Acoustic Vibrational Modes of Metal and Semiconductor Nano-objects.

    PubMed

    Major, Todd A; Lo, Shun Shang; Yu, Kuai; Hartland, Gregory V

    2014-03-06

    Over the past decade, there have been a number of transient absorption studies of the acoustic vibrational modes of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. This Perspective provides an overview of this work. The way that the frequencies of the observed modes depend on the size and shape of the particles is described, along with their damping. Future research directions are also discussed, especially how these measurements provide information about the way nano-objects interact with their environment.

  4. Modular synthesis of a dual metal-dual semiconductor nano-heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Amirav, Lilac; Oba, Fadekemi; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-04-29

    Reported is the design and modular synthesis of a dual metal-dual semiconductor heterostructure with control over the dimensions and placement of its individual components. Analogous to molecular synthesis, colloidal synthesis is now evolving into a series of sequential synthetic procedures with separately optimized steps. Here we detail the challenges and parameters that must be considered when assembling such a multicomponent nanoparticle, and their solutions.

  5. Challenges of Electrical Measurements of Advanced Gate Dielectrics in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric M.; Brown, George A.

    2003-09-01

    Experimental measurements and simulations are used to provide an overview of key issues with the electrical characterization of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with ultra-thin oxide and alternate gate dielectrics. Experimental issues associated with the most common electrical characterization method, capacitance-voltage (C-V), are first described. Issues associated with equivalent oxide thickness extraction and comparison, interface state measurement, extrinsic defects, and defect generation are then overviewed.

  6. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  7. Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alessandro; Tanttu, Tuomo; Hudson, Fay E.; Sun, Yuxin; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    As mass-produced silicon transistors have reached the nano-scale, their behavior and performances are increasingly affected, and often deteriorated, by quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling through single dopants, scattering via interface defects, and discrete trap charge states. However, progress in silicon technology has shown that these phenomena can be harnessed and exploited for a new class of quantum-based electronics. Among others, multi-layer-gated silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology can be used to control single charge or spin confined in electrostatically-defined quantum dots (QD). These QD-based devices are an excellent platform for quantum computing applications and, recently, it has been demonstrated that they can also be used as single-electron pumps, which are accurate sources of quantized current for metrological purposes. Here, we discuss in detail the fabrication protocol for silicon MOS QDs which is relevant to both quantum computing and quantum metrology applications. Moreover, we describe characterization methods to test the integrity of the devices after fabrication. Finally, we give a brief description of the measurement set-up used for charge pumping experiments and show representative results of electric current quantization. PMID:26067215

  8. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  9. Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandro; Tanttu, Tuomo; Hudson, Fay E; Sun, Yuxin; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S

    2015-06-03

    As mass-produced silicon transistors have reached the nano-scale, their behavior and performances are increasingly affected, and often deteriorated, by quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling through single dopants, scattering via interface defects, and discrete trap charge states. However, progress in silicon technology has shown that these phenomena can be harnessed and exploited for a new class of quantum-based electronics. Among others, multi-layer-gated silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology can be used to control single charge or spin confined in electrostatically-defined quantum dots (QD). These QD-based devices are an excellent platform for quantum computing applications and, recently, it has been demonstrated that they can also be used as single-electron pumps, which are accurate sources of quantized current for metrological purposes. Here, we discuss in detail the fabrication protocol for silicon MOS QDs which is relevant to both quantum computing and quantum metrology applications. Moreover, we describe characterization methods to test the integrity of the devices after fabrication. Finally, we give a brief description of the measurement set-up used for charge pumping experiments and show representative results of electric current quantization.

  10. Superatoms and Metal-Semiconductor Motifs for Cluster Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A. W.

    2013-10-11

    A molecular understanding of catalysis and catalytically active materials is of fundamental importance in designing new substances for applications in energy and fuels. We have performed reactivity studies and ultrafast ionization and coulomb explosion studies on a variety of catalytically-relevant materials, including transition metal oxides of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Nb, and Ta. We demonstrate that differences in charge state, geometry, and elemental composition of clusters of such materials determine chemical reactivity and ionization behavior, crucial steps in improving performance of catalysts.

  11. Ultrafast transient absorption studies of single metal and semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartland, Gregory V.; Carey, Christopher R.; Staleva, Hristina

    2010-02-01

    Single particle transient absorption experiments have been used to study metallic and semiconducting nanowires. For the metal wires the major result is the observation of modulations in the transient absorption traces due to coherently excited breathing modes. The vibrational periods depend on the dimensions of the nanowire, and the decay times are sensitive to the environment. The nanowires in our experiments are spin coated from a polymer solution onto a glass substrate, and experience a range of different environments. This causes large variations in the quality factor of the breathing mode for different wires. Semiconducting nanowires of CdTe and CdSe were also examined. The CdTe wires show fast picosecond time scale dynamics, which are assigned to charge carrier trapping at surface states of the wires. In contrast, CdSe nanowires show no dynamics on the time scale of our measurements. For the CdTe nanowires the charge carrier trapping times vary from wire-to-wire, and also vary with position in a single wire. This is attributed to differences in surface chemistry. Overall these experiments illustrate the important of single particle techniques for studying nanomaterials, especially for elucidating how differences in local environment and structure affect dynamics.

  12. Modeling electrochemical deposition inside nanotubes to obtain metal-semiconductor multiscale nanocables or conical nanopores.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Konstantin; Mafé, Salvador; Stroeve, Pieter

    2005-08-04

    Nanocables with a radial metal-semiconductor heterostructure have recently been prepared by electrochemical deposition inside metal nanotubes. First, a bare nanoporous polycarbonate track-etched membrane is coated uniformly with a metal film by electroless deposition. The film forms a working electrode for further deposition of a semiconductor layer that grows radially inside the nanopore when the deposition rate is slow. We propose a new physical model for the nanocable synthesis and study the effects of the deposited species concentration, potential-dependent reaction rate, and nanopore dimensions on the electrochemical deposition. The problem involves both axial diffusion through the nanopore and radial transport to the nanopore surface, with a surface reaction rate that depends on the axial position and the time. This is so because the radial potential drop across the deposited semiconductor layer changes with the layer thickness through the nanopore. Since axially uniform nanocables are needed for most applications, we consider the relative role of reaction and axial diffusion rates on the deposition process. However, in those cases where partial, empty-core deposition should be desirable (e.g., for producing conical nanopores to be used in single nanoparticle detection), we give conditions where asymmetric geometries can be experimentally realized.

  13. Nanochemistry at the atomic scale revealed in hydrogen-induced semiconductor surface metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derycke, Vincent; Soukiassian, Patrick G.; Amy, Fabrice; Chabal, Yves J.; D'Angelo, Marie D.; Enriquez, Hanna B.; Silly, Mathieu G.

    2003-04-01

    Passivation of semiconductor surfaces against chemical attack can be achieved by terminating the surface-dangling bonds with a monovalent atom such as hydrogen. Such passivation invariably leads to the removal of all surface states in the bandgap, and thus to the termination of non-metallic surfaces. Here we report the first observation of semiconductor surface metallization induced by atomic hydrogen. This result, established by using photo-electron and photo-absorption spectroscopies and scanning tunnelling techniques, is achieved on a Si-terminated cubic silicon carbide (SiC) surface. It results from competition between hydrogen termination of surface-dangling bonds and hydrogen-generated steric hindrance below the surface. Understanding the ingredient for hydrogen-stabilized metallization directly impacts the ability to eliminate electronic defects at semiconductor interfaces critical for microelectronics, provides a means to develop electrical contacts on high-bandgap chemically passive materials, particularly for interfacing with biological systems, and gives control of surfaces for lubrication, for example of nanomechanical devices.

  14. Nanochemistry at the atomic scale revealed in hydrogen-induced semiconductor surface metallization.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Vincent; Soukiassian, Patrick G; Amy, Fabrice; Chabal, Yves J; D'angelo, Marie D; Enriquez, Hanna B; Silly, Mathieu G

    2003-04-01

    Passivation of semiconductor surfaces against chemical attack can be achieved by terminating the surface-dangling bonds with a monovalent atom such as hydrogen. Such passivation invariably leads to the removal of all surface states in the bandgap, and thus to the termination of non-metallic surfaces. Here we report the first observation of semiconductor surface metallization induced by atomic hydrogen. This result, established by using photo-electron and photo-absorption spectroscopies and scanning tunnelling techniques, is achieved on a Si-terminated cubic silicon carbide (SiC) surface. It results from competition between hydrogen termination of surface-dangling bonds and hydrogen-generated steric hindrance below the surface. Understanding the ingredient for hydrogen-stabilized metallization directly impacts the ability to eliminate electronic defects at semiconductor interfaces critical for microelectronics, provides a means to develop electrical contacts on high-bandgap chemically passive materials, particularly for interfacing with biological systems, and gives control of surfaces for lubrication, for example of nanomechanical devices.

  15. Preparation methodologies and nano/microstructural evaluation of metal/semiconductor thin films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwen; Jiao, Zheng; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L

    2012-01-01

    Metal/semiconductor thin films are a class of unique materials that are widespread technological applications, particularly in the field of microelectronic devices. Assessment strategies of fractal and tures are of fundamental importance in the development of nano/microdevices. This review presents the preparation methodologies and nano/microstructural evaluation of metal/semiconductor thin films including Au/Ge bilayer films and Pd-Ge alloy thin films, which show in the form of fractals and nanocrystals. Firstly, the extended version of Au/Ge thin films for the fractal crystallization of amorphous Ge and the formation of nanocrystals developed with improved micro- and nanostructured features are described in Section 2. Secondly, the nano/microstructural characteristics of Pd/Ge alloy thin films during annealing have been investigated in detail and described in Section 3. Finally, we will draw the conclusions from the present work as shown in Section 4. It is expected that the preparation methodologies developed and the knowledge of nano/microstructural evolution gained in metal/semiconductor thin films, including Au/Ge bilayer films and Pd-Ge alloy thin films, will provide an important fundamental basis underpinning further interdisciplinary research in these fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience and nanotechnology, leading to promising exciting opportunities for future technological applications involving these thin films.

  16. Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures for image recording and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasherininov, P. G. Tomasov, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures (CdTe, GaAs) for image recording and processing with a speed to 10{sup 6} cycle/s (which exceeds the speed of known recording media based on metal-insulator-semiconductor-(liquid crystal) (MIS-LC) structures by two to three orders of magnitude), a photosensitivity of 10{sup -2}V/cm{sup 2}, and a spatial resolution of 5-10 (line pairs)/mm are developed. Operating principles of nanostructures as fast optical recording media and methods for reading images recorded in such media are described. Fast optical processors for recording images in incoherent light based on CdTe crystal nanostructures are implemented. The possibility of their application to fabricate image correlators is shown.

  17. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  18. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications. PMID:27152360

  19. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-04-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanishmore » with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.« less

  20. Van der Waals metal-semiconductor junction: Weak Fermi level pinning enables effective tuning of Schottky barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Stradins, Paul; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have shown great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, their development is limited by a large Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor junction (MSJ), which is difficult to tune by using conventional metals because of the effect of strong Fermi level pinning (FLP). We show that this problem can be overcome by using 2D metals, which are bounded with 2D semiconductors through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. This success relies on a weak FLP at the vdW MSJ, which is attributed to the suppression of metal-induced gap states. Consequently, the SB becomes tunable and can vanish with proper 2D metals (for example, H-NbS2). This work not only offers new insights into the fundamental properties of heterojunctions but also uncovers the great potential of 2D metals for device applications.

  1. Anomalous quantum efficiency for photoconduction and its power dependence in metal oxide semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Wang, W C; Lu, M L; Chen, Y F; Lin, H C; Chen, K H; Chen, L C

    2013-08-07

    The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed.

  2. Four-wave parametric amplification in semiconductor quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle hybrid molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bo; He, Meng-Dong; Chen, Li-Qun

    2014-10-06

    We study theoretically four-wave parametric amplification arising from the nonlinear optical response of hybrid molecules composed of semiconductor quantum dots and metallic nanoparticles. It is shown that highly efficient four-wave parametric amplification can be achieved by adjusting the frequency and intensity of the pump field and the distance between the quantum dot and the metallic nanoparticle. Specifically, the induced probe-wave gain is tunable in a large range from 1 to 1.43 × 10⁵. This gain reaches its maximum at the position of three-photon resonance. Our findings hold great promise for developing four-wave parametric oscillators.

  3. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  4. X-ray Characterization of Oxide-based Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2008-05-01

    Although the evidence for magnetic semiconductors (not simply semiconductors which are ferromagnetic) is compelling, there is much uncertainty in the mechanism for the polarization of the carriers, suggesting that it must be quite novel. Recent experimental evidence suggests that this mechanism is similar to the polaron percolation theory proposed by Kaminski and Das Sarma,ootnotetextKaminski and S. Das Sarma, Physical Review Letters 88, 247202 (2002). which was recently applied specifically to doped oxides by Coey et al.ootnotetextJ. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, and C. B. Fitzgerald, Nature Materials 4, 173 (2005). where the ferromagnetism is driven by the percolation of polarons generated by defects or dopants. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edges and K-edges for low concentrations transition metal (TM) doped magnetic oxides (including TiO2, La1-xSrxO3, HfO2, and In2O3). We have found that in most cases, the transition metal assumes a valence consistent with being at a substitutional, and not interstitial site. We have also measured the X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectra. Although these materials show strong bulk magnetization, we are unable to detect a robust dichroism feature associated with magnetic elements in the host semiconductor. In the cases where a dichroism signal was observed, it was very weak and could be ascribed to a distinct ferromagnetic phase (TM metal cluster, TM oxide particulate, etc.) separate from the host material. This fascinating absence of a dichroic signal and its significant substantiation of important features of the polaron percolation model may help to finally resolve the issue of ferromagnetism in magnetically doped oxides.

  5. Effect of barrier recess on transport and electrostatic interface properties of GaN-based normally-off and normally-on metal oxide semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, M.; Bahat Treidel, E.; Fleury, C.; Bethge, O.; Ostermaier, C.; Rigato, M.; Lancaster, S. L. C.; Brunner, F.; Detz, H.; Hilt, O.; Würfl, J.; Pogany, D.; Strasser, G.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a comprehensive electrical transport and physical characterization of metal oxide semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors with ZrO2 gate dielectrics, having partially (referred here as MOS-HFET) and fully (here called true-MOS-FET) recessed GaN/AlGaN/GaN barrier, giving normally-on and normally-off behavior, respectively. The mobility of the MOS-HFETs decreases with the proximity of the Coulomb scattering centers, situated at the ZrO2/AlGaN interface. The effect of the etching procedure and ZrO2 deposition on the formation of the interfacial charges, Nint, is evaluated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and by fitting the threshold voltage values to numerical model. For the both device types, the extracted value of Nint lies within 15% around 2.8 × 1013 cm-2, which is of the order of polarization charge, showing that our low-damage three step etching procedure does not introduce extra interface states.

  6. Electrical Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotube Metal-Semiconductor Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been proved to have promising applicability in various fields of science and technology. Their fascinating mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical properties have caught the attention of today’s world. We have discussed here the great possibility of using CNTs in electronic devices. CNTs can be both metallic and semiconducting depending on their chirality. When two CNTs of different chirality are joined together via topological defects, they may acquire rectifying diode property. We have joined two tubes of different chiralities through circumferential Stone-Wales defects and calculated their density of states by nearest neighbor tight binding approximation. Transmission function is also calculated to analyze whether the junctions can be used as electronic devices. Different heterojunctions are modeled and analyzed in this study. Internal stresses in the heterojunctions are also calculated by molecular dynamics simulation.

  7. 1/f noise in semiconductor and metal nanocrystal solids

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heng Lhuillier, Emmanuel Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-04-21

    Electrical 1/f noise is measured in thin films of CdSe, CdSe/CdS, ZnO, HgTe quantum dots and Au nanocrystals. The 1/f noise, normalized per nanoparticle, shows no systematic dependence on the nanoparticle material and the coupling material. However, over 10 orders of magnitude, it correlates well with the nearest neighbor conductance suggesting some universal magnitude of the 1/f noise in these granular conductors. In the hopping regime, the main mechanism of 1/f noise is determined to be mobility fluctuated. In the metallic regime obtained with gold nanoparticle films, the noise drops to a similar level as bulk gold films and with a similar temperature dependence.

  8. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  9. Identifying airborne metal particles sources near an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-06-01

    The recently developed Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in central Taiwan is home to an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial cluster. Therefore, exploring the elemental compositions and size distributions of airborne particles emitted from the CTSP would help to prevent pollution. This study analyzed size-fractionated metal-rich particle samples collected in upwind and downwind areas of CTSP during Jan. and Oct. 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and particle mass-size distribution analysis are performed to identify the source of metal-rich particle near the CTSP. Analyses of elemental compositions and particle size distributions emitted from the CTSP revealed that the CTSP emits some metals (V, As, In Ga, Cd and Cu) in the ultrafine particles (< 1 μm). The statistical analysis combines with the particle mass-size distribution analysis could provide useful source identification information. In airborne particles with the size of 0.32 μm, Ga could be a useful pollution index for optoelectronic and semiconductor emission in the CTSP. Meanwhile, the ratios of As/Ga concentration at the particle size of 0.32 μm demonstrates that humans near the CTSP would be potentially exposed to GaAs ultrafine particles. That is, metals such as Ga and As and other metals that are not regulated in Taiwan are potentially harmful to human health.

  10. Thickness dependent electronic structure and morphology of rubrene thin films on metal, semiconductor, and dielectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sumona; Mukherjee, M.

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of the electronic structure and morphology of rubrene thin films on noble-metal, semiconductor and dielectric substrates have been investigated as a function of thickness of deposited films by using photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The clean polycrystalline Au and Ag were used as noble-metals, whereas, H passivated and SiO2 coated Si (100) were used as semiconductors and dielectric substrates. Discussion and comparison on interface dipole, energy level alignment, and surface morphology for the four cases are presented. The formation of dipole at metallic interfaces is found to occur due to push back effect. S parameter obtained from the variation of barrier height with the change of work function of the contacting metal indicates moderately weak interaction between rubrene and the metal substrates. The thickness dependent energy level alignment of the physisorbed rubrene films on different substrates is explained by a dielectric model in terms of electrostatic screening of photo-holes or photoemission final state relaxation energy. Films on all the substrates are found to grow following Stranski-Krastnov type growth mode and are more ordered at higher coverage.

  11. Simple way to engineer metal-semiconductor interface for enhanced performance of perovskite organic lead iodide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuzhuan; Shi, Jiangjian; Lv, Songtao; Zhu, Lifeng; Dong, Juan; Wu, Huijue; Xiao, Yin; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Shirong; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xianggao; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-04-23

    A thin wide band gap organic semiconductor N,N,N',N'-tetraphenyl-benzidine layer has been introduced by spin-coating to engineer the metal-semiconductor interface in the hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells. The average cell power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been enhanced from 5.26% to 6.26% after the modification and a highest PCE of 6.71% has been achieved. By the aid of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dark current analysis, it is revealed that this modification can increase interfacial resistance of CH3NH3PbI3/Au interface and retard electron recombination process in the metal-semiconductor interface.

  12. Transition-metal dopants in tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors: Symmetry and exchange interactions from tight-binding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortan, Victoria Ramaker

    transition metal dopants an important quantity is the exchange interaction between the two, which is a measure of how fast a gate can be operated between the pair and how well entanglement can be created. The exchange interaction between pairs of transition metal dopants has been calculated in diamond for several directions in the (110) plane, and for select transition metal dopants in gallium arsenide. In tetrahedral semiconductors transition metal dopants provide an internal degree of freedom due to the symmetry split d levels and this included functionality makes them special candidates for single spin based quantum technologies as well as physical systems to learn about fundamental physics.

  13. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of (Ti,W)N/(Al,Sc)N metal/semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bivas; Koh, Yee Rui; Comparan, Jonathan; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Garbrecht, Magnus; Mohammed, Amr; Birch, Jens; Fisher, Timothy; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of cross-plane thermal conductivity and understanding of the mechanisms of heat transport in nanostructured metal/semiconductor superlattices are crucial for their potential applications in thermoelectric and thermionic energy conversion devices, thermal management systems, and thermal barrier coatings. We have developed epitaxial (Ti,W)N/(Al,Sc)N metal/semiconductor superlattices with periodicity ranging from 1 nm to 240 nm that show significantly lower thermal conductivity compared to the parent TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattice system. The (Ti,W)N/(Al,Sc)N superlattices grow with [001] orientation on the MgO(001) substrates with well-defined coherent layers and are nominally single crystalline with low densities of extended defects. Cross-plane thermal conductivity (measured by time-domain thermoreflectance) decreases with an increase in the superlattice interface density in a manner that is consistent with incoherent phonon boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity values saturate at 1.7 W m-1K-1 for short superlattice periods possibly due to a delicate balance between long-wavelength coherent phonon modes and incoherent phonon scattering from heavy tungsten atomic sites and superlattice interfaces. First-principles density functional perturbation theory based calculations are performed to model the vibrational spectrum of the individual component materials, and transport models are used to explain the interface thermal conductance across the (Ti,W)N/(Al,Sc)N interfaces as a function of periodicity. The long-wavelength coherent phonon modes are expected to play a dominant role in the thermal transport properties of the short-period superlattices. Our analysis of the thermal transport properties of (Ti,W)N/(Al,Sc)N metal/semiconductor superlattices addresses fundamental questions about heat transport in multilayer materials.

  14. Depletion-mode polysilicon optical modulators in a bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process.

    PubMed

    Shainline, Jeffrey M; Orcutt, Jason S; Wade, Mark T; Nammari, Kareem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J; Stojanović, Vladimir; Popović, Miloš A

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulators fabricated in a bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), DRAM-emulation process. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first depletion-mode modulators demonstrated in polycrystalline silicon and in bulk CMOS. The modulators are based on novel optical microcavities that utilize periodic spatial interference of two guided modes to create field nulls along waveguide sidewalls. At these nulls, electrical contacts can be placed while preserving a high optical Q. These cavities enable active devices in a process with no partial silicon etch and with lateral p-n junctions. We demonstrate two device variants at 5 Gbps data modulation rate near 1610 nm wavelength. One design shows 3.1 dB modulation depth with 1.5 dB insertion loss and an estimated 160 fJ/bit energy consumption, while a more compact device achieves 4.2 dB modulation depth with 4.0 dB insertion loss and 60 fJ/bit energy consumption. These modulators represent a significant breakthrough in enabling active photonics in bulk silicon CMOS--the platform of the majority of microelectronic logic and DRAM processes--and lay the groundwork for monolithically integrated CMOS-to-DRAM photonic links.

  15. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2017-06-20

    In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction.

  16. Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S M; Ra, Y H; Szkopek, T; Mi, Z

    2016-02-10

    We have demonstrated for the first time an n(++)-GaN/Al/p(++)-GaN backward diode, wherein an epitaxial Al layer serves as the tunnel junction. The resulting p-contact free InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) exhibited a low turn-on voltage (∼2.9 V), reduced resistance, and enhanced power, compared to nanowire LEDs without the use of Al tunnel junction or with the incorporation of an n(++)-GaN/p(++)-GaN tunnel junction. This unique Al tunnel junction overcomes some of the critical issues related to conventional GaN-based tunnel junction designs, including stress relaxation, wide depletion region, and light absorption, and holds tremendous promise for realizing low-resistivity, high-brightness III-nitride nanowire LEDs in the visible and deep ultraviolet spectral range. Moreover, the demonstration of monolithic integration of metal and semiconductor nanowire heterojunctions provides a seamless platform for realizing a broad range of multifunctional nanoscale electronic and photonic devices.

  17. Optics with Nano-Sized Structures Made from Semiconductors and (noble) Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Wolfgang; Zhong, Xinhua; Stefani, Fernando; Robelek, Rudolf; Niu, Lifang; Rochholz, Heiko; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer; Kreiter, Max

    We summarize some of our efforts in synthesizing and characterizing nanoscopic objects fabricated from semiconducting materials and noble metals. The optical properties of colloidal semiconductors (quantum dots) are analyzed, in particular, with respect to their spectral photoluminescence properties (bandgap engineering) and the characteristic emission blinking. The statistical evaluation of the on- and off-states seen in the time-dependent recordings of the photoluminescence emitted from a single nanoparticle confirmed the reported power-law probability distribution, however, with a superimposed decay of the on-state density (which is illumination intensity dependent). This results in a loss of fluorescence intensity upon extended illumination when these particles are used in biosensor assays. Next, a colloid particle-based template protocol for the fabrication of non-trivial Au nanostructures is described. The resulting nano-crescents can be varied in terms of their size and shape. It is demonstrated how their plasmonic resonance characteristics can thus be tuned with respect to the spectral position of their (multipole) absorbance peaks, and their polarization properties.

  18. GMAG Dissertation Award Talk: Zero-moment Half-Metallic Ferrimagnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamer, Michelle E.

    2015-03-01

    Low- and zero-moment half-metallic ferrimagnetic semiconductors have been proposed for advanced applications, such as nonvolatile RAM memory and quantum computing. These inverse-Heusler materials could be used to generate spin-polarized electron or hole currents without the associated harmful fringing magnetic fields. Such materials are expected to exhibit low to zero magnetic moment at room temperature, which makes them well-positioned for future spin-based devices. However, these compounds have been shown to suffer from disorder. This work focuses on the synthesis of these compounds and the investigation of their structural, magnetic, and transport properties. Cr2CoGa and Mn3Al thin films were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy, and V3Al and Cr2CoAl were synthesized via arc-melting. Rietveld analysis was used to determine the degree of ordering in the sublattices as a function of annealing. The atomic moments were measured by X-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism confirmed antiferromagnetic alignment of sublattices and the desired near-zero moment in several compounds. In collaboration with George E. Sterbinsky, Photon Sciences Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Dario Arena Photon Sciences Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Laura H. Lewis, Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University; and Don Heiman, Physics, Northeastern University. NSF-ECCS-1402738, NSF-DMR-0907007.

  19. Fano Effect and Quantum Entanglement in Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review the investigation for the light-matter interaction between surface plasmon field in metal nanoparticle (MNP) and the excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in hybrid SQD-MNP system under the full quantum description. The exciton-plasmon interaction gives rise to the modified decay rate and the exciton energy shift which are related to the exciton energy by using a quantum transformation method. We illustrate the responses of the hybrid SQD-MNP system to external field, and reveal Fano effect shown in the absorption spectrum. We demonstrate quantum entanglement between two SQD mediated by surface plasmon field. In the absence of a laser field, concurrence of quantum entanglement will disappear after a few ns. If the laser field is present, the steady states appear, so that quantum entanglement produced will reach a steady-state entanglement. Because one of all optical pathways to induce Fano effect refers to the generation of quantum entangled states, It is shown that the concurrence of quantum entanglement can be obtained by observation for Fano effect. In a hybrid system including two MNP and a SQD, because the two Fano quantum interference processes share a segment of all optical pathways, there is correlation between the Fano effects of the two MNP. The investigations for the light-matter interaction in hybrid SQD-MNP system can pave the way for the development of the optical processing devices and quantum information based on the exciton-plasmon interaction. PMID:28632165

  20. Ultralow power, high fill factor smart complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor with motion detection capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahbod, Abbas; Karimiyan, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Bandwidth saving, power consumption, and fill factor improvement are known as vitally important challenges image sensor designers face in order to accomplish high-performance imaging systems. This paper presents an ultralow power, high fill factor smart complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with motion detection capability. In this efficient methodology, the amount of redundant data processed in unimportant frames has been reduced significantly, and therefore, the proposed imaging system consumes less power compared with counterpart imagers. Furthermore, a pixel structure is introduced that outputs two consecutive frame voltages in series, with the result that the pixel size is minimized and a higher fill factor is achieved. In order to simulate the image capturing procedure, a state-of-the-art approach based on MATLAB and HSPICE software is devised, which is another important achievement of this paper. The performance of this technique is demonstrated using a 64×64 pixel sensor designed in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS technology. The sensor chip consumes 0.2 mW of power while operating at 100 fps with a fill factor of 45%.

  1. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-07

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing.

  2. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-01

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing.

  3. Charge transport and mobility engineering in two-dimensional transition metal chalcogenide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-01-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals semiconductors represent the thinnest, air stable semiconducting materials known. Their unique optical, electronic and mechanical properties hold great potential for harnessing them as key components in novel applications for electronics and optoelectronics. However, the charge transport behavior in 2D semiconductors is more susceptible to external surroundings (e.g. gaseous adsorbates from air and trapped charges in substrates) and their electronic performance is generally lower than corresponding bulk materials due to the fact that the surface and bulk coincide. In this article, we review recent progress on the charge transport properties and carrier mobility engineering of 2D transition metal chalcogenides, with a particular focus on the markedly high dependence of carrier mobility on thickness. We unveil the origin of this unique thickness dependence and elaborate the devised strategies to master it for carrier mobility optimization. Specifically, physical and chemical methods towards the optimization of the major factors influencing the extrinsic transport such as electrode/semiconductor contacts, interfacial Coulomb impurities and atomic defects are discussed. In particular, the use of ad hoc molecules makes it possible to engineer the interface with the dielectric and heal the vacancies in such materials. By casting fresh light on the theoretical and experimental studies, we provide a guide for improving the electronic performance of 2D semiconductors, with the ultimate goal of achieving technologically viable atomically thin (opto)electronics.

  4. Flow of the current along metallic shunts in ohmic contacts to wide-gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, T. V. Goldberg, Yu. A.; Posse, E. A.

    2009-09-15

    It is established experimentally that the contact metal-wide-gap semiconductor (GaAs, GaP, GaN) with the Schottky barrier transforms into the ohmic contact either in the process of continuous heating or in the process of holding at an elevated temperature before the formation of any recrystallized layers. In this case, resistance of the contact reduced to the unit area increases as the temperature increases for semiconductors with a high dislocation density (GaP, GaN). It is assumed that in such contacts, the current flows along the metallic shunts, which shorten the layer of space charge and are formed by metal atoms diffused along the dislocation lines or other imperfections of the semiconductor. In semiconductors with a low dislocation density (GaAs), resistance of the ohmic contact per unit area decreases with increasing the temperature as it was expected for the thermionic mechanism of current flowing.

  5. Genetically Modified Collagen-like Triple helix Protein as Biomimetic Template to Fabricate Metal/Semiconductor Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hanying

    collagen-like triple helix that is monodisperse, easily mineralized with metal/ semiconductor precursors, and therefore can be applied as a rigid biomolecular template for metal/semiconductor nanowire fabrications. Moreover the production of triple helix can be large scaled up by means of the cell multiplication. As continued work based on previous study of the application of C7 glycylglycine bolaamphiphilic peptide, the self-assembly of doughnut-shaped nanoreactors from monomer peptides with silica precursors was studied, and uniform size silica (SiO2) nanoparticles were obtained. Possible mechanism in terms of chelating and catalysis functions of the peptide was formulated. Keyword: Collagen-like Triple Helix, Nanowire, Fabrication, Recombinant, Biotemplate.

  6. Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2016-07-07

    Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response.

  7. Injection barrier at metal/organic semiconductor junctions with a Gaussian density-of-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sungyeop; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Horowitz, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    We physically model the injection characteristics at the metal/organic semiconductor (M/O) junctions with a Gaussian density-of-states (GDOS). By both analytical and numerical modelling, the charge carrier concentrations at the M/O junctions in an organic rectifying diode (ORD) are calculated. The results demonstrate a special attention required in the application of the Schottky-Mott rule, which defines the injection barrier (IB) for ideal metal/semiconductor junctions, to M/O junctions. By systematically changing the width of the GDOS that describes the energetic disorder in the organic semiconductor, we show that the edge of the highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) should be defined as {σ2}/2{{k}\\text{B}}T higher rather than 2σ from the maximum of the HOMO to keep the consistency of the Schottky-Mott rule. A simple analytical expression for the IB is presented which contains the effect of the disorder in facilitating the charge carrier injection. Simulated current density-voltage characteristics of the ORDs are also presented to support the arguments.

  8. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; ...

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistormore » can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.« less

  9. Barrier height enhancement of metal/semiconductor contact by an enzyme biofilm interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Gul Guven, Reyhan; Tombak, Ahmet; Kilicoglu, Tahsin; Guven, Kemal; Dogru, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    A metal/interlayer/semiconductor (Al/enzyme/p-Si) MIS device was fabricated using α-amylase enzyme as a thin biofilm interlayer. It was observed that the device showed an excellent rectifying behavior and the barrier height value of 0.78 eV for Al/α-amylase/p-Si was meaningfully larger than the one of 0.58 eV for conventional Al/p-Si metal/semiconductor (MS) contact. Enhancement of the interfacial potential barrier of Al/p-Si MS diode was realized using enzyme interlayer by influencing the space charge region of Si semiconductor. The electrical properties of the structure were executed by the help of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The photovoltaic properties of the structure were executed under a solar simulator with AM1.5 global filter between 40 and 100 mW/cm2 illumination conditions. It was also reported that the α-amylase enzyme produced from Bacillus licheniformis had a 3.65 eV band gap value obtained from optical method.

  10. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Haglund, Amanda V.; Dai, Sheng; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistor can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.

  11. Method for disclosing invisible physical properties in metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Zhang, Wei; Takahashi, Mitsue

    2017-04-01

    In metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor gate stacks of ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors (FeFETs), it is impossible to directly obtain curves of polarization versus electric field (P f-E f) in the ferroelectric layer. The P f-E f behavior is not simple, i.e. the P f-E f curves are hysteretic and nonlinear, and the hysteresis curve width depends on the electric field scan amplitude. Unless the P f-E f relation is known, the field E f strength cannot be solved when the voltage is applied between the gate meal and the semiconductor substrate, and thus P f-E f cannot be obtained after all. In this paper, the method for disclosing the relationships among the polarization peak-to-peak amplitude (2P mm_av), the electric field peak-to-peak amplitude (2E mm_av), and the memory window (E w) in units of the electric field is presented. To get P mm_av versus E mm_av, FeFETs with different ferroelectric-layer thicknesses should be prepared. Knowing such essential physical parameters is helpful and in many cases enough to quantitatively understand the behavior of FeFETs. The method is applied to three groups. The first one consists of SrBi2Ta2O9-based FeFETs. The second and third ones consist of Ca x Sr1-x Bi2Ta2O9-based FeFETs made by two kinds of annealing. The method can clearly differentiate the characters of the three groups. By applying the method, ferroelectric relationships among P mm_av, E mm_av, and E w are well classified in the three groups according to the difference of the material kinds and the annealing conditions. The method also evaluates equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of a dual layer of a deposited high-k insulator and a thermally-grown SiO2-like interfacial layer (IL). The IL thickness calculated by the method is consistent with cross-sectional image of the FeFETs observed by a transmission electron microscope. The method successfully discloses individual characteristics of the ferroelectric and the insulator layers hidden in the gate stack

  12. Anomalous quantum efficiency for photoconduction and its power dependence in metal oxide semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Wang, W. C.; Lu, M. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, L. C.

    2013-07-01

    The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed.The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01635h

  13. Improved Radio Frequency Power Characteristics of Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Compatible Asymmetric-Lightly-Doped-Drain Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu Chang,; Hsuan-ling Kao,; Y. J. Chen,; Albert Chin,

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized and modeled the radio frequency (RF) power performance of a 0.18 μm asymmetric-lightly-doped-drain metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDD MOSFET). In comparison with the conventional 0.18 μm MOSFET, this asymmetric-LDD device shows a larger power density of 0.54 W/mm, and 8 dB better adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) linearity at 2.4 GHz from the improved twice DC breakdown voltage of 6.9 V. These significant improvements of RF power performance in the asymmetric-LDD transistor are important for the medium RF power amplifier application.

  14. Antiferromagnetic half-metals, gapless half-metals, and spin gapless semiconductors: The D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G. Y. Yao, Kai-Lun

    2013-12-02

    High-spin-polarization materials are desired for the realization of high-performance spintronic devices. We combine recent experimental and theoretical findings to theoretically design several high-spin-polarization materials in binary D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys: gapless (zero-gap) half-metallic ferrimagnets of V{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Ge, half-metallic antiferromagnets of Mn{sub 3}Al and Mn{sub 3}Ga, half-metallic ferrimagnets of Mn{sub 3}Si and Mn{sub 3}Ge, and a spin gapless semiconductor of Cr{sub 3}Al. The high spin polarization, zero net magnetic moment, zero energy gap, and slight disorder compared to the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys make these binary materials promising candidates for spintronic applications. All results are obtained by the electronic structure calculations from first-principles.

  15. Metallic precipitate contribution to carrier generation in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors due to the Schottky effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, M. D.; Tan, T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of metallic precipitates to carrier generation has been modeled for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor devices fabricated using Si, with the precipitate located in the depletion region of the device. The physical mechanism responsible for the electrical activity of the metallic precipitate is attributed to the Schottky junction property between the precipitate and the Si matrix materials. The precipitate serves as a highly effective carrier generation center when the capacitor is switched from the accumulation mode to the deep depletion mode. As a practical case, the electrical activity of the Cu3Si precipitate is investigated and the impact of the precipitate located at different positions within the depleted region of the MOS capacitor on the device performance degradation is analyzed.

  16. Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2012-12-25

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

  17. Topological valleytronics in 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di

    2014-03-01

    In many crystals the Bloch bands have inequivalent and well separated energy extrema in the momentum space, known as valleys. The valley index constitutes a well-defined discrete degree of freedom for low-energy carriers that may be used to encode information. This has led to the concept of valleytronics, a new type of electronics based on manipulating the valley index of carriers. In the first part of this talk, I will describe a general scheme based on inversion symmetry breaking to control the valley index, using graphene and monolayers of MoS2 as an example. In particular, the valley Hall effect and valley-dependent optical selection will be discussed. In the second part, I will discuss the Berry phase effect on excitons formation and dynamics. Work supported by DoE, BES, MSED.

  18. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in metal-semiconductor structures.

    PubMed

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Arsenin, Aleksey V

    2011-06-20

    We propose a novel scheme of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) amplification that is based on a minority carrier injection in a Schottky diode. This scheme uses compact electrical pumping instead of bulky optical pumping. Compact size and a planar structure of the proposed amplifier allow one to utilize it in integrated plasmonic circuits and couple it easily to passive plasmonic devices. Moreover, this technique can be used to obtain surface plasmon lasing.

  19. Stark spectroscopy of CuPc organic semiconductor with a submicron metal-electrode grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, L. M.; Lazarev, V. V.; Yudin, S. G.; Palto, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    The optical and electro-optical properties of organic copper phthalocyanine semiconductor (α- CuPc) have been investigated by Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopy using a metal electrode grating with a submicron (0.88 μm) interelectrode distance. Differences between dipole moments (Δμ) and polarizabilities (Δα) in the excited and ground states of α-CuPc are measured for a nanoscale semiconductor film. It is concluded that the extremely high values of Δμ and Δα are in principle not parameters of individual α-CuPc molecules: they are determined by exciton effects specifically in the polycrystalline medium with a characteristic morphology of hyperfine films, which depends on the structure of the samples and their fabrication technology.

  20. Band structure engineering strategies of metal oxide semiconductor nanowires and related nanostructures: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piyadasa, Adimali; Wang, Sibo; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2017-07-01

    The electronic band structure of a solid state semiconductor determines many of its physical and chemical characteristics such as electrical, optical, physicochemical, and catalytic activity. Alteration or modification of the band structure could lead to significant changes in these physical and chemical characteristics, therefore we introduce new mechanisms of creating novel solid state materials with interesting properties. Over the past three decades, research on band structure engineering has allowed development of various methods to modify the band structure of engineered materials. Compared to bulk counterparts, nanostructures generally exhibit higher band structure modulation capabilities due to the quantum confinement effect, prominent surface effect, and higher strain limit. In this review we will discuss various band structure engineering strategies in semiconductor nanowires and other related nanostructures, mostly focusing on metal oxide systems. Several important strategies of band structure modulation are discussed in detail, such as doping, alloying, straining, interface and core-shell nanostructuring.

  1. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition and Remarkable Large Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-08

    The electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) can be tuned by patterned adsorption of hydrogen. Controlling the H coverage from bare GNFs to half hydrogenated and then to fully hydrogenated GNFs, the transformation of small-gap semiconductor {yields} half-metal {yields} wide-gap semiconductor occurs, accompanied by a magnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer and a nonmagnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer for triangular and hexagonal nanoflakes, respectively. The half hydrogenated GNFs, associated with strong spin polarization around the Fermi level, exhibit the unexpected large spin moment that is scaled squarely with the size of flakes. The induced spin magnetizations of these nanoflakes align parallel and lead to a substantial collective character, enabling the half hydrogenated GNFs to be spin-filtering flakes. These hydrogenation-dependent behaviors are then used to realize an attractive approach to engineer the transport properties, which provides a new route to facilitate the design of tunable spin devices.

  2. Modeling of n-InAs metal oxide semiconductor capacitors with high-κ gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Babadi, A. S. Lind, E.; Wernersson, L. E.

    2014-12-07

    A qualitative analysis on capacitance-voltage and conductance data for high-κ/InAs capacitors is presented. Our measured data were evaluated with a full equivalent circuit model, including both majority and minority carriers, as well as interface and border traps, formulated for narrow band gap metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. By careful determination of interface trap densities, distribution of border traps across the oxide thickness, and taking into account the bulk semiconductor response, it is shown that the trap response has a strong effect on the measured capacitances. Due to the narrow bandgap of InAs, there can be a large surface concentration of electrons and holes even in depletion, so a full charge treatment is necessary.

  3. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, G. H.; van Breemen, A. J. J. M.; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  4. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Gelinck, G. H.; Breemen, A. J. J. M. van; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-02

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  5. THz semiconductor-based front-end receiver technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Advances in the design and fabrication of very low capacitance planar Schottky diodes and millimeter-wave power amplifiers, more accurate device and circuit models for commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulators, and the availability of both MEMS and high precision metal machining, have enabled RF engineers to extend traditional waveguide-based sensor and source technologies well into the TI-Iz frequency regime. This short paper will highlight recent progress in realizing THz space-qualified receiver front-ends based on room temperature semiconductor devices.

  6. THz semiconductor-based front-end receiver technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Advances in the design and fabrication of very low capacitance planar Schottky diodes and millimeter-wave power amplifiers, more accurate device and circuit models for commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulators, and the availability of both MEMS and high precision metal machining, have enabled RF engineers to extend traditional waveguide-based sensor and source technologies well into the TI-Iz frequency regime. This short paper will highlight recent progress in realizing THz space-qualified receiver front-ends based on room temperature semiconductor devices.

  7. Ultrasensitive NO2 Sensor Based on Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces of Electrolytically Exfoliated Graphene/Flame-Spray-Made SnO2 Nanoparticles Composite Operating at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tammanoon, Nantikan; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Sriprachuabwong, Chakrit; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Phanichphant, Sukon; Liewhiran, Chaikarn

    2015-11-04

    In this work, flame-spray-made undoped SnO2 nanoparticles were loaded with 0.1-5 wt % electrolytically exfoliated graphene and systematically studied for NO2 sensing at low working temperatures. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, transmission/scanning electron microscopy, and Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that high-quality multilayer graphene sheets with low oxygen content were widely distributed within spheriodal nanoparticles having polycrystalline tetragonal SnO2 phase. The 10-20 μm thick sensing films fabricated by spin coating on Au/Al2O3 substrates were tested toward NO2 at operating temperatures ranging from 25 to 350 °C in dry air. Gas-sensing results showed that the optimal graphene loading level of 0.5 wt % provided an ultrahigh response of 26,342 toward 5 ppm of NO2 with a short response time of 13 s and good recovery stabilization at a low optimal operating temperature of 150 °C. In addition, the optimal sensor also displayed high sensor response and relatively short response time of 171 and 7 min toward 5 ppm of NO2 at room temperature (25 °C). Furthermore, the sensors displayed very high NO2 selectivity against H2S, NH3, C2H5OH, H2, and H2O. Detailed mechanisms for the drastic NO2 response enhancement by graphene were proposed on the basis of the formation of graphene-undoped SnO2 ohmic metal-semiconductor junctions and accessible interfaces of graphene-SnO2 nanoparticles. Therefore, the electrolytically exfoliated graphene-loaded FSP-made SnO2 sensor is a highly promising candidate for fast, sensitive, and selective detection of NO2 at low operating temperatures.

  8. Modeling small-signal response of GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor gate stack in spill-over regime: Effect of barrier resistance and interface states

    SciTech Connect

    Capriotti, M. E-mail: dionyz.pogany@tuwien.ac.at; Fleury, C.; Oposich, M.; Bethge, O.; Strasser, G.; Pogany, D. E-mail: dionyz.pogany@tuwien.ac.at; Lagger, P.; Ostermaier, C.

    2015-01-14

    We provide theoretical and simulation analysis of the small signal response of SiO{sub 2}/AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors from depletion to spill over region, where the AlGaN/SiO{sub 2} interface is accumulated with free electrons. A lumped element model of the gate stack, including the response of traps at the III-N/dielectric interface, is proposed and represented in terms of equivalent parallel capacitance, C{sub p}, and conductance, G{sub p}. C{sub p} -voltage and G{sub p} -voltage dependences are modelled taking into account bias dependent AlGaN barrier dynamic resistance R{sub br} and the effective channel resistance. In particular, in the spill-over region, the drop of C{sub p} with the frequency increase can be explained even without taking into account the response of interface traps, solely by considering the intrinsic response of the gate stack (i.e., no trap effects) and the decrease of R{sub br} with the applied forward bias. Furthermore, we show the limitations of the conductance method for the evaluation of the density of interface traps, D{sub it}, from the G{sub p}/ω vs. angular frequency ω curves. A peak in G{sub p}/ω vs. ω occurs even without traps, merely due to the intrinsic frequency response of gate stack. Moreover, the amplitude of the G{sub p}/ω vs. ω peak saturates at high D{sub it}, which can lead to underestimation of D{sub it}. Understanding the complex interplay between the intrinsic gate stack response and the effect of interface traps is relevant for the development of normally on and normally off MIS high electron mobility transistors with stable threshold voltage.

  9. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  10. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  11. Cu2O-based solar cells using oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant improvements of the photovoltaic properties that were achieved in Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/n-type oxide semiconductor/p-type Cu2O heterojunction solar cells fabricated using p-type Cu2O sheets prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The multicomponent oxide thin film used as the n-type semiconductor layer was prepared with various chemical compositions on non-intentionally heated Cu2O sheets under various deposition conditions using a pulsed laser deposition method. In Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated using various ternary compounds as the n-type oxide thin-film layer, the best photovoltaic performance was obtained with an n-ZnGa2O4 thin-film layer. In most of the Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells using multicomponent oxides composed of combinations of various binary compounds, the obtained photovoltaic properties changed gradually as the chemical composition was varied. However, with the ZnO-MgO and Ga2O3-Al2O3 systems, higher conversion efficiencies (η) as well as a high open circuit voltage (Voc) were obtained by using a relatively small amount of MgO or Al2O3, e.g., (ZnO)0.91-(MgO)0.09 and (Ga2O3)0.975-(Al2O3)0.025, respectively. When Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using Al2O3-Ga2O3-MgO-ZnO (AGMZO) multicomponent oxide thin films deposited with metal atomic ratios of 10, 60, 10 and 20 at.% for the Al, Ga, Mg and Zn, respectively, a high Voc of 0.98 V and an η of 4.82% were obtained. In addition, an enhanced η and an improved fill factor could be achieved in AZO/n-type multicomponent oxide/p-type Cu2O heterojunction solar cells fabricated using Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheets that featured a resistivity controlled by optimizing the post-annealing temperature and duration. Consequently, an η of 6.25% and a Voc of 0.84 V were obtained in a MgF2/AZO/n-(Ga2O3-Al2O3)/p-Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell fabricated using a Cu2O:Na sheet with a resistivity of approximately 10 Ω·cm and a (Ga0.975Al0

  12. Charging and exciton-mediated decharging of metal nanoparticles in organic semiconductor matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Ligorio, Giovanni; Vittorio Nardi, Marco Christodoulou, Christos; Florea, Ileana; Ersen, Ovidiu; Monteiro, Nicolas-Crespo; Brinkmann, Martin; Koch, Norbert

    2014-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were deposited on the surface of n- and p-type organic semiconductors to form defined model systems for charge storage based electrically addressable memory elements. We used ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to study the electronic properties and found that the Au-NPs become positively charged because of photoelectron emission, evidenced by spectral shifts to higher binding energy. Upon illumination with light that can be absorbed by the organic semiconductors, dynamic charge neutrality of the Au-NPs could be re-established through electron transfer from excitons. The light-controlled charge state of the Au-NPs could add optical addressability to memory elements.

  13. Cascadable all-optical inverter based on a nonlinear vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiang; Wen, Pengyue; Esener, Sadik

    2007-07-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the operation of a cascadable, low-optical-switching-power(~10 microW) small-area (~100 microm(2)) high-speed (80 ps fall time) all-optical inverter. This inverter employs cross-gain modulation, polarization gain anisotropy, and highly nonlinear gain characteristics of an electrically pumped vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA). The measured transfer characteristics of such an optical inverter resemble those of standard electronic metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor-based inverters exhibiting high noise margin and high extinction ratio (~9.3 dB), making VCSOAs an ideal building block for all-optical logic and memory.

  14. Method of plasma etching GA-based compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2013-01-01

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent thereto. The chamber contains a Ga-based compound semiconductor sample in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. SiCl.sub.4 and Ar gases are flowed into the chamber. RF power is supplied to the platen at a first power level, and RF power is supplied to the source electrode. A plasma is generated. Then, RF power is supplied to the platen at a second power level lower than the first power level and no greater than about 30 W. Regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched at a rate of no more than about 25 nm/min to create a substantially smooth etched surface.

  15. Semiconductor Nanocrystals-Based White Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Duty, Chad E

    2010-01-01

    In response to the demands for energy and the concerns of global warming and climate change, energy efficient and environmentally friendly solid state lighting, such as white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), is considered to be the most promising and suitable light source. Because of their small size, high efficiency, and long lifetime, WLEDs based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are emerging as a completely new technology platform for the development of flat-panel displays and solid state lighting, exhibiting the potential to replace the conventionally used incandescent and fluorescent lamps. This replacement could cut the ever-increasing energy consumption, solve the problem of rapidly depleting fossil fuel reserves, and improve the quality of the global environment. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in semiconductor nanocrystals-based WLEDs, compare different approaches for generating white light, and discuss the benefits and challenges of the solid state lighting technology.

  16. Semiconductor-Nanocrystals-Based White Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Quanqin; Duty, Chad E; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the demands for energy and the concerns of global warming and climate change, energy efficient and environmentally friendly solid-state lighting, such as white lightemitting diodes (WLEDs), is considered to be the most promising and suitable light source. Because of their small size, high efficiency, and long lifetime, WLEDs based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are emerging as a completely new technology platform for the development of flat-panel displays and solid-state lighting, exhibiting the potential to replace the conventionally used incandescent and fluorescent lamps. This replacement can cut the ever-increasing level of energy consumption, solve the problem of rapidly depleting fossil fuel reserves, and improve the quality of the global environment. In this review, the recent progress in semiconductor-nanocrystals-based WLEDs is highlighted, the different approaches for generating white light are compared, and the benefits and challenges of the solid-state lighting technology are discussed.

  17. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  18. High responsivity in molecular beam epitaxy grown β-Ga2O3 metal semiconductor metal solar blind deep-UV photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Pratiyush, Anamika; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Vishnu Solanke, Swanand; Xia, Zhanbo; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Rajan, Siddharth; Nath, Digbijoy N.

    2017-05-01

    In this report, we demonstrate high spectral responsivity (SR) in MBE grown epitaxial β-Ga2O3-based solar blind metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PD). The (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 thin film was grown using plasma-assisted MBE on c-plane sapphire substrates. MSM devices fabricated with Ni/Au contacts in an interdigitated geometry were found to exhibit peak SR > 1.5 A/W at 236-240 nm at a bias of 4 V with a UV to visible rejection ratio > 105. The devices exhibited very low dark current < 10 nA at 20 V and showed no persistent photoconductivity (PPC) as evident from the sharp transients with a photo-to-dark current ratio > 103. These results represent the state-of-art performance for the MBE-grown β-Ga2O3 MSM solar blind detector.

  19. Laser Spectroscopy of Small Metal and Semiconductor Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstead, Christopher Brooks

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus consisting of a laser vaporization cluster source coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been implemented to facilitate the mass-selected spectroscopy of small silver and silicon molecules. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) studies have revealed a previously unknown silver dimer excited electronic state via a forbidden transition near 46870 cm^ {-1}. This state lies in near perfect double resonance with the lower energy A ^1 Sigma_sp{rm u}{+}( rm v^' = 3) >= X ^Sigma_sp{rm g}{+}({rm v^{' '}} = 0) transition, leading to an anomalously large single color Ag_2 ionization signal near 426.7 nm. Symmetry selection rules allow an identification of the new state symmetry as 1_{rm g} or 0 _sp{rm g}{+}. Additional REMPI investigations of the A ^1Sigma _sp{rm u}{+} >=ts X ^1Sigma_sp {rm g}{+} transition yield a new measurement of the Ag_2 ionization potential (IP) and resolve a discrepancy in the reported Ag_2 IP values. The importance of field ionization effects on the observed REMPI spectra is also demonstrated. The spectroscopy of the H ^3Sigma _sp{rm u}{-} state of silicon dimer has been investigated using a combination of laser induced fluorescence and resonant two-photon ionization techniques. Measurements of the isotope induced bandhead shifts for the Si_2 H ^3 Sigma_sp{rm u}{-} >=ts X ^3Sigma_sp {rm g}{-} transition reveal that the previously accepted vibrational numbering of the H ^3Sigma_sp{rm u}{-} state is incorrect. Revised molecular constants based on the new vibrational numbering scheme are T_{rm e} = 24151.86 cm^{-1}, omega_{rm e} = 279.28 cm^{-1}, omega _{rm e}chi_{rm e} = 1.99 cm^{-1} , B_{rm e} = 0.17255 cm^{-1}, and alpha_{rm e} = 0.00135 cm^{-1}. A comparison of experimentally obtained and simulated dispersed laser induced fluorescence spectra demonstrates the improved accuracy of these new constants. Resonant two-photon ionization studies of the H ^3Sigma_sp {rm u}{-} state have also allowed the most accurate

  20. Interfacial engineering of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions for efficient and stable photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Digdaya, Ibadillah A.; Adhyaksa, Gede W. P.; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Garnett, Erik C.; Smith, Wilson A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting can potentially provide an efficient route for large-scale renewable energy conversion and storage. It is essential for such a system to provide a sufficiently high photocurrent and photovoltage to drive the water oxidation reaction. Here we demonstrate a photoanode that is capable of achieving a high photovoltage by engineering the interfacial energetics of metal–insulator–semiconductor junctions. We evaluate the importance of using two metals to decouple the functionalities for a Schottky contact and a highly efficient catalyst. We also illustrate the improvement of the photovoltage upon incidental oxidation of the metallic surface layer in KOH solution. Additionally, we analyse the role of the thin insulating layer to the pinning and depinning of Fermi level that is responsible to the resulting photovoltage. Finally, we report the advantage of using dual metal overlayers as a simple protection route for highly efficient metal–insulator–semiconductor photoanodes by showing over 200 h of operational stability. PMID:28660883

  1. Optical properties of semiconductor-metal composite thin films in the infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Lamb, James L.

    1995-07-01

    Germanium:silver (Ge:Ag) composite thin films having different concentrations of Ag, ranging from 7% to 40%, have been prepared by dc cosputtering of Ge and Ag. The films' surface morphology and optical properties have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectrophotometry. It is seen that, although the films that contain lower concentrations of Ag have islandlike morphology (i.e., Ag particles distributed in a Ge matrix), the higher metallic concentration films tend to have a symmetric distribution of Ag and Ge. The optical constants (i.e., refractive index n and absorption index k) derived from the measured optical properties show a semiconductor behavior even as high as 40% of Ag concentration, beyond which the metallic properties dominate over the entire infrared spectrum. Comparison of the n and k data with the two well-known effective medium theories, namely, the Maxwell-Garnett theory and the Bruggeman theory, shows that both theories have limited scope in predicting the optical properties of semiconductor-metal composite films in the infrared region. However, an empirical polynomial equation can simulate the experimental

  2. Insulator charging limits direct current across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Vilan, Ayelet

    2016-01-07

    Molecular electronics studies how the molecular nature affects the probability of charge carriers to tunnel through the molecules. Nevertheless, transport is also critically affected by the contacts to the molecules, an aspect that is often overlooked. Specifically, the limited ability of non-metallic contacts to maintain the required charge balance across the fairly insulating molecule often have dramatic effects. This paper shows that in the case of lead/organic monolayer-silicon junctions, a charge balance is responsible for an unusual current scaling, with the junction diameter (perimeter), rather than its area. This is attributed to the balance between the 2D charging at the metal/insulator interface and the 3D charging of the semiconductor space-charge region. A derivative method is developed to quantify transport across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions; this enables separating the tunneling barrier from the space-charge barrier for a given current-voltage curve, without complementary measurements. The paper provides practical tools to analyze specific molecular junctions compatible with existing silicon technology, and demonstrates the importance of contacts' physics in modeling charge transport across molecular junctions.

  3. Silver decorated polymer supported semiconductor thin films by UV aided metalized laser printing

    SciTech Connect

    Halbur, Jonathan C.; Padbury, Richard P.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2016-05-15

    A facile ultraviolet assisted metalized laser printing technique is demonstrated through the ability to control selective photodeposition of silver on flexible substrates after atomic layer deposition pretreatment with zinc oxide and titania. The photodeposition of noble metals such as silver onto high surface area, polymer supported semiconductor metal oxides exhibits a new route for nanoparticle surface modification of photoactive enhanced substrates. Photodeposited silver is subsequently characterized using low voltage secondary electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. At the nanoscale, the formation of specific morphologies, flake and particle, is highlighted after silver is photodeposited on zinc oxide and titania coated substrates, respectively. The results indicate that the morphology and composition of the silver after photodeposition has a strong dependency on the morphology, crystallinity, and impurity content of the underlying semiconductor oxide. At the macroscale, this work demonstrates how the nanoscale features rapidly coalesce into a printed pattern through the use of masks or an X-Y gantry stage with virtually unlimited design control.

  4. Amorphous silicon enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor contacts for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J.; Cuevas, A.; Yan, D.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-10-01

    Carrier recombination at the metal-semiconductor contacts has become a significant obstacle to the further advancement of high-efficiency diffused-junction silicon solar cells. This paper provides the proof-of-concept of a procedure to reduce contact recombination by means of enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Lightly diffused n+ and p+ surfaces are passivated with SiO2/a-Si:H and Al2O3/a-Si:H stacks, respectively, before the MIS contacts are formed by a thermally activated alloying process between the a-Si:H layer and an overlying aluminum film. Transmission/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to ascertain the nature of the alloy. Idealized solar cell simulations reveal that MIS(n+) contacts, with SiO2 thicknesses of ˜1.55 nm, achieve the best carrier-selectivity producing a contact resistivity ρc of ˜3 mΩ cm2 and a recombination current density J0c of ˜40 fA/cm2. These characteristics are shown to be stable at temperatures up to 350 °C. The MIS(p+) contacts fail to achieve equivalent results both in terms of thermal stability and contact characteristics but may still offer advantages over directly metallized contacts in terms of manufacturing simplicity.

  5. Energy Level Alignment at Metal/Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Atxabal, Ainhoa; Braun, Slawomir; Arnold, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangnan; Parui, Subir; Liu, Xianjie; Gozalvez, Cristian; Llopis, Roger; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Casanova, Felix; Ortmann, Frank; Fahlman, Mats; Hueso, Luis E

    2017-03-15

    Energy barriers between the metal Fermi energy and the molecular levels of organic semiconductor devoted to charge transport play a fundamental role in the performance of organic electronic devices. Typically, techniques such as electron photoemission spectroscopy, Kelvin probe measurements, and in-device hot-electron spectroscopy have been applied to study these interfacial energy barriers. However, so far there has not been any direct method available for the determination of energy barriers at metal interfaces with n-type polymeric semiconductors. This study measures and compares metal/solution-processed electron-transporting polymer interface energy barriers by in-device hot-electron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It not only demonstrates in-device hot-electron spectroscopy as a direct and reliable technique for these studies but also brings it closer to technological applications by working ex situ under ambient conditions. Moreover, this study determines that the contamination layer coming from air exposure does not play any significant role on the energy barrier alignment for charge transport. The theoretical model developed for this work confirms all the experimental observations.

  6. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  7. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  8. Optically induced transport through semiconductor-based molecular electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guangqi; Seideman, Tamar; Fainberg, Boris D.

    2015-04-21

    A tight binding model is used to investigate photoinduced tunneling current through a molecular bridge coupled to two semiconductor electrodes. A quantum master equation is developed within a non-Markovian theory based on second-order perturbation theory with respect to the molecule-semiconductor electrode coupling. The spectral functions are generated using a one dimensional alternating bond model, and the coupling between the molecule and the electrodes is expressed through a corresponding correlation function. Since the molecular bridge orbitals are inside the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, charge carrier tunneling is inhibited in the dark. Subject to the dipole interaction with the laser field, virtual molecular states are generated via the absorption and emission of photons, and new tunneling channels open. Interesting phenomena arising from memory are noted. Such a phenomenon could serve as a switch.

  9. Optically induced transport through semiconductor-based molecular electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Fainberg, Boris D.; Seideman, Tamar

    2015-04-01

    A tight binding model is used to investigate photoinduced tunneling current through a molecular bridge coupled to two semiconductor electrodes. A quantum master equation is developed within a non-Markovian theory based on second-order perturbation theory with respect to the molecule-semiconductor electrode coupling. The spectral functions are generated using a one dimensional alternating bond model, and the coupling between the molecule and the electrodes is expressed through a corresponding correlation function. Since the molecular bridge orbitals are inside the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, charge carrier tunneling is inhibited in the dark. Subject to the dipole interaction with the laser field, virtual molecular states are generated via the absorption and emission of photons, and new tunneling channels open. Interesting phenomena arising from memory are noted. Such a phenomenon could serve as a switch.

  10. A low-voltage alterable EEPROM with Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Semiconductor /MONOS/ structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, E.; Ishii, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hiraishi, H.

    1983-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to obtain lower voltage Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM's (EEPROM's) than conventional devices have been performed. The scaled-down Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide semiconductor (MONOS) structure is proposed to realize an extremely low-voltage programmable device. The proposed scaled down MONOS devices enjoy several advantages over MNOS devices, e.g., enlargement of the memory window, elimination of degradation phenomena, and drastic improvement in device yield. Low voltage operation with + or - 6-V supplies is demonstrated by the fabricated scaled down MONOS transistors.

  11. Spin dependent charge pumping in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittel, B. C.; Lenahan, P. M.; Ryan, J. T.; Fronheiser, J.; Lelis, A. J.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate a very powerful electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) technique, spin dependent charge pumping (SDCP) and apply it to 4H SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. SDCP combines a widely used electrical characterization tool with the most powerful analytical technique for providing atomic scale structure of point defects in electronic materials. SDCP offers a large improvement in sensitivity over the previously established EDMR technique called spin dependent recombination, offering higher sensitivity and accessing a wider energy range within the bandgap.

  12. Exciton-plasmon and spin-plasmon interactions in hybrid semiconductor-metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorov, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Coulomb and electromagnetic interactions between excitons and plasmons in nanocrystals cause several effects: energy transfer between nanoparticles, plasmon enhancement, Lamb shifts of exciton lines, Fano interference. In a complex composed of semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle, plasmons interact with spin-polarized excitons. This interaction leads to the formation of coupled spin-plasmon excitations and to spin-dependent Fano resonances. If an exciton-plasmon system includes chiral elements (chiral molecules or nanocrystals), the exciton-plasmon interaction is able to create new plasmonic lines in circular dichroism spectra.

  13. Ultrasensitive mass sensor fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsen, E.; Abadal, G.; Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S.; Teva, J.; Verd, J.; Sandberg, R.; Svendsen, W.; Perez-Murano, F.; Esteve, J.; Figueras, E.; Campabadal, F.; Montelius, L.; Barniol, N.; Boisen, A.

    2005-07-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have been monolithically integrated on preprocessed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips. Fabricated resonator systems have been designed to have resonance frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. The systems have been characterized in ambient air and vacuum conditions and display ultrasensitive mass detection in air. A mass sensitivity of 4ag/Hz has been determined in air by placing a single glycerine drop, having a measured weight of 57 fg, at the apex of a cantilever and subsequently measuring a frequency shift of 14.8 kHz. CMOS integration enables electrostatic excitation, capacitive detection, and amplification of the resonance signal directly on the chip.

  14. Semiconductor-to-metal transition in the bulk of WSe2 upon potassium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Müller, Eric; Habenicht, Carsten; Schuster, Roman; Knupfer, Martin; Büchner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    We present electron energy-loss spectroscopic measurements of potassium (K) intercalated tungsten diselenide (WSe2). After exposure of pristine WSe2 films to potassium, we observe a charge carrier plasmon excitation at about 0.97 eV, which indicates a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Our data reveal the formation of one particular doped K-WSe2 phase. A Kramers-Kronig analysis allows the determination of the dielectric function and the estimation of the composition of K0.6WSe2. Momentum dependent measurements reveal a substantial plasmon dispersion to higher energies.

  15. Semiconductor-to-metal transition in the bulk of WSe2 upon potassium intercalation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Müller, Eric; Habenicht, Carsten; Schuster, Roman; Knupfer, Martin; Büchner, Bernd

    2017-04-26

    We present electron energy-loss spectroscopic measurements of potassium (K) intercalated tungsten diselenide (WSe2). After exposure of pristine WSe2 films to potassium, we observe a charge carrier plasmon excitation at about 0.97 eV, which indicates a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Our data reveal the formation of one particular doped K-WSe2 phase. A Kramers-Kronig analysis allows the determination of the dielectric function and the estimation of the composition of K0.6WSe2. Momentum dependent measurements reveal a substantial plasmon dispersion to higher energies.

  16. Semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in monolayer ZrS2: GGA+U study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Tankeshwar, K.

    2015-06-01

    We report structural and electronic properties of ZrS2 monolayer within density functional theory (DFT) by inclusion of Hubbard on-site Coulomb and exchange interactions. The importance of on-site interactions for both ZrS2 bulk and monolayer has been highlighted that significantly improves the electronic band-gap. It is demonstrated that mechanical strain induces structural phase transition that results in semiconductor-to-metal transition in monolayer ZrS2. This phenomenon has important implications in technological applications such as flexible, low power and transparent electronic devices.

  17. Content-Based Image Retrieval for Semiconductor Process Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth W.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Arrowood, Lloyd F.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Goddard, James S.; Lakhani, Fred

    2002-12-01

    Image data management in the semiconductor manufacturing environment is becoming more problematic as the size of silicon wafers continues to increase, while the dimension of critical features continues to shrink. Fabricators rely on a growing host of image-generating inspection tools to monitor complex device manufacturing processes. These inspection tools include optical and laser scattering microscopy, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The number of images that are being generated are on the order of 20,000 to 30,000 each week in some fabrication facilities today. Manufacturers currently maintain on the order of 500,000 images in their data management systems for extended periods of time. Gleaning the historical value from these large image repositories for yield improvement is difficult to accomplish using the standard database methods currently associated with these data sets (e.g., performing queries based on time and date, lot numbers, wafer identification numbers, etc.). Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed and tested a content-based image retrieval technology that is specific to manufacturing environments. In this paper, we describe the feature representation of semiconductor defect images along with methods of indexing and retrieval, and results from initial field-testing in the semiconductor manufacturing environment.

  18. Alloy Engineering of Defect Properties in Semiconductors: Suppression of Deep Levels in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wei, Su-Huai; Liu, Feng

    2015-09-18

    Developing practical approaches to effectively reduce the amount of deep defect levels in semiconductors is critical for their use in electronic and optoelectronic devices, but this still remains a very challenging task. In this Letter, we propose that specific alloying can provide an effective means to suppress the deep defect levels in semiconductors while maintaining their basic electronic properties. Specifically, we demonstrate that for transition-metal dichalcogenides, such as MoSe_{2} and WSe_{2}, where anion vacancies are the most abundant defects that can induce deep levels, the deep levels can be effectively suppressed in Mo_{1-x}W_{x}Se_{2} alloys at low W concentrations. This surprising phenomenon is associated with the fact that the band edge energies can be substantially tuned by the global alloy concentration, whereas the defect level is controlled locally by the preferred locations of Se vacancies around W atoms. Our findings illustrate a concept of alloy engineering and provide a promising approach to control the defect properties of semiconductors.

  19. Effects of interdigitated platinum finger geometry on spectral response characteristics of germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Duk; Janardhanam, V; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2014-10-01

    We fabricated interdigitated germanium (Ge) metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors (MSM PDs) with interdigitated platinum (Pt) finger electrodes and investigated the effects of Pt finger width and spacing on their spectral response. An increase in the incident optical power enhances the creation of electron-hole pairs, resulting in a significant increase in photo current. Lowering of the Schottky barrier could be a main cause of the increase in both photo and dark current with increasing applied bias. The manufactured Ge MSM PDs exhibited a considerable spectral response for wavelengths in the range of 1.53-1.56 μm, corresponding to the entire C-band spectrum range. A reduction in the area fraction of the Pt finger electrode in the active region by decreasing and increasing finger width and spacing, respectively, led to an increase in illuminated active area and suppression of dark current, which was responsible for the improvement in responsivity and quantum efficiency of Ge MSM PDs.

  20. Theoretical Study of the Effect of an AlGaAs Double Heterostructure on Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Ali F.; Smith, Arlynn W.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1994-01-01

    The impulse and square-wave input response of different GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSM) designs are theoretically examined using a two dimensional drift- diffusion numerical calculation with a thermionic-field emission boundary condition model for the heterojunctions. The rise time and the fall time of the output signal current are calculated for a simple GaAs, epitaxially grown, MSM device as well as for various double-heterostructure barrier devices. The double heterostructure devices consist of an AlGaAs layer sandwiched between the top GaAs active, absorption layer and the bottom GaAs substrate. The effect of the depth of the AlGaAs layer on the speed and responsivity of the MSM devices is examined. It is found that there is an optimal depth, at fixed applied bias, of the AlGaAs layer within the structure that provides maximum responsivity at minimal compromise in speed.