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Sample records for based sensors usingsynchrotron

  1. Real-time Bacterial Detection by Single Cell Based Sensors UsingSynchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Bertozzi,Carolyn; Zhang, Miqin

    2005-08-10

    Microarrays of single macrophage cell based sensors weredeveloped and demonstrated for real time bacterium detection bysynchrotron FTIR microscopy. The cells were patterned on gold-SiO2substrates via a surface engineering technique by which the goldelectrodes were immobilized with fibronectin to mediate cell adhesion andthe silicon oxide background were passivated with PEG to resist proteinadsorption and cell adhesion. Cellular morphology and IR spectra ofsingle, double, and triple cells on gold electrodes exposed tolipopolysaccharide (LPS) of different concentrations were compared toreveal the detection capabilities of these biosensors. The single-cellbased sensors were found to generate the most significant IR wave numbervariation and thus provide the highest detection sensitivity. Changes inmorphology and IR spectrum for single cells exposed to LPS were found tobe time- and concentration-dependent and correlated with each other verywell. FTIR spectra from single cell arrays of gold electrodes withsurface area of 25 mu-m2, 100 mu-m2, and 400 mu-m2 were acquired usingboth synchrotron and conventional FTIR spectromicroscopes to study thesensitivity of detection. The results indicated that the developedsingle-cell platform can be used with conventional FTIRspectromicroscopy. This technique provides real-time, label-free, andrapid bacterial detection, and may allow for statistic and highthroughput analyses, and portability.

  2. Supramolecular Based Membrane Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Rezapour, Morteza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza

    2006-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry can be defined as a field of chemistry, which studies the complex multi-molecular species formed from molecular components that have relatively simpler structures. This field has been subject to extensive research over the past four decades. This review discusses classification of supramolecules and their application in design and construction of ion selective sensors.

  3. Graphene based multifunctional flame sensor.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Darim B; Pavan Kumar, R; Reddy, Siva K; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Misra, Abha

    2015-05-15

    Recently, graphene has attracted much attention due to its unique electrical and thermal properties along with its high surface area, and hence presents an ideal sensing material. We report a novel configuration of a graphene based flame sensor by exploiting the response of few layer graphene to a flame along two different directions, where flame detection results from a difference in heat transfer mechanisms. A complete sensor module was developed with a signal conditioning circuit that compensates for any drift in the baseline of the sensor, along with a flame detection algorithm implemented in a microcontroller to detect the flame. A pre-defined threshold for either of the sensors is tunable, which can be varied based on the nature of the flame, hence presenting a system that can be used for detection of any kind of flame. This finding also presents a scalable method that opens avenues to modify complicated sensing schemes.

  4. Graphene based multifunctional flame sensor.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Darim B; Pavan Kumar, R; Reddy, Siva K; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Misra, Abha

    2015-05-15

    Recently, graphene has attracted much attention due to its unique electrical and thermal properties along with its high surface area, and hence presents an ideal sensing material. We report a novel configuration of a graphene based flame sensor by exploiting the response of few layer graphene to a flame along two different directions, where flame detection results from a difference in heat transfer mechanisms. A complete sensor module was developed with a signal conditioning circuit that compensates for any drift in the baseline of the sensor, along with a flame detection algorithm implemented in a microcontroller to detect the flame. A pre-defined threshold for either of the sensors is tunable, which can be varied based on the nature of the flame, hence presenting a system that can be used for detection of any kind of flame. This finding also presents a scalable method that opens avenues to modify complicated sensing schemes. PMID:25900408

  5. Graphene based multifunctional flame sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Darim B.; Pavan Kumar, R.; Reddy, Siva K.; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Misra, Abha

    2015-05-01

    Recently, graphene has attracted much attention due to its unique electrical and thermal properties along with its high surface area, and hence presents an ideal sensing material. We report a novel configuration of a graphene based flame sensor by exploiting the response of few layer graphene to a flame along two different directions, where flame detection results from a difference in heat transfer mechanisms. A complete sensor module was developed with a signal conditioning circuit that compensates for any drift in the baseline of the sensor, along with a flame detection algorithm implemented in a microcontroller to detect the flame. A pre-defined threshold for either of the sensors is tunable, which can be varied based on the nature of the flame, hence presenting a system that can be used for detection of any kind of flame. This finding also presents a scalable method that opens avenues to modify complicated sensing schemes.

  6. Graphene Based Flexible Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Congwen

    Graphene is a novel carbon material with great promise for a range of applications due to its electronic and mechanical properties. Its two-dimensional nature translates to a high sensitivity to surface chemical interactions thereby making it an ideal platform for sensors. Graphene's electronic properties are not degraded due to mechanical flexing or strain (Kim, K. S., et al. nature 07719, 2009) offering another advantage for flexible sensors integrated into numerous systems including fabrics, etc. We have demonstrated a graphene NO2 sensor on a solid substrate (100nm SiO2/heavily doped silicon). Three different methods were used to synthesize graphene and the sensor fabrication process was optimized accordingly. Water is used as a controllable p-type dopant in graphene to study the relationship between doping and graphene's response to NO2 . Experimental results show that interface water between graphene and the supporting SiO2 substrate induces higher p-doping in graphene, leading to a higher sensitivity to NO2, consistent with theoretical predications (Zhang, Y. et al., Nanotechnology 20(2009) 185504). We have also demonstrated a flexible and stretchable graphene-based sensor. Few layer graphene, grown on a Ni substrate, is etched and transferred to a highly stretchable polymer substrate (VHB from 3M) with preloaded stress, followed by metal contact formation to construct a flexible, stretchable sensor. With up to 500% deformation caused by compressive stress, graphene still shows stable electrical response to NO2. Our results suggest that higher compressive stress results in smaller sheet resistance and higher sensitivity to NO2. A possible molecular detection sensor utilizing Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum (SERS) based on a graphene/gallium nanoparticles platform is also studied. By correlating the enhancement of the graphene Raman modes with metal coverage, we propose that the Ga transfers electrons to the graphene creating local regions of enhanced

  7. Electronic aptamer-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Willner, Itamar; Zayats, Maya

    2007-01-01

    The selection of aptamers-nucleic acids that specifically bind low-molecular-weight substrates or proteins-by the SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) procedure has attracted recent efforts directed to the development of new specific recognition units. In particular, extensive activities have been directed to the application of aptamers as versatile materials for the design of biosensors. The Minireview summarizes the recent accomplishments in developing electronic aptamer-based sensors (aptasensors), which include electrochemical, field-effect transistor, and microgravimetric quartz crystal microbalance sensors, and describes methods to develop amplified aptasensor devices and label-free aptasensors.

  8. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  9. Fluorographene based Ultrasensitive Ammonia Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tadi, Kiran Kumar; Pal, Shubhadeep; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.

    2016-01-01

    Single molecule detection using graphene can be brought by tuning the interactions via specific dopants. Electrostatic interaction between the most electronegative element fluorine (F) and hydrogen (H) is one of the strong interactions in hydrogen bonding, and here we report the selective binding of ammonia/ammonium with F in fluorographene (FG) resulting to a change in the impedance of the system. Very low limit of detection value of ~0.44 pM with linearity over wide range of concentrations (1 pM–0.1 μM) is achieved using the FG based impedance sensor, andthisscreen printed FG sensor works in both ionized (ammonium) and un-ionized ammonia sensing platforms. The interaction energies of FG and NH3/NH4+ are evaluated using density functional theory calculations and the interactions are mapped. Here FGs with two different amounts of fluorinecontents −~5 atomic% (C39H16F2) and ~24 atomic% (C39H16F12) - are theoretically and experimentally studied for selective, high sensitive and ultra-low level detection of ammonia. Fast responding, high sensitive, large area patternable FG based sensor platform demonstrated here can open new avenues for the development of point-of-care devices and clinical sensors. PMID:27142522

  10. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  11. Reputation-Based Secure Sensor Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. PMID:24982940

  12. Carbon Nanotube Based Light Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, russell A. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A light sensor substrate comprises a base made from a semi-conductive material and topped with a layer of an electrically non-conductive material. A first electrode and a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors are positioned on the layer of electrically non-conductive material with the CNT-based conductors being distributed in a spaced apart fashion about a periphery of the first electrode. Each CNT-based conductor is coupled on one end thereof to the first electrode and extends away from the first electrode to terminate at a second free end. A second or gate electrode is positioned on the non-conductive material layer and is spaced apart from the second free end of each CNT-based conductor. Coupled to the first and second electrode is a device for detecting electron transfer along the CNT-based conductors resulting from light impinging on the CNT-based conductors.

  13. Image-based occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  14. Refractive index sensor based on magnetoplasmonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunin, A. A.; Mukha, I. R.; Chetvertukhin, A. V.; Fedyanin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    A magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance (MOSPR) sensor based on a magnetoplasmonic crystal trilayer structure is presented. The sensitivity of the MOSPR sensor is studied as a function of ferromagnetic layer thickness and at the different modes of operation. The enhancement of the sensitivity caused by using the MOSPR sensor in magneto-optical modulation regime in comparison with reflection regime is observed.

  15. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  16. Transmission-grating-based wavefront tilt sensor.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Koichi; Fukuda, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Kousuke

    2009-07-10

    We propose a new type of tilt sensor. It consists of a grating and an image sensor. It detects the tilt of the collimated wavefront reflected from a plane mirror. Its principle is described and analyzed based on wave optics. Experimental results show its validity. Simulations of the ordinary autocollimator and the proposed tilt sensor show that the effect of noise on the measured angle is smaller for the latter. These results show a possibility of making a smaller and simpler tilt sensor.

  17. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Organic Conjugated Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Aminur; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Deog-Su; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2008-01-01

    Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts. Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. Thus, these are extensively used in the fabrication of accurate, fast, and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors in the medical diagnostic laboratories. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors play an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity are achievable for environmental monitoring and clinical diagnostics. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors, which covers chemical sensors (potentiometric, voltammetric, amperometric) and biosensors (enzyme based biosensors, immunosensors, DNA sensors).

  18. Gas sensors based on electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Wang, Moran; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning have specific surface approximately one to two orders of the magnitude larger than flat films, making them excellent candidates for potential applications in sensors. This review is an attempt to give an overview on gas sensors using electrospun nanofibers comprising polyelectrolytes, conducting polymer composites, and semiconductors based on various sensing techniques such as acoustic wave, resistive, photoelectric, and optical techniques. The results of sensing experiments indicate that the nanofiber-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity and quicker responses to target gases, compared with sensors based on flat films. PMID:22573976

  19. Synchrotron-based organics and mineralogical survey of threeStardust tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Bajt, S.; Butterworth, A.L.; Fakra, S.; Gainsforth, Z.; Marcus, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; Snead, C.J.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2007-07-01

    Wild2 particles captured in the Stardust cometary dustcollector exhibit remarkable diversity between and within individualparticle tracks in aerogel. Several particles studied during the StardustPreliminary Examination are, so far, unique in the collection[1]. Thereis an urgent need to survey particles in tracks and to target specificparticles for extraction and destructive analysis. Here we describe an inaerogel survey at the Advanced Light Source (LBNL) of three tracks usingsynchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),microbeam X-ray fluorescence (microXRF), X-ray Absorption Near-EdgeSpectroscopy (microXANES), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and ScanningTransmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM).

  20. Tactile sensors based on conductive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Ramos, Julian; Navas-Gonzalez, Rafael; Macicior, Haritz; Ochoteco, Estibalitz; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents results from a few tactile sensors we have designed and fabricated. These sensors are based on a common approach that consists of placing a sheet of piezoresistive material on the top of a set of electrodes. If a force is exerted against the surface of the so obtained sensor, the contact area between the electrodes and the piezoresistive material changes. Therefore, the resistance at the interface changes. This is exploited as transconduction principle to measure forces and build advanced tactile sensors. For this purpose, we use a thin film of conductive polymers as the piezoresistive material. Specifically, a conductive water-based ink of these polymers is deposited by spin coating on a flexible plastic sheet, giving as a result a smooth, homogeneous and conducting thin film on it. The main interest in this procedure is it is cheap and it allows the fabrication of flexible and low cost tactile sensors. In this work we present results from sensors made with two technologies. First, we have used a Printed Circuit Board technology to fabricate the set of electrodes and addressing tracks. Then we have placed the flexible plastic sheet with the conductive polymer film on them to obtain the sensor. The result is a simple, flexible tactile sensor. In addition to these sensors on PCB, we have proposed, designed and fabricated sensors with a screen printing technology. In this case, the set of electrodes and addressing tracks are made by printing an ink based on silver nanoparticles. There is a very interesting difference with the other sensors, that consists of the use of an elastomer as insulation material between conductive layers. Besides of its role as insulator, this elastomer allows the modification of the force versus resistance relationship. It also improves the dynamic response of the sensor because it implements a restoration force that helps the sensor to relax quicker when the force is taken off.

  1. Flexible Hall sensors based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Otto, Martin; Schall, Daniel; Neumaier, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The excellent electronic and mechanical properties of graphene provide a perfect basis for high performance flexible electronic and sensor devices. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of flexible graphene based Hall sensors. The Hall sensors are fabricated on 50 μm thick flexible Kapton foil using large scale graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition technique on copper foil. Voltage and current normalized sensitivities of up to 0.096 V VT-1 and 79 V AT-1 were measured, respectively. These values are comparable to the sensitivity of rigid silicon based Hall sensors and are the highest values reported so far for any flexible Hall sensor devices. The sensitivity of the Hall sensor shows no degradation after being bent to a minimum radius of 4 mm, which corresponds to a tensile strain of 0.6%, and after 1000 bending cycles to a radius of 5 mm.

  2. Flexible Hall sensors based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxing; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Otto, Martin; Schall, Daniel; Neumaier, Daniel

    2016-04-14

    The excellent electronic and mechanical properties of graphene provide a perfect basis for high performance flexible electronic and sensor devices. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of flexible graphene based Hall sensors. The Hall sensors are fabricated on 50 μm thick flexible Kapton foil using large scale graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition technique on copper foil. Voltage and current normalized sensitivities of up to 0.096 V VT(-1) and 79 V AT(-1) were measured, respectively. These values are comparable to the sensitivity of rigid silicon based Hall sensors and are the highest values reported so far for any flexible Hall sensor devices. The sensitivity of the Hall sensor shows no degradation after being bent to a minimum radius of 4 mm, which corresponds to a tensile strain of 0.6%, and after 1000 bending cycles to a radius of 5 mm.

  3. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  4. SiC-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1997-01-01

    Electronic grade Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a ceramic material which can operate as a semiconductor at temperatures above 600 C. Recently, SiC semiconductors have been used in Schottky diode gas sensor structures. These sensors have been shown to be functional at temperatures significantly above the normal operating range of Si-based devices. SiC sensor operation at these higher temperatures allows detection of gases such as hydrocarbons which are not detectable at lower temperatures. This paper discusses the development of SiC-based Schottky diode gas sensors for the detection of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). Sensor designs for these applications are discussed. High sensitivity is observed for the hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensors using Pd on SiC Schottky diodes while the NO(x) sensors are still under development. A prototype sensor package has been fabricated which allows high temperature operation in a room temperature ambient by minimizing heat loss to that ambient. It is concluded that SiC-based gas sensors have considerable potential in a variety of gas sensing applications.

  5. Graphene-based charge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, C.; Volk, C.; Engels, S.; Stampfer, C.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss graphene nanoribbon-based charge sensors and focus on their functionality in the presence of external magnetic fields and high frequency pulses applied to a nearby gate electrode. The charge detectors work well with in-plane magnetic fields of up to 7 T and pulse frequencies of up to 20 MHz. By analyzing the step height in the charge detector’s current at individual charging events in a nearby quantum dot, we determine the ideal operation conditions with respect to the applied charge detector bias. Average charge sensitivities of 1.3 × 10-3e Hz-1/2 can be achieved. Additionally, we investigate the back action of the charge detector current on the quantum transport through a nearby quantum dot. By varying the charge detector bias from 0 to 4.5 mV, we can increase the Coulomb peak currents measured at the quantum dot by a factor of around 400. Furthermore, we can completely lift the Coulomb blockade in the quantum dot.

  6. SiC-Based Gas Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Gray, M.; Androjna, D.; Chen, L.-Y.; Hoffman, R. W., Jr.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diode gas sensors are being developed for applications such as emission measurements and leak detection. The effects of the geometry of the tin oxide film in a Pd/SnO2/SiC structure will be discussed as well as improvements in packaging SiC-based sensors. It is concluded that there is considerable versatility in the formation of SiC-based Schottky diode gas sensing structures which will potentially allow the fabrication of a SiC-based gas sensor array for a variety of gases and temperatures.

  7. Polypyrrole based gas sensor for ammonia detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunst, K. J.; Cysewska, K.; Kalinowski, P.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of polypyrrole response to toxic gases does not allow using the sensor in a conventional way. The main aim of this study is to acquire the information about the concentration using different approaches: a linear approximation, a non-linear approximation and a tangent method. In this paper a two-steps procedure for sensor response measurements has been utilized. Polypyrrole films were electrochemically synthesized on the interdigitated electrodes. Gas sensing measurements of polypyrrole based sensor were carried out at room temperature. The influence of the flow rate on the sensing performance to NH3 were investigated. The preliminary studies of aging of the sensor were also explored.

  8. [A USB-Based Digital ECG Sensor].

    PubMed

    Shi Bol; Kong, Xiangyong; Ma, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Genxuan

    2016-01-01

    Based on the ECG-specific BMD 101 integrated circun chip, this study designed a digital ECG sensor. In practical application, users just need to connect the ECG sensor 'o upper computer (such as PC or mobile phone) through USB interface, to realize the functions including display, alarm, saving, transfer etc. After tests, They demonstrate that the sensor can be applied to the detection of arrhythmia, such as bigeminy coupled rhythm, proiosystole etc. Besides, the sensor has various advantages in monitoring an managing the heart health of people out of hospital, including low cost, small volume, usableness, simplicity of operation etc. PMID:27197497

  9. Overview of fiber grating-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltz, Gerald

    1996-11-01

    Optical fiber sensor technology based on intra-core Bragg gratings has been used in a number of important application areas ranging from structural monitoring to chemical sensing. Practical and cost effective systems are not far in the future judging from advances in grating manufacture and sensor readout instrumentation. Fiber grating technology is not driven by its use in sensors but rather by valuable applications in dense, broadband WDM telecommunications. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of Bragg grating sensors and discuss various means for wavelength-shift demodulation, separation of temperature and strain responses and new directions that will offer additional capabilities.

  10. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  11. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liana, Devi D.; Raguse, Burkhard; Gooding, J. Justin; Chow, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed. PMID:23112667

  12. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Teresa H.; Berry, Nina M.

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  13. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  14. A risk-based sensor placement methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ronald W; Kulesz, James J

    2008-10-30

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors.

  15. Toward sensor-based context aware systems.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information. PMID:22368489

  16. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  17. A Raspberry Pi-Based Attitude Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mohan, Rekhesh; Nayak, Akshata; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    We have developed a lightweight low-cost attitude sensor, based on a Raspberry Pi, built with readily available commercial components. It can be used in experiments where weight and power are constrained, such as in high-altitude lightweight balloon flights. This attitude sensor will be used as a major building block in a closed-loop control system with driver motors to stabilize and point cameras and telescopes for astronomical observations from a balloon-borne payload.

  18. A ferrofluid-based wireless pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Girish; Ziaie, Babak

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a wireless pressure sensor design based on magnetic fluid displacement over a planar coil and its corresponding inductance change. The design of the pressure sensor is presented followed by its fabrication and characterization. Experimental results show a good correlation with a nonlinear model relating the applied pressure to the change in coil self-resonant frequency. A prototype sensor (radius = 6 mm, thickness = 2 mm) based on the above principal using an oil-based ferrofluid (50 µl, ferrite concentration 2%), a polyimide-embedded planar coil (L = 1 µH), and a 25 µm thick polyimide membrane shows a sensitivity of 3 KHz mmHg-1 with a base-line resonant frequency of f0 = 109 MHz.

  19. Wearable tactile sensor based on flexible microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Jiahao; Koh, Zhao Ming; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-08-16

    In this work, we develop a liquid-based thin film microfluidic tactile sensor of high flexibility, robustness and sensitivity. The microfluidic elastomeric structure comprises a pressure sensitive region and parallel arcs that interface with screen-printed electrodes. The microfluidic sensor is functionalized with a highly conductive metallic liquid, eutectic gallium indium (eGaIn). Microdeformation on the pressure sensor results in fluid displacement which corresponds to a change in electrical resistance. By emulating parallel electrical circuitry in our microchannel design, we reduced the overall electrical resistance of the sensor, therefore enhancing its device sensitivity. Correspondingly, we report a device workable within a range of 4 to 100 kPa and sensitivity of up to 0.05 kPa(-1). We further demonstrate its robustness in withstanding >2500 repeated loading and unloading cycles. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the sensors may be multiplexed to detect forces at multiple regions of the hand. In particular, our sensors registered unique electronic signatures in object grasping, which could provide better assessment of finger dexterity. PMID:27438370

  20. Wearable tactile sensor based on flexible microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Jiahao; Koh, Zhao Ming; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-08-16

    In this work, we develop a liquid-based thin film microfluidic tactile sensor of high flexibility, robustness and sensitivity. The microfluidic elastomeric structure comprises a pressure sensitive region and parallel arcs that interface with screen-printed electrodes. The microfluidic sensor is functionalized with a highly conductive metallic liquid, eutectic gallium indium (eGaIn). Microdeformation on the pressure sensor results in fluid displacement which corresponds to a change in electrical resistance. By emulating parallel electrical circuitry in our microchannel design, we reduced the overall electrical resistance of the sensor, therefore enhancing its device sensitivity. Correspondingly, we report a device workable within a range of 4 to 100 kPa and sensitivity of up to 0.05 kPa(-1). We further demonstrate its robustness in withstanding >2500 repeated loading and unloading cycles. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the sensors may be multiplexed to detect forces at multiple regions of the hand. In particular, our sensors registered unique electronic signatures in object grasping, which could provide better assessment of finger dexterity.

  1. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-04-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ˜ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  2. Micromachined hydrocarbon-based gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok; George, Naveen; Cherukuri, J.

    1995-09-01

    We report the technology for the design and fabrication of bulk-micromachined hydrocarbon based gas sensors in standard two micron n-well CMOS process. The hydrocarbon based gas sensor is a palladium-oxide-polysilicon type MOS structure. The gas sensor is realized in three steps: the layout design in CMOS technology using VLSI CAD tools, post-processing on fabricated CMOS devices followed by the deposition of palladium. The design includes additional layer in CMOS called 'open' which enables the formation of a 'cavity' in the silicon substrate and results in a micromachined structure. After the fabrication of CMOS devices a single maskless etch in an aqueous solution of ethylenediamine-pyrocatechol or xenon difluoride is done to create a 'cavity' followed by gas in palladium changes the C-V characteristics of the MOS structure and is detected through an integrated readout CMOS electronics.

  3. A Risk-Based Sensor Placement Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ronald W; Kulesz, James J

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors or detectors to protect population against the exposure to and effects of known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure against standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats captured or detected by sensors placed in prior stages are removed from consideration in subsequent stages. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor or detector. Thus, the criterion for halting the iterative process can be the number of detectors available, a threshold marginal utility value, or the cumulative detection of a minimum factor of the total risk value represented by all threats. The methodology quantifies the effect of threat reduction measures, such as reduced probability of one or more threats due to administrative and/or engineering controls.

  4. Portable nanoparticle based sensors for antioxidant analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Interest in portable sensing devices has increased throughout the past decade. Portable sensors are convenient for use in remote locations and in places with limited resources for advanced instrumentation. Often such devices utilize advanced technology that allows the final user to simply deposit the sample onto the sensing platform without preparation of multiple reagents. Herein, we describe preparation and characterization of a colorimetric paper-based metal oxide sensing array designed for the field detection of polyphenolic antioxidants. This sensor is a good candidate for use in analysis of the antioxidant character of food, drink, botanical medicines, physiological fluids, and more. PMID:25323510

  5. Paper-Based Electrical Respiration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Güder, Firat; Ainla, Alar; Redston, Julia; Mosadegh, Bobak; Glavan, Ana; Martin, T J; Whitesides, George M

    2016-05-01

    Current methods of monitoring breathing require cumbersome, inconvenient, and often expensive devices; this requirement sets practical limitations on the frequency and duration of measurements. This article describes a paper-based moisture sensor that uses the hygroscopic character of paper (i.e. the ability of paper to adsorb water reversibly from the surrounding environment) to measure patterns and rate of respiration by converting the changes in humidity caused by cycles of inhalation and exhalation to electrical signals. The changing level of humidity that occurs in a cycle causes a corresponding change in the ionic conductivity of the sensor, which can be measured electrically. By combining the paper sensor with conventional electronics, data concerning respiration can be transmitted to a nearby smartphone or tablet computer for post-processing, and subsequently to a cloud server. This means of sensing provides a new, practical method of recording and analyzing patterns of breathing. PMID:27059088

  6. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  7. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Saleh Ahammad, A. J.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Rahman, Md. Aminur

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers. PMID:22574013

  8. Electrospinning cellulose based nanofibers for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nartker, Steven

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens have recently become a serious threat to the food and water supply. A biosensor based on an electrochemical immunoassay has been developed for detecting food borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. These sensors consist of several materials including, cellulose, cellulose nitrate, polyaniline and glass fibers. The current sensors have not been optimized in terms of microscale architecture and materials. The major problem associated with the current sensors is the limited concentration range of pathogens that provides a linear response on the concentration conductivity chart. Electrospinning is a process that can be used to create a patterned fiber mat design that will increase the linear range and lower the detection limit of these sensors by improving the microscale architecture. Using the electrospinning process to produce novel mats of cellulose nitrate will offer improved surface area, and the cellulose nitrate can be treated to further improve chemical interactions required for sensor activity. The macro and micro architecture of the sensor is critical to the performance of the sensors. Electrospinning technology can be used to create patterned architectures of nanofibers that will enhance sensor performance. To date electrospinning of cellulose nitrate has not been performed and optimization of the electrospinning process will provide novel materials suitable for applications such as filtration and sensing. The goal of this research is to identify and elucidate the primary materials and process factors necessary to produce cellulose nitrate nanofibers using the electrospinning process that will improve the performance of biosensors. Cellulose nitrate is readily dissolved in common organic solvents such as acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N dimethylformamide (DMF). These solvents can be mixed with other latent solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols to provide a solvent system with good electrospinning behavior

  9. Fiber based photonic-crystal acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Onur

    -crystal reflector embedded in a compliant silicon diaphragm placed at the tip of a single-mode fiber. Measurements in air indicate that this sensor has a relatively uniform frequency response up to at least 50 kHz, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than existing all-fiber acoustic sensors. This sensor was also shown to be able to detect pressures as low as 18 muPa/Hz 1/2. This limit is four orders of magnitude lower than in similar types of acoustic fiber sensors that are based on a deflectable diaphragm at the fiber end. This significant improvement is to a large extent due to the higher reflectivity of the reflectors, which is itself due to the use of a photonic crystal. Through a modification in the design, such a sensor can also be used in water. In addition to the high compliance of the diaphragm, the advantage for using the photonic-crystal slab is that the holes provide a venting channel for pressure equalization. As a result, the hydrophone can be employed in deep-sea applications without suffering from the high static pressure. Measurements in water over the range of 10 kHz-50 kHz show that this hydrophone has a minimum detectable pressure of only 10 muPa/Hz1/2, close to the ambient thermal-noise level. A model was developed to show that after optimization to ocean acoustics, the sensor has a theoretical minimum detectable pressure that follows the minimum ambient noise spectrum of the ocean in the bandwidth of 1 Hz-100 kHz. This makes this sensor extremely broadband compared to commercial fiber hydrophones, which are bulky and poorly responsive to frequencies above a few hundred Hz, since they require a long length of fiber. By placing several such sensors with different acoustic power ranges within a single sensor chip, this hydrophone is capable of exhibiting a dynamic range in the excess of 200 dB (1010).

  10. Sensor-based interior modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, M.; Hoffman, R.; Johnson, A.; Osborn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Robots and remote systems will play crucial roles in future decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. Many of these facilities, such as uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities, are dormant; there is also an increasing number of commercial reactors whose useful lifetime is nearly over. To reduce worker exposure to radiation, occupational and other hazards associated with D&D tasks, robots will execute much of the work agenda. Traditional teleoperated systems rely on human understanding (based on information gathered by remote viewing cameras) of the work environment to safely control the remote equipment. However, removing the operator from the work site substantially reduces his efficiency and effectiveness. To approach the productivity of a human worker, tasks will be performed telerobotically, in which many aspects of task execution are delegated to robot controllers and other software. This paper describes a system that semi-automatically builds a virtual world for remote D&D operations by constructing 3-D models of a robot`s work environment. Planar and quadric surface representations of objects typically found in nuclear facilities are generated from laser rangefinder data with a minimum of human interaction. The surface representations are then incorporated into a task space model that can be viewed and analyzed by the operator, accessed by motion planning and robot safeguarding algorithms, and ultimately used by the operator to instruct the robot at a level much higher than teleoperation.

  11. A magnetic cell-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Mahdavi, Alborz; Tirrell, David A; Hajimiri, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Cell-based sensing represents a new paradigm for performing direct and accurate detection of cell- or tissue-specific responses by incorporating living cells or tissues as an integral part of a sensor. Here we report a new magnetic cell-based sensing platform by combining magnetic sensors implemented in the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated microelectronics process with cardiac progenitor cells that are differentiated directly on-chip. We show that the pulsatile movements of on-chip cardiac progenitor cells can be monitored in a real-time manner. Our work provides a new low-cost approach to enable high-throughput screening systems as used in drug development and hand-held devices for point-of-care (PoC) biomedical diagnostic applications.

  12. Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.

  13. Magnetocardiography with sensors based on giant magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Parkkonen, L.; Sergeeva-Chollet, N.; Polovy, H.; Fermon, C.; Fowley, C.

    2011-04-01

    Biomagnetic signals, mostly due to the electrical activity in the body, are very weak and they can only be detected by the most sensitive magnetometers, such as Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). We report here biomagnetic recordings with hybrid sensors based on Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR). We recorded magnetic signatures of the electric activity of the human heart (magnetocardiography) in healthy volunteers. The P-wave and QRS complex, known from the corresponding electric recordings, are clearly visible in the recordings after an averaging time of about 1 min. Multiple recordings at different locations over the chest yielded a dipolar magnetic field map and allowed localizing the underlying current sources. The sensitivity of the GMR-based sensors is now approaching that of SQUIDs and paves way for spin electronics devices for functional imaging of the body.

  14. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. PMID:26450138

  15. Neural network based analysis for chemical sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-04-01

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective individual sensors. We use a prototype sensor array which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of the sensor data, the selectivity of the sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) the sensors are not highly selective.

  16. Organic thin films based sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2006-03-01

    Organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, are particularly interesting because of its potential for various applications including thin film transistors (TFTs), electronic papers, radio frequency identification cards (RFIDs), and sensors. In this paper, we review recent progress in organic electronics with emphasis on their applications for sensing devices, and investigate the morphologies of pentacene films deposited on SiO II and Si surfaces at different substrate temperatures. Scanning electron microcopy (SEM) micrographs from a nominally 50nm-thick pentacene film on SiO II indicate that the grain sizes of pentacene film increase with an increase in substrate temperature. In addition, the grain size on clean silicon grown at a substrate temperature of 100 degrees C is markedly larger that on SiO II, ranging 10~20μm. Based on this morphological investigation on pentacene films, various types of organic sensors and devices with conjunction with interdigitated, gated and ungated structures are presented.

  17. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Meyyappan, M

    2016-04-27

    The need to sense gases and vapors arises in numerous scenarios in industrial, environmental, security and medical applications. Traditionally, this activity has utilized bulky instruments to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on the constituents of the gas mixture. It is ideal to use sensors for this purpose since they are smaller in size and less expensive; however, their performance in the field must match that of established analytical instruments in order to gain acceptance. In this regard, nanomaterials as sensing media offer advantages in sensitivity, preparation of chip-based sensors and construction of electronic nose for selective detection of analytes of interest. This article provides a review of the use of carbon nanotubes in gas and vapor sensing. PMID:26959284

  18. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188

  19. Gait recognition based on Kinect sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sabir, Azhin T.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents gait recognition based on human skeleton and trajectory of joint points captured by Microsoft Kinect sensor. In this paper Two sets of dynamic features are extracted during one gait cycle: the first is Horizontal Distance Features (HDF) that is based on the distances between (Ankles, knees, hands, shoulders), the second set is the Vertical Distance Features (VDF) that provide significant information of human gait extracted from the height to the ground of (hand, shoulder, and ankles) during one gait cycle. Extracting these two sets of feature are difficult and not accurate based on using traditional camera, therefore the Kinect sensor is used in this paper to determine the precise measurements. The two sets of feature are separately tested and then fused to create one feature vector. A database has been created in house to perform our experiments. This database consists of sixteen males and four females. For each individual, 10 videos have been recorded, each record includes in average two gait cycles. The Kinect sensor is used here to extract all the skeleton points, and these points are used to build up the feature vectors mentioned above. K-nearest neighbor is used as the classification method based on Cityblock distance function. Based on the experimental result the proposed method provides 56% as a recognition rate using HDF, while VDF provided 83.5% recognition accuracy. When fusing both of the HDF and VDF as one feature vector, the recognition rate increased to 92%, the experimental result shows that our method provides significant result compared to the existence methods.

  20. Biomimetic, polymer-based microcantilever infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael Thomas

    This dissertation describes the initial development of a polymer-based, microcantilever infrared sensor. The development of the sensor is bio-inspired and based upon the long-range infrared sensor found in the pyrophilous jewel beetle Melanophila acuminata, which is able to seek out forest fires from more than 50 km away. Based on several proposed models of the infrared detector found in Melanophila acuminata, as well as published in vivo experiments, the feasibility of polymer-based infrared thermal sensors was explored and developed. Polymer materials were chosen due to their high absorptivity in the infrared range due to vibrational resonance modes characteristic of their organic bonds. Polymeric materials investigated in the course of this work include the polysaccharide and biomaterial chitin, its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, and the work-horse polymer of the semiconductor industry, novolak-resin-based photoresist. Chitin and chitosan are particularly noteworthy polymers for exploration in infrared detection due to their natural absorbance of infrared radiation near the 3 mum and 10 mum bands, which are important for the detection of the temperatures of warm engines and human body temperature, respectively. Because only limited work (primarily focused on electrodeposition) has been focused on the microscale patterning of chitosan, a photolithography process for chitosan and chitin was developed to allow the integration of the material into a variety of microelectromechanical systems processes. In addition to optical/infrared sensing, this process has a variety of potential applications in tissue engineering, protein engineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. To demonstrate these areas of use, surface functionalization was demonstrated using bioconjugation to attach a protein to a patterned chitosan surface. Thin films of chitosan and chitin were characterized using laser profilometry to identify the effect of temperature on the film stress, and contact

  1. A Large Area Tactile Sensor Patch Based on Commercial Force Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Barquero, Maria Jose; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Navas-González, Rafael; Sánchez, Jose Antonio; Serón, Javier; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a tactile sensor patch to cover large areas of robots and machines that interact with human beings. Many devices have been proposed to meet such a demand. These realizations are mostly custom-built or developed in the lab. The sensor of this paper is implemented with commercial force sensors. This has the benefit of a more foreseeable response of the sensor if its behavior is understood as the aggregation of readings from all the individual force sensors in the array. A few reported large area tactile sensors are also based on commercial sensors. However, the one in this paper is the first of this kind based on the use of polymeric commercial force sensing resistors (FSR) as unit elements of the array or tactels, which results in a robust sensor. The paper discusses design issues related to some necessary modifications of the force sensor, its assembly in an array, and the signal conditioning. The patch has 16 × 9 force sensors mounted on a flexible printed circuit board with a spatial resolution of 18.5 mm. The force range of a tactel is 6 N and its sensitivity is 0.6 V/N. The array is read at a rate of 78 frames per second. Finally, two simple application examples are also carried out with the sensor mounted on the forearm of a rescue robot that communicates with the sensor through a CAN bus. PMID:22163910

  2. Advances and trends in ionophore-based chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelson, K. N.; Peshkova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The recent advances in the theory and practice of potentiometric, conductometric and optical sensors based on ionophores are critically reviewed. The role of the heterogeneity of the sensor/sample systems is emphasized, and it is shown that due to this heterogeneity such sensors respond to the analyte activities rather than to concentrations. The basics of the origin of the response of all three kinds of ionophore-based sensors are briefly described. The use of novel sensor materials, new preparation and application techniques of the sensors as well as advances in theoretical treatment of the sensor response are analyzed using literature sources published mainly from 2012 to 2014. The basic achievements made in the past are also addressed when necessary for better understanding of the trends in the field of ionophore-based sensors. The bibliography includes 295 references.

  3. Research of marine sensor web based on SOA and EDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongguo; Dou, Jinfeng; Guo, Zhongwen; Hu, Keyong

    2015-04-01

    A great deal of ocean sensor observation data exists, for a wide range of marine disciplines, derived from in situ and remote observing platforms, in real-time, near-real-time and delayed mode. Ocean monitoring is routinely completed using sensors and instruments. Standardization is the key requirement for exchanging information about ocean sensors and sensor data and for comparing and combining information from different sensor networks. One or more sensors are often physically integrated into a single ocean `instrument' device, which often brings in many challenges related to diverse sensor data formats, parameters units, different spatiotemporal resolution, application domains, data quality and sensors protocols. To face these challenges requires the standardization efforts aiming at facilitating the so-called Sensor Web, which making it easy to provide public access to sensor data and metadata information. In this paper, a Marine Sensor Web, based on SOA and EDA and integrating the MBARI's PUCK protocol, IEEE 1451 and OGC SWE 2.0, is illustrated with a five-layer architecture. The Web Service layer and Event Process layer are illustrated in detail with an actual example. The demo study has demonstrated that a standard-based system can be built to access sensors and marine instruments distributed globally using common Web browsers for monitoring the environment and oceanic conditions besides marine sensor data on the Web, this framework of Marine Sensor Web can also play an important role in many other domains' information integration.

  4. Waveguide-based optical chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grace, Karen M.; Swanson, Basil I.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2007-03-13

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for highly selective and sensitive chemical sensing. Two modes of laser light are transmitted through a waveguide, refracted by a thin film host reagent coating on the waveguide, and analyzed in a phase sensitive detector for changes in effective refractive index. Sensor specificity is based on the particular species selective thin films of host reagents which are attached to the surface of the planar optical waveguide. The thin film of host reagents refracts laser light at different refractive indices according to what species are forming inclusion complexes with the host reagents.

  5. Nanotechnology-based Sensors for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, Willi

    2010-03-01

    COINS mission is to inspire and realize applications directed towards sensing of environmental conditions using nano-mechanical technology, integrated with suitable societal implications studies and educational, outreach, and knowledge transfer programs. Specifically, the technical focus of COINS is to develop the means for realizing its two major technology applications -- personal and community-based environmental monitoring (PACMON) and tagging tracking and locating (TTL). These platforms combine technologies of molecular recognition and signal transduction, energy harvesting and conversion, efficient signal processing and wireless communications, and mobility. In this talk, I will give an overview of some of the recent advances in our environmental monitoring sensor development.

  6. Sensor Saturation Compensated Smoothing Algorithm for Inertial Sensor Based Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Suh, Young Soo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a smoothing algorithm for compensating inertial sensor saturation is proposed. The sensor saturation happens when a sensor measures a value that is larger than its dynamic range. This can lead to a considerable accumulated error. To compensate the lost information in saturated sensor data, we propose a smoothing algorithm in which the saturation compensation is formulated as an optimization problem. Based on a standard smoothing algorithm with zero velocity intervals, two saturation estimation methods were proposed. Simulation and experiments prove that the proposed methods are effective in compensating the sensor saturation. PMID:24806740

  7. Wave front sensor based on holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, M. S.; Krasin, G. K.; Malinina, P. I.; Odinokov, S. B.; Sagatelyan, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    A wavefront sensor (WFS) based on holographic optical elements, namely computer generated Fourier holograms is proposed as a perspective alternative to the Shack-Hartmann sensor. A possibility of single and multimode sensor and the dependence of their characteristics were investigated.

  8. Thermal energy harvesting plasmonic based chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Detection of gases such as H2, CO, and NO2 at 500 °C or greater requires materials with thermal stability and reliability. One of the major barriers toward integration of plasmonic-based chemical sensors is the requirement of multiple components such as light sources and spectrometers. In this work, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting sensing paradigm with PCA analysis offers a novel path toward simplification and integration of plasmonic-based sensing methods. PMID:25280004

  9. UV sensors based on liquid crystals mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, Andro; Petriashvili, Gia; Chilaya, Guram; Barberi, Riccardo; De Santo, Maria P.; Matranga, Mario A.; Ciuchi, F.

    2006-04-01

    The Erythemal Response Spectrum is a scientific expression that describes the sensitivity of the skin to the ultraviolet radiation. The skin sensitivity strongly depends on the UV wavelength: a long exposition to UV radiation causes erythema once a threshold dose has been exceeded. In the past years several devices have been developed in order to monitor the UV exposure, most of them are based on inorganic materials that are able to mimic the human skin behaviour under UV radiation. We present a new device based on liquid crystals technology. The sensor is based on a liquid crystalline mixture that absorbs photons at UV wavelength and emits them at a longer one. This system presents several innovative features: the absorption range of the mixture can be varied to be sensitive to different wavelengths, the luminescence intensity can be tuned, the system can be implemented on flexible devices.

  10. All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, Richard; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We present a feasibility study and a prototype of an all-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor. The sensor is based on long period gratings inscribed for the first time to the best of our knowledge by a CO2 laser in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured fibers and coupled to a pod-like transducer that converts pressure to strain. The sensor prototype was characterized for pressures up to 150 mbars, and various parameters related to its construction were also characterized in order to enhance sensitivity. We consider this sensor in the context of future applications in endoscopic pressure sensors. PMID:26836084

  11. All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, Richard; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We present a feasibility study and a prototype of an all-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor. The sensor is based on long period gratings inscribed for the first time to the best of our knowledge by a CO2 laser in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured fibers and coupled to a pod-like transducer that converts pressure to strain. The sensor prototype was characterized for pressures up to 150 mbars, and various parameters related to its construction were also characterized in order to enhance sensitivity. We consider this sensor in the context of future applications in endoscopic pressure sensors.

  12. Gas Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Shi, Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers have been reviewed. This review discusses the sensing mechanism and configurations of the sensors. The factors that affect the performances of the gas sensors are also addressed. The disadvantages of the sensors and a brief prospect in this research field are discussed at the end of the review.

  13. Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, Jiří

    The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.

  14. Sensors and actuators based on SOI materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Nafari, Alexandra; Rödjegård, Henrik; Bring, Martin; Hedsten, Karin; Enoksson, Peter; Bengtsson, Stefan

    2006-05-01

    Examples of using SOI materials for formation of novel sensor and actuator structures at Chalmers University of Technology are given. Using SOI material gives advantages in formation of sensor and actuator structures, such as a nanoindentation force sensor, a three-axis accelerometer, a miniaturized pinball game and integration of diffractive optical elements onto silicon.

  15. Single conducting polymer nanowire based conductometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangar, Mangesh Ashok

    The detection of toxic chemicals, gases or biological agents at very low concentrations with high sensitivity and selectivity has been subject of immense interest. Sensors employing electrical signal readout as transduction mechanism offer easy, label-free detection of target analyte in real-time. Traditional thin film sensors inherently suffered through loss of sensitivity due to current shunting across the charge depleted/added region upon analyte binding to the sensor surface, due to their large cross sectional area. This limitation was overcome by use of nanostructure such as nanowire/tube as transducer where current shunting during sensing was almost eliminated. Due to their benign chemical/electrochemical fabrication route along with excellent electrical properties and biocompatibility, conducting polymers offer cost-effective alternative over other nanostructures. Biggest obstacle in using these nanostructures is lack of easy, scalable and cost-effective way of assembling these nanostructures on prefabricated micropatterns for device fabrication. In this dissertation, three different approaches have been taken to fabricate individual or array of single conducting polymer (and metal) nanowire based devices and using polymer by itself or after functionalization with appropriate recognition molecule they have been applied for gas and biochemical detection. In the first approach electrochemical fabrication of multisegmented nanowires with middle functional Ppy segment along with ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) and end gold segments for better electrical contact was studied. This multi-layered nanowires were used along with ferromagnetic contact electrode for controlled magnetic assembly of nanowires into devices and were used for ammonia gas sensing. The second approach uses conducting polymer, polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowires using simple electrophoretic alignment and maskless electrodeposition to anchor nanowire which were further functionalized with antibodies against

  16. Physiological Sensor Signals Classification for Healthcare Using Sensor Data Fusion and Case-Based Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahina; Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems. PMID:24995374

  17. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L.; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented. PMID:23112707

  18. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  19. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  20. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  1. Protein Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Prototype transducers based on integrated optical ring resonators have been demonstrated to be useful for detecting the protein avidin in extremely dilute solutions. In an experiment, one of the transducers proved to be capable of indicating the presence of avidin at a concentration of as little as 300 pM in a buffer solution a detection sensitivity comparable to that achievable by previously reported protein-detection techniques. These transducers are serving as models for the further development of integrated-optics sensors for detecting small quantities of other proteins and protein-like substances. The basic principle of these transducers was described in Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators (NPO-40601), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 10 (October 2005), page 32. The differences between the present transducers and the ones described in the cited prior article lie in details of implementation of the basic principle. As before, the resonator in a transducer of the present type is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, consists of a layer comprising sublayers having indices of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core. The outermost sublayer absorbs the chemical of interest (in this case, avidin). The index of refraction of the outermost sublayer changes with the concentration of absorbed avidin. The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer sublayer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in the index of refraction of the outermost sublayer causes a measurable change in the spectrum of the resonator output.

  2. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using phage-based magnetostrictive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Hu, Jing; Guntupalli, Rajesh; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Petrenko, Valery A.; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents a contactless, remote sensing Salmonella typhimurium sensor based on the principle of magnetostriction. Magnetostrictive materials have been used widely for various types of sensor systems. In this work, the use of a magnetostrictive material for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium has been established. The mass of the bacteria attached to the sensor causes changes in the resonance frequency of the sensor. Filamentous bacteriophage was used as a probe order to ensure specific and selective binding of the bacteria onto the sensor surface. Thus changes in response of the sensor due to the mass added onto the sensor caused by specific attachment of bacteria can be monitored in absence of any contact to the sensor. The response of the sensor due to increasing concentrations (from 5x101 to 5x10 8 cfu/ml) of the bacteria was studied. A reduction in the physical dimensions enhances the sensitivity of these sensors and hence different dimensions of the sensor ribbons were studied. For a 2mm x 0.1mm x 0.02mm the detection limit was observed to be of the order of 10 4 cfu/mL and for a sensor of 1mm x 0.2mm x 0.02mm a reduced detection limit of 10 3 cfu/mL was achieved.

  3. Ultra-Sensitivity Glucose Sensor Based on Field Emitters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A new glucose sensor based on field emitter of ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNA) was fabricated. This new type of ZNA field emitter-based sensor shows high sensitivity with experimental limit of detection of 1 nM glucose solution and a detection range from 1 nM to 50 μM in air at room temperature, which is lower than that of glucose sensors based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, fluorescence signal transmission, and electrochemical signal transduction. The new glucose sensor provides a key technique for promising consuming application in biological system for detecting low levels of glucose on single cells or bacterial cultures. PMID:20596378

  4. Development of GaN-based microchemical sensor nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopuk, Nicholas; Son, Kyung-Ah; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  5. Development of GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Prokopuk, Nicholas; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based on III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  6. Force/torque and tactile sensors for sensor-based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbrussel, H.; Belieen, H.; Bao, Chao-Ying

    1989-01-01

    The autonomy of manipulators, in space and in industrial environments, can be dramatically enhanced by the use of force/torque and tactile sensors. The development and future use of a six-component force/torque sensor for the Hermes Robot Arm (HERA) Basic End-Effector (BEE) is discussed. Then a multifunctional gripper system based on tactile sensors is described. The basic transducing element of the sensor is a sheet of pressure-sensitive polymer. Tactile image processing algorithms for slip detection, object position estimation, and object recognition are described.

  7. Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong

  8. Polymer-based sensor array for phytochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana A.; Hiremath, Nitilaksha; Chin, Bryan A.

    2012-05-01

    Monitoring for the appearance of volatile organic compounds emitted by plants which correspond to time of first insect attack can be used to detect the early stages of insect infestation. This paper reports a chemical sensor array consisting of polymer based chemiresistor sensors that could detect insect infestation effectively. The sensor array consists of sensors with micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes, and twelve different types of electro active polymer layers. The sensor array was cheap, easy to fabricate, and could be used easily in agricultural fields. The polymer array was found to be sensitive to a variety of volatile organic compounds emitted by plants including γ-terpinene α-pinene, pcymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate. The sensor array was not only able to detect but also distinguish between these compounds. The twelve sensors produced a resistance change for each of the analytes detected, and each of these responses together produced a unique fingerprint, enabling to distinguish among these chemicals.

  9. Neural Network-Based Sensor Validation for Turboshaft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, James C.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1998-01-01

    Sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation using a neural network approach is described. An auto-associative neural network is configured to perform dimensionality reduction on the sensor measurement vector and provide estimated sensor values. The sensor validation scheme is applied in a simulation of the T700 turboshaft engine in closed loop operation. Performance is evaluated based on the ability to detect faults correctly and maintain stable and responsive engine operation. The set of sensor outputs used for engine control forms the network input vector. Analytical redundancy is verified by training networks of successively smaller bottleneck layer sizes. Training data generation and strategy are discussed. The engine maintained stable behavior in the presence of sensor hard failures. With proper selection of fault determination thresholds, stability was maintained in the presence of sensor soft failures.

  10. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pratik; Kintzios, Spyridon; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc.) about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate) cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized. PMID:24335754

  11. The influence of sensor orientation on activity-based rate responsive pacing. Sensor Orientation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Theres, H; Philippon, F; Melzer, C; Combs, W; Prest-Berg, K

    1998-11-01

    Piezoelectric activity-based rate responsive pacemakers are commonly implanted with the sensor facing inward. This study was conducted to assess the safe and effective rate response of an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker implanted with the sensor facing outward. A comparison were made to a previously studied patient group with sensor facing inward. Patient and pacemaker data was collected at predischarge and 2-month follow-up. Two-minute hall walks in conjunction with programmer-assisted rate response assessment were utilized to standardize initial rate response parameter settings for both patient groups. At 2-month follow-up, sensor rate response to a stage 3 limited CAEP protocol was recorded. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for both patient groups. No difference was noted in reported patient complications for both groups. A statistically significant difference in programmed rate response curve setting and activity threshold for the two groups was noted at 2-month follow-up. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for a patient population implanted with an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker with sensor facing outward. In this orientation, one higher rate response curve setting and an activity threshold one value more sensitive were required on average when compared to the normal sensor orientation group. PMID:9826862

  12. Distributed model-based nonlinear sensor fault diagnosis in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chun; Lynch, Jerome P.; Liu, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensors operating in harsh environments have the potential to be error-prone. This paper presents a distributive model-based diagnosis algorithm that identifies nonlinear sensor faults. The diagnosis algorithm has advantages over existing fault diagnosis methods such as centralized model-based and distributive model-free methods. An algorithm is presented for detecting common non-linearity faults without using reference sensors. The study introduces a model-based fault diagnosis framework that is implemented within a pair of wireless sensors. The detection of sensor nonlinearities is shown to be equivalent to solving the largest empty rectangle (LER) problem, given a set of features extracted from an analysis of sensor outputs. A low-complexity algorithm that gives an approximate solution to the LER problem is proposed for embedment in resource constrained wireless sensors. By solving the LER problem, sensors corrupted by non-linearity faults can be isolated and identified. Extensive analysis evaluates the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

  13. Cooperative UAV-Based Communications Backbone for Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S

    2001-10-07

    The objective of this project is to investigate the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) as mobile, adaptive communications backbones for ground-based sensor networks. In this type of network, the UAVs provide communication connectivity to sensors that cannot communicate with each other because of terrain, distance, or other geographical constraints. In these situations, UAVs provide a vertical communication path for the sensors, thereby mitigating geographic obstacles often imposed on networks. With the proper use of UAVs, connectivity to a widely disbursed sensor network in rugged terrain is readily achieved. Our investigation has focused on networks where multiple cooperating UAVs are used to form a network backbone. The advantage of using multiple UAVs to form the network backbone is parallelization of sensor connectivity. Many widely spaced or isolated sensors can be connected to the network at once using this approach. In these networks, the UAVs logically partition the sensor network into sub-networks (subnets), with one UAV assigned per subnet. Partitioning the network into subnets allows the UAVs to service sensors in parallel thereby decreasing the sensor-to-network connectivity. A UAV services sensors in its subnet by flying a route (path) through the subnet, uplinking data collected by the sensors, and forwarding the data to a ground station. An additional advantage of using multiple UAVs in the network is that they provide redundancy in the communications backbone, so that the failure of a single UAV does not necessarily imply the loss of the network.

  14. Tactile MEMS-based sensor for delicate microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Soo; Lee, Wooho; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Gundeti, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents development of a new MEMS-based tactile microsensor to replicate the delicate sense of touch in robotic surgery. Using an epoxy-based photoresist, SU-8, as substrate, the piezoresistive type sensor is flexible, robust, and easy to fabricate in mass. Sensor characteristic tests indicate adequate sensitivity and linearity, and the multiple sensor elements can match full range of surgical tissue stiffness. Such characteristic nearly match the most delicate sense of touch at the human fingertip. It is expected such a sensor is essential for delicate surgeries, such as handling delicate tissues and microsurgery.

  15. Optical sensor based on sensitive polymer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Matthias; Martan, Tomas; Müller, Ralf; Brodersen, Olaf; Mohr, Gerhard J.

    2008-11-01

    In chemical, oil, and food industries, there are still higher requirements on miniaturization of optical sensors for a concentration measurement of gases e.g. a CO2, O2, and NH3. The paper deals with development of miniaturised optical sensor for an aqueous carbon dioxide measurement using a sensitive polymer layer. The optical sensor module consists of two parts, a remission sensor and a removable layered structure (with incorporated dyed polymer) which is closely placed on the surface of a remission sensor. A dyed polymer film is used as an optical-chemical transducer working on a principle of colour changes caused by a chemical reaction of an analyte and indicator dye. A novel remission sensor module was developed for an evaluation of the spectral absorption changes of sensitive polymer layer. The remission sensor module composed of LED diodes located in a central cavity of the sensor module and PIN diodes situated around the cavity. The LEDs emit light with optimised wavelengths and irradiate the polymer film. Light response (the changes of the spectral absorption) of the irradiated polymer film is detected by PIN diodes. A colour shift is further analyzed and evaluated by electronics without using a photometer.

  16. Star sensor image acquisition and preprocessing hardware system based on CMOS image sensor and FGPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuetao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2003-09-01

    Star Sensor is an avionics instrument used to provide the absolute 3-axis attitude of a spacecraft utilizing star observations. It consists of an electronic camera and associated processing electronics. As outcome of advancing state-of-the-art, new generation star sensor features faster, lower cost, power dissipation and size than the first generation star sensor. This paper describes a star sensor anterior image acquisition and pre-processing hardware system based on CMOS image-sensor and FPGA technology. Practically, star images are produced by a simple simulator on PC, acquired by CMOS image sensor, pre-processed by FPGA, saved in SRAM, read out by EPP protocol and validated by an image process software on PC. The hardware part of system acquires images thought CMOS image-sensor controlled by FPGA, then processes image data by a circuit module of FPGA, and save images to SRAM for test. Basic image data for star recognition and attitude determination of spacecrafts are provided by it. As an important reference for developing star sensor prototype, the system validates the performance advantages of new generation star sensor.

  17. Micro biochemical sensor based on SOI planar optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yang; Dong, Ying

    2014-02-01

    A novel biochemical sensor based on planar optical waveguide is presented in this paper. The features of the sensor are as follows, the planar optical waveguide is made of SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) material, a Mach Zehnder (M-Z) Interferometer structure is adopted as the sensing part, the sensor chip is fabricated using CMOS compatible technology and the size of the sensor chip is on the micron scale. Compared with the traditional biochemical sensors, this new type of sensor has such notable advantages as miniaturization, integration, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference capability, which provide the sensor with potential applications where traditional biochemical sensors cannot be used. At first, the benefits of SOI material comparing to other optical waveguide materials were analyzed in this paper. Then, according to the optical waveguide mode theory, M-Z interferometer waveguide was designed for the single mode behavior. By theoretical analysis of the radiation loss in the Y-junction of the planar waveguide interferometer, the relationship between the branch angle and the radiation loss was obtained. The power transfer function and the parametric equation of sensitivity of the M-Z interferometer were obtained through analysis of the waveguide structure. At last, the resolution of the effective refractive index and the characteristics of sensitivity of the sensor based on SOI M-Z Interferometer waveguide were simulated and analyzed by utilizing MATLAB software. As a result, the sensitivity of SOI M-Z Interferometer sensor can reach the order of 10-7 magnitude.

  18. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinehart, P. R.; Maklad, M.; Courts, S. S.

    2008-03-01

    Fiber optic sensing has many favorable characteristics—a single fiber can be used to multiplex multiple sensors along the length of the fiber, fiber optic sensing is immune to electromagnetic noise and is inherently safe for combustible liquids and atmospheres. Previously, fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been demonstrated for cryogenic use for both temperature and strain sensing, but often little data is supplied as to the reproducibility or unit-to-unit uniformity of these sensors. Lake Shore Cryotronics has manufactured fiber optic cryogenic temperature sensors based on Bragg gratings using novel packaging techniques. The temperature response and reproducibility is reported from 80K to 480K for glass-packaged sensors, and a calibration for a high sensitivity, wide range zinc-packaged sensor is reported.

  19. Sensitivity of perimeter sensor based on Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Zyczkowski, Marek; Ciurapinski, Wieslaw M.; Palka, Norbert

    2004-09-01

    The theoretical analysis of sensitivity of the Sagnac interferometer-based sensor is presented. This setup has wide range of implementation -- one of them is a perimeter sensor for security systems. Sensor sensitivity is determined firstly by a frequency-phase sensitivity, which is connected with the interferometer principle of operation and, secondly, by electronic noise of a processing unit and attenuation of used fiber optic.

  20. Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R.; Macazo, Florika C.; Gutierrez, Brenda; Lottermoser, Justine; Liu, Juan; White, Ryan J.

    2016-06-01

    The development of structure-switching, electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors over the past ˜10 years has led to a variety of reagentless sensors capable of analytical detection in a range of sample matrices. The crux of this methodology is the coupling of target-induced conformation changes of a redox-labeled aptamer with electrochemical detection of the resulting altered charge transfer rate between the redox molecule and electrode surface. Using aptamer recognition expands the highly sensitive detection ability of electrochemistry to a range of previously inaccessible analytes. In this review, we focus on the methods of sensor fabrication and how sensor signaling is affected by fabrication parameters. We then discuss recent studies addressing the fundamentals of sensor signaling as well as quantitative characterization of the analytical performance of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Although the limits of detection of reported electrochemical aptamer-based sensors do not often reach that of gold-standard methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the operational convenience of the sensor platform enables exciting analytical applications that we address. Using illustrative examples, we highlight recent advances in the field that impact important areas of analytical chemistry. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects for this class of sensors.

  1. Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors.

    PubMed

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R; Macazo, Florika C; Gutierrez, Brenda; Lottermoser, Justine; Liu, Juan; White, Ryan J

    2016-06-12

    The development of structure-switching, electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors over the past ∼10 years has led to a variety of reagentless sensors capable of analytical detection in a range of sample matrices. The crux of this methodology is the coupling of target-induced conformation changes of a redox-labeled aptamer with electrochemical detection of the resulting altered charge transfer rate between the redox molecule and electrode surface. Using aptamer recognition expands the highly sensitive detection ability of electrochemistry to a range of previously inaccessible analytes. In this review, we focus on the methods of sensor fabrication and how sensor signaling is affected by fabrication parameters. We then discuss recent studies addressing the fundamentals of sensor signaling as well as quantitative characterization of the analytical performance of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Although the limits of detection of reported electrochemical aptamer-based sensors do not often reach that of gold-standard methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the operational convenience of the sensor platform enables exciting analytical applications that we address. Using illustrative examples, we highlight recent advances in the field that impact important areas of analytical chemistry. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects for this class of sensors.

  2. sensor for mainstream capnography based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Strzoda, R.; Schrobenhauser, R.; Weigel, R.

    2014-09-01

    The setup and signal processing for a mainstream capnography sensor is presented in this paper. The probe exhibits an optical path length of 2.5 cm and is equipped with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 2 μm. The sensor does not need any calibration, since the CO2 absorption line as well as the laser background is measured using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Unavoidable optical fringes are reduced with a self-developed fringe rejection method. The sensor achieves a concentration resolution <300 ppmv at 4 vol% and a measurement rate >30 Hz.

  3. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Kainz, Birgit; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Toca-Herrera, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins.

  4. A wearable sensor based on CLYC scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Benjamin S.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Smart, John E.; Willett, Jesse A.; Landgren, Peter C.; Greulich, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a wearable radiation sensor using Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) for simultaneous gamma-ray and neutron detection. The system includes two ∅ 2.5 × 2.5cm3 crystals coupled to small, metal-body photomultiplier tubes. A custom, low-power electronics base digitizes the output signal at three time points and enables both pulse height and pulse shape discrimination of gamma rays and neutrons. The total counts, anomaly detection metrics, and identified isotopes are displayed on a small screen. Users may leave the device in unattended mode to collect long-dwell energy spectra. The system stores up to 18 h of one-second data, including energy spectra, and may transfer the data to a remote computer via a wired or wireless connection. The prototype is 18 × 13 × 7.5cm3, weighs 1.3 kg, not including the protective pouch, and runs on six AA alkaline batteries for 29 h with the wireless link active, or 41 h with the wireless link disabled. In this paper, we summarize the system design and present characterization results from the detector modules. The energy resolution is about 6.5% full width at half maximum at 662 keV due to the small photomultiplier tube selected, and the linearity and pulse shape discrimination performance are very good.

  5. Nanoscale ear drum: Graphene based nanoscale sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdoshenko, Stas M.; Gomes da Rocha, Claudia; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2012-05-01

    The difficulty in determining the mass of a sample increases as its size diminishes. At the nanoscale, there are no direct methods for resolving the mass of single molecules or nanoparticles and so more sophisticated approaches based on electromechanical phenomena are required. More importantly, one demands that such nanoelectromechanical techniques could provide not only information about the mass of the target molecules but also about their geometrical properties. In this sense, we report a theoretical study that illustrates in detail how graphene membranes can operate as nanoelectromechanical mass-sensor devices. Wide graphene sheets were exposed to different types and amounts of molecules and molecular dynamic simulations were employed to treat these doping processes statistically. We demonstrate that the mass variation effect and information about the graphene-molecule interactions can be inferred through dynamical response functions. Our results confirm the potential use of graphene as a mass detector device with remarkable precision in estimating variations in mass at the molecular scale and other physical properties of the dopants.

  6. Biomimetic virus-based colourimetric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jin-Woo; Chung, Woo-Jae; Heo, Kwang; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Byung Yang; Wang, Eddie; Zueger, Chris; Wong, Winnie; Meyer, Joel; Kim, Chuntae; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Won-Geun; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Hexemer, Alexander; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-01-01

    Many materials in nature change colours in response to stimuli, making them attractive for use as sensor platform. However, both natural materials and their synthetic analogues lack selectivity towards specific chemicals, and introducing such selectivity remains a challenge. Here we report the self-assembly of genetically engineered viruses (M13 phage) into target-specific, colourimetric biosensors. The sensors are composed of phage-bundle nanostructures and exhibit viewing-angle independent colour, similar to collagen structures in turkey skin. On exposure to various volatile organic chemicals, the structures rapidly swell and undergo distinct colour changes. Furthermore, sensors composed of phage displaying trinitrotoluene (TNT)-binding peptide motifs identified from a phage display selectively distinguish TNT down to 300 p.p.b. over similarly structured chemicals. Our tunable, colourimetric sensors can be useful for the detection of a variety of harmful toxicants and pathogens to protect human health and national security.

  7. Few-mode fiber based sensor in biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    A novel few-mode fiber based sensor for monitoring the vital signs of pulse (heart rate), and breathing rate (respiratory rate) was developed. The sensor was applied in non-invasive measurement of pulse and breathing rates. The pulse, breathing and even body movement affected the sensor's output as the strain on the few-mode fiber changed with these activities. This sensor has simple structure and easy to fabricate. Its signal is easy to monitor. It can be used in the medical equipment in what situation non-invasive realtime monitoring and measurement of pulse rate, and respiratory/body movement pattern of healthy subjects are required.

  8. Illumination-based synchronization of high-speed vision sensors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Kagami, Shingo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. This paper describes an illumination-based synchronization method derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithm. Incident light to a vision sensor from an intensity-modulated illumination source serves as the reference signal for synchronization. Analog and digital computation within the vision sensor forms a PLL to regulate the output signal, which corresponds to the vision frame timing, to be synchronized with the reference. Simulated and experimental results show that a 1,000 Hz frame rate vision sensor was successfully synchronized with 32 μs jitters.

  9. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  10. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:26842553

  11. A carbon nanotube based ammonia sensor on cotton textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-05-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) based ammonia (NH3) sensor was implemented on a cotton yarn. Two types of sensors were fabricated: Au/sensing CNT/Au and conducting/sensing/conducting all CNT structures. Two perpendicular Au wires were designed to contact CNT-cotton yarn for metal-CNT sensor, whereas nanotubes were used for the electrode as well as sensing material for the all CNT sensor. The resistance shift of the CNT network upon NH3 was monitored in a chemiresistor approach. The CNT-cotton yarn sensors exhibited uniformity and repeatability. Furthermore, the sensors displayed good mechanical robustness against bending. The present approach can be utilized for low-cost smart textile applications.

  12. Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fangqian; Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor. PMID:26473865

  13. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing. PMID:26524110

  14. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing.

  15. Optical fiber ultrasonic sensor networks based on WDM and TDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhenwu; Li, Weixiang; Liu, Tiegen

    2011-02-01

    An optical fiber sensor network for ultrasonic measurement based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) technology is presented. Each of the sensor probes is an optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) which is composed of the fiber's end face and the aluminum thin diaphragm. The sensors are arranged in different wavelength domains formed by a wavelength division multiplexer. Each wavelength division multiplexer, with a group of the sensors, is connected to one of the output ports of optical switch to realize TDM. The signal of each sensor is exported sequentially from a tunable narrowband optical filter (TNOF) that queries every sensor though scanning mode. The principle of the phenomenon of phase induced signal fade in interferometric fiber-optic sensors is also analyzed. Nicely, the detection method above implements the operation of anti-phase induced signal fade detection. The system is interrogated by broadband light source. The scanning range of TNOF is full of the bandwidth of the light source. The result of experiment in water show that the sensor sensitivity reaches -162dB(0dB=1rad/μPa), the frequency response range is from 10KHz to 5 MHz. The number of multiplexing sensors based on WDM and TDM reaches to 64.

  16. Chip-Based Sensors for Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhichao

    Nucleic acid analysis is one of the most important disease diagnostic approaches in medical practice, and has been commonly used in cancer biomarker detection, bacterial speciation and many other fields in laboratory. Currently, the application of powerful research methods for genetic analysis, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene expression profiling using fluorescence microarrays, are not widely used in hospitals and extended-care units due to high-cost, long detection times, and extensive sample preparation. Bioassays, especially chip-based electrochemical sensors, may be suitable for the next generation of rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection tools. Herein, we report three different microelectrode platforms with capabilities enabled by nano- and microtechnology: nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), nanostructured microelectrodes (NMEs), and hierarchical nanostructured microelectrodes (HNMEs), all of which are able to directly detect unpurified RNA in clinical samples without enzymatic amplification. Biomarkers that are cancer and infectious disease relevant to clinical medicine were chosen to be the targets. Markers were successfully detected with clinically-relevant sensitivity. Using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as probes and an electrocatalytic reporter system, NEEs were able to detect prostate cancer-related gene fusions in tumor tissue samples with 100 ng of RNA. The development of NMEs improved the sensitivity of the assay further to 10 aM of DNA target, and multiplexed detection of RNA sequences of different prostate cancer-related gene fusion types was achieved on the chip-based NMEs platform. An HNMEs chip integrated with a bacterial lysis device was able to detect as few as 25 cfu bacteria in 30 minutes and monitor the detection in real time. Bacterial detection could also be performed in neat urine samples. The development of these versatile clinical diagnostic tools could be extended to the detection of various

  17. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  18. Heterogeneous Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensor Surfaces for Controlled Sensor Response.

    PubMed

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R; Glaser, Ethan P; White, Ryan J

    2015-06-16

    Structure-switching sensors utilize recognition elements that undergo a conformation change upon target binding that is converted into a quantitative signal. Electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors achieve detection of analytes through a conformation change in an electrode-bound, oligonucleotide aptamer by measuring changes in electron transfer efficiencies. The analytical performance of these sensors is related to the magnitude of the conformation change of the aptamer. The goal of the present work is to develop a general method to predictably tune the analytical performance (sensitivity and linear range) of electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors by utilizing a mixture of rationally designed aptamer sequences that are specific for the same target but with different affinities on the same electrode surface. To demonstrate control over sensor performance, we developed heterogeneous sensors for two representative small molecule targets (adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin). We demonstrate that mixtures of modified sequences can be used to tune the affinity, dynamic range, and sensitivity of the resulting sensors predicted by a bi-Langmuir-type isotherm.

  19. A Risk-Based Sensor Placement Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ronald W; Kulesz, James J

    2006-08-01

    A sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors or detectors to protect population against the exposure to and effects of known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as wind speed and direction pairs with the percentage of occurrence of the pairs over the historical period. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate population at risk against standard exposure levels. Sensor locations are determined via a dynamic programming algorithm where threats captured or detected by sensors placed in prior stages are removed from consideration in subsequent stages. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor or detector. Thus, the criterion for halting the iterative process can be the number of detectors available, a threshold marginal utility value, or the cumulative detection of a minimum factor of the total risk value represented by all threats.

  20. Calibration of a HTS Based LOX 400 mm Level Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, Abhay S.; Pankaj, S.; Gowthaman, M.; Sudharshan, H.

    The measurement of the cryogen level in a cryostage of space crafts is crucial. At the same time the weight of the sensor should be small as it affects the payload fraction of the space craft. An attempt to develop a HTS based level sensor of 400 mm for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) measurement was made. In the initial phase of testing, loss of superconductivity of HTS wire in LOX inside a cryostat was noticed. Thus, a new four wall cryostat was designed to have a stable LOX level to provide thermal stability to the HTS based LOX sensor. The calibration of the developed sensor was carried out against capacitance level sensor which was pre calibrated using diode array to verify its linearity and performance for different current excitation levels. The calibrations were carried out without heater wires. The automatic data logging was accomplished using a program developed in LabVIEW 11.0.

  1. Two-dimensional photonic crystal based sensor for pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Shanthi, Krishnan; Robinson, Savarimuthu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPC) based pressure sensor is proposed and designed, and the sensing characteristics such as the sensitivity and dynamic range are analyzed over the range of pressure from 0 GPa to 7 GPa. The sensor is based on 2DPC with the square array of silicon rods surrounded by air. The sensor consists of two photonic crystal quasi waveguides and L3 defect. The L3 defect is placed in between two waveguides and is formed by modifying the radius of three Si rods. It is noticed that through simulation, the resonant wavelength of the sensor is shifted linearly towards the higher wavelength region while increasing the applied pressure level. The achieved sensitivity and dynamic range of the sensor is 2 nm/GPa and 7 Gpa, respectively.

  2. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  3. M13 Bacteriophage Based Protein Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju Hun

    Despite significant progress in biotechnology and biosensing, early detection and disease diagnosis remains a critical issue for improving patient survival rates and well-being. Many of the typical detection schemes currently used possess issues such as low sensitivity and accuracy and are also time consuming to run and expensive. In addition, multiplexed detection remains difficult to achieve. Therefore, developing advanced approaches for reliable, simple, quantitative analysis of multiple markers in solution that also are highly sensitive are still in demand. In recent years, much of the research has primarily focused on improving two key components of biosensors: the bio-recognition agent (bio-receptor) and the transducer. Particular bio-receptors that have been used include antibodies, aptamers, molecular imprinted polymers, and small affinity peptides. In terms of transducing agents, nanomaterials have been considered as attractive candidates due to their inherent nanoscale size, durability and unique chemical and physical properties. The key focus of this thesis is the design of a protein detection and identification system that is based on chemically engineered M13 bacteriophage coupled with nanomaterials. The first chapter provides an introduction of biosensors and M13 bacteriophage in general, where the advantages of each are provided. In chapter 2, an efficient and enzyme-free sensor is demonstrated from modified M13 bacteriophage to generate highly sensitive colorimetric signals from gold nanocrystals. In chapter 3, DNA conjugated M13 were used to enable facile and rapid detection of antigens in solution that also provides modalities for identification. Lastly, high DNA loadings per phage was achieved via hydrozone chemistry and these were applied in conjunction with Raman active DNA-gold/silver core/shell nanoparticles toward highly sensitive SERS sensing.

  4. Ethanol sensor based on nanocrystallite cadmium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Gadkari, Ashok B.; Shinde, Tukaram J.; Vasambekar, Pramod N.

    2015-06-24

    The cadmium ferrite was synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques, respectively. The nanocrystallite CdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensor was tested for LPG, Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH. The sensitivity was measured at various operating temperatures in the range of 100-400°C. The sensor shows highest sensitivity and selectivity to C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH at 350°C. The response and recovery time was measured at operating temperature of 350°C. The sensor exhibits a lower response and recovery time for LPG and Cl{sub 2} as compared to ethanol.

  5. Textile-based weft knitted strain sensors: effect of fabric parameters on sensor properties.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard; Husain, Muhammad Dawood

    2013-08-21

    The design and development of textile-based strain sensors has been a focus of research and many investigators have studied this subject. This paper presents a new textile-based strain sensor design and shows the effect of base fabric parameters on its sensing properties. Sensing fabric could be used to measure articulations of the human body in the real environment. The strain sensing fabric was produced by using electronic flat-bed knitting technology; the base fabric was produced with elastomeric yarns in an interlock arrangement and a conductive yarn was embedded in this substrate to create a series of single loop structures. Experimental results show that there is a strong relationship between base fabric parameters and sensor properties.

  6. Elaboration, activity and stability of silica-based nitroaromatic sensors.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Dimitri; Pereira, Franck; Méthivier, Christophe; Montméat, Pierre; Hairault, Lionel; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2013-08-21

    Functionalized silica-based thin films, modified with hydrophobic groups, were synthesized and used as sensors for nitroaromatic compound (NAC) specific detection. Their performance and behavior, in terms of stability, ageing and regeneration, have been fully characterized by combining chemical characterization techniques and electron microscopy. NAC was efficiently and specifically detected using these silica-based sensors, but showed a great degradation in the presence of humidity. Moreover, the sensor sensitivity seriously decreases with storage time. Methyl- and phenyl-functionalization helped to overcome this humidity sensitivity. Surface characterization enabled us to establish a direct correlation between the appearance, and increasing amount, of adsorbed carbonyl-containing species, and sensor efficiency. This contamination, appearing after only one month, was particularly important when sensors were stored in plastic containers. Rinsing with cyclohexane enables us to recover part of the sensor performance but does not yield a complete regeneration of the sensors. This work led us to the definition of optimized elaboration and storage conditions for nitroaromatic sensors. PMID:23812282

  7. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  8. Micro-Vibration-Based Slip Detection in Tactile Force Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Raul; Payo, Ismael; Vazquez, Andres S.; Becedas, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Tactile sensing provides critical information, such as force, texture, shape or temperature, in manipulation tasks. In particular, tactile sensors traditionally used in robotics are emphasized in contact force determination for grasping control and object recognition. Nevertheless, slip detection is also crucial to successfully manipulate an object. Several approaches have appeared to detect slipping, the majority being a combination of complex sensors with complex algorithms. In this paper, we deal with simplicity, analyzing how a novel, but simple, algorithm, based on micro-vibration detection, can be used in a simple, but low-cost and durable, force sensor. We also analyze the results of using the same principle to detect slipping in other force sensors based on flexible parts. In particular, we show and compare the slip detection with: (i) a flexible finger, designed by the authors, acting as a force sensor; (ii) the finger torque sensor of a commercial robotic hand; (iii) a commercial six-axis force sensor mounted on the wrist of a robot; and (iv) a fingertip piezoresistive matrix sensor. PMID:24394598

  9. Micro-vibration-based slip detection in tactile force sensors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Raul; Payo, Ismael; Vazquez, Andres S; Becedas, Jonathan

    2014-01-03

    Tactile sensing provides critical information, such as force, texture, shape or temperature, in manipulation tasks. In particular, tactile sensors traditionally used in robotics are emphasized in contact force determination for grasping control and object recognition. Nevertheless, slip detection is also crucial to successfully manipulate an object. Several approaches have appeared to detect slipping, the majority being a combination of complex sensors with complex algorithms. In this paper, we deal with simplicity, analyzing how a novel, but simple, algorithm, based on micro-vibration detection, can be used in a simple, but low-cost and durable, force sensor. We also analyze the results of using the same principle to detect slipping in other force sensors based on flexible parts. In particular, we show and compare the slip detection with: (i) a flexible finger, designed by the authors, acting as a force sensor; (ii) the finger torque sensor of a commercial robotic hand; (iii) a commercial six-axis force sensor mounted on the wrist of a robot; and (iv) a fingertip piezoresistive matrix sensor.

  10. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  11. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-12-26

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  12. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-12-05

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  14. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  15. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  16. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Peng, Jiangbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-01-01

    A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF) prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation. PMID:27367686

  17. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Peng, Jiangbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF) prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation. PMID:27367686

  18. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Li; ,Dongmei; Medlin, J. William; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Bastasz, Robert J.

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  19. Self-powered magnetic sensor based on a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yue; Jing, Qingshen; Hou, Te-Chien; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-11-27

    Magnetic sensors are usually based on the Hall effect or a magnetoresistive sensing mechanism. Here we demonstrate that a nanogenerator can serve as a sensor for detecting the variation of the time-dependent magnetic field. The output voltage of the sensor was found to exponentially increase with increasing magnetic field. The detection sensitivities for the change and the changing rate of magnetic field are about 0.0363 ± 0.0004 ln(mV)/G and 0.0497 ± 0.0006 ln(mV)/(G/s), respectively. The response time and reset time of the sensor are about 0.13 and 0.34 s, respectively. The fabricated sensor has a detection resolution of about 3 G and can work under low frequencies (<0.4 Hz).

  20. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette Rose; Brennan, Sean M; Rosten, Edward J; Raby, Eric Y; Kulathumani, Vinod K

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  1. Haem-based sensors: a still growing old superfamily.

    PubMed

    Germani, Francesca; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The haem-based sensors are chimeric multi-domain proteins responsible for the cellular adaptive responses to environmental changes. The signal transduction is mediated by the sensing capability of the haem-binding domain, which transmits a usable signal to the cognate transmitter domain, responsible for providing the adequate answer. Four major families of haem-based sensors can be recognized, depending on the nature of the haem-binding domain: (i) the haem-binding PAS domain, (ii) the CO-sensitive carbon monoxide oxidation activator, (iii) the haem NO-binding domain, and (iv) the globin-coupled sensors. The functional classification of the haem-binding sensors is based on the activity of the transmitter domain and, traditionally, comprises: (i) sensors with aerotactic function; (ii) sensors with gene-regulating function; and (iii) sensors with unknown function. We have implemented this classification with newly identified proteins, that is, the Streptomyces avermitilis and Frankia sp. that present a C-terminal-truncated globin fused to an N-terminal cofactor-free monooxygenase, the structural-related class of non-haem globins in Bacillus subtilis, Moorella thermoacetica, and Bacillus anthracis, and a haemerythrin-coupled diguanylate cyclase in Vibrio cholerae. This review summarizes the structures, the functions, and the structure-function relationships known to date on this broad protein family. We also propose unresolved questions and new possible research approaches. PMID:24054793

  2. Novel localized surface plasmon resonance based optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Harald Ian D. I.; Hjelme, Dag R.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade various optical fiber sensing schemes have been proposed based on local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). LSPR are interacting with the evanescent field from light propagating in the fiber core or by interacting with the light at the fiber end face. Sensor designs utilizing the fiber end face is strongly preferred from a manufacturing point of view. However, the different techniques available to immobilize metallic nanostructures on the fiber end face for LSPR sensing is limited to essentially a monolayer, either by photolithographic structuring of metal film, thermal nucleation of metal film, or by random immobilization of nanoparticles (NP). In this paper, we report on a novel LSPR based optical fiber sensor architecture. The sensor is prepared by immobilizing gold NP's in a hydrogel droplet polymerized on the fiber end face. This design has several advantages over earlier designs. It dramatically increase the number of NP's available for sensing, it offers precise control over the NP density, and the NPs are position in a true 3D aqueous environment. The sensor design is also compatible with low cost manufacturing. The sensor design can measure volumetric changes in a stimuli-responsive hydrogel or measure binding to receptors on the NP surface. It can also be used as a two-parameter sensor by utilizing both effects. We present results from proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating a pH sensor based on LSPR sensing in a poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel embedding gold nanoparticles.

  3. Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Carpenter

    2012-01-15

    Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined

  4. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Yang, Guohai; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-10-29

    We report that considerable attention has been devoted to the integration of recognition elements with electronic elements to develop electrochemical sensors and biosensors.Various electrochemical devices, such as amperometric sensors, electrochemical impedance sensors, and electrochemical luminescence sensors as well as photoelectrochemical sensors, provide wide applications in the detection of chemical and biological targets in terms of electrochemical change of electrode interfaces. Here, this review focuses on recent advances in electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures during 2013 to 2014. The aim of this effort is to provide the reader with a clear and concise view of new advances in areas ranging from electrode engineering, strategies for electrochemical signal amplification, and novel electroanalytical techniques used in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors. Moreover, the authors have attempted to highlight areas of the latest and significant development of enhanced electrochemical nanosensors and nanobiosensors that inspire broader interests across various disciplines. Electrochemical sensors for small molecules, enzyme-based biosensors, genosensors, immunosensors, and cytosensors are reviewed herein (Figure 1). Such novel advances are important for the development of electrochemical sensors that open up new avenues and methods for future research. In conclusion, we recommend readers interested in the general principles of electrochemical sensors and electrochemical methods to refer to other excellent literature for a broad scope in this area.(3, 4) However, due to the explosion of publications in this active field, we do not claim that this Review includes all of the published works in the past two years and we apologize to the authors of excellent work, which is unintentionally left out.

  5. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Yang, Guohai; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-10-29

    We report that considerable attention has been devoted to the integration of recognition elements with electronic elements to develop electrochemical sensors and biosensors.Various electrochemical devices, such as amperometric sensors, electrochemical impedance sensors, and electrochemical luminescence sensors as well as photoelectrochemical sensors, provide wide applications in the detection of chemical and biological targets in terms of electrochemical change of electrode interfaces. Here, this review focuses on recent advances in electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures during 2013 to 2014. The aim of this effort is to provide the reader with a clear and concise view of new advancesmore » in areas ranging from electrode engineering, strategies for electrochemical signal amplification, and novel electroanalytical techniques used in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors. Moreover, the authors have attempted to highlight areas of the latest and significant development of enhanced electrochemical nanosensors and nanobiosensors that inspire broader interests across various disciplines. Electrochemical sensors for small molecules, enzyme-based biosensors, genosensors, immunosensors, and cytosensors are reviewed herein (Figure 1). Such novel advances are important for the development of electrochemical sensors that open up new avenues and methods for future research. In conclusion, we recommend readers interested in the general principles of electrochemical sensors and electrochemical methods to refer to other excellent literature for a broad scope in this area.(3, 4) However, due to the explosion of publications in this active field, we do not claim that this Review includes all of the published works in the past two years and we apologize to the authors of excellent work, which is unintentionally left out.« less

  6. Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaman, M.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    2012-06-01

    For many hydrogen related applications it is preferred to use optical hydrogen sensors above electrical systems. Optical sensors reduce the risk of ignition by spark formation and are less sensitive to electrical interference. Currently palladium and palladium alloys are used for most hydrogen sensors since they are well known for their hydrogen dissociation and absorption properties at relatively low temperatures. The disadvantages of palladium in sensors are the low optical response upon hydrogen loading, the cross sensitivity for oxygen and carbon, the limited detection range and the formation of micro-cracks after some hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles. In contrast to Pd, we find that the use of magnesium or rear earth bases metal-hydrides in optical hydrogen sensors allow tuning of the detection levels over a broad pressure range, while maintaining a high optical response. We demonstrate a stable detection layer for detecting hydrogen below 10% of the lower explosion limit in an oxygen rich environment. This detection layer is deposited at the bare end of a glass fiber as a micro-mirror and is covered with a thin layer of palladium. The palladium layer promotes the hydrogen uptake at room temperature and acts as a hydrogen selective membrane. To protect the sensor for a long time in air a final layer of a hydrophobic fluorine based coating is applied. Such a sensor can be used for example as safety detector in automotive applications. We find that this type of fiber optic hydrogen sensor is also suitable for hydrogen detection in liquids. As example we demonstrate a sensor for detecting a broad range of concentrations in transformer oil. Such a sensor can signal a warning when sparks inside a high voltage power transformer decompose the transformer oil over a long period.

  7. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  8. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-18

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster-Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods.

  9. Analysis of Vehicle Detection with WSN-Based Ultrasonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youngtae.; Jung, Inbum.

    2014-01-01

    Existing traffic information acquisition systems suffer from high cost and low scalability. To address these problems, the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied, as WSN-based systems are highly scalable and have a low cost of installing and replacing the systems. Magnetic, acoustic and accelerometer sensors have been considered for WSN-based traffic surveillance, but the use of ultrasonic sensors has not been studied. The limitations of WSN-based systems make it necessary to employ power saving methods and vehicle detection algorithms with low computational complexity. In this paper, we model and analyze optimal power saving methodologies for an ultrasonic sensor and present a computationally-efficient vehicle detection algorithm using ultrasonic data. The proposed methodologies are implemented and evaluated with a tiny microprocessor on real roads. The evaluation results show that the low computational complexity of our algorithm does not compromise the accuracy of vehicle detection. PMID:25093342

  10. Analysis of vehicle detection with WSN-based ultrasonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngtae; Jung, Inbum

    2014-08-04

    Existing traffic information acquisition systems suffer from high cost and low scalability. To address these problems, the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied, as WSN-based systems are highly scalable and have a low cost of installing and replacing the systems. Magnetic, acoustic and accelerometer sensors have been considered for WSN-based traffic surveillance, but the use of ultrasonic sensors has not been studied. The limitations of WSN-based systems make it necessary to employ power saving methods and vehicle detection algorithms with low computational complexity. In this paper, we model and analyze optimal power saving methodologies for an ultrasonic sensor and present a computationally-efficient vehicle detection algorithm using ultrasonic data. The proposed methodologies are implemented and evaluated with a tiny microprocessor on real roads. The evaluation results show that the low computational complexity of our algorithm does not compromise the accuracy of vehicle detection.

  11. Force-compensated hydrogel-based pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kangfa; Gerlach, Gerald; Guenther, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, assembly and testing of a force-compensated hydrogel-based pH sensor. In the conventional deflection method, a piezoresistive pressure sensor is used as a chemical-mechanical-electronic transducer to measure the volume change of a pH-sensitive hydrogel. In this compensation method, the pH-sensitive hydrogel keeps its volume constant during the whole measuring process, independent of applied pH value. In order to maintain a balanced state, an additional thermal actuator is integrated into the close-loop sensor system with higher precision and faster dynamic response. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) with 5 mol% monomer 3-acrylamido propionic acid (AAmPA) is used as the temperature-sensitive hydrogel, while poly (vinyl alcohol) with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) serves as the pH-sensitive hydrogel. A thermal simulation is introduced to assess the temperature distribution of the whole microsystem, especially the temperature influence on both hydrogels. Following tests are detailed to verify the working functions of a sensor based on pH-sensitive hydrogel and an actuator based on temperature-sensitive hydrogel. A miniaturized prototype is assembled and investigated in deionized water: the response time amounts to about 25 min, just half of that one of a sensor based on the conventional deflection method. The results confirm the applicability of t he compensation method to the hydrogel-based sensors.

  12. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  13. Enzyme-Based Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Camins, Irene; Angel, Stanley M.

    1988-06-01

    Fiber optic chemical sensors capable of detecting glucose and penicillin were developed. Each consists of a polymer membrane that is covalently attached to the tip of a glass optical fiber. The membrane contains the enzyme and a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (fluorescein). A signal is produced when the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the analyte (glucose or penicillin) into a product (gluconic or penicilloic acid, respectively) that lowers the microenvironmental pH of the membrane and, consequently, lowers the fluorescence intensity of the dye. Each sensor is capable of responding to analyte concentrations in the range of ~0.1 to 100 mM. The penicillin optrode response time is 40 to 60 s while that for glucose is ~5 to 12 min.

  14. Enzyme-based fiber optic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, T.J.; Camins, I.; Angel, S.M.

    1987-12-01

    Fiber optic chemical sensors capable of detecting glucose and penicillin were developed. Each consists of a polymer membrane that is covalently attached to the tip of a glass optical fiber. The membrane contains the enzyme and a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (fluorescein). A signal is produced when the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the analyte (glucose or penicillin) into a product (gluconic or penicilloic acid, respectively) that lowers the microenvironmental pH of the membrane and consequently, lowers the fluorescence intensity of the dye. Each sensor is capable of responding to analyte concentrations in the range of approx.0.1 to 100 mM. The penicillin optrode response time is 40 to 60 s while that for glucose is approx.5 to 12 min. 7 figs.

  15. Nanomaterial Based Sensors for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene and metal nanowires have shown interesting electronic properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of space applications requiring ultrasensitive and light-weight sensor and electronic devices. We have been pursuing development of chemical and biosensors using carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers for the last several years and this talk will present the benefits of nanomaterials these applications. More recently, printing approaches to manufacturing these devices have been explored as a strategy that is compatible to a microgravity environment. Nanomaterials are either grown in house or purchased and processed as electrical inks. Chemical modification or coatings are added to the nanomaterials to tailor the nanomaterial to the exact application. The development of printed chemical sensors and biosensors will be discussed for applications ranging from crew life support to exploration missions.

  16. Electro-active material (EAM) based bend sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaComb, Ronald; LaComb, Julie

    2010-04-01

    The capability to accurately estimate strain and orientation of cables in an undersea environment is important for a multitude of applications. One way to estimate the positional location of a submersed cable is to utilize a network of distributed bend sensors providing inputs to a curve fitting algorithm. In this work commercially available bend sensors are characterized for small deflections. In addition proto-type devices are presented which can potentially improve device sensitivity. Commercially available bend sensors are based upon electro-active materials and variable resistance materials. Electro-active materials (EAM) are known for their actuator functionality but certain EAMs are capable of sensing as well. New advances in materials such as Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC) are proving suitable for quasi-static sensor applications. These sensors are low power, conformal and produce directionally dependent output voltages which are linearly proportional to deflection, with voltage polarity representative of the deflection direction. IPMCs are capable of being morphed for increased sensitivity. Variable resistivity sensors are based on smart epoxy polymer and carbon loaded inks. These sensors are inexpensive and conformal and unlike EAMs provide static measurements.

  17. Compact IR laser for calibration of space based sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kietrick, K.M.; Dezenberg, G.; Hamilton, C.; Vann, J.; LaSala, J.

    1996-04-17

    An Er:YAG laser, operating at 2.94 microns, has been developed for in-theater calibration of space based infrared sensors. The laser is used to illuminate a spaceborne sensor focal plane from a surveyed ground reference point. The known reference point is compared to the laser position reported by the sensor, and boresight corrections are made. The Er:YAG laser is side pumped by a InGaAs diode array and is tuned to an atmospheric microwindow with and intracavity etalon. This technology is being directly applied to meet Army requirements for enhanced deep strike targeting information supplied to theater weapons systems.

  18. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for viruses.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Muharemagic, Darija; Chechik, Alexey V; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-02-21

    The development of aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for viruses (AptaVISens-V) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to intact vaccinia virus were selected using cell-SELEX technique and integrated into impedimetric sensors via self-assembly onto a gold microelectrode. Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect viable vaccinia virus particles (down to 60 virions in a microliter) and distinguish them from nonviable viruses in a label-free electrochemical assay format. It also opens a new venue for the development of a variety of viability sensors for detection of many microorganisms and spores.

  19. Smart sensors wireless measurement network based on Bluetooth standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jablonski, Michal

    2003-09-01

    The paper briefly describes Bluetooth standard and authors" Bluetoth sensors modules construction. At the beginning the short comparison of existing on the market standards of wireless data transmission (IEEE802.11, IEEE802.11b/g, IEEE802.11a, HomeRF, Bluetooth, Radiometrix, Motorola, IrDA) brought out by main firms is presented. Next selected Bluetooth features and functions useful to sensors wireless network creations are discussed. At the end our own Bluetooth sensor based on the newest Ericsson ROK 101 007 module is specified.

  20. Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are discussed. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are covered.

  1. A space-based concept for a collision warning sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talent, David L.; Vilas, Faith

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a concept for a space-based collision warning sensor experiment, the Debris Collision Warning Sensor (DCWS) experiment, in which the sensor will rely on passive sensing of debris in optical and IR passband. The DCWS experiment will be carried out under various conditions of solar phase angle and pass geometry; debris from 1.5 m to 1 mm diam will be observable. The mission characteristics include inclination in the 55-60 deg range and an altitude of about 500 km. The results of the DCWS experiment will be used to generate collision warning scenarios for the Space Station Freedom.

  2. Sensor Systems Based on FPGAs and Their Applications: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a survey of designs and implementations of research sensor nodes that rely on FPGAs, either based upon standalone platforms or as a combination of microcontroller and FPGA. Several current challenges in sensor networks are distinguished and linked to the features of modern FPGAs. As it turns out, low-power optimized FPGAs are able to enhance the computation of several types of algorithms in terms of speed and power consumption in comparison to microcontrollers of commercial sensor nodes. We show that architectures based on the combination of microcontrollers and FPGA can play a key role in the future of sensor networks, in fields where processing capabilities such as strong cryptography, self-testing and data compression, among others, are paramount.

  3. Torque Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Young, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A proposed torque sensor would be capable of operating over the temperature range from 1 to 400 K, whereas a typical commercially available torque sensor is limited to the narrower temperature range of 244 to 338 K. The design of this sensor would exploit the wide temperature range and other desirable attributes of differential transducers based on tunnel-diode oscillators as described in "Multiplexing Transducers Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillators". The proposed torque sensor would include three flexural springs that would couple torque between a hollow outer drive shaft and a solid inner drive shaft. The torque would be deduced from the torsional relative deflection of the two shafts, which would be sensed via changes in capacitances of two capacitors defined by two electrodes attached to the inner shaft and a common middle electrode attached to the outer shaft.

  4. A High Temperature Capacitive Humidity Sensor Based on Mesoporous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Thorsten; Krotzky, Sören; Weiß, Alexander; Sauerwald, Tilman; Kohl, Claus-Dieter; Roggenbuck, Jan; Tiemann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive sensors are the most commonly used devices for the detection of humidity because they are inexpensive and the detection mechanism is very specific for humidity. However, especially for industrial processes, there is a lack of dielectrics that are stable at high temperature (>200 °C) and under harsh conditions. We present a capacitive sensor based on mesoporous silica as the dielectric in a simple sensor design based on pressed silica pellets. Investigation of the structural stability of the porous silica under simulated operating conditions as well as the influence of the pellet production will be shown. Impedance measurements demonstrate the utility of the sensor at both low (90 °C) and high (up to 210 °C) operating temperatures. PMID:22163790

  5. Flexible textile-based strain sensor induced by contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the contact effects are used as the key sensing element to develop flexible textile-structured strain sensors. The structures of the contact are analyzed theoretically and the contact resistances are investigated experimentally. The electromechanical properties of the textiles are investigated to find the key factors which determine the sensitivity, repeatability, and linearity of the sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the change of contact resistance induced by the change of the configuration of the textiles. In order to improve the performance of the textile strain sensor, the contact resistance is designed based on the electromechanical properties of the fabric. It can be seen from the results that the performance of the sensor is largely affected by the structure of the contacts, which are determined by the morphology of fiber surface and the structures of the yarn and fabric.

  6. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

  7. Voronoi-based localisation algorithm for mobile sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zixiao; Zhang, Yongtao; Zhang, Baihai; Dong, Lijing

    2016-11-01

    Localisation is an essential and important part in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Many applications require location information. So far, there are less researchers studying on mobile sensor networks (MSNs) than static sensor networks (SSNs). However, MSNs are required in more and more areas such that the number of anchor nodes can be reduced and the location accuracy can be improved. In this paper, we firstly propose a range-free Voronoi-based Monte Carlo localisation algorithm (VMCL) for MSNs. We improve the localisation accuracy by making better use of the information that a sensor node gathers. Then, we propose an optimal region selection strategy of Voronoi diagram based on VMCL, called ORSS-VMCL, to increase the efficiency and accuracy for VMCL by adapting the size of Voronoi area during the filtering process. Simulation results show that the accuracy of these two algorithms, especially ORSS-VMCL, outperforms traditional MCL.

  8. RESTFul based heterogeneous Geoprocessing workflow interoperation for Sensor Web Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Chen, Nengcheng; Di, Liping

    2012-10-01

    Advanced sensors on board satellites offer detailed Earth observations. A workflow is one approach for designing, implementing and constructing a flexible and live link between these sensors' resources and users. It can coordinate, organize and aggregate the distributed sensor Web services to meet the requirement of a complex Earth observation scenario. A RESTFul based workflow interoperation method is proposed to integrate heterogeneous workflows into an interoperable unit. The Atom protocols are applied to describe and manage workflow resources. The XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) and Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) workflow standards are applied to structure a workflow that accesses sensor information and one that processes it separately. Then, a scenario for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from a volcanic eruption is used to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method. The RESTFul based workflows interoperation system can describe, publish, discover, access and coordinate heterogeneous Geoprocessing workflows.

  9. Glucose sensor based on conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinkar, Pankaj; Gaikwad, Sumedh; Bodkhe, Gajanan; Deshmukh, Megha; Patil, Harshada; Rushi, Arti; Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Kim, Yun-Hae; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    In the present investigation, a glucose sensor based on conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction (CPNEJ) has been reported. The CPNEJ platform was modified by glucose oxidase by cross-linking in the presence of glutaraldehyde. The signal transduction mechanism of the sensor is based on the change in micro electrode junction conductance as a result of glucose oxidation induced change in the polymer redox state. Small size of CPNEJ sensor causes to regenerate enzyme naturally without need of redox mediators, as a result it consumes minimum amount of oxygen and also gives very fast response. This sensor exhibited good linear response range from 1 mM to 20 mM of glucose concentration with excellent sensitivity of 12 μA/mM.

  10. Mobility in free-space optics based wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anjan K.; Verma, Pramode; Huck, Robert C.

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes an FSO-based mobile sensor network that is not subject to RF interference common to wireless sensor networks. FSO-based mobile sensor networks can potentially be used in a battlefield where security of communication, including freedom from susceptibility to enemy-induced jamming, is important. The paper discusses the design of nodes containing multiple transceivers composed of LEDs and photo detectors. Results of initial experiments are included. The work reported in this paper is part of an ongoing investigation on mobile FSO networks, including the design of efficient protocols that can allow the mobile sensor nodes to function as a mesh network permitting information exchange among nodes directly and, possibly, through an intermediate node.

  11. Plastic Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Based on Dual Cycling Bending

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Chen, Pao-Chuan; Chen, Yung-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a high sensitivity and easy fabricated plastic optical fiber (POF) displacement sensor is proposed. A POF specimen subjected to dual cyclic bending is used to improve the sensitivity of the POF displacement sensor. The effects of interval between rollers, relative displacement and number of rollers on the sensitivity of the displacement sensor are analyzed both experimentally and numerically. A good agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculations is obtained. The results show that the interval between rollers affects sensitivity most significantly than the other design parameters. Based on the experimental data, a linear equation is derived to estimate the relationship between the power loss and the relative displacement. The difference between the estimated results and the experimental results is found to be less than 8%. The results also show that the proposed POF displacement sensor based on dual cyclic bending can be used to detect displacement accurately. PMID:22163465

  12. Interferometric sensors based on sinusoidal optical path length modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knell, Holger; Schake, Markus; Schulz, Markus; Lehmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Sinusoidal optical path length modulation of the reference or the measurement arm of an interferometer is a technique which is a fast alternative to white light or phase shifting interferometry. In this paper three different sensors using this periodical modulation are presented. In addition, signal processing algorithms based on Discrete Fourier Transform, Hilbert Transform and parameter estimation are analyzed. These algorithms are used to obtain measurement results which demonstrate the capabilities of the presented interferometric sensors.

  13. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based Sensor for the Detection of Theophylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.; del Valle, Manel

    2011-11-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) impedance-based sensor was employed to detect theophylline in distilled water. To evaluate its sensibility, impedance measurements were carried out in a diluted solution of theophylline (1 mM) and distilled water using MIP and NIP (reference non-imprinted polymer) sensors. MIP showed higher sensitivity to theophylline than the NIP. This feature shows their suitability for developing an electronic tongue system for determination of methylxanthines.

  14. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-11-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended.

  15. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  16. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  17. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a "simple" and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc. PMID:26569244

  18. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc. PMID:26569244

  19. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-11-11

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a "simple" and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  20. Automatic sensor placement for model-based robot vision.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Li, Y F

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic sensor placement for model-based robot vision. In such a vision system, the sensor often needs to be moved from one pose to another around the object to observe all features of interest. This allows multiple three-dimensional (3-D) images to be taken from different vantage viewpoints. The task involves determination of the optimal sensor placements and a shortest path through these viewpoints. During the sensor planning, object features are resampled as individual points attached with surface normals. The optimal sensor placement graph is achieved by a genetic algorithm in which a min-max criterion is used for the evaluation. A shortest path is determined by Christofides algorithm. A Viewpoint Planner is developed to generate the sensor placement plan. It includes many functions, such as 3-D animation of the object geometry, sensor specification, initialization of the viewpoint number and their distribution, viewpoint evolution, shortest path computation, scene simulation of a specific viewpoint, parameter amendment. Experiments are also carried out on a real robot vision system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Development of metamaterial based low cost passive wireless temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Hasanul; Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaq; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Rumpf, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    Wireless passive temperature sensors are gaining increasing attention due to the ever-growing need of precise monitoring of temperature in high temperature energy conversion systems such as gas turbines and coal-based power plants. Unfortunately, the harsh environment such as high temperature and corrosive atmosphere present in these systems limits current solutions. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing process of a low cost, passive, and wireless temperature sensor that can withstand high temperature and harsh environment. The temperature sensor was designed following the principle of metamaterials by utilizing Closed Ring Resonators (CRR) embedded in a dielectric matrix. The proposed wireless, passive temperature sensor behaves like an LC circuit that has a resonance frequency that depends on temperature. A full wave electromagnetic solver Ansys Ansoft HFSS was used to perform simulations to determine the optimum dimensions and geometry of the sensor unit. The sensor unit was prepared by conventional powder-binder compression method. Commercially available metal washers were used as CRR structures and Barium Titanate (BTO) was used as the dielectric materials. Response of the fabricated sensor at room temperature was analyzed using a pair of horn antenna connected with a network analyzer.

  2. Video-Based Sensor for Robotic Position and Attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Roe, Fred D., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has, for the last ten years, developed various video-based sensors for use in automated docking systems. The latest generation of sensor will operate at rates of up to 100 Hz, determining the relative position (X, Y, and Z) and attitude (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) between the sensor and a small 3-dimensional target, making it suitable for applications in robotic sensing. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) is designed to track multiple targets at different ranges and determine the position and attitude of each one. The previous generation of video sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was flown twice on the Space Shuttle to test its performance on orbit. One of the tests performed was determining the relative positions and attitudes between the VGS and its target, which was moved to various positions using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The RMS position data and VGS measured data were analyzed after the flights, with good correlation between the position and attitude data of the two data sets. The test using the RMS gives a good idea of the ability of the use of the AVGS as a sensor for end-effector position and attitude determination.

  3. Silicon nanohybrid-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors are highly promising analytical tools, capable of ultrasensitive, multiplex, and nondestructive detection of chemical and biological species. Extensive efforts have been made to design various silicon nanohybrid-based SERS substrates such as gold/silver nanoparticle (NP)-decorated silicon nanowires, Au/Ag NP-decorated silicon wafers (AuNP@Si), and so forth. In comparison to free AuNP- and AgNP-based SERS sensors, the silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors feature higher enhancement factors (EFs) and excellent reproducibility, since SERS hot spots are efficiently coupled and stabilized through interconnection to the semiconducting silicon substrates. Consequently, in the past decade, giant advancements in the development of silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors have been witnessed for myriad sensing applications. In this review, the representative achievements related to the design of high-performance silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors and their use for chemical and biological analysis are reviewed in a detailed way. Furthermore, the major opportunities and challenges in this field are discussed from a broad perspective and possible future directions.

  4. Gas Sensors Based on Ceramic p-n Heterocontacts

    SciTech Connect

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic p-n heterocontacts based on CuO/ZnO were successfully synthesized and a systematic study of their hydrogen sensitivity was conducted. The sensitivity and response rates of CuO/ZnO sensors were studied utilizing current-voltage, current-time, and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The heterocontacts showed well-defined rectifying characteristics and were observed to detect hydrogen via both dc and ac measurements. Surface coverage data were derived from current-time measurements which were then fit to a two-site Langmuir adsorption model quite satisfactorily. The fit suggested that there should be two energetically different adsorption sites in the system. The heterocontacts were doped in an attempt to increase the sensitivity and the response rate of the sensor. First, the effects of doping the p-type (CuO) on the sensor characteristics were investigated. Doping the p-type CuO with both acceptor and isovalent dopants greatly improved the hydrogen sensitivity. The sensitivity of pure heterocontact observed via I-V measurements was increased from ~2.3 to ~9.4 with Ni doping. Dopants also enhanced the rectifying characteristics of the heterocontacts. Small amounts of Li addition were shown to decrease the reverse bias (saturation) current to 0.2 mA at a bias level of -5V. No unambiguous trends were observed between the sensitivity, the conductivity, and the density of the samples. Comparing the two phase microstructure to the single phase microstructure there was no dramatic increase in the sensitivity. Kinetic studies also confirmed the improved sensor characteristics with doping. The dopants decreased the response time of the sensor by decreasing the response time of one of the adsorption sites. The n-type ZnO was doped with both acceptor and donor dopants. Li doping resulted in the degradation of the p-n junction and the response time of the sensor. However, the current-voltage behavior of Ga-doped heterocontacts showed the best rectifying characteristics

  5. Performance Evaluation of Triangulation Based Range Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Gabriele; Russo, Michele; Magrassi, Grazia; Bordegoni, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The performance of 2D digital imaging systems depends on several factors related with both optical and electronic processing. These concepts have originated standards, which have been conceived for photographic equipment and bi-dimensional scanning systems, and which have been aimed at estimating different parameters such as resolution, noise or dynamic range. Conversely, no standard test protocols currently exist for evaluating the corresponding performances of 3D imaging systems such as laser scanners or pattern projection range cameras. This paper is focused on investigating experimental processes for evaluating some critical parameters of 3D equipment, by extending the concepts defined by the ISO standards to the 3D domain. The experimental part of this work concerns the characterization of different range sensors through the extraction of their resolution, accuracy and uncertainty from sets of 3D data acquisitions of specifically designed test objects whose geometrical characteristics are known in advance. The major objective of this contribution is to suggest an easy characterization process for generating a reliable comparison between the performances of different range sensors and to check if a specific piece of equipment is compliant with the expected characteristics. PMID:22163599

  6. NV-THERM based sensor effects for imaging simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkinson, David; Wilhelm, Teresa; Flug, Eric; Miller, Brian; Ra, Chun; Tran, Vinh; Kang, Robin

    2005-05-01

    The Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate Electro-optics Simulation Toolkit (NVEOST), follow-on to Paint-The-Night, produces real time simulation of IR scenes and sequences using modeled backgrounds and targets with physics and empirically based IR signatures. Range dependant atmospheric effects are incorporated, realistically degrading the infrared scene impinging on an infrared imaging device. Current sensor effects implementation for Paint the Night (PTN) and the Night Vision Image Generator (NVIG) is a 3 step process. First the scene energy is further attenuated by the sensor optic. Second, a prefilter kernel developed off-line, is applied to scenes or frames to affect the sensor modulation transfer function (MTF) "blurring" of scene elements. Thirdly, sensor noise is overlaid on scenes, or more often frames of scenes. NVESD is improving the PTN functionality, now entitled NVEOST, in several ways. In the near future, a sensor effects tool will directly read an NVTHERM input data file, extract that data which it can utilize and then automatically generate the sensor "world view" of a NVEOST scenario. These will include those elements currently employed: optical transmission, parameters used to calculate prefilter MTF (telescope, detector geometry) and temporal-spatial random noise (σTVH). Important improvements will include treatment of sampling effects (under sampling and super-resolution), certain significant postfilters (signal processing including boost and frame integration) and spatial noise. The sensor effects implementation will require minimal interaction; only a well developed NVTHERM input parameter set will be required. The developments described below will enhance NVEOST's utility not only as a virtual simulator but also as a formidable sensor design tool.

  7. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems. PMID:22291560

  8. Space-based sensor management and geostationary satellites tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.; Donatelli, D.

    2007-04-01

    Sensor management for space situational awareness presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge as it requires the use of multiple types of sensors on a variety of platforms to ensure that the space environment is continuously monitored. We demonstrate a new approach utilizing the Posterior Expected Number of Targets (PENT) as the sensor management objective function, an observation model for a space-based EO/IR sensor platform, and a Probability Hypothesis Density Particle Filter (PHD-PF) tracker. Simulation and results using actual Geostationary Satellites are presented. We also demonstrate enhanced performance by applying the ProgressiveWeighting Correction (PWC) method for regularization in the implementation of the PHD-PF tracker.

  9. Semiconductor metal oxide compounds based gas sensors: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sunil Jagannath; Patil, Arun Vithal; Dighavkar, Chandrakant Govindrao; Thakare, Kashinath Shravan; Borase, Ratan Yadav; Nandre, Sachin Jayaram; Deshpande, Nishad Gopal; Ahire, Rajendra Ramdas

    2015-03-01

    This paper gives a statistical view about important contributions and advances on semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) compounds based gas sensors developed to detect the air pollutants such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), H2S, NH3, CO2, acetone, ethanol, other volatile compounds and hazardous gases. Moreover, it is revealed that the alloy/composite made up of SMO gas sensors show better gas response than their counterpart single component gas sensors, i.e., they are found to enhance the 4S characteristics namely speed, sensitivity, selectivity and stability. Improvement of such types of sensors used for detection of various air pollutants, which are reported in last two decades, is highlighted herein.

  10. Novel carbon dioxide gas sensor based on infrared absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangjun; Lui, Junfang; Yuan, Mei

    2000-08-01

    The feasibility of sensing carbon dioxide with a IR single- beam optical structure is studied, and a novel carbon dioxide gas sensor based on IR absorption is achieved. Applying the Lambert-Beer law and some key techniques such as current stabilization for IR source, using a high-quality IR detector, and data compensation for the influences of ambience temperature and atmosphere total pressure, the sensor can measure carbon dioxide with high precision and efficiency. The mathematical models for providing temperature and pressure compensation for the sensor are established. Moreover the solutions to the models are proposed. Both the models and the solutions to the models are verified via experiments. The sensor possesses the advantages of small volume, light weight, low power consumption, and high reliability. Therefore it can be used in many associated fields, such as environmental protection, processing control, chemical analysis, medical diagnosis, and space environmental and control systems.

  11. An improved sensor for electrochemical microcalorimetry, based on lithiumtantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frittmann, Stefan; Halka, Vadym; Jaramillo, Carlos; Schuster, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a pyroelectric sensor for electrochemical microcalorimetry, based on LiTaO3, which provides unprecedented sensitivity for the detection of electrochemically induced heat effects. Deterioration of the heat signal by electrostriction effects on the electrode surface is suppressed by a multilayered construction, where an intermediate sapphire sheet dampens mechanical deformations. Thus, well textured thin metal films become viable candidates as electrodes. We demonstrate the sensor performance for Cu underpotential deposition on (111)-textured Au films on sapphire. The sensor signal compares well with a purely thermal signal induced by heating with laser pulses. The high sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by measuring heat effects upon double layer charging in perchloric acid, i.e., in the absence of electrochemical charge- or ion-transfer reactions.

  12. Piezoresistive Strain Sensors Made from Carbon Nanotubes Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Alamusi; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao; Atobe, Satoshi; Liu, Yaolu; Li, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposites based on various nano-scale carbon fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are increasingly being thought of as a realistic alternative to conventional smart materials, largely due to their superior electrical properties. Great interest has been generated in building highly sensitive strain sensors with these new nanocomposites. This article reviews the recent significant developments in the field of highly sensitive strain sensors made from CNT/polymer nanocomposites. We focus on the following two topics: electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of CNT/polymer nanocomposites, and the relationship between them by considering the internal conductive network formed by CNTs, tunneling effect, aspect ratio and piezoresistivity of CNTs themselves, etc. Many recent experimental, theoretical and numerical studies in this field are described in detail to uncover the working mechanisms of this new type of strain sensors and to demonstrate some possible key factors for improving the sensor sensitivity. PMID:22346667

  13. An easily fabricated high performance ionic polymer based sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Xiaopin; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer materials can generate an electrical potential from ion migration under an external force. For traditional ionic polymer metal composite sensors, the output voltage is very small (a few millivolts), and the fabrication process is complex and time-consuming. This letter presents an ionic polymer based network of pressure sensors which is easily and quickly constructed, and which can generate high voltage. A 3 × 3 sensor array was prepared by casting Nafion solution directly over copper wires. Under applied pressure, two different levels of voltage response were observed among the nine nodes in the array. For the group producing the higher level, peak voltages reached as high as 25 mV. Computational stress analysis revealed the physical origin of the different responses. High voltages resulting from the stress concentration and asymmetric structure can be further utilized to modify subsequent designs to improve the performance of similar sensors.

  14. Engineering new aptamer geometries for electrochemical aptamer-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ryan J.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2009-05-01

    Electrochemical aptamer-based sensors (E-AB sensors) represent a promising new approach to the detection of small molecules. E-AB sensors comprise an aptamer that is attached at one end to an electrode surface. The distal end of the aptamer probed is modified with an electroactive redox marker for signal transduction. Herein we report on the optimization of a cocaine-detecting E-AB sensor via optimization of the geometry of the aptamer. We explore two new aptamer architectures, one in which we concatenate three cocaine aptamers into a poly-aptamer and a second in which we divide the cocaine aptamer into pieces connected via an unstructured, 60-thymine linker. Both of these structures are designed such that the reporting redox tag will be located farther from the electrode in the unfolded, target-free conformation. Consistent with this, we find that signal gains of these two constructs are two to three times higher than that of the original E-AB architecture. Likewise all three architectures are selective enough to deploy directly in complex sample matrices, such as undiluted whole blood, with all three sensors successfully detecting the presence of cocaine. The findings in this ongoing study should be of value in future efforts to optimize the signaling of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors.

  15. Energy Efficient Cluster Based Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Srie Vidhya Janani, E.; Ganesh Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    The energy utilization of sensor nodes in large scale wireless sensor network points out the crucial need for scalable and energy efficient clustering protocols. Since sensor nodes usually operate on batteries, the maximum utility of network is greatly dependent on ideal usage of energy leftover in these sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Scheduling Scheme for wireless sensor networks that balances the sensor network lifetime and energy efficiency. In the first phase of our proposed scheme, cluster topology is discovered and cluster head is chosen based on remaining energy level. The cluster head monitors the network energy threshold value to identify the energy drain rate of all its cluster members. In the second phase, scheduling algorithm is presented to allocate time slots to cluster member data packets. Here congestion occurrence is totally avoided. In the third phase, energy consumption model is proposed to maintain maximum residual energy level across the network. Moreover, we also propose a new packet format which is given to all cluster member nodes. The simulation results prove that the proposed scheme greatly contributes to maximum network lifetime, high energy, reduced overhead, and maximum delivery ratio. PMID:26495417

  16. APTAMER-BASED SERRS SENSOR FOR THROMBIN DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Baker, B R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Pagba, C V; Laurence, T A; Lane, S M; Lee, L P; Tok, J B

    2008-07-02

    We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human a-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5{prime}-capped, 3{prime}-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes.

  17. Vehicle passes detector based on multi-sensor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, D.; Sidorchuk, D.; Konovalenko, I.; Koptelov, I.

    2015-02-01

    The study concerned deals with a new approach to the problem of detecting vehicle passes in vision-based automatic vehicle classification system. Essential non-affinity image variations and signals from induction loop are the events that can be considered as detectors of an object presence. We propose several vehicle detection techniques based on image processing and induction loop signal analysis. Also we suggest a combined method based on multi-sensor analysis to improve vehicle detection performance. Experimental results in complex outdoor environments show that the proposed multi-sensor algorithm is effective for vehicles detection.

  18. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1997-07-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  19. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  20. Analytical Sensor Response Function of Viscosity Sensors Based on Layered Piezoelectric Thickness Shear Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, Ewald; Nowotny, Helmut; Braun, Stefan; Radel, Stefan; Gröschl, Martin

    Resonant piezoelectric sensors based on bulk acoustic wave (BAW) thickness shear resonators are promising for the inline measurement of fluid viscosity, e.g., in industrial processes. The sensor response function can be derived from the general rigorous transfer matrix description of one-dimensional layered structures consisting of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers of arbitrary number. This model according to Nowotny et al. provides a complete analytical description of the electrical and mechanical behaviour of such structures with two electrodes and arbitrary acoustic termination impedances (Rig-1d-Model). We apply this model to derive the sensor response functions and the mechanical displacement curves of the following configurations appropriate for viscosity sensors: An AT cut quartz crystal plate in contact with vacuum at the backside plane and with the liquid under investigation at the front side plane (QL). An AT cut quartz crystal in contact with the liquid under investigation at both sides (LQL). It is shown that in the QL case the originally only heuristically introduced and well established sensor response function according to Kanasawa can be derived from the Rig-1d-Model by introducing minor approximations. Experimental results are presented for the LQL configuration using an N1000 viscosity reference oil as test fluid.

  1. Robust Model-Based Sensor Fault Monitoring System for Nonlinear Systems in Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dejun; Song, Shiyao

    2014-01-01

    A new model-based sensor fault diagnosis (FD) scheme, using an equivalent model, is developed for a kind of Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs (MIMO) nonlinear system which fulfills the Lipschitz condition. The equivalent model, which is a bank of one-dimensional linear state equations with the bounded model uncertainty, can take the place of a plant's exact nonlinear model in the case of sensor FD. This scheme shows a new perspective whereby, by using the equivalent model, it doesn't have to study the nonlinear internal structure character or get the exact model. The influence of the model uncertainty on the residuals is explained in this paper. A method, called pretreatment, is utilized to minimize the model uncertainty. The eigenstructure assignment method with assistant state is employed to solve the problem of perfect decoupling against the model uncertainty, disturbance, system faults, the relevant actuator faults, or even the case of no input from the relevant actuator. The realization of the proposed scheme is given by an algorithm according to a single sensor FD, and verified by a simulation example. Depending on the above, a sensor fault monitoring system is established by the sensor network and diagnosis logic, then the effectiveness is testified by a simulation. PMID:25320904

  2. Laser-based Sensors for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2010-05-10

    Stand-off detection of hazardous materials ensures that the responder is located at a safe distance from the suspected source. Remote detection and identification of hazardous materials can be accomplished using a highly sensitive and portable device, at significant distances downwind from the source or the threat. Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemical substances since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package. This talk will discuss the sensor systems developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and will discuss the progress to reduce the size and power while maintaining sensitivity to enable stand-off detection of multiple chemicals.

  3. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  4. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  5. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  6. Micro- and nano-structure based oligonucleotide sensors.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, David C; Shaver, Michael P; Hands, Philip J W

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents a review of micro- and nano-structure based oligonucleotide detection and quantification techniques. The characteristics of such devices make them very attractive for Point-of-Care or On-Site-Testing biosensing applications. Their small scale means that they can be robust and portable, their compatibility with modern CMOS electronics means that they can easily be incorporated into hand-held devices and their suitability for mass production means that, out of the different approaches to oligonucleotide detection, they are the most suitable for commercialisation. This review discusses the advantages of micro- and nano-structure based sensors and covers the various oligonucleotide detection techniques that have been developed to date. These include: Bulk Acoustic Wave and Surface Acoustic Wave devices, micro- and nano-cantilever sensors, gene Field Effect Transistors, and nanowire and nanopore based sensors. Oligonucleotide immobilisation techniques are also discussed.

  7. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  8. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  9. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín L; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  10. MEMS Based Flow Sensors and Their Application on Flow Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Nannan; Engel, Jonathan; Tucker, Craig; Pandya, Saunvit; Liu, Chang

    2006-11-01

    We report characterization and application of recently developed, MEMS based, out-of-plane hot-wire anemometer (HWA) sensor and bio-inspired artificial hair cell (AHC) sensor. Sensitivities of 0.2mm/s for HWA and 0.1mm/s for AHC have been achieved in water flows, comparing with 1mm/s of a conventional HWA. In contrast to its high sensitivity, the AHC sensor can survive 55 bending of its hair, making it very robust. After calibration, both HWA and AHC sensors were employed for dipole field and wake measurements. The dipole field was generated by a vibrating sphere in a large water tank; the measurement results match very well with the analytical model. The wake was created by a circular cylinder in a water channel; the RMS velocity distributions replicate the main features of a typical wake accurately. The two types of sensors were also applied in array format to mimic a fish lateral line for imaging hydrodynamic events. Multi-modal sensors capable of simultaneous measurement of flow velocity, shear stress, pressure and temperature are under development.

  11. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  12. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  13. A Bionic Camera-Based Polarization Navigation Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daobin; Liang, Huawei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Navigation and positioning technology is closely related to our routine life activities, from travel to aerospace. Recently it has been found that Cataglyphis (a kind of desert ant) is able to detect the polarization direction of skylight and navigate according to this information. This paper presents a real-time bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor. This sensor has two work modes: one is a single-point measurement mode and the other is a multi-point measurement mode. An indoor calibration experiment of the sensor has been done under a beam of standard polarized light. The experiment results show that after noise reduction the accuracy of the sensor can reach up to 0.3256°. It is also compared with GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) in the single-point measurement mode through an outdoor experiment. Through time compensation and location compensation, the sensor can be a useful alternative to GPS and INS. In addition, the sensor also can measure the polarization distribution pattern when it works in multi-point measurement mode. PMID:25051029

  14. A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobin; Liang, Huawei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-07-21

    Navigation and positioning technology is closely related to our routine life activities, from travel to aerospace. Recently it has been found that Cataglyphis (a kind of desert ant) is able to detect the polarization direction of skylight and navigate according to this information. This paper presents a real-time bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor. This sensor has two work modes: one is a single-point measurement mode and the other is a multi-point measurement mode. An indoor calibration experiment of the sensor has been done under a beam of standard polarized light. The experiment results show that after noise reduction the accuracy of the sensor can reach up to 0.3256°. It is also compared with GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) in the single-point measurement mode through an outdoor experiment. Through time compensation and location compensation, the sensor can be a useful alternative to GPS and INS. In addition, the sensor also can measure the polarization distribution pattern when it works in multi-point measurement mode.

  15. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  16. Probing the kinetics of quantum dot-based proteolytic sensors.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián A; Malonoski, Anthony P; Susumu, Kimihiro; Hofele, Romina V; Oh, Eunkeu; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-09-01

    As an enzyme superfamily, proteases are rivaled only by kinases in terms of their abundance within the human genome. Two ratiometric quantum dot (QD) Förster resonance energy transfer-based sensors designed to monitor the activity of the proteolytic enzymes collagenase and elastase are investigated here. Given the unique material constraints of these sensing constructs, assays are realized utilizing excess enzyme and fixed substrate in progress curve format to yield enzyme specificity or k cat/K m ratios. The range of k cat/Km values derived is 0.5-1.1 mM(-1) s(-1) for the collagenase sensor and 3.7-4.2 mM(-1) s(-1) for the elastase sensor. Of greater interest is the observation that the elastase sensor can be well represented by the Michaelis-Menten model while the collagenase sensor cannot. The latter demonstrates increased specificity at higher peptide substrate/QD loading values and an apparent QD-caused reversible inhibition as the reaction progresses. Understanding the detailed kinetic mechanisms that underpin these types of sensors will be important especially for their further quantitative utilization.

  17. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  18. The absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    A reflectance based inflight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of a sensor. This procedure uses ground based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of 5 calibrations of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of 3 calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible sensors. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft based radiometer data. A strong correlation was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low flying aircraft data.

  19. Ligand exchange based paraoxon imprınted QCM sensor.

    PubMed

    Özkütük, Ebru Birlik; Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Özalp, Elif; Say, Rıdvan; Ersöz, Arzu

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, a paraoxon imprinted QCM sensor has been developed for the determination of paraoxon based on the modification of paraoxon imprinted film onto a quartz crystal combining the advantages of high selectivity of the piezoelectric microgravimetry using MIP film technique and high sensitivity of QCM detection. The paraoxon selective memories have formed on QCM electrode surface by using a new metal-chelate interaction based on pre-organized monomer and the paraoxon recognition activity of these molecular memories was investigated. Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) film for the detection of paraoxon was developed and the analytical performance of paraoxon imprinted sensor was studied. The molecular imprinted polymer were characterized by FTIR measurements. Paraoxon imprinted sensor was characterized with AFM and ellipsometer. The study also includes the measurement of binding interaction of paraoxon imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor, selectivity experiments and analytical performance of QCM electrode. The detection limit and the affinity constant (K(affinity)) were found to be 0.06 μM and 2.25 × 10(4) M(-1) for paraoxon [MAAP-Cu(II)-paraoxon] based thin film, respectively. Also, it has been observed that the selectivity of the prepared paraoxon imprinted sensor is high compared to a similar chemical structure which is parathion.

  20. Effect of redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor performance of displacement-based electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-gang; Zaitouna, Anita J; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-02-17

    This article summarizes the sensor performance of four electrochemical DNA sensors that exploit the recently developed displacement-replacement sensing motif. In the absence of the target, the capture probe is partially hybridized to the signaling probe at the distal end, positioning the redox label, methylene blue (MB), away from the electrode. In the presence of the target, the MB-modified signaling probe is released; one type of probe is capable of assuming a stem-loop probe (SLP) conformation, whereas the other type adopts a linear probe (LP) conformation. Independent of the sensor architecture, all four sensors showed "signal-on" sensor behavior. Unlike the previous report, here we focused on elucidating the effect of the redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, and reusability. For both SLP and LP sensors, the limit of detection was 10 pM for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with three extra thymine (T3) bases linked to the MB label. A limit of detection of 100 pM was determined for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with five extra thymine (T5) bases. The linear dynamic range was between 10 pM and 100 nM for the T3 sensors, and between 100 pM and 100 nM for the T5 sensors. When compared to the LP sensors, the SLP sensors showed higher signal enhancement in the presence of the full-complement target. More importantly, the SLP-T5 sensor was found to be highly specific; it is capable of discriminating between the full complement and single-base mismatch targets even when employed in undiluted blood serum. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of using oligo-T(s) as a tunable linker to control flexibility of the tethered redox label, so as to achieve the desired sensor response.

  1. SiC-Based Schottky Diode Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai

    1997-01-01

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diode gas sensors are being developed for high temperature applications such as emission measurements. Two different types of gas sensitive diodes will be discussed in this paper. By varying the structure of the diode, one can affect the diode stability as well as the diode sensitivity to various gases. It is concluded that the ability of SiC to operate as a high temperature semiconductor significantly enhances the versatility of the Schottky diode gas sensing structure and will potentially allow the fabrication of a SiC-based gas sensor arrays for versatile high temperature gas sensing applications.

  2. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  3. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  4. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM.

    PubMed

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-03-17

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  5. Monitoring Cooperative Binding Using Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3′ terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM–4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein–DNA binding mechanisms. PMID:25517392

  6. Monitoring cooperative binding using electrochemical DNA-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Macazo, Florika C; Karpel, Richard L; White, Ryan J

    2015-01-20

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3' terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM-4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein-DNA binding mechanisms.

  7. A micromachined pressure sensor based on an array of microswitches.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Sin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2010-05-01

    A micromachined pressure sensor based on an array of microswitches is presented. The pressure sensor consists of a silicon substrate that has a thin metal-deposited diaphragm and indium tin oxide (ITO)-based switch arrays patterned on a Pyrex glass. When pressure is applied to the thin diaphragm through a small tube, the diaphragm starts to deform and contact the array of switches at a certain pressure level. The increase in the contact area due to the diaphragm deformation causes the change in electrical resistance between two terminals of the ITO resistor. The change in resistance that corresponds to electrical output in the pressure sensor is measured by the use of a simple circuit. We also describe the results of numerical simulations that are carried out to find a suitable range of the pressure. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. MEMS-based sensors for post-earthquake damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, M.; Zonta, D.; Trapani, D.; Athanasopoulos, N.; Amditis, A. J.; Bimpas, M.; Garetsos, A.; Stratakos, Y. E.; Ulieru, D.

    2011-07-01

    The evaluation of seismic damage is today almost exclusively based on visual inspection, as building owners are generally reluctant to install permanent sensing systems, due to their high installation, management and maintenance costs. To overcome this limitation, the EU-funded MEMSCON project aims to produce small size sensing nodes for measurement of strain and acceleration, integrating Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in a single package that will be attached to reinforced concrete buildings and will transmit data using a wireless interface. During the first phase of the project completed so far, sensor prototypes were produced by assembling preexisting components. This paper outlines the device operating principles, production scheme and operation at both unit and network levels. It also reports on validation campaigns conducted in the laboratory to assess system performance. Accelerometer sensors were tested on a reduced scale metal frame mounted on a shaking table, while strain sensors were embedded in both reduced and full-scale reinforced concrete specimens undergoing increasing deformation cycles up to extensive damage and collapse. The performance of the sensors developed for the project and their applicability to long-term seismic monitoring are discussed.

  9. Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective electrochemical (EC) sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50uL) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next-generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This manuscript highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed. PMID:19018275

  10. Nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors for biomonitoring chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Barry, Richard C; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical (EC) sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput, and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective EC sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50 microl) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This paper highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed.

  11. A Universal Intelligent System-on-Chip Based Sensor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Mattoli, Virgilio; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Ferri, Gabriele; Dario, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The need for real-time/reliable/low-maintenance distributed monitoring systems, e.g., wireless sensor networks, has been becoming more and more evident in many applications in the environmental, agro-alimentary, medical, and industrial fields. The growing interest in technologies related to sensors is an important indicator of these new needs. The design and the realization of complex and/or distributed monitoring systems is often difficult due to the multitude of different electronic interfaces presented by the sensors available on the market. To address these issues the authors propose the concept of a Universal Intelligent Sensor Interface (UISI), a new low-cost system based on a single commercial chip able to convert a generic transducer into an intelligent sensor with multiple standardized interfaces. The device presented offers a flexible analog and/or digital front-end, able to interface different transducer typologies (such as conditioned, unconditioned, resistive, current output, capacitive and digital transducers). The device also provides enhanced processing and storage capabilities, as well as a configurable multi-standard output interface (including plug-and-play interface based on IEEE 1451.3). In this work the general concept of UISI and the design of reconfigurable hardware are presented, together with experimental test results validating the proposed device. PMID:22163624

  12. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  13. Voltage-Biased Magnetic Sensors Based on Tuned Varistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, William. A.; Sutanto, Ivan; Shamsuzzoha, M.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of finding practical applications when the nonlinear current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of a varistor are modified by the application of external magnetic fields. With this goal in mind, varistors based on a pseudobrookite oxide semiconductor have been studied. Pseudobrookite (PsB) is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor with the bandgap of 2.77 eV. It is also weakly ferromagnetic. The "voltage-dependent resistor" (VDR) mode of the magnetically-tuned pseudobrookite varistors offers an opportunity to advance magnetic sensor technology. The resistive and magnetoresistive parameters of PsB VDRs exhibit good responses to applied magnetic fields and they can therefore be the basis for the fabrication of simple yet practical magnetic sensors. These sensors can cover the range of magnetic fields between 0 and 4500 Oe with good accuracy, and could possibly be considered as a substitute for Hall Effect-based sensors for many applications. Also, due to their simple structure, they would be rugged and not susceptible to abuses. They may also be suitable for applications in hazardous environments such as high temperatures and atmospheres having the presence of radiation, such as neutrons, protons, etc. It is also possible that these novel sensors could be suitable for geological applications such as in well logging in search of energy sources.

  14. Statistically meaningful data on the chemical state of ironprecipitates in processed multicrystalline silicon usingsynchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buonassisi, T.; Heuer, M.; Istratov, A.A.; Weber, E.R.; Cai, Z.; Lai, B.; Marcus, M.; Lu, J.; Rozgonyi, G.; Schindler, R.; Jonczyk, R.; Rand, J.

    2004-11-08

    X-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF), x-ray beam induced current (XBIC), and x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy (mu-XAS) were performed on fully-processed Bay Six cast multicrystalline silicon and aluminum-gettered AstroPower Silicon-Film(TM) sheet material. Over ten iron precipitates--predominantly of iron silicide--were identified at low lifetime regions in both materials, both at grain boundaries and intragranular defects identified by XBIC. In addition, large (micron-sized) particles containing oxidized iron and other impurities (Ca, Cr, Mn) were found in BaySix material. The smaller iron silicide precipitates were more numerous and spatially distributed than their larger oxidized iron counterparts, and thus deemed more detrimental to minority carrier diffusion length.

  15. Development of capacitance-based and impedance-based wireless sensors and sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenas, David D. L.; Flynn, Eric B.; Todd, Michael D.; Overly, Timothy G.; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.

    2010-06-01

    A field demonstration of a new and hybrid wireless sensing network paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM) is presented. In this paradigm, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to each sensor node to perform individual interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of traditional sensing networks. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which will be used to interrogate capacitive-based and impedance-based sensors for SHM applications. The capacitive-based wireless sensor node is specifically built to collect peak displacement measurements. In addition, a wireless sensor node for collecting electromechanical impedance data has also been developed. Both sensor nodes are specifically designed to accept various power sources and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis so that they can be used for the hybrid sensing network approach. The capabilities of these miniaturized and portable devices are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field, which was performed at the Alamosa Canyon Bridge in southern New Mexico.

  16. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  17. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions. PMID:25171121

  18. Engineering Paper-Based Sensors for Zika Virus

    DOE PAGES

    Meagher, Robert J.; Negrete, Oscar A.; Van Rompay, Koen K.

    2016-05-30

    The emergence of Zika virus in Latin America has created an urgent need for new, simple yet sensitive diagnostic tests. We highlight recent work using paper-based sensors coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 to detect Zika RNA, as a new approach to rapid development and deployment of field-ready diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases.

  19. Recent Electrochemical and Optical Sensors in Flow-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chailapakul, Orawon; Ngamukot, Passapol; Yoosamran, Alongkorn; Siangproh, Weena; Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn

    2006-01-01

    Some recent analytical sensors based on electrochemical and optical detection coupled with different flow techniques have been chosen in this overview. A brief description of fundamental concepts and applications of each flow technique, such as flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA), batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA (MSFIA), and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) were reviewed.

  20. Engineering Paper-Based Sensors for Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Robert J; Negrete, Oscar A; Van Rompay, Koen K

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Latin America and Southeast Asia has created an urgent need for new, simple, yet sensitive, diagnostic tests. We highlight recent work using paper-based sensors coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 to detect ZIKV RNA as a new approach to achieve rapid development and deployment of field-ready diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  2. Real-Time, Sensor-Based Computing in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badmus, O. O.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of Real-Time, Sensor-Based (RTSB) computing and how it can be easily and effectively integrated into university student laboratories. Describes the experimental processes, the process instrumentation and process-computer interface, the computer and communications systems, and typical software. Provides much technical…

  3. Biometrics based novel key distribution solution for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    The security of wireless body sensor network (BSN) is very important to telemedicine and m-healthcare, and it still remains a critical challenge. This paper presents a novel key distribution solution which allows two sensors in one BSN to agree on a changeable cryptographic key. A previously published scheme, fuzzy vault, is firstly applied to secure the random cryptographic key generated from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Simulations based on ECG data from MIT PhysioBank database, produce a minimum half total error rate (HTER) of 0.65%, which demonstrates our key distribution solution is promising compared with previous method, with HTER of 4.26%. PMID:19964960

  4. Biometrics based novel key distribution solution for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    The security of wireless body sensor network (BSN) is very important to telemedicine and m-healthcare, and it still remains a critical challenge. This paper presents a novel key distribution solution which allows two sensors in one BSN to agree on a changeable cryptographic key. A previously published scheme, fuzzy vault, is firstly applied to secure the random cryptographic key generated from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Simulations based on ECG data from MIT PhysioBank database, produce a minimum half total error rate (HTER) of 0.65%, which demonstrates our key distribution solution is promising compared with previous method, with HTER of 4.26%.

  5. VCSEL-based flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Yoon, Jongseung

    2016-03-01

    Flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors based on microscale vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (micro-VCSELs) and silicon photodiodes (Si-PDs) are demonstrated, where arrays of 850 nm micro-VCSELs and thin film Si-PDs are heterogeneously integrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by transfer printing, in conjunction with elastomeric fluidic channel. Enabled with optical isolation trenches together with wavelength- and angle-selective spectral filters implemented to suppress the absorption of excitation light, the integrated flexible fluorescence sensors exhibited significantly enhanced signal-to-background ratio, resulting in a maximum sensitivity of 5 × 10-5 wt% of infrared-absorbing organic dyes.

  6. Ultrafast response sensor to formaldehyde gas based on metal oxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, N-J; Lee, H-K; Moon, S E; Kim, J; Yang, W S

    2014-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on indium oxide were fabricated on Si substrate. The sensing materials on Si substrate were characterized using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and so on. They were very fine and uniform and we found out that particle sizes were about 20~30 nm through XRD analysis. Gas responses of fabricated sensors were measured in a chamber where gas flow was controlled by mass flow controller (MFC). Their resistance changes were monitored in real time by using data acquisition board and personal computer. Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. Particularly, the sensors showed responses to formaldehyde gas at sub ppm (cf, standard of natural environment in building is about 80 ppb by ministry of environment in Korea), as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repetition, selectivity, response speed and reproducibility of the sensors. The lowest detection limit is HCHO 25 ppb and sensitivity at 800 ppb is over 25% at 350 °C operating temperature. The response time (8 s) and recovery time (15 s) to HCHO gas at 200 ppb were very fast compared to other commercial products in flow type measurement condition. Repetition measurement was very good with ±3% in full measurement range. The fabricated metal oxide gas sensor showed good performance to HCHO gas and proved that it could be adaptable to indoor environment in building. PMID:25936006

  7. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed. PMID:25232915

  8. Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell; Jordan, Jeffrey; Oglesby, Donald; Watkins, Anthony; Patry, JoAnne; Smits, Jan; Williams, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) can be embedded in structures of all geometries to monitor conditions both inside and at the surface of the structure to continuously sense changes. These CNTs can be manipulated into specific orientations to create small, powerful, and flexible sensors. One of the sensors is a highly flexible sensor for crack growth detection and strain field mapping that features a very dense and highly ordered array of single-walled CNTs. CNT structural health sensors can be mass-produced, are inexpensive, can be packaged in small sizes (0.5 micron(sup 2)), require less power than electronic or piezoelectric transducers, and produce less waste heat per square centimeter than electronic or piezoelectric transducers. Chemically functionalized lithographic patterns are used to deposit and align the CNTs onto metallic electrodes. This method consistently produces aligned CNTs in the defined locations. Using photo- and electron-beam lithography, simple Cr/Au thin-film circuits are patterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The samples are then re-patterned with a CNT-attracting, self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to delineate the desired CNT locations between electrodes. During the deposition of the solution-suspended single- wall CNTs, the application of an electric field to the metallic contacts causes alignment of the CNTs along the field direction. This innovation is a prime candidate for smart skin technologies with applications ranging from military, to aerospace, to private industry.

  9. Planar integrated polymer-based optical strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelb, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present a new type of optical strain sensor that can be manufactured by MEMS typical processes such as photolithography or by hot embossing. Such sensors can be of interest for a range of new applications in structural health monitoring for buildings and aircraft, process control and life science. The approach aims at high sensitivity and dynamic range for 1D and 2D sensing of mechanical strain and can also be extended to quantities such as pressure, force, and humidity. The sensor consists of an array of planar polymer-based multimode waveguides whose output light is guided through a measurement area and focused onto a second array of smaller detection waveguides by using micro-optical elements. Strain induced in the measurement area varies the distance between the two waveguide arrays, thus, changing the coupling efficiency. This, in turn, leads to a variation in output intensity or wavelength which is monitored. We performed extensive optical simulations in order to identify the optimal sensor layout with regard to either resolution or measurement range or both. Since the initial approach relies on manufacturing polymer waveguides with cross sections between 20×20 μm2 and 100×100 μm2 the simulations were carried out using raytracing models. For the readout of the sensor a simple fitting algorithm is proposed.

  10. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  11. Sensor-based fine telemanipulation for space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrenucci, M.; Bergamasco, M.; Dario, P.

    1989-01-01

    The control of a multifingered hand slave in order to accurately exert arbitrary forces and impart small movements to a grasped object is, at present, a knotty problem in teleoperation. Although a number of articulated robotic hands have been proposed in the recent past for dexterous manipulation in autonomous robots, the possible use of such hands as slaves in teleoperated manipulation is hindered by the present lack of sensors in those hands, and (even if those sensors were available) by the inherent difficulty of transmitting to the master operator the complex sensations elicited by such sensors at the slave level. An analysis of different problems related to sensor-based telemanipulation is presented. The general sensory systems requirements for dexterous slave manipulators are pointed out and the description of a practical sensory system set-up for the developed robotic system is presented. The problem of feeding back to the human master operator stimuli that can be interpreted by his central nervous system as originated during real dexterous manipulation is then considered. Finally, some preliminary work aimed at developing an instrumented glove designed purposely for commanding the master operation and incorporating Kevlar tendons and tension sensors, is discussed.

  12. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Whiteside, B. J.; Beek, T. J.; Fox, P.; Horbury, T. S.; Oddy, T. M.; Archer, M. O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sanz-Hernández, D.; Sample, J. G.; Cupido, E.; O'Brien, H.; Carr, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45 000 nT ambient field.

  13. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. G.; Neves, L. A.; Pinto, A. R.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Valêncio, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%.

  14. Highly sensitive DNA sensor based on polypyrrole nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Anh Tuan; Duc, Thanh Pham; Thi, Xuan Chu; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Nguyen, Hoang Hai

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a DNA sensor based on polypyrrole nanowire. By using potentiostatic technique, in the presence of gelatin as the soft mold, the polypyrrole nanowires were synthesized on the surface of the micro-sensor. The surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy shows that the Nsbnd H ends of the polypyrrole nanowires orientate upward from the surface facilitating the DNA probe immobilization through the simple linkage with the phosphate groups of the probe DNA. The label-free signal readout was carried out by lock-in amplifier technique. The response time of the DNA sensor is 10 s and the measurement time was 5 min. The lowest detectable concentration of Escherichia coli DNA was 0.1 nM.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of a Nanocoax-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, Binod; Archibald, Michelle M.; Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Connolly, Timothy; Shepard, Stephen C.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    We used an imprint lithography process to fabricate three dimensional electrochemical sensors comprising arrays of vertically-oriented coaxial electrodes, with the coax cores and shields serving as working and counter electrodes, respectively, and with nanoscale separation gaps.[2] Arrays of devices with different electrode gaps (coax annuli) were prepared, yielding increasing sensitivity with decreasing annulus thickness. A coax-based sensor with a 100 nm annulus was found to have sensitivity 100 times greater than that of a conventional planar sensor control, which had millimeter-scale electrode gap spacing. We suggest that this enhancement is due to an increase in the diffusion of molecules between electrodes, which improves the current per unit surface area compared to the planar device. Supported by NIH (National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases).

  16. Pressure sensor based on flexible photonic crystal membrane.

    PubMed

    Karrock, Torben; Gerken, Martina

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a pressure sensor based on deformation of a periodically nanostructured Bragg grating waveguide on a flexible 50 µm polydimethylsiloxane membrane and remote optical read out. A pressure change causes deformation of this 2 mm diameter photonic crystal membrane sealing a reference volume. The resulting shift of the guided mode resonances is observed by a remote camera as localized color change. Crossed polarization filters are employed for enhancing the visibility of the guided mode resonances. Pressure values are calculated from the intensity change in the green color channel using a calibration curve in the range of 2000 Pa to 4000 Pa. A limit of detection (LOD) of 160 Pa is estimated. This LOD combined with the small size of the sensor and its biocompatibility render it promising for application as an implantable intraocular pressure sensor. PMID:26713204

  17. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-04-23

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors. PMID:22778599

  19. Acoustic vibration sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ben; Li, Yi; Sun, Miao; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Dong, Xin-Yong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan; Jin, Shang-Zhong

    2012-11-15

    A simple and low-cost vibration sensor based on single-mode nonadiabatic fiber tapers is proposed and demonstrated. The environmental vibrations can be detected by demodulating the transmission loss of the nonadiabatic fiber taper. Theoretical simulations show that the transmission loss is related to the microbending of the fiber taper induced by vibrations. Unlike interferometric sensors, this vibration sensor does not need any feedback loop to control the quadrature point to obtain a stable performance. In addition, it has no requirement for the coherence of the light source and is insensitive to temperature changes. Experimental results show that this sensing system has a wide frequency response range from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz with the maximal signal to noise ratio up to 73 dB.

  20. Pressure sensor based on flexible photonic crystal membrane.

    PubMed

    Karrock, Torben; Gerken, Martina

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a pressure sensor based on deformation of a periodically nanostructured Bragg grating waveguide on a flexible 50 µm polydimethylsiloxane membrane and remote optical read out. A pressure change causes deformation of this 2 mm diameter photonic crystal membrane sealing a reference volume. The resulting shift of the guided mode resonances is observed by a remote camera as localized color change. Crossed polarization filters are employed for enhancing the visibility of the guided mode resonances. Pressure values are calculated from the intensity change in the green color channel using a calibration curve in the range of 2000 Pa to 4000 Pa. A limit of detection (LOD) of 160 Pa is estimated. This LOD combined with the small size of the sensor and its biocompatibility render it promising for application as an implantable intraocular pressure sensor.

  1. Pressure sensor based on flexible photonic crystal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Karrock, Torben; Gerken, Martina

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a pressure sensor based on deformation of a periodically nanostructured Bragg grating waveguide on a flexible 50 µm polydimethylsiloxane membrane and remote optical read out. A pressure change causes deformation of this 2 mm diameter photonic crystal membrane sealing a reference volume. The resulting shift of the guided mode resonances is observed by a remote camera as localized color change. Crossed polarization filters are employed for enhancing the visibility of the guided mode resonances. Pressure values are calculated from the intensity change in the green color channel using a calibration curve in the range of 2000 Pa to 4000 Pa. A limit of detection (LOD) of 160 Pa is estimated. This LOD combined with the small size of the sensor and its biocompatibility render it promising for application as an implantable intraocular pressure sensor. PMID:26713204

  2. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Whiteside, B J; Beek, T J; Fox, P; Horbury, T S; Oddy, T M; Archer, M O; Eastwood, J P; Sanz-Hernández, D; Sample, J G; Cupido, E; O'Brien, H; Carr, C M

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45,000 nT ambient field.

  3. A temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with a microwave temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator whose dielectric medium is a cylindrical sapphire crystal. The performance as temperature sensor were investigated a three WGMs resonant frequencies over the temperature range from -40 °C to 85 °C. It was found that the quality factor for these WGMs can be in excess of 1.7ṡ105, potentially enabling high-resolution measurements. The temperature repeatability, stability, hysteresis, frequency-vs-temperature sensitivity of the WGM temperature sensor are reported. Moreover, two sapphires, which have the same nominal characteristics, were investigated in order to assess the system reproducibility and the results reported.

  4. Chain-Based Communication in Cylindrical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Nadeem; Jafri, Mohsin Raza; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate network design is very significant for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Application-oriented UWSNs are planned to achieve certain objectives. Therefore, there is always a demand for efficient data routing schemes, which can fulfill certain requirements of application-oriented UWSNs. These networks can be of any shape, i.e., rectangular, cylindrical or square. In this paper, we propose chain-based routing schemes for application-oriented cylindrical networks and also formulate mathematical models to find a global optimum path for data transmission. In the first scheme, we devise four interconnected chains of sensor nodes to perform data communication. In the second scheme, we propose routing scheme in which two chains of sensor nodes are interconnected, whereas in third scheme single-chain based routing is done in cylindrical networks. After finding local optimum paths in separate chains, we find global optimum paths through their interconnection. Moreover, we develop a computational model for the analysis of end-to-end delay. We compare the performance of the above three proposed schemes with that of Power Efficient Gathering System in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) and Congestion adjusted PEGASIS (C-PEGASIS). Simulation results show that our proposed 4-chain based scheme performs better than the other selected schemes in terms of network lifetime, end-to-end delay, path loss, transmission loss, and packet sending rate. PMID:25658394

  5. Magnetic field sensor using a polymer-based vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Hasebe, Kazuhiko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    In this technical note, a polymer-based magnetic sensor with a high resolution was devised for sensing the high magnetic field. It consisted of a bimorph (vibrator) made of poly (phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and a phosphor-bronze foil glued on the free end of the bimorph. According to Faraday’s law of induction, when a magnetic field in the direction perpendicular to the bimorph was applied, the foil cut the magnetic flux, and generated an alternating voltage across the leads at the natural frequency of the bimorph. Because PPS has low mechanical loss, low elastic modulus, and low density, high vibration velocity can be achieved if it is employed as the elastomer of the bimorph. The devised sensor was tested in the magnetic field range of 0.1–570 mT and exhibited a minimum detectable magnetic field of 0.1 mT. At a zero-to-peak driving voltage of 60 V, the sensitivity of the PPS-based magnetic sensor reached 10.5 V T‑1, which was 1.36 times the value of the aluminum-based magnetic sensor with the same principle and dimensions.

  6. Chain-based communication in cylindrical underwater wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Nadeem; Jafri, Mohsin Raza; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate network design is very significant for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Application-oriented UWSNs are planned to achieve certain objectives. Therefore, there is always a demand for efficient data routing schemes, which can fulfill certain requirements of application-oriented UWSNs. These networks can be of any shape, i.e., rectangular, cylindrical or square. In this paper, we propose chain-based routing schemes for application-oriented cylindrical networks and also formulate mathematical models to find a global optimum path for data transmission. In the first scheme, we devise four interconnected chains of sensor nodes to perform data communication. In the second scheme, we propose routing scheme in which two chains of sensor nodes are interconnected, whereas in third scheme single-chain based routing is done in cylindrical networks. After finding local optimum paths in separate chains, we find global optimum paths through their interconnection. Moreover, we develop a computational model for the analysis of end-to-end delay. We compare the performance of the above three proposed schemes with that of Power Efficient Gathering System in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) and Congestion adjusted PEGASIS (C-PEGASIS). Simulation results show that our proposed 4-chain based scheme performs better than the other selected schemes in terms of network lifetime, end-to-end delay, path loss, transmission loss, and packet sending rate.

  7. Graphene-based composite sensors for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadhari, S.; Graves, A. R.; Cain, M. V.; Stinespring, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The long range objectives of this research are to develop and demonstrate the use of graphene-nanoparticle composites as a high sensitivity, rapid response electronic nose for gas sensing in energy applications. Graphene based device structures suitable for temperatures as high as 1000 °C are targeted. The scope of work includes: a) development of procedures for controllable nucleation and growth of nanoparticles on graphene surfaces, b) fabrication graphene-nanoparticle composite sensors, c) measurement of electrical properties of graphene-nanoparticle composites, and d) determination of sensor characteristics (selectivity and sensitivity). The graphene films are synthesized on 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces using a halogen based plasma etching followed by rapid thermal annealing in atmospheric pressure Ar or under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Lithography free methods are then used to produce simple sensor structures consisting of interdigitated fingers. This is followed by the nucleation of either Ag, Au, Pt, or Ir nanoparticles on the graphene surfaces using solution based techniques. Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize the particle size distribution of the nucleated nanoparticles. Electrical properties of the graphene and graphenenanoparticle composites are characterized using two point current-voltage measurements. Gas sensor response as a function of temperature is characterized for H2 in Ar gas mixtures.

  8. Magnetic field sensor using a polymer-based vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Hasebe, Kazuhiko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    In this technical note, a polymer-based magnetic sensor with a high resolution was devised for sensing the high magnetic field. It consisted of a bimorph (vibrator) made of poly (phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and a phosphor-bronze foil glued on the free end of the bimorph. According to Faraday’s law of induction, when a magnetic field in the direction perpendicular to the bimorph was applied, the foil cut the magnetic flux, and generated an alternating voltage across the leads at the natural frequency of the bimorph. Because PPS has low mechanical loss, low elastic modulus, and low density, high vibration velocity can be achieved if it is employed as the elastomer of the bimorph. The devised sensor was tested in the magnetic field range of 0.1-570 mT and exhibited a minimum detectable magnetic field of 0.1 mT. At a zero-to-peak driving voltage of 60 V, the sensitivity of the PPS-based magnetic sensor reached 10.5 V T-1, which was 1.36 times the value of the aluminum-based magnetic sensor with the same principle and dimensions.

  9. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    chemiresistor device and used as a chemical sensor, where its resistance is temporarily modified while exposed to chemical compounds. The inherent, broad selective nature of graphene is demonstrated by testing a sensor against a diverse set of volatile organic compounds and also against a set of chemically similar compounds. The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and is capable of achieving high classification accuracies. The kinetics of the sensor's response are further investigated revealing a relationship between the transient behavior of the response curve and physiochemical properties of the compounds, such as the molar mass and vapor pressure. This kinetic information is also shown to provide important information for further pattern recognition and classification, which is demonstrated by increased classification accuracy of very similar compounds. Covalent modification of the graphene surface is demonstrated by means of plasma treatment and free radical exchange, and sensing performance compared to an unmodified graphene sensor. Finally, the first example of a graphene-based, cross-reactive chemical sensor array is demonstrated by applying various polymers as coatings over an array of graphene sensors. The sensor array is tested against a variety of compounds, including the complex odor of Scotch whiskies, where it is capable of perfect classification of 10 Scotch whiskey variations.

  10. Development of a soil detector based on an optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lihua; Pan, Luan; Li, Minzan; An, Xiaofei

    2008-12-01

    An estimation model of the soil organic matter content has been built based on NIR spectroscopy and a portable soil organic matter detector based on optical sensor is developed. The detector uses a micro processor 89S52 as the Micro Controller Unit (MCU) and consists of an optical system and a control system. The optical system includes a 850nm near-infrared lamp-house, a lamp-house driving-circuit, a Y type optical fiber, a probe, and a photoelectric sensor. The control system includes an amplified circuit, an A/D circuit, a display circuit with LCD, and a storage circuit with USB interface. Firstly the single waveband optical signal from the near-infrared lamp-house is transferred to the surface of the target soil via the incidence fibers. Then the reflected optical signal is collected and transferred to photoelectric sensor, where the optical signal is conveyed to the electrical signal. Subsequently, the obtained electrical signal is processed by 89S52 MCU. Finally, the calculated soil organic matter content is displayed on the LCD and stored in the USB disk. The calibration experiment using the estimation model of the soil organic matter is conducted. The decision coefficient (R2) reaches 0.9839 between the measured data by the soil organic matter sensor and by the laboratory chemistry method.

  11. Silica-optical-fiber-based rare-earth-doped sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Wade, Scott A.; Forsyth, David

    2001-10-01

    This paper reports on work done with a range of silica fibres, doped with several important rare earth ions such as Er, Nd, Yb and Tm, to create a range of novel optical sensors. The approach reported herein is based on monitoring and analysis of the fluorescence decay from such fibres in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. With these fibres, temperature sensors operating in the range from as low as -200 degree(s)C to beyond 1000 degree(s)C have been constructed. A temperature resolution of the order of a few degrees Celsius has been typically reported from these types of sensors. Fibre of this type has been used in a simple yet effective structural integrity monitoring system (being incorporated successfully into concrete samples) and an optical fire alarm system with potential applications for engine monitoring has been developed. A further recent discovery is a small level of strain sensitivity in such fibres - this has been explored over the region from 0 to 2000(mu) e, showing a level of resolution better than a few tens of microstrain, and sensors based on this effect are discussed and reported on in this work.

  12. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  13. Chemical switch based reusable dual optoelectronic sensor for nitrite.

    PubMed

    Vishnuvardhan, V; Kala, R; Prasada Rao, T

    2008-08-01

    An optical sensor was developed for sensing of nitrite based on the monotonous decrease in absorbance of Rhodamine 6G at 525 nm (the absorbance maximum of dye) with increasing concentration of nitrite. This sensor also permits naked eye detection. Various parameters like concentrations of sulphuric acid and Rhodamine 6G, response time and stability were varied and optimal conditions are reported. Under these conditions, the developed sensor enables the determination of nitrite in the concentration range 0-12.18 micromol L(-1). The nitrite response is selective as 60-2.5x10(5) fold amounts of several anions and cations have no deleterious effect. The addition of nitrite to Rhodamine 6G dye causes hypsochromic shift from 525 to 385 nm while several other anions like I(-), SCN(-), ClO(4)(-), [HgI(4)](2-) and [Zn (SCN)(4)](2-) showed a bathochromatic shift from 525 to 575 nm. The sequential addition of nitrite and sulphamic to Rhodamine 6G in 0.75 mol L(-1) sulphuric acid solution results in switching of "ON" and "OFF" absorbance. The time elapse and concentration of sulphamic acid required for chemical switching was also established. Similar "ON" and "OFF" switching behaviour was observed in fluorescence studies also. This enabled the design and development of reusable chemical switch based dual optoelectronic sensor, for monitoring of traces of nitrite in environmental and food samples. The plausible mechanism for above switching behaviour is also proposed.

  14. A low-cost digital image correlation based constitutive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Gun-Jin; Shang, Shen; Kunchum, Shilpa; Carletta, Joan; Nam, Si-Byung

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a low-cost digital image correlation-based constitutive sensor with a novel identification algorithm that is deployable and scalable in the field is proposed. The term 'constitutive sensor' is coined herein to describe a sensor that is capable of determining the target material constitutive parameters. The proposed method is different from existing identification methods in that it does not need to solve boundary value problems of the target materials using updated parameters. Since the development of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique in the 1980s, the DIC technique has been broadly evaluated and improved for measuring full-field displacements of test specimens, mainly in laboratory settings. Although its potential in damage and mechanical identification is immense, the high cost of current commercial DIC systems makes it difficult to apply the DIC technique to in-field health monitoring of structures. To realize a first ever application of DIC in the field, a prototypical low-cost sensing unit consisting of a high performance embedded microprocessor board, a low-cost web camera, and a communication module is suggested. In the proposed constitutive sensor, DIC displacement fields considered as true values are used in computing stress fields satisfying the equilibrium condition and strain fields using finite element concepts. The unknown constitutive law is initially assumed to be fully anisotropic and linear elastic. A steady state genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the material parameters by minimizing a cost function that measures energy residuals. The main features that allow the sensor to be deployable in the field are introduced, and a validation of the proposed constitutive sensor concept using synthetic data is presented.

  15. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  16. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental

  17. Monitoring and Control Interface Based on Virtual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Ricardo F.; Adam-Medina, Manuel; García-Beltrán, Carlos D.; Olivares-Peregrino, Víctor H.; Juárez-Romero, David; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a toolbox based on a monitoring and control interface (MCI) is presented and applied in a heat exchanger. The MCI was programed in order to realize sensor fault detection and isolation and fault tolerance using virtual sensors. The virtual sensors were designed from model-based high-gain observers. To develop the control task, different kinds of control laws were included in the monitoring and control interface. These control laws are PID, MPC and a non-linear model-based control law. The MCI helps to maintain the heat exchanger under operation, even if a temperature outlet sensor fault occurs; in the case of outlet temperature sensor failure, the MCI will display an alarm. The monitoring and control interface is used as a practical tool to support electronic engineering students with heat transfer and control concepts to be applied in a double-pipe heat exchanger pilot plant. The method aims to teach the students through the observation and manipulation of the main variables of the process and by the interaction with the monitoring and control interface (MCI) developed in LabVIEW©. The MCI provides the electronic engineering students with the knowledge of heat exchanger behavior, since the interface is provided with a thermodynamic model that approximates the temperatures and the physical properties of the fluid (density and heat capacity). An advantage of the interface is the easy manipulation of the actuator for an automatic or manual operation. Another advantage of the monitoring and control interface is that all algorithms can be manipulated and modified by the users. PMID:25365462

  18. Monitoring and control interface based on virtual sensors.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Ricardo F; Adam-Medina, Manuel; García-Beltrán, Carlos D; Olivares-Peregrino, Víctor H; Juárez-Romero, David; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo V

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a toolbox based on a monitoring and control interface (MCI) is presented and applied in a heat exchanger. The MCI was programed in order to realize sensor fault detection and isolation and fault tolerance using virtual sensors. The virtual sensors were designed from model-based high-gain observers. To develop the control task, different kinds of control laws were included in the monitoring and control interface. These control laws are PID, MPC and a non-linear model-based control law. The MCI helps to maintain the heat exchanger under operation, even if a temperature outlet sensor fault occurs; in the case of outlet temperature sensor failure, the MCI will display an alarm. The monitoring and control interface is used as a practical tool to support electronic engineering students with heat transfer and control concepts to be applied in a double-pipe heat exchanger pilot plant. The method aims to teach the students through the observation and manipulation of the main variables of the process and by the interaction with the monitoring and control interface (MCI) developed in LabVIEW©. The MCI provides the electronic engineering students with the knowledge of heat exchanger behavior, since the interface is provided with a thermodynamic model that approximates the temperatures and the physical properties of the fluid (density and heat capacity). An advantage of the interface is the easy manipulation of the actuator for an automatic or manual operation. Another advantage of the monitoring and control interface is that all algorithms can be manipulated and modified by the users. PMID:25365462

  19. Fundamentals of Enzyme-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bondi, María C.; Benito-Peña, Elena

    One of the mayor outbreaks in the development of analytical measurement techniques was the introduction, in the mid-twentieth century, of bioprobes for the analysis of chemical and biochemical compounds in real samples. The first devices, developed in the 1950's and 1960's by Clark et al. were based on electrochemical measurements and allowed the determination of oxygen and glucose in tissues and blood samples. Later on, in the 1970's, optical transduction was coupled to enzymatically-catalyzed reactions3 and since those early days the field of application of optical biosensors has broaden up considerably. According to the definition proposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC): "A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element (biochemical receptor) which is in direct spatial contact with a transducer element. A biosensor should be clearly distinguished from a bioanalytical system, which requires additional processing steps, such as reagent addition. Furthermore, a biosensor should be distinguished from a bioprobe which is either disposable after one measurement, i.e. single use, or unable to continuously monitor the analyte concentration". The general scheme of a biosensor configuration is shown in Figure 1. Biosensors that include transducers based on integrated circuit microchips are known as biochips.

  20. A satellite-based radar wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Weizhuang

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing process, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds, are discussed along with their computer simulations. In addition, algorithms for measuring mean frequency of radar echoes, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator, the covariance estimator, and the estimators based on autoregressive models, are discussed. Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to compare the performance of these algorithms. Anti-alias methods are discussed for the FFT and the autoregressive methods. Several algorithms for reducing radar ambiguity were studied, such as random phase coding methods and staggered pulse repitition frequncy (PRF) methods. Computer simulations showed that these methods are not applicable to the RAWS because of the broad spectral widths of the radar echoes from clouds. A waveform modulation method using the concept of spread spectrum and correlation detection was developed to solve the radar ambiguity. Radar ambiguity functions were used to analyze the effective signal-to-noise ratios for the waveform modulation method. The results showed that, with suitable bandwidth product and modulation of the waveform, this method can achieve the desired maximum range and maximum frequency of the radar system.

  1. Mobile phone based electrochemiluminescence detection in paper-based microfluidic sensors.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Jacqui L; Hogan, Conor F

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, inexpensive paper-based sensors for medical diagnostics and other applications is now an important emerging area in the field of biosensors; however, the electronic instrument or reader used to interrogate such sensors adds significantly to the cost of the analysis. In this chapter we describe the design and construction of novel, low-cost disposable electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensors based on screen printed carbon electrodes and paper-based microfluidics. Moreover, a method to interrogate these sensors using only a mobile phone is articulated. This is realized by exploiting the audio output of the device to achieve electrochemical control, while using the camera to detect the resulting light emitted during the ECL reaction. The combination of cell phone technology with low-cost paper microfluidic sensors dramatically reduces the cost of sensing and has the potential to enhance health-care outcomes by exploiting the functionality, connectivity, and close to worldwide penetration of mobile phone technology. PMID:25626546

  2. Wheel-Based Ice Sensors for Road Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.; Carl, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Wheel-based sensors for detection of ice on roads and approximate measurement of the thickness of the ice are under development. These sensors could be used to alert drivers to hazardous local icing conditions in real time. In addition, local ice-thickness measurements by these sensors could serve as guidance for the minimum amount of sand and salt required to be dispensed locally onto road surfaces to ensure safety, thereby helping road crews to utilize their total supplies of sand and salt more efficiently. Like some aircraft wing-surface ice sensors described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the wheelbased ice sensors are based, variously, on measurements of changes in capacitance and/or in radio-frequency impedance as affected by ice on surfaces. In the case of ice on road surfaces, the measurable changes in capacitance and/or impedance are attributable to differences among the electric permittivities of air, ice, water, concrete, and soil. In addition, a related phenomenon that can be useful for distinguishing between ice and water is a specific transition in the permittivity of ice at a temperature- dependent frequency. This feature also provides a continuous calibration of the sensor to allow for changing road conditions. Several configurations of wheel-based ice sensors are under consideration. For example, in a simple two-electrode capacitor configuration, one of the electrodes would be a circumferential electrode within a tire, and the ground would be used as the second electrode. Optionally, the steel belts that are already standard parts of many tires could be used as the circumferential electrodes. In another example (see figure), multiple electrodes would be embedded in rubber between the steel belt and the outer tire surface. These electrodes would be excited in alternating polarities at one or more suitable audio or radio frequencies to provide nearly continuous monitoring of the road surface under the tire. In still another

  3. Using Custom Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensors to Monitor Artificial Landslides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Yangyang; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Pengchong; Yue, Yin

    2016-09-02

    Four custom fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors are developed to monitor an artificial landslide located in Nanjing, China. The sensors are composed of a rod and two FBGs. Based on the strength of the rods, two sensors are referred to as "hard sensors" (Sensor 1 and Sensor 2), the other two are referred to as "soft sensors" (Sensor 3 and Sensor 4). The two FBGs are fixed on each sensor rod at distances of 50 cm and 100 cm from the top of the rod (an upper FBG and a lower FBG). In the experiment presented in this paper, the sensors are installed on a slope on which an artificial landslide is generated through both machine-based and manual excavation. The fiber sensing system consists of the four custom FBG-based sensors, optical fiber, a static fiber grating demodulation instrument (SM125), and a PC with the necessary software. Experimental data was collected in the presence of an artificial landslide, and the results show that the lower FBGs are more sensitive than the upper FBGs for all four of the custom sensors. It was also found that Sensor 2 and Sensor 4 are more capable of monitoring small-scale landslides than Sensor 1 and Sensor 3, and this is mainly due to their placement location with respect to the landslide. The stronger rods used in the hard sensors make them more adaptable to the harsh environments of large landslides. Thus, hard sensors should be fixed near the landslide, while soft sensors should be placed farther away from the landslide. In addition, a clear tendency of strain variation can be detected by the soft sensors, which can be used to predict landslides and raise a hazard alarm.

  4. Using Custom Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensors to Monitor Artificial Landslides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Yangyang; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Pengchong; Yue, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Four custom fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors are developed to monitor an artificial landslide located in Nanjing, China. The sensors are composed of a rod and two FBGs. Based on the strength of the rods, two sensors are referred to as "hard sensors" (Sensor 1 and Sensor 2), the other two are referred to as "soft sensors" (Sensor 3 and Sensor 4). The two FBGs are fixed on each sensor rod at distances of 50 cm and 100 cm from the top of the rod (an upper FBG and a lower FBG). In the experiment presented in this paper, the sensors are installed on a slope on which an artificial landslide is generated through both machine-based and manual excavation. The fiber sensing system consists of the four custom FBG-based sensors, optical fiber, a static fiber grating demodulation instrument (SM125), and a PC with the necessary software. Experimental data was collected in the presence of an artificial landslide, and the results show that the lower FBGs are more sensitive than the upper FBGs for all four of the custom sensors. It was also found that Sensor 2 and Sensor 4 are more capable of monitoring small-scale landslides than Sensor 1 and Sensor 3, and this is mainly due to their placement location with respect to the landslide. The stronger rods used in the hard sensors make them more adaptable to the harsh environments of large landslides. Thus, hard sensors should be fixed near the landslide, while soft sensors should be placed farther away from the landslide. In addition, a clear tendency of strain variation can be detected by the soft sensors, which can be used to predict landslides and raise a hazard alarm. PMID:27598163

  5. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional electro-optical (EO) imaging payloads consist of an optical telescope to collect the light from the object scene and map the photons to an image plane to be digitized by a focal plane detector array. The size, weight, and power (SWaP) for the traditional EO imager is dominated by the optical telescope, driven primarily by the large optics, large stiff structures, and the thermal control needed to maintain precision free-space optical alignments. We propose a non-traditional Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for EO Reconnaissance (SPIDER) imager concept that is designed to substantially reduce SWaP, by at least an order of magnitude. SPIDER maximizes performance by providing a larger effective diameter (resolution) while minimizing mass and cost. SPIDER replaces the traditional optical telescope and digital focal plane detector array with a densely packed interferometer array based on emerging photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies. Lenslets couple light from the object into a set of waveguides on a PIC. Light from each lenslet is distributed among different waveguides by both field angle and optical frequency, and the lenslets are paired up to form unique interferometer baselines by combining light from different waveguides. The complex spatial coherence of the object (for each field angle, frequency, and baseline) is measured with a balanced four quadrature detection scheme. By the Van-Cittert Zernike Theorem, each measurement corresponds to a unique Fourier component of the incoherent object intensity distribution. Finally, an image reconstruction algorithm is used to invert all the data and form an image. Our approach replaces the large optics and structures required by a conventional telescope with PICs that are accommodated by standard lithographic fabrication techniques (e.g., CMOS fabrication). The standard EO payload integration and test process which involves precision alignment and test of optical components to form a diffraction

  6. Sensor-based actuation of water samplers in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Burgener, D.; Beutel, J.; Wombacher, A.; Seibert, J.

    2012-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have started to change environmental monitoring, and as such, real-time sensor data are available in high temporal and spatial resolution. However, sampling of water bodies and the analysis of these samples in the lab will continue to be an essential part of environmental monitoring, as many parameters can only be analyzed with accurate precision in the lab. In a joint project of computer sciences, network engineering and environmental research we integrated an automated water sampler (ISCO 6712) as an actuator into a WSN. Based on the online interpretation of sensor data an actuation schedule for the sampling of water is generated. This actuation schedule is transferred to the water sampling unit for remote execution. Electric conductivity (EC) was chosen as a proxy parameter for water origin (e.g. groundwater or river water in alluvial systems) and thus for changes in stable isotopes and water quality. The onset of river water infiltrating the observed section of the aquifer is detected by EC sampled at several locations and high temporal resolution (2min) using a stream based filtering technique rather than a simple signal threshold. The EC signal is continuously analyzed by the streaming filter defining a sampling event when the EC signal clearly leaves the boundaries of daily oscillation over given a time window. To cope with noise in the EC data, we implemented and evaluated different outlier detection algorithms and plausibility checks to actuate the automated water sampler at the onset of an event and then applying a static sampling scheme. As a next step, we are working on dynamic sampling schemes, which are based on stream processing algorithms predicting the peak and duration of EC events based on deconvolution and geostatistics (Cirpka 2007).

  7. MEMS based Low Cost Piezoresistive Microcantilever Force Sensor and Sensor Module

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, H. J.; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we report fabrication and characterization of a low-cost MEMS based piezoresistive micro-force sensor with SU-8 tip using laboratory made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. To prepare SOI wafer, silicon film (0.8 µm thick) was deposited on an oxidized silicon wafer using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were deposited in Argon (Ar) ambient without external substrate heating. The material characteristics of the sputtered deposited silicon film and silicon film annealed at different temperatures (400–1050°C) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The residual stress of the films was measured as a function of annealing temperature. The stress of the as-deposited films was observed to be compressive and annealing the film above 1050°C resulted in a tensile stress. The stress of the film decreased gradually with increase in annealing temperature. The fabricated cantilevers were 130 µm in length, 40 µm wide and 1.0 µm thick. A series of force-displacement curves were obtained using fabricated microcantilever with commercial AFM setup and the data were analyzed to get the spring constant and the sensitivity of the fabricated microcantilever. The measured spring constant and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.1488N/m and 2.7mV/N. The microcantilever force sensor was integrated with an electronic module that detects the change in resistance of the sensor with respect to the applied force and displays it on the computer screen. PMID:24855449

  8. MEMS based Low Cost Piezoresistive Microcantilever Force Sensor and Sensor Module.

    PubMed

    Pandya, H J; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we report fabrication and characterization of a low-cost MEMS based piezoresistive micro-force sensor with SU-8 tip using laboratory made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. To prepare SOI wafer, silicon film (0.8 µm thick) was deposited on an oxidized silicon wafer using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were deposited in Argon (Ar) ambient without external substrate heating. The material characteristics of the sputtered deposited silicon film and silicon film annealed at different temperatures (400-1050°C) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The residual stress of the films was measured as a function of annealing temperature. The stress of the as-deposited films was observed to be compressive and annealing the film above 1050°C resulted in a tensile stress. The stress of the film decreased gradually with increase in annealing temperature. The fabricated cantilevers were 130 µm in length, 40 µm wide and 1.0 µm thick. A series of force-displacement curves were obtained using fabricated microcantilever with commercial AFM setup and the data were analyzed to get the spring constant and the sensitivity of the fabricated microcantilever. The measured spring constant and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.1488N/m and 2.7mV/N. The microcantilever force sensor was integrated with an electronic module that detects the change in resistance of the sensor with respect to the applied force and displays it on the computer screen.

  9. Peristaltic pump-based low range pressure sensor calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Naveen Kumar, G.; Rajanna, K. E-mail: krajanna2011@gmail.com; Nayak, M. M.; Dinesh, N. S.

    2015-11-15

    Peristaltic pumps were normally used to pump liquids in several chemical and biological applications. In the present study, a peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber (positive as well negative pressures) using atmospheric air. In the present paper, we discuss the development and performance study of an automatic pressurization system to calibrate low range (millibar) pressure sensors. The system includes a peristaltic pump, calibrated pressure sensor (master sensor), pressure chamber, and the control electronics. An in-house developed peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber. A closed loop control system has been developed to detect and adjust the pressure leaks in the chamber. The complete system has been integrated into a portable product. The system performance has been studied for a step response and steady state errors. The system is portable, free from oil contaminants, and consumes less power compared to existing pressure calibration systems. The veracity of the system was verified by calibrating an unknown diaphragm based pressure sensor and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  10. Peristaltic pump-based low range pressure sensor calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Naveen Kumar, G.; Nayak, M. M.; Dinesh, N. S.; Rajanna, K.

    2015-11-01

    Peristaltic pumps were normally used to pump liquids in several chemical and biological applications. In the present study, a peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber (positive as well negative pressures) using atmospheric air. In the present paper, we discuss the development and performance study of an automatic pressurization system to calibrate low range (millibar) pressure sensors. The system includes a peristaltic pump, calibrated pressure sensor (master sensor), pressure chamber, and the control electronics. An in-house developed peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber. A closed loop control system has been developed to detect and adjust the pressure leaks in the chamber. The complete system has been integrated into a portable product. The system performance has been studied for a step response and steady state errors. The system is portable, free from oil contaminants, and consumes less power compared to existing pressure calibration systems. The veracity of the system was verified by calibrating an unknown diaphragm based pressure sensor and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  11. Micro-reactors for characterization of nanostructure-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savu, R.; Silveira, J. V.; Flacker, A.; Vaz, A. R.; Joanni, E.; Pinto, A. C.; Gobbi, A. L.; Santos, T. E. A.; Rotondaro, A. L. P.; Moshkalev, S. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fabrication and testing of micro-reactors for the characterization of nanosensors is presented in this work. The reactors have a small volume (100 μl) and are equipped with gas input/output channels. They were machined from a single piece of kovar in order to avoid leaks in the system due to additional welding. The contact pins were electrically insulated from the body of the reactor using a borosilicate sealing glass and the reactor was hermetically sealed using a lid and an elastomeric o-ring. One of the advantages of the reactor lies in its simple assembly and ease of use with any vacuum/gas system, allowing the connection of more than one device. Moreover, the lid can be modified in order to fit a window for in situ optical characterization. In order to prove its versatility, carbon nanotube-based sensors were tested using this micro-reactor. The devices were fabricated by depositing carbon nanotubes over 1 μm thick gold electrodes patterned onto Si/SiO2 substrates. The sensors were tested using oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres, in the pressure range between 10-5 and 10-1 mbar. The small chamber volume allowed the measurement of fast sensor characteristic times, with the sensors showing good sensitivity towards gas and pressure as well as high reproducibility.

  12. A batteryless temperature sensor based on high temperature sensitive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, Asma; Pelegri-Sebastia, José; Laghmich, Youssef; Lyhyaoui, Abdelouahid

    2016-05-01

    The major challenge in wireless sensor networks is the reduction of energy consumption. Passive wireless sensor network is an attractive solution for measuring physical parameters in harsh environment for large range of applications requiring sensing devices with low cost of fabrication, small size and long term measurement stability. Batteryless temperature sensing techniques are an active research field. The approach developed in our work holds a promising future for temperature sensor applications in order to successfully reduce the energy consumption. The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on the electromagnetic transduction principle using the integration of the high temperature sensitive material into a passive structure. Variation in temperature makes the dielectric constant of this material changing, and such modification induces variation in the resonant frequencies of high-Q whispering-gallery modes (WGM) in the millimeter-wave frequency range. Following the results achieved, the proposed device shows a linear response to the increasing temperature and these variations can be remotely detected from a radar interrogation. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  13. An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammed; Mandal, Sanghamitra; Manasreh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol-gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm(-1), matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM. PMID:26263988

  14. Compact hyperspectral image sensor based on a novel hyperspectral encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Alex N.; Martini, Joerg

    2015-06-01

    A novel hyperspectral imaging sensor is demonstrated that can enable breakthrough applications of hyperspectral imaging in domains not previously accessible. Our technology consists of a planar hyperspectral encoder combined with a traditional monochrome image sensor. The encoder adds negligibly to the sensor's overall size, weight, power requirement, and cost (SWaP-C); therefore, the new imager can be incorporated wherever image sensors are currently used, such as in cell phones and other consumer electronics. In analogy to Fourier spectroscopy, the technique maintains a high optical throughput because narrow-band spectral filters are unnecessary. Unlike conventional Fourier techniques that rely on Michelson interferometry, our hyperspectral encoder is robust to vibration and amenable to planar integration. The device can be viewed within a computational optics paradigm: the hardware is uncomplicated and serves to increase the information content of the acquired data, and the complexity of the system, that is, the decoding of the spectral information, is shifted to computation. Consequently, system tradeoffs, for example, between spectral resolution and imaging speed or spatial resolution, are selectable in software. Our prototype demonstration of the hyperspectral imager is based on a commercially-available silicon CCD. The prototype encoder was inserted within the camera's ~1 cu. in. housing. The prototype can image about 49 independent spectral bands distributed from 350 nm to 1250 nm, but the technology may be extendable over a wavelength range from ~300 nm to ~10 microns, with suitable choice of detector.

  15. Sensor-based architecture for medical imaging workflow analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Campos, Samuel; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of computer systems in medical institutions has been generating a tremendous quantity of data. While these data have a critical role in assisting physicians in the clinical practice, the information that can be extracted goes far beyond this utilization. This article proposes a platform capable of assembling multiple data sources within a medical imaging laboratory, through a network of intelligent sensors. The proposed integration framework follows a SOA hybrid architecture based on an information sensor network, capable of collecting information from several sources in medical imaging laboratories. Currently, the system supports three types of sensors: DICOM repository meta-data, network workflows and examination reports. Each sensor is responsible for converting unstructured information from data sources into a common format that will then be semantically indexed in the framework engine. The platform was deployed in the Cardiology department of a central hospital, allowing identification of processes' characteristics and users' behaviours that were unknown before the utilization of this solution. PMID:24957389

  16. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Based Triaxial Vibration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Qu, Yongzhi; Liu, Mingyao; Zhou, Zude

    2015-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing based triaxial vibration sensor has been presented in this paper. The optical fiber is directly employed as elastomer, and the triaxial vibration of a measured body can be obtained by two pairs of FBGs. A model of a triaxial vibration sensor as well as decoupling principles of triaxial vibration and experimental analyses are proposed. Experimental results show that: sensitivities of 86.9 pm/g, 971.8 pm/g and 154.7 pm/g for each orthogonal sensitive direction with linearity are separately 3.64%, 1.50% and 3.01%. The flat frequency ranges reside in 20-200 Hz, 3-20 Hz and 4-50 Hz, respectively; in addition, the resonant frequencies are separately 700 Hz, 40 Hz and 110 Hz in the x/y/z direction. When the sensor is excited in a single direction vibration, the outputs of sensor in the other two directions are consistent with the outputs in the non-working state. Therefore, it is effectively demonstrated that it can be used for three-dimensional vibration measurement. PMID:26393616

  17. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Based Triaxial Vibration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Qu, Yongzhi; Liu, Mingyao; Zhou, Zude

    2015-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing based triaxial vibration sensor has been presented in this paper. The optical fiber is directly employed as elastomer, and the triaxial vibration of a measured body can be obtained by two pairs of FBGs. A model of a triaxial vibration sensor as well as decoupling principles of triaxial vibration and experimental analyses are proposed. Experimental results show that: sensitivities of 86.9 pm/g, 971.8 pm/g and 154.7 pm/g for each orthogonal sensitive direction with linearity are separately 3.64%, 1.50% and 3.01%. The flat frequency ranges reside in 20–200 Hz, 3–20 Hz and 4–50 Hz, respectively; in addition, the resonant frequencies are separately 700 Hz, 40 Hz and 110 Hz in the x/y/z direction. When the sensor is excited in a single direction vibration, the outputs of sensor in the other two directions are consistent with the outputs in the non-working state. Therefore, it is effectively demonstrated that it can be used for three-dimensional vibration measurement. PMID:26393616

  18. An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammed; Mandal, Sanghamitra; Manasreh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol-gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm(-1), matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM.

  19. Optical fiber sensor for nitroaromatic explosives based on fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fenghong

    2010-10-01

    The detection of explosives and related compounds is important in both forensic and environmental applications. In this paper, we report on the preparation of novel plastic optical fiber explosive sensor based on fluorescence quenching. A low priced LED light source and PIN detector were used in this sensor system, a U-shaped plastic optical fiber with high sensitivity act as sensor head. We use amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) MEH-PPV as fluorescence indictor. MEHPPV was dip coated on to the surface of the U-shaped plastic optical fiber. For the first time as far as we know we detected the fluorescence lifetime by the phase-fluorometry method to measure the concentration of TNT, which has a merit of immunity to fluctuation of the light source and is more reliable than measuring intensity alone. In the experimental set-up the phase shift between excitation light and fluorescence is calculated by correlation method. Two degree phase difference was measured when the sensor head was exposed to TNT vapor and air in primary experiments.

  20. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  1. Peristaltic pump-based low range pressure sensor calibration system.

    PubMed

    Vinayakumar, K B; Naveen Kumar, G; Nayak, M M; Dinesh, N S; Rajanna, K

    2015-11-01

    Peristaltic pumps were normally used to pump liquids in several chemical and biological applications. In the present study, a peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber (positive as well negative pressures) using atmospheric air. In the present paper, we discuss the development and performance study of an automatic pressurization system to calibrate low range (millibar) pressure sensors. The system includes a peristaltic pump, calibrated pressure sensor (master sensor), pressure chamber, and the control electronics. An in-house developed peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber. A closed loop control system has been developed to detect and adjust the pressure leaks in the chamber. The complete system has been integrated into a portable product. The system performance has been studied for a step response and steady state errors. The system is portable, free from oil contaminants, and consumes less power compared to existing pressure calibration systems. The veracity of the system was verified by calibrating an unknown diaphragm based pressure sensor and the results obtained were satisfactory. PMID:26628178

  2. BIOME: An Ecosystem Remote Sensor Based on Imaging Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Hammer, Philip; Smith, William H.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Until recent times, optical remote sensing of ecosystem properties from space has been limited to broad band multispectral scanners such as Landsat and AVHRR. While these sensor data can be used to derive important information about ecosystem parameters, they are very limited for measuring key biogeochemical cycling parameters such as the chemical content of plant canopies. Such parameters, for example the lignin and nitrogen contents, are potentially amenable to measurements by very high spectral resolution instruments using a spectroscopic approach. Airborne sensors based on grating imaging spectrometers gave the first promise of such potential but the recent decision not to deploy the space version has left the community without many alternatives. In the past few years, advancements in high performance deep well digital sensor arrays coupled with a patented design for a two-beam interferometer has produced an entirely new design for acquiring imaging spectroscopic data at the signal to noise levels necessary for quantitatively estimating chemical composition (1000:1 at 2 microns). This design has been assembled as a laboratory instrument and the principles demonstrated for acquiring remote scenes. An airborne instrument is in production and spaceborne sensors being proposed. The instrument is extremely promising because of its low cost, lower power requirements, very low weight, simplicity (no moving parts), and high performance. For these reasons, we have called it the first instrument optimized for ecosystem studies as part of a Biological Imaging and Observation Mission to Earth (BIOME).

  3. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Based Triaxial Vibration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Qu, Yongzhi; Liu, Mingyao; Zhou, Zude

    2015-09-18

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing based triaxial vibration sensor has been presented in this paper. The optical fiber is directly employed as elastomer, and the triaxial vibration of a measured body can be obtained by two pairs of FBGs. A model of a triaxial vibration sensor as well as decoupling principles of triaxial vibration and experimental analyses are proposed. Experimental results show that: sensitivities of 86.9 pm/g, 971.8 pm/g and 154.7 pm/g for each orthogonal sensitive direction with linearity are separately 3.64%, 1.50% and 3.01%. The flat frequency ranges reside in 20-200 Hz, 3-20 Hz and 4-50 Hz, respectively; in addition, the resonant frequencies are separately 700 Hz, 40 Hz and 110 Hz in the x/y/z direction. When the sensor is excited in a single direction vibration, the outputs of sensor in the other two directions are consistent with the outputs in the non-working state. Therefore, it is effectively demonstrated that it can be used for three-dimensional vibration measurement.

  4. Peristaltic pump-based low range pressure sensor calibration system.

    PubMed

    Vinayakumar, K B; Naveen Kumar, G; Nayak, M M; Dinesh, N S; Rajanna, K

    2015-11-01

    Peristaltic pumps were normally used to pump liquids in several chemical and biological applications. In the present study, a peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber (positive as well negative pressures) using atmospheric air. In the present paper, we discuss the development and performance study of an automatic pressurization system to calibrate low range (millibar) pressure sensors. The system includes a peristaltic pump, calibrated pressure sensor (master sensor), pressure chamber, and the control electronics. An in-house developed peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber. A closed loop control system has been developed to detect and adjust the pressure leaks in the chamber. The complete system has been integrated into a portable product. The system performance has been studied for a step response and steady state errors. The system is portable, free from oil contaminants, and consumes less power compared to existing pressure calibration systems. The veracity of the system was verified by calibrating an unknown diaphragm based pressure sensor and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  5. Triboelectrification based motion sensor for human-machine interfacing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqing; Chen, Jun; Wen, Xiaonan; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Jin; Su, Yuanjie; Zhu, Guang; Wu, Wenzuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-05-28

    We present triboelectrification based, flexible, reusable, and skin-friendly dry biopotential electrode arrays as motion sensors for tracking muscle motion and human-machine interfacing (HMI). The independently addressable, self-powered sensor arrays have been utilized to record the electric output signals as a mapping figure to accurately identify the degrees of freedom as well as directions and magnitude of muscle motions. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique was employed to analyse the frequency spectra of the obtained electric signals and thus to determine the motion angular velocities. Moreover, the motion sensor arrays produced a short-circuit current density up to 10.71 mA/m(2), and an open-circuit voltage as high as 42.6 V with a remarkable signal-to-noise ratio up to 1000, which enables the devices as sensors to accurately record and transform the motions of the human joints, such as elbow, knee, heel, and even fingers, and thus renders it a superior and unique invention in the field of HMI. PMID:24779702

  6. ZnO Coated Nanospring-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakharev, Pavel Viktorovich

    . The experimental and computational analyses of the sensing properties of the 3-D (nanospring-based) and flat thin films structures show that the complexity and periodic boundary conditions of the nanospring-based devices result in a lower detection limit, while flat thin films exhibit higher sensitivity to small analyte concentration fluctuations. Our analysis shows that the productive approach to fabrication of integrated sensors (electronic noses) is to use both the structures (3D and flat geometries) as the receptors for a prompt and reliable detection and recognition of the target chemical compounds. Analog lock-in amplifier (LIA) AC measurements of the electrical response have been performed to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the detection limit of the single ZnO coated nanospring chemiresistor from the ppm to the ppb analyte concentration ranges. The LIA-based sensor signal recognition technique has shown to extend the capabilities of the gas sensor array for a linear discrimination analysis (LDA), an independent component analysis (ICA), a principal component analysis (PCA) and other multiple odor recognition methods.

  7. An Improved Sensor Model on Appearance Based SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keßler, Jens; König, Alexander; Gross, Horst-Michael

    In our previous work on visual, appearance-based localization and mapping, we presented in [14] a novel SLAM approach to build visually labeled topological maps. The essential contribution of this work was an adaptive sensor model, which is estimated online, and a graph matching scheme to evaluate the likelihood of a given topological map. Both methods enable the combination of an appearance-based, visual localization and mapping concept with a Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter (RBPF) as state estimator to a real-world suitable, online SLAM approach. In this paper we improve our algorithm by using a novel probability driven approximation of the local similarity function (the sensor model) to deal with dynamic changes of the appearance in the operation area.1

  8. Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si; Deen, M Jamal; Ghosh, Raja

    2015-11-01

    Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

  9. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  10. Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2001-01-01

    Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Plasmonic sensors based on doubly-deposited tapered optical fibers.

    PubMed

    González-Cano, Agustín; Navarrete, María-Cruz; Esteban, Óscar; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia

    2014-03-10

    A review of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) transducers based on tapered fibers that have been developed in the last years is presented. The devices have proved their good performance (specifically, in terms of sensitivity) and their versatility and they are a very good option to be considered as basis for any kind of chemical and biological sensor. The technology has now reached its maturity and here we summarize some of the characteristics of the devices produced.

  12. Plasmonic Sensors Based on Doubly-Deposited Tapered Optical Fibers

    PubMed Central

    González-Cano, Agustín; Navarrete, María-Cruz; Esteban, Óscar; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    A review of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) transducers based on tapered fibers that have been developed in the last years is presented. The devices have proved their good performance (specifically, in terms of sensitivity) and their versatility and they are a very good option to be considered as basis for any kind of chemical and biological sensor. The technology has now reached its maturity and here we summarize some of the characteristics of the devices produced. PMID:24618726

  13. Luminescence-based optical sensor systems for monitoring water parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra; Turel, Matejka; Korent, Špela Mojca

    2007-06-01

    Lanthanide-sensitized luminescence is very attractive because the intramolecular energy transfers between the absorbing ligand and the luminescent ion results in strong narrow-band fluorescence with a large Stokes' shift and long decay times. We will report about several sensor systems based either on sol-gel materials or lanthanide chelates for monitoring and controlling water parameters, such as heavy metals, amines, phosphates.

  14. A Portable Laser Photoacoustic Methane Sensor Based on FPGA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwei; Wang, Huili; Liu, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    A portable laser photoacoustic sensor for methane (CH4) detection based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is reported. A tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser in the 1654 nm wavelength range is used as an excitation source. The photoacoustic signal processing was implemented by a FPGA device. A small resonant photoacoustic cell is designed. The minimum detection limit (1σ) of 10 ppm for methane is demonstrated. PMID:27657079

  15. Biomarker Discovery by Novel Sensors Based on Nanoproteomics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Dasilva, Noelia; Díez, Paula; Matarraz, Sergio; González-González, María; Paradinas, Sara; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, proteomics has facilitated biomarker discovery by coupling high-throughput techniques with novel nanosensors. In the present review, we focus on the study of label-based and label-free detection systems, as well as nanotechnology approaches, indicating their advantages and applications in biomarker discovery. In addition, several disease biomarkers are shown in order to display the clinical importance of the improvement of sensitivity and selectivity by using nanoproteomics approaches as novel sensors. PMID:22438764

  16. Engineering Paper-Based Sensors for Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Robert J; Negrete, Oscar A; Van Rompay, Koen K

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Latin America and Southeast Asia has created an urgent need for new, simple, yet sensitive, diagnostic tests. We highlight recent work using paper-based sensors coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 to detect ZIKV RNA as a new approach to achieve rapid development and deployment of field-ready diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27255410

  17. A fluorescence enhancement-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Tse; Liao, De-Jhong; Chen, Shau-Jiun; Hu, Ching-Han; Wu, An-Tai

    2012-04-01

    Sugar-aza-crown ether-based cavitand 1 can act as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion in methanol among a series of tested anions. Spectroscopic studies, particularly NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the C-H hydrogen bonding between 1,2,3-triazole ring of cavitand 1 and hydrogen sulfate ion is crucial for the high selectivity of the receptor for hydrogen sulfate.

  18. A model-based reasoning approach to sensor placement for monitorability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doyle, Richard; Homemdemello, Luiz

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented to evaluating sensor placements to maximize monitorability of the target system while minimizing the number of sensors. The approach uses a model of the monitored system to score potential sensor placements on the basis of four monitorability criteria. The scores can then be analyzed to produce a recommended sensor set. An example from our NASA application domain is used to illustrate our model-based approach to sensor placement.

  19. A Scheduling Strategy Based on Neighbor Search for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Kazuya; Namerikawa, Toru

    This paper deals with a sensor scheduling problem which considers state dependent noise and processing delay. A networked sensor system usually consists of a large number of sensors, which can be constructed with some different types of sensors. We propose a sensor scheduling algorithm based on the neighbor search algorithm nearby nodes for discrete time heterogeneous systems by minimization problem of assessment function. Finally experimental results show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture. PMID:26797616

  1. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-19

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture.

  2. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture. PMID:26797616

  3. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  4. Intent-based resource deployment in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Sullivan, Paul; Grueneberg, Keith; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Information derived from sensor networks plays a crucial role in the success of many critical tasks such as surveillance, and border monitoring. In order to derive the correct information at the right time, sensor data must be captured at desired locations with respect to the operational tasks in concern. Therefore, it is important that at the planning stage of a mission, sensing resources are best placed in the field to capture the required data. For example, consider a mission goal identify snipers, in an operational area before troops are deployed - two acoustic arrays and a day-night video camera are needed to successfully achieve this goal. This is because, if the resources are placed in correct locations, two acoustic arrays could provide direction of the shooter and a possible location by triangulating acoustic data whereas the day-night camera could produce an affirmative image of the perpetrators. In order to deploy the sensing resources intelligently to support the user decisions, in this paper we propose a Semantic Web based knowledge layer to identify the required resources in a sensor network and deploy the needed resources through a sensor infrastructure. The knowledge layer captures crucial information such as resources configurations, their intended use (e.g., two acoustic arrays deployed in a particular formation with day-night camera are needed to identify perpetrators in a possible sniper attack). The underlying sensor infrastructure will assists the process by exposing the information about deployed resources, resources in theatre, and location information about tasks, resources and so on.

  5. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  6. Nano-based sensor for assessment of weaponry structural degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Ruffin, Paul B.; Kranz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Missiles and weaponry-based systems are composed of metal structures that can degrade after prolonged exposure to environmental elements. A particular concern is accumulation of corrosion that generally results from prolonged environmental exposure. Corrosion, defined as the unintended destruction or deterioration of a material due to its interaction with the environment, can negatively affect both equipment and infrastructure. System readiness and safety can be reduced if corrosion is not detected, prevented and managed. The current corrosion recognition methods (Visual, Radiography, Ultrasonics, Eddy Current, and Thermography) are expensive and potentially unreliable. Visual perception is the most commonly used method for determining corrosion in metal. Utilization of an inductance-based sensor system is being proposed as part of the authors' research. Results from this research will provide a more efficient, economical, and non-destructive sensing approach. Preliminary results demonstrate a highly linear degradation within a corrosive environment due to the increased surface area available on the sensor coupon. The inductance of the devices, which represents a volume property of the coupon, demonstrated sensitivity to corrosion levels. The proposed approach allows a direct mass-loss measurement based on the change in the inductance of the coupon when placed in an alternating magnetic field. Prototype devices have demonstrated highly predictable corrosion rates that are easily measured using low-power small electronic circuits and energy harvesting methods to interrogate the sensor. Preliminary testing demonstrates that the device concept is acceptable and future opportunities for use in low power embedded applications are achievable. Key results in this paper include the assessment of typical Army corrosion cost, degradation patterns of varying metal materials, and application of wireless sensors elements.

  7. A fuzzy behaviorist approach to sensor-based robot control

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1996-05-01

    Sensor-based operation of autonomous robots in unstructured and/or outdoor environments has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. An approach. which we have named the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist Approach{close_quotes} (FBA) is proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. This approach is based on the representation of the system`s uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and on the representation of the reasoning and control schemes as sets of elemental behaviors. Using the FBA, a formalism for rule base development and an automated generator of fuzzy rules have been developed. This automated system can automatically construct the set of membership functions corresponding to fuzzy behaviors. Once these have been expressed in qualitative terms by the user. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and for non-redundancy of the rules (which has traditionally been a major hurdle in rule base development). Two major conceptual features, the suppression and inhibition mechanisms which allow to express a dominance between behaviors are discussed in detail. Some experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy, rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in aprion unknown environments. using one of our autonomous test-bed robots as well as a real car in outdoor environments, are then reviewed and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} concepts.

  8. Using Custom Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Sensors to Monitor Artificial Landslides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Yangyang; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Pengchong; Yue, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Four custom fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors are developed to monitor an artificial landslide located in Nanjing, China. The sensors are composed of a rod and two FBGs. Based on the strength of the rods, two sensors are referred to as “hard sensors” (Sensor 1 and Sensor 2), the other two are referred to as “soft sensors” (Sensor 3 and Sensor 4). The two FBGs are fixed on each sensor rod at distances of 50 cm and 100 cm from the top of the rod (an upper FBG and a lower FBG). In the experiment presented in this paper, the sensors are installed on a slope on which an artificial landslide is generated through both machine-based and manual excavation. The fiber sensing system consists of the four custom FBG-based sensors, optical fiber, a static fiber grating demodulation instrument (SM125), and a PC with the necessary software. Experimental data was collected in the presence of an artificial landslide, and the results show that the lower FBGs are more sensitive than the upper FBGs for all four of the custom sensors. It was also found that Sensor 2 and Sensor 4 are more capable of monitoring small-scale landslides than Sensor 1 and Sensor 3, and this is mainly due to their placement location with respect to the landslide. The stronger rods used in the hard sensors make them more adaptable to the harsh environments of large landslides. Thus, hard sensors should be fixed near the landslide, while soft sensors should be placed farther away from the landslide. In addition, a clear tendency of strain variation can be detected by the soft sensors, which can be used to predict landslides and raise a hazard alarm. PMID:27598163

  9. Inertial Sensor-Based Smoother for Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Soo

    2014-01-01

    An off-line smoother algorithm is proposed to estimate foot motion using an inertial sensor unit (three-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers) attached to a shoe. The smoother gives more accurate foot motion estimation than filter-based algorithms by using all of the sensor data instead of using the current sensor data. The algorithm consists of two parts. In the first part, a Kalman filter is used to obtain initial foot motion estimation. In the second part, the error in the initial estimation is compensated using a smoother, where the problem is formulated in the quadratic optimization problem. An efficient solution of the quadratic optimization problem is given using the sparse structure. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed algorithm can estimate foot motion more accurately than a filter-based algorithm with reasonable computation time. In particular, there is significant improvement in the foot motion estimation when the foot is moving off the floor: the z-axis position error squared sum (total time: 3.47 s) when the foot is in the air is 0.0807 m2 (Kalman filter) and 0.0020 m2 (the proposed smoother). PMID:25526359

  10. Electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanoporous silica for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Conner, Marianne M.

    2004-12-01

    Nanostructured materials enable the development of miniature sensing devices that are compact, low-cost, low-energy-consumption, and easily integrated into field-deployable units. Recently we have successfully developed electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanostructured materials for the characterization of metal ions. Specifically, glycinyl-urea self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Gly-UR SAMMS) has been incorporated in carbon paste electrodes for the detection of toxic metals such as lead, copper, and mercury based on adsorptive stripping voltammetry, while acetamide phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS) has been used for the detection of uranium. Both electrochemical sensors yield reproducible measurements with excellent detection limits (at ppb level), are selective for target species, does not require the use of mercury film and chelating agents, and require little or no regeneration of electrode materials. The rigid, open, paralleled pore structure combined with suitable interfacial chemistry of SAMMS also results in fast responses of the electrochemical sensors.

  11. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-01-01

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514

  12. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-11-24

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art.

  13. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-01-01

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514

  14. Miniature fiber optic sensor based on fluorescence energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, David L.; Schultz, Jerome S.

    1992-04-01

    Optical fiber biosensors based on fluorescence assays have several distinct advantages when measuring biological analytes such as metabolites, cofactors, toxins, etc. Not only are optical signals immune to electronic interferences, but the polychromatic nature of most fluorochemical assays provides more potentially useful data about the system being studied. One of the most common difficulties normally encountered with optical biosensors is the inability to routinely recalibrate the optical and electronic components of the system throughout the life of the sensor. With this in mind, we present an optical fiber assay system for glucose based on a homogeneous singlet/singlet energy transfer assay along with the electronic instrumentation built to support the sensor system. In the sensor probe, glucose concentrations are indirectly measured from the level of fluorescence quenching caused by the homogeneous competition assay between TRITC labeled concanavalin A (receptor) and FITC labeled Dextran (ligand). The FITC signal is used to indicate glucose concentrations and the TRITC signal is used for internal calibration. Data is also presented on a protein derivatization procedure that was used to prevent aggregation of the receptor protein in solution. Also, a molecular model is described for the singlet/singlet energy transfer interactions that can occur in a model system composed of a monovalent ligand (FITC labeled papain) and a monovalent receptor (TRITC labeled concanavalin A).

  15. Design of microcantilever sensors using SLM based holographic lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Joseph L.; Jenness, Nathan J.; Clark, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A holographic multiphoton fabrication technique is applied to the development of a microcantilever based analyte sensor. Holograms generated using a spatial light modulator (SLM) initiate the fabrication of sub-micron three-dimensional structures. Chemically functional microstructures are patterned onto the surface of commercially available piezoelectric microcantilevers using this holographic lithography technique. Controlling the form and location of the added structure enables the resonant frequency of the cantilever to be regulated with a higher accuracy than is currently available using bulk lithography techniques and without the inclusion of additional electronic feedback control components. A potential analyte sensor is then developed by patterning on an array of multiple piezoelectric microcantilevers, which are initially identical within manufacturing tolerances. The resonant frequency, was adjusted such that cantilevers, which were initially separated by 2.82 kHz, are tuned to be within 0.13 kHz of each other. Connecting the piezoelectric microcantilevers in series enables the response of each sensor element to be measured simultaneously using a single frequency based data acquisition system and allowing rapid data collection.

  16. Discrete-Time ARMAv Model-Based Optimal Sensor Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2008-07-08

    This paper concentrates on the optimal sensor placement problem in ambient vibration based structural health monitoring. More specifically, the paper examines the covariance of estimated parameters during system identification using auto-regressive and moving average vector (ARMAv) model. By utilizing the discrete-time steady state Kalman filter, this paper realizes the structure's finite element (FE) model under broad-band white noise excitations using an ARMAv model. Based on the asymptotic distribution of the parameter estimates of the ARMAv model, both a theoretical closed form and a numerical estimate form of the covariance of the estimates are obtained. Introducing the information entropy (differential entropy) measure, as well as various matrix norms, this paper attempts to find a reasonable measure to the uncertainties embedded in the ARMAv model estimates. Thus, it is possible to select the optimal sensor placement that would lead to the smallest uncertainties during the ARMAv identification process. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the methodology and compare the sensor placement results upon various measures.

  17. CO responses of sensors based on cerium oxide thick films prepared from clustered spherical nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Izu, Noriya; Matsubara, Ichiro; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2013-01-01

    Various types of CO sensors based on cerium oxide (ceria) have been reported recently. It has also been reported that the response speed of CO sensors fabricated from porous ceria thick films comprising nanoparticles is extremely high. However, the response value of such sensors is not suitably high. In this study, we investigated methods of improving the response values of CO sensors based on ceria and prepared gas sensors from core-shell ceria polymer hybrid nanoparticles. These hybrid nanoparticles have been reported to have a unique structure: The core consists of a cluster of ceria crystallites several nanometers in size. We compared the characteristics of the sensors based on thick films prepared from core-shell nanoparticles with those of sensors based on thick films prepared from conventionally used precipitated nanoparticles. The sensors prepared from the core-shell nanoparticles exhibited a resistance that was ten times greater than that of the sensors prepared from the precipitated nanoparticles. The response values of the gas sensors based on the core-shell nanoparticles also was higher than that of the sensors based on the precipitated nanoparticles. Finally, improvements in sensor response were also noticed after the addition of Au nanoparticles to the thick films used to fabricate the two types of sensors. PMID:23529123

  18. CO responses of sensors based on cerium oxide thick films prepared from clustered spherical nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Izu, Noriya; Matsubara, Ichiro; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2013-03-08

    Various types of CO sensors based on cerium oxide (ceria) have been reported recently. It has also been reported that the response speed of CO sensors fabricated from porous ceria thick films comprising nanoparticles is extremely high. However, the response value of such sensors is not suitably high. In this study, we investigated methods of improving the response values of CO sensors based on ceria and prepared gas sensors from core-shell ceria polymer hybrid nanoparticles. These hybrid nanoparticles have been reported to have a unique structure: The core consists of a cluster of ceria crystallites several nanometers in size. We compared the characteristics of the sensors based on thick films prepared from core-shell nanoparticles with those of sensors based on thick films prepared from conventionally used precipitated nanoparticles. The sensors prepared from the core-shell nanoparticles exhibited a resistance that was ten times greater than that of the sensors prepared from the precipitated nanoparticles. The response values of the gas sensors based on the core-shell nanoparticles also was higher than that of the sensors based on the precipitated nanoparticles. Finally, improvements in sensor response were also noticed after the addition of Au nanoparticles to the thick films used to fabricate the two types of sensors.

  19. Amylin Detection with a Miniature Optical-Fiber Based Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaowen; Ann, Matsko; Hughes, Adam; Reeves, Mark

    We present results of a biosensor based on shifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles self-assembled on the end of an optical fiber. This system allows for detection of protein expression in low sensing volumes and for scanning in cell cultures and tissue samples. Positive and negative controls were done using biotin/avidin and the BSA/Anti-BSA system. These demonstrate that detection is specific and sensitive to nanomolar levels. Sensing of amylin, an important protein for pancreatic function, was performed with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The measured data demonstrates the difference in sensitivity to the two types of antibodies, and titration experiments establish the sensitivity of the sensor. Further experiments demonstrate that the sensor can be regenerated and then reused.

  20. Bio-molecular sensors based on guided mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M. R.; Ali, R.; Honkanen, S.; Turunen, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work a low surface roughness and homogenous, high refractive index, and amorphous TiO2 layer on corrugated structures of diffractive optical element is coated by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for biosensors. The design of Guided Mode Resonance Filters (GMRFs) is based on refractive indices and thicknesses of the waveguide biomolecular layers. The designed spectral shifts are calculated by Fourier Modal Method (FMM) and depend on the magnitude of the variations in refractive index of the biomolecular layer on waveguide structures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the biomolecular sensors depends on the thickness of biomolecular layer and periodicity of the structures. The waveguide structures designed for larger periods show an enhancement in the sensitivity (nm/RIU) of the biomolecular sensor at longer wavelengths. The periodicities of nanophotonic structures are varied from 300 to 500 nm in design calculations with predominance of increase in effective index of the structure to support leaky waveguide modes.

  1. A Peptoid-Based Fluorescent Sensor for Cyanide Detection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bumhee; Lee, Jeeyeon

    2016-01-01

    Peptoids, N-substituted glycine oligomers, are versatile peptidomimetics with diverse biomedical applications. However, strategies to the development of novel fluorescent peptoids as chemical sensors have not been extensively explored, yet. Here, we synthesized a novel peptoid-based fluorescent probe in which a coumarin moiety was incorporated via copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Fluorescence of the newly generated coumarin-peptoid was dramatically quenched upon coordination of the Cu(2+) ion, and the resulting peptoid-Cu(2+) complex exhibited significant Turn-ON fluorescence following the addition of CN(-). The rapid and reversible response, combined with cyanide selectivity of the synthesized peptoid, reflects a multistep photo-process and supports its utility as a new type of CN(-) sensor. PMID:26978334

  2. Ultrasensitive vector bending sensor based on multicore optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Joel; Van Newkirk, Amy; Antonio-Lopez, Enrique; Zubia, Joseba; Schülzgen, Axel; Amezcua-Correa, Rodrigo

    2016-02-15

    In this Letter, we demonstrate a compellingly simple directional bending sensor based on multicore optical fibers (MCF). The device operates in reflection mode and consists of a short segment of a three-core MCF that is fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard single mode optical fiber. The asymmetry of our MCF along with the high sensitivity of the supermodes of the MCF make the small bending on the MCF induce drastic changes in the supermodes, their excitation, and, consequently, on the reflected spectrum. Our MCF bending sensor was found to be highly sensitive (4094  pm/deg) to small bending angles. Moreover, it is capable of distinguishing multiple bending orientations. PMID:26872200

  3. Optical fiber random grating-based multiparameter sensor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Gao, Song; Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Mihailov, Stephen; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    A novel multiparameter fiber-optic sensor based on a femtosecond laser micromachined random grating is proposed and demonstrated to realize simultaneous measurement of temperature, axial strain, and surrounding refractive index. A wavelength-division spectral cross-correlation algorithm is adopted to extract the phase variation induced spectral shift responding to different external disturbances. Sensitivities of 10.32 pm/°C, 1.24 pm/με, and -1520.6  pm/RIU were achieved for temperature, axial strain, and surrounding refractive index, respectively. The fiber random grating without phase mask fabrication and high physical strength is an excellent alternative aiming at simple and compact multifunctional fiber sensors. PMID:26625039

  4. A film pressure sensor based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Deng, Gang; Dai, Yongbo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-03-01

    The measurement of pressure is essential for the design and flying controlling of aircraft. In order to measure the surface pressures of the aircraft, the common pressure tube method and Pressure sensitive paint measurement method have their own disadvantages, and are not applicable to all aircraft structures and real time pressure monitoring. In this paper, a novel thin film pressure sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) is proposed, using FBG measuring the tangential strain of the disk sensing film. Theoretical circle strain of the disk sensing film of the pressure sensor under pressure and temperature variation are analyzed, and the linear relationship between FBG center wavelength shift and pressure, temperature variation is gotten. The pressure and temperature calibration experiments prove the theoretical analysis. But the calibration sensing parameters are small than the calculating ones, which is caused by the constraint of optical fibre to the thin sensing film.

  5. Monitoring methionine sulfoxide with stereospecific mechanism-based fluorescent sensors.

    PubMed

    Tarrago, Lionel; Péterfi, Zalán; Lee, Byung Cheon; Michel, Thomas; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-05-01

    Methionine can be reversibly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, but its use as a redox marker suffers from the lack of tools to detect and quantify MetO within cells. In this work, we created a pair of complementary stereospecific genetically encoded mechanism-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors of MetO by inserting a circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein between yeast methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxins. The two sensors, respectively named MetSOx and MetROx for their ability to detect S and R forms of MetO, were used for targeted analysis of protein oxidation, regulation and repair as well as for monitoring MetO in bacterial and mammalian cells, analyzing compartment-specific changes in MetO and examining responses to physiological stimuli.

  6. Theory for a gas composition sensor based on acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Scott; Dain, Yefim; Lueptow, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    Sound travelling through a gas propagates at different speeds and its intensity attenuates to different degrees depending upon the composition of the gas. Theoretically, a real-time gaseous composition sensor could be based on measuring the sound speed and the acoustic attenuation. To this end, the speed of sound was modelled using standard relations, and the acoustic attenuation was modelled using the theory for vibrational relaxation of gas molecules. The concept for a gas composition sensor is demonstrated theoretically for nitrogen-methane-water and hydrogen-oxygen-water mixtures. For a three-component gas mixture, the measured sound speed and acoustic attenuation each define separate lines in the composition plane of two of the gases. The intersection of the two lines defines the gas composition. It should also be possible to use the concept for mixtures of more than three components, if the nature of the gas composition is known to some extent. PMID:14552356

  7. Adaptive wavefront sensor based on the Talbot phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V; Goloborodko, Andrey A; Kotov, Myhailo M; Kovalenko, Andrey V; Kurashov, Vitalij N; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P

    2016-04-20

    A new adaptive method of wavefront sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect, which is observed in an illuminating light beam with strong second-order aberration. Compensation of defocus and astigmatism is achieved with an appropriate choice of size of the rectangular unit cell of the diffraction grating, which is performed iteratively. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is used for this purpose. Self-imaging of rectangular grating in the astigmatic light beam is demonstrated experimentally. High-order aberrations are detected with respect to the compensated second-order aberration. The comparative results of wavefront sensing with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and the proposed sensor are adduced. PMID:27140122

  8. Pyrolyzed-parylene based sensors and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method (and resulting structure) for fabricating a sensing device. The method includes providing a substrate comprising a surface region and forming an insulating material overlying the surface region. The method also includes forming a film of carbon based material overlying the insulating material and treating to the film of carbon based material to pyrolyzed the carbon based material to cause formation of a film of substantially carbon based material having a resistivity ranging within a predetermined range. The method also provides at least a portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in a sensor application and uses the portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in the sensing application. In a specific embodiment, the sensing application is selected from chemical, humidity, piezoelectric, radiation, mechanical strain or temperature.

  9. Intensity-modulated optical fiber sensors based on chirped-fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xinyong

    2011-09-01

    Intensity-modulated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, compared with normal wavelength-encoding FBG sensors, can reduce the cost of sensor system significantly by using cost-efficient optical power detection devices, instead of expensive wavelength measurement instruments. Chirped-FBG (CFBG) based intensity-modulated sensors show potential applications in various sensing areas due to their many advantages, including inherent independence of temperature, high measurement speed, and low cost, in addition to the merits of all fiber-optic sensors. This paper theoretically studies the sensing principle of CFBG-based intensity-modulated sensors and briefly reviews their recent progress in measurement of displacement, acceleration, and tilt angle.

  10. Simulation and characterization of silicon nanopillar-based nanoparticle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Huang, Kai; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    Nanopillar-based structures hold promise as highly sensitive resonant mass sensors for a new generation of aerosol nanoparticle (NP) detecting devices because of their very small masses. In this work, the possible use of a silicon nanopillar (SiNPL) array as a nanoparticle sensor is investigated. The sensor structures are created and simulated using a finite element modeling (FEM) tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3 to study the resonant characteristics and the sensitivity of the SiNPL for femtogram NP mass detection. Instead of using 2D plate models or simple single 3D cylindrical pillar models, FEM is performed with SiNPLs in 3D structures based on the real geometry of experimental SiNPL arrays employing a piezoelectric stack for resonant excitation. In order to achieve an optimal structure and investigate the etching effect on the fabricated resonators, SiNPLs with different designs of meshes, sidewall profiles, lengths, and diameters are simulated and analyzed. To validate the FEM results, fabricated SiNPLs with a high aspect ratio of ~60 are employed and characterized in resonant frequency measurements. SiNPLs are mounted onto a piezoactuator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber which can excite SiNPLs into lateral vibration. The measured resonant frequencies of the SiNPLs with diameters about 650 nm and heights about 40 μm range from 434.63 kHz to 458.21 kHz, which agree well with those simulated by FEM. Furthermore, the deflection of a SiNPL can be enhanced by increasing the applied piezoactuator voltage. By depositing different NPs (i.e., carbon, TiO2, SiO2, Ag, and Au NPs) on the SiNPLs, the decrease of the resonant frequency is clearly shown confirming their potential to be used as airborne NP mass sensor with femtogram resolution level.

  11. Design and characterization of integrated-optic-based chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beregovskii, Iouri

    A novel line of integrated-optic-based chemical sensors was developed. The sensors are based on modification of the optical cavity of a single-mode semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser. A sensitive layer changes its refractive index in presence of a specific chemical, thus changing the effective refractive index of the section and the optical length of the cavity. This results in laser frequency shift measured either directly or by heterodyne detection using a reference laser as the second source. It is shown that DBR-laser-based sensors can achieve in principle a much higher sensitivity than passive sensors, such as Mach- Zehnder interferometers, due to the narrow linewidth of DBR lasers. The theory of DBR-laser-based sensors is described. It allows optimizing the sensitive section length and field confinement in the sensitive layer for the lowest detection limit. The optimum parameters depend on cavity losses and absorption of the sensitive material. Numerical modeling shows a wide acceptable range of sensitive section parameters for low-loss materials, while for higher-loss materials this range becomes much narrower. Narrow-linewidth DBR lasers are required for high sensitivity. In this respect, sol-gel waveguides with and without Bragg grating were incorporated in the DBR laser scheme. Single-mode operation of DBR lasers with sol-gel waveguide gratings was demonstrated for the first time, with 34-dB side mode suppression and a short-term linewidth of 150 to 500 kHz. A 3-section configuration with sol-gel waveguides and fiber grating showed 28-dB side mode suppression and a short-term linewidth of 600 kHz. Chemical sensing was performed with fiber grating, sol- gel waveguide grating, and 3-section DBR lasers. The first two types showed frequency shift of over 130 MHz in the presence of acetone vapors, and reversibility within experimental errors. The 3-section scheme showed significant dispersion of response and lack of reversibility due to

  12. System-on-chip based Doppler radar occupancy sensor.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    System-on-Chip (SoC) based Doppler radar occupancy sensor is developed through non contact detection of respiratory signals. The radio was developed using off the shelf low power RF CC2530 SoC chip by Texas Instruments. In order to save power, the transmitter sends signal intermittently at 2.405 GHz. Reflected pulses are demodulated, and the baseband signals are processed to recover periodic motion. The system was tested both with mechanical target and a human subject. In both cases Doppler radar detected periodic motion closely matched the actual motion, and it has been shown that an SoC based system can be used for subject detection.

  13. A wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu; Mei, Zhan-Yong; Guo, Yan-Wei; Wang, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Technology advantages of body sensor networks (BSN) have shown great deal of promises in medical applications. In this paper we introduced a wearable device for biofeedback application based on the BSN platform we had developed. The biofeedback device we have developed includes the heart rate monitoring belt with conductive fabric and the biofeedback device with respiration belt. A wearable respiratory biofeedback system was preliminarily explored based on the BSN platform. In-situ experiments showed that the BSN platform and the biofeedback device worked as intended. PMID:21096169

  14. A highly selective lead sensor based on a classic lead DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Furuya, Kimberly; Lu, Yi

    2010-06-14

    A catalytic beacon sensor for Pb(2+) has been developed based on the first DNAzyme discovered in the field, and such a sensor has shown a much higher metal ion selectivity (40,000 times) than the previously reported Pb(2+) sensor based on 8-17 DNAzyme and thus is suitable for a wider range of practical applications.

  15. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  16. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic

  17. SSL: Signal Similarity-Based Localization for Ocean Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengpeng; Ma, Honglu; Gao, Shouwan; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for ocean scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes’ positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches heavily depend on extra hardware capabilities, while range-free ones often suffer from poor accuracy and low scalability, far from the practical ocean monitoring applications. In response to the above limitations, this paper proposes a novel signal similarity-based localization (SSL) technology, which localizes the nodes’ positions by fully utilizing the similarity of received signal strength and the open-air characteristics of the sea surface. In the localization process, we first estimate the relative distance between neighboring nodes through comparing the similarity of received signal strength and then calculate the relative distance for non-neighboring nodes with the shortest path algorithm. After that, the nodes’ relative relation map of the whole network can be obtained. Given at least three anchors, the physical locations of nodes can be finally determined based on the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technology. The design is evaluated by two types of ocean experiments: a zonal network and a non-regular network using 28 nodes. Results show that the proposed design improves the localization accuracy compared to typical connectivity-based approaches and also confirm its effectiveness for large-scale ocean sensor networks. PMID:26610520

  18. MoS2 -Based Tactile Sensor for Electronic Skin Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Minhoon; Park, Yong Ju; Chen, Xiang; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    A conformal tactile sensor based on MoS2 and graphene is demonstrated. The MoS2 tactile sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity, high uniformity, and good repeatability in terms of various strains. In addition, the outstanding flexibility enables the MoS2 strain tactile sensor to be realized conformally on a finger tip. The MoS2 -based tactile sensor can be utilized for wearable electronics, such as electronic skin. PMID:26833813

  19. Conductive fiber-based ultrasensitive textile pressure sensor for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehong; Kwon, Hyukho; Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Sera; Koo, Ja Hoon; Pang, Changhyun; Son, Seungbae; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jang, Yong Hoon; Kim, Dae Eun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-04-17

    A flexible and sensitive textile-based pressure sensor is developed using highly conductive fibers coated with dielectric rubber materials. The pressure sensor exhibits superior sensitivity, very fast response time, and high stability, compared with previous textile-based pressure sensors. By using a weaving method, the pressure sensor can be applied to make smart gloves and clothes that can control machines wirelessly as human-machine interfaces.

  20. Conductive fiber-based ultrasensitive textile pressure sensor for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehong; Kwon, Hyukho; Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Sera; Koo, Ja Hoon; Pang, Changhyun; Son, Seungbae; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jang, Yong Hoon; Kim, Dae Eun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-04-17

    A flexible and sensitive textile-based pressure sensor is developed using highly conductive fibers coated with dielectric rubber materials. The pressure sensor exhibits superior sensitivity, very fast response time, and high stability, compared with previous textile-based pressure sensors. By using a weaving method, the pressure sensor can be applied to make smart gloves and clothes that can control machines wirelessly as human-machine interfaces. PMID:25692572

  1. Cross-calibration of Imaging Sensors using Model-based, SI-traceable Predictions of At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Many inter-consistency efforts force empirical agreement between sensors viewing a source nearly coincident in time and geometry that ensures consistency between sensors rather than obtain an SI-traceable calibration with documented error budgets. The method described here provides interconsistency via absolute radiometric calibration with defensible error budget avoiding systematic errors through prediction of at-sensor radiance for a site viewed by multiple sensors but not necessarily viewed at coincident times. The method predicts spectral radiance over a given surface site for arbitrary view and illumination angles and for any date dominated by clear-sky conditions. The foundation is a model-based, SI-traceable prediction of at-sensor radiance over selected sites based on physical understanding of the surface and atmosphere. The calibration of the ground site will include spatial, spectral, and sunview geometric effects based on satellite and ground-based data. The result is an interconsistency of hyperspectral and multispectral sensors spanning spatial resolutions from meters to kilometers all relative to the surface site rather than a single sensor. The source-centric philosophy of calibrating the site inherently accounts for footprint size mismatch, spectral band mismatch, and temporal and spatial sampling effects. The method for characterizing the test site allows its use for SI-traceable calibration of any sensor that can view the calibrated test site. Interconsistency is obtained through the traceability and error budget rather than coincident views. Such an approach to inter-consistency provides better understanding of biases between sensors as well producing more accurate results with documented SI-traceability that reduces the need for overlapping data sets.

  2. A magnet-based vibrating wire sensor: design and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Frédéric; Joly, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Vibrating strings help in measuring relative displacements in a mechanical system. Since the ground natural frequency of a string increases when it is stretched, monitoring the ground frequency yields the current length of the string. Therefore a wire able to vibrate between two anchor points of a system acts as a relative displacement sensor. Excitation is usually achieved by means of an active coil, which is very close to the vibrating iron wire. Vibrating wire sensors (VWS) based on this excitation may prove obtrusive and one is limited to wires of small length. The new VWS takes advantage of distributed passive magnets, which force the wire to vibrate mainly in its fundamental mode. The sensor proves scalable and much less obtrusive when fully embedded, since it can be made flat and very flexible. On the basis of a simplified electromechanical modelling of the measurement process, a suitable distribution of magnets is proposed, which is proved numerically and experimentally to make the measurement robust with respect to mechanical uncertainties. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest measuring not the voltage in the vibrating wire but the current in an auxiliary circuit.

  3. Sensor Based Engine Life Calculation: A Probabilistic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Chen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    It is generally known that an engine component will accumulate damage (life usage) during its lifetime of use in a harsh operating environment. The commonly used cycle count for engine component usage monitoring has an inherent range of uncertainty which can be overly costly or potentially less safe from an operational standpoint. With the advance of computer technology, engine operation modeling, and the understanding of damage accumulation physics, it is possible (and desirable) to use the available sensor information to make a more accurate assessment of engine component usage. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to quantify the effects of engine operating parameter uncertainties on the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life of a selected engine part. A closed-loop engine simulation with a TMF life model is used to calculate the life consumption of different mission cycles. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is used to generate the statistical life usage profile for different operating assumptions. The probabilities of failure of different operating conditions are compared to illustrate the importance of the engine component life calculation using sensor information. The results of this study clearly show that a sensor-based life cycle calculation can greatly reduce the risk of component failure as well as extend on-wing component life by avoiding unnecessary maintenance actions.

  4. An information-based approach to decentralized multiplatform sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreucher, Christopher M.; Kastella, Keith D.; Wegrzyn, John W.; Rickenbach, Brent L.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a decentralized low communication approach to multi-platform sensor management. The method is based on a physicomimetic relaxation to a joint information theoretic optimization, which inherits the benefits of information theoretic scheduling while maintaining tractability. The method uses only limited message passing, only neighboring nodes communicate, and each node makes its own sensor management decisions. We show by simulation that the method allows a network of sensor nodes to automatically self organize and perform a global task. In the model problem, a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hover above a ground surveillance region. An initially unknown number of moving ground targets inhabit the region. Each UAV is capable of making noisy measurements of the patch of ground directly below, which provide evidence as to the presence or absence of targets in that sub-region. The goal of the network is to determine the number of targets and their individual states (positions and velocities) in the entire surveillance region through repeated interrogation by the individual nodes. As the individual nodes can only see a small portion of the ground, they must move in a manner that is both responsive to measurements and coordinated with other nodes.

  5. Integrated organic electronic based optochemical sensors using polarization filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kraker, Elke; Haase, Anja; Lamprecht, Bernhard; Jakopic, Georg; Konrad, Christian; Koestler, Stefan

    2008-01-21

    A compact, integrated photoluminescence based oxygen and pH sensor, utilizing an organic light emitting device (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the detection unit, is described. The main challenge in such an integrated sensor is the suppression of the excitation light at the detector, which is typically by many orders of magnitude higher in intensity than the emitted fluorescence. In our approach, we refrain from utilizing edge filters which require narrow band excitation sources and dyes with an adequate large Stokes shift. We rather developed an integrated sensor concept relying on two polarizers to separate the emission and excitation light. One polarizer is located right after the OLED, while the other one, oriented at 90 deg. to the first, is placed in front of the OPD. The main advantage of this solution is that any combination of excitation and emission light is acceptable, even if the two signals overlap spectrally. This is especially important for the use of OLEDs as the excitation sources, as these devices typically exhibit a broad spectral emission.

  6. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H3PW12O40, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10-12-1.0 × 10-10 M and 2.0 × 10-13 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  7. Optical-Based Artificial Palpation Sensors for Lesion Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Ku, Jeonghun; Park, Hee-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Palpation techniques are widely used in medical procedures to detect the presence of lumps or tumors in the soft breast tissues. Since these procedures are very subjective and depend on the skills of the physician, it is imperative to perform detailed a scientific study in order to develop more efficient medical sensors to measure and generate palpation parameters. In this research, we propose an optical-based, artificial palpation sensor for lesion characterization. This has been developed using a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide. Light was generated at the critical angle to reflect totally within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide was compressed by an external force, its contact area would deform and cause the light to scatter. The scattered light was captured by a high-resolution camera and saved as an image format. To test the performance of the proposed system, we used a realistic tissue phantom with embedded hard inclusions. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor can detect inclusions and provide the relative value of size, depth, and Young's modulus of an inclusion. PMID:23966198

  8. Recent developments in nanostructure based electrochemical glucose sensors.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shabi Abbas; Shin, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem causing 4 million deaths each year and 171 million people suffering worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, nevertheless, the blood glucose level of diabetic patients should be monitored tightly to avoid further complications. Thus, monitoring of glucose in blood has become an inevitable need leading to fabrication of accurate and sensitive advanced blood sugar detection devices for clinical diagnosis and personal care. It led to the development of enzymatic glucose sensing approach. Later on, various types of nanostructures have been utilized owing to their high surface area, great stability, and cost effectiveness for the fabrication of enzymatic as well as for nonenzymatic glucose sensing approach. This work reviews on both categories, however it is not intended to discuss all the research reports published regarding nanostructure based enzymatic and nonenzymatic approaches between mid-2010 and mid-2015. We, do, however, focused to describe the details of many substantial articles explaining the design of sensors, and utilities of the prepared sensors, so that readers might get the principles behind such devices and relevant detection strategies. This work also focuses on biocompatibility and toxicity of nanomaterials as well as provides a critical opinion and discussions about misconceptions in glucose sensors.

  9. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, D; Kolokoltsev, O V; Qureshi, N; Mejía-Uriarte, E V; Saniger, J M

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility.

  10. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  11. Hiding the Source Based on Limited Flooding for Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Lin, Zhengkui; Hu, Ying; Wang, Bailing

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are widely used to monitor valuable objects such as rare animals or armies. Once an object is detected, the source, i.e., the sensor nearest to the object, generates and periodically sends a packet about the object to the base station. Since attackers can capture the object by localizing the source, many protocols have been proposed to protect source location. Instead of transmitting the packet to the base station directly, typical source location protection protocols first transmit packets randomly for a few hops to a phantom location, and then forward the packets to the base station. The problem with these protocols is that the generated phantom locations are usually not only near the true source but also close to each other. As a result, attackers can easily trace a route back to the source from the phantom locations. To address the above problem, we propose a new protocol for source location protection based on limited flooding, named SLP. Compared with existing protocols, SLP can generate phantom locations that are not only far away from the source, but also widely distributed. It improves source location security significantly with low communication cost. We further propose a protocol, namely SLP-E, to protect source location against more powerful attackers with wider fields of vision. The performance of our SLP and SLP-E are validated by both theoretical analysis and simulation results. PMID:26593923

  12. Hiding the Source Based on Limited Flooding for Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Lin, Zhengkui; Hu, Ying; Wang, Bailing

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are widely used to monitor valuable objects such as rare animals or armies. Once an object is detected, the source, i.e., the sensor nearest to the object, generates and periodically sends a packet about the object to the base station. Since attackers can capture the object by localizing the source, many protocols have been proposed to protect source location. Instead of transmitting the packet to the base station directly, typical source location protection protocols first transmit packets randomly for a few hops to a phantom location, and then forward the packets to the base station. The problem with these protocols is that the generated phantom locations are usually not only near the true source but also close to each other. As a result, attackers can easily trace a route back to the source from the phantom locations. To address the above problem, we propose a new protocol for source location protection based on limited flooding, named SLP. Compared with existing protocols, SLP can generate phantom locations that are not only far away from the source, but also widely distributed. It improves source location security significantly with low communication cost. We further propose a protocol, namely SLP-E, to protect source location against more powerful attackers with wider fields of vision. The performance of our SLP and SLP-E are validated by both theoretical analysis and simulation results. PMID:26593923

  13. Hiding the Source Based on Limited Flooding for Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Lin, Zhengkui; Hu, Ying; Wang, Bailing

    2015-11-17

    Wireless sensor networks are widely used to monitor valuable objects such as rare animals or armies. Once an object is detected, the source, i.e., the sensor nearest to the object, generates and periodically sends a packet about the object to the base station. Since attackers can capture the object by localizing the source, many protocols have been proposed to protect source location. Instead of transmitting the packet to the base station directly, typical source location protection protocols first transmit packets randomly for a few hops to a phantom location, and then forward the packets to the base station. The problem with these protocols is that the generated phantom locations are usually not only near the true source but also close to each other. As a result, attackers can easily trace a route back to the source from the phantom locations. To address the above problem, we propose a new protocol for source location protection based on limited flooding, named SLP. Compared with existing protocols, SLP can generate phantom locations that are not only far away from the source, but also widely distributed. It improves source location security significantly with low communication cost. We further propose a protocol, namely SLP-E, to protect source location against more powerful attackers with wider fields of vision. The performance of our SLP and SLP-E are validated by both theoretical analysis and simulation results.

  14. Bundled carbon nanotube-based sensor on paper-based microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Yang, Shih-I

    2013-10-01

    Bundled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensor has been fabricated on paper substrate for chemical sensing applications. Integration of the sensor and fluidic channel was demonstrated for the potential development of a paper-based microfluidic device. In this work, electrical pH measurement of analyte solution was presented to show the functionality of the device. The device with the functions of fluidic transportation and chemical sensing was fabricated on a single paper. The bundled CNT-based sensor was first formed on a sheet of paper by vacuum filtration process. Hence, the hydrophilic channel across the sensor was defined by the application of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. Therefore, aqueous solution, e.g., sample, can be passively transported along the channels by wicking through the hydrophilic fibers of paper. The pH value of the solution can be electrically measured by the sensor. Determination of the pH value from 3 to 11 of the solutions was demonstrated by measuring the resistance change of the sensor. Because the proposed device is low cost, simple, flexible, and disposable, it is suitable for the development of the analytical device for the developing countries and harsh environments. Moreover, because CNT has excellent properties and can be functionalized by various molecules, the proposed paper-based microfluidic device has potential to realize more chemical and biological assays on paper with high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. On effectiveness of network sensor-based defense framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Difan; Zhang, Hanlin; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh

    2012-06-01

    Cyber attacks are increasing in frequency, impact, and complexity, which demonstrate extensive network vulnerabilities with the potential for serious damage. Defending against cyber attacks calls for the distributed collaborative monitoring, detection, and mitigation. To this end, we develop a network sensor-based defense framework, with the aim of handling network security awareness, mitigation, and prediction. We implement the prototypical system and show its effectiveness on detecting known attacks, such as port-scanning and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS). Based on this framework, we also implement the statistical-based detection and sequential testing-based detection techniques and compare their respective detection performance. The future implementation of defensive algorithms can be provisioned in our proposed framework for combating cyber attacks.

  16. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  17. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22315541

  18. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22315541

  19. Viscoelastic mechanical behavior of soft microcantilever-based force sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Kuan; Liao, Yen-Ming; Liu, Yan; Ou, Kuang-Shun; Chen, Kuo-Shen; Zhang, Xin

    2008-12-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcantilevers have been used as force sensors for studying cellular mechanics by converting their displacements to cellular mechanical forces. However, PDMS is an inherently viscoelastic material and its elastic modulus changes with loading rates and elapsed time. Therefore, the traditional approach to calculating cellular mechanical forces based on elastic mechanics can result in errors. This letter reports a more in-depth method for viscoelastic characterization, modeling, and analysis associated with the bending behavior of the PDMS microcantilevers. A viscoelastic force conversion model was developed and validated by proof-of-principle bending tests.

  20. Ball Lens Fiber Optic Sensor based Smart Handheld Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheol; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    During freehand performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery the surgeon must perform precise and stable maneuvers that achieve surgical objectives and avoid surgical risk. Here, we present an improved smart handheld microsurgical tool which is based on a ball lens fiber optic sensor that utilizes common path swept source optical coherence tomography. Improvements include incorporation of a ball lens single mode fiber optic probe that increases the working angle of the tool to greater than 45 degrees; and increases the magnitude of the distance sensing signal through water. Also presented is a cutting function with an improved ergonomic design. PMID:24224076

  1. Conducting Polymer Based Nucleic Acid Sensor for Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Bansi Dhar; Prabhakar, Nirmal; Solanki, Pratima R.

    Nucleic acid sensor based on polyaniline has been fabricated by covalently immobilizing double stranded calf thymus (dsCT) DNA onto perchlorate (ClO-4) doped polyaniline (PANI) film deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate using 1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry. These dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO and PANI/ITO electrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance, and Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) measurements. This disposable dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO bioelectrode is stable for about four months, can be used to detect arsenic trioxide (0.1ppm) in 30s.

  2. Regional Drought Monitoring Based on Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung

    2014-05-01

    Drought originates from the deficit of precipitation and impacts environment including agriculture and hydrological resources as it persists. The assessment and monitoring of drought has traditionally been performed using a variety of drought indices based on meteorological data, and recently the use of remote sensing data is gaining much attention due to its vast spatial coverage and cost-effectiveness. Drought information has been successfully derived from remotely sensed data related to some biophysical and meteorological variables and drought monitoring is advancing with the development of remote sensing-based indices such as the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to name a few. The Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) has also been proposed to be used for humid regions proving the performance of multi-sensor data for agricultural drought monitoring. In this study, remote sensing-based hydro-meteorological variables related to drought including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were examined and the SDCI was improved by providing multiple blends of the multi-sensor indices for different types of drought. Multiple indices were examined together since the coupling and feedback between variables are intertwined and it is not appropriate to investigate only limited variables to monitor each type of drought. The purpose of this study is to verify the significance of each variable to monitor each type of drought and to examine the combination of multi-sensor indices for more accurate and timely drought monitoring. The weights for the blends of multiple indicators were obtained from the importance of variables calculated by non-linear optimization using a Machine Learning technique called Random Forest. The case study was performed in the Republic of Korea, which has four distinct seasons over the course of the year and contains complex topography with a variety

  3. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  4. Analysis of a plastic optical fiber-based displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Arrue, Jon; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Durana, Gaizka; Zubia, Joseba; Ziemann, Olaf; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2007-09-01

    An easy-to-manufacture setup for a displacement sensor based on plastic optical fiber (POF) is analyzed, showing computational and experimental results. If the displacement is the consequence of force or pressure applied to the device, this can be used as a force or pressure transducer. Its principle of operation consists of bending a POF section around a flexible cylinder and measuring light attenuation when the whole set is subjected to side pressure. Attenuations are obtained computationally as a function of side deformation for different design parameters. Experimental results with an actually built prototype are also provided. PMID:17805359

  5. Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Brenckle, Mark A; Yang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jingdi; Liu, Mengkun; Siebert, Sean M; Averitt, Richard D; Mannoor, Manu S; McAlpine, Michael C; Rogers, John A; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-02-21

    An array of passive metamaterial antennas fabricated on all protein-based silk substrates were conformally transferred and adhered to the surface of an apple. This process allows the opportunity for intimate contact of micro- and nanostructures that can probe, and accordingly monitor changes in, their surrounding environment. This provides in situ monitoring of food quality. It is to be noted that this type of sensor consists of all edible and biodegradable components, holding utility and potential relevance for healthcare and food/consumer products and markets.

  6. Absorbance Based Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensors and Sensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for in situ monitoring of health, environment and security has created a need for reliable, miniaturised sensing devices. To achieve this, appropriate analytical devices are required that possess operating characteristics of reliability, low power consumption, low cost, autonomous operation capability and compatibility with wireless communications systems. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources is one strategy, which has been successfully applied in chemical sensing. This paper summarises the development and advancement of LED based chemical sensors and sensing devices in terms of their configuration and application, with the focus on transmittance and reflectance absorptiometric measurements.

  7. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  8. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime. PMID:22666045

  9. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of

  10. Genetic algorithm-support vector regression for high reliability SHM system based on FBG sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiaoLi; Liang, DaKai; Zeng, Jie; Asundi, Anand

    2012-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, FBG sensor network is embedded or glued in the structure simply with series or parallel. In this case, if optic fiber sensors or fiber nodes fail, the fiber sensors cannot be sensed behind the failure point. Therefore, for improving the survivability of the FBG-based sensor system in the SHM, it is necessary to build high reliability FBG sensor network for the SHM engineering application. In this study, a model reconstruction soft computing recognition algorithm based on genetic algorithm-support vector regression (GA-SVR) is proposed to achieve the reliability of the FBG-based sensor system. Furthermore, an 8-point FBG sensor system is experimented in an aircraft wing box. The external loading damage position prediction is an important subject for SHM system; as an example, different failure modes are selected to demonstrate the SHM system's survivability of the FBG-based sensor network. Simultaneously, the results are compared with the non-reconstruct model based on GA-SVR in each failure mode. Results show that the proposed model reconstruction algorithm based on GA-SVR can still keep the predicting precision when partial sensors failure in the SHM system; thus a highly reliable sensor network for the SHM system is facilitated without introducing extra component and noise.

  11. Woven electrochemical fabric-based test sensors (WEFTS): a new class of multiplexed electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tripurari; Rajamanickam, G P; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2015-05-01

    We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

  12. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  13. Detection of botulinum toxins: micromechanical and fluorescence-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Parpura, Vladimir; Chapman, Edwin R

    2005-08-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal of known human toxins, exerting their actions by cleaving the soluble N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) required for neurotransmitter release. Early detection of these toxins is important for appropriate medical treatment. To detect BoNT activity, traditional assays monitor the effects of the toxins on a mammalian organism (observing signs of botulism in mice), or identify cleaved substrate molecules (electrophoresis and immunoblot). Similarly, enzyme-linked assays were used for screening potential toxin inhibitors in vitro in attempt to select antitoxins that could be used for therapeutic purposes. Here we review two recently developed sensor systems for detection of toxin activity in vitro and in living cells. In vitro detection was carried out using a micromechanosensor that relies on the attachment of a bead to the micromachined cantilever through the interactions between SNARE proteins, with synaptobrevin 2 deposited onto beads and syntaxin 1A deposited onto cantilevers. The presence of toxin is indicated by the detachment of the bead, resulting from cleavage of synaptobrevin 2. Additional in vitro detection is possible using fluorescent sensors constructed by inserting linkers, containing fragments of SNARE proteins acting as toxin substrates, between cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (CFP and YFP). Toxins cause the cleavage of these linkers and thereby abolish fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CFP and YFP. This approach, combined with an additional sensor based on subcellular redistribution of YFP fluorescence in cells, was used for cell-based screening of toxin activity.

  14. Silicon-based microfabricated microbial fuel cell toxicity sensor.

    PubMed

    Dávila, D; Esquivel, J P; Sabaté, N; Mas, J

    2011-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used for several years as biosensors for measuring environmental parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand and water toxicity. The present study is focused on the detection of toxic matter using a novel silicon-based MFC. Like other existing toxicity sensors based on MFCs, this device is capable of detecting the variation on the current produced by the cell when toxic compounds are present in the medium. The MFC approach presented in this work aims to obtain a simple, compact and planar device for its further application as a biosensor in the design and fabrication of equipment for toxicity monitoring. It consists on a proton exchange membrane placed between two microfabricated silicon plates that act as current collectors. An array of square 80 μm × 80 μm vertical channels, 300 μm deep, have been defined trough the plates over an area of 6 mm × 6 mm. The final testing assembly incorporates two perspex pieces positioned onto the plates as reservoirs with a working volume of 144 μL per compartment. The operation of the microdevice as a direct electron transfer MFC has been validated by comparing its performance against a larger scale MFC, run under the same conditions. The device has been tested as a toxicity sensor by setting it at a fixed current while monitoring changes in the output power. A drop in the power production is observed when a toxic compound is added to the anode compartment. The compact design of the device makes it suitable for its incorporation into measurement equipment either as an individual device or as an array of sensors for high throughput processing.

  15. Review on State-of-the-art in Polymer Based pH Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Korostynska, Olga; Arshak, Khalil; Gill, Edric; Arshak, Arousian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews current state-of-the-art methods of measuring pH levels that are based on polymer materials. These include polymer-coated fibre optic sensors, devices with electrodes modified with pH-sensitive polymers, fluorescent pH indicators, potentiometric pH sensors as well as sensors that use combinatory approach for ion concentration monitoring.

  16. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years.

  17. An Electrochemical NO₂ Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-11-11

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity.

  18. An Electrochemical NO2 Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity. PMID:26569248

  19. An Electrochemical NO₂ Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity. PMID:26569248

  20. Flexible thin-film PVDF-TrFE based pressure sensor for smart catheter applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tushar; Aroom, Kevin; Naik, Sahil; Gill, Brijesh; Zhang, John X J

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate the design of thin flexible pressure sensors based on piezoelectric PVDF-TrFE (polyvinyledenedifluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) co-polymer film, which can be integrated onto a catheter, where the compact inner lumen space limit the dimensions of the pressure sensors. Previously, we demonstrated that the thin-film sensors of one micrometer thickness were shown to have better performance compared to the thicker film with no additional electrical poling or mechanical stretching due to higher crystallinity. The pressure sensors can be mass producible using standard lithography process, with excellent control of film uniformity and thickness down to one micrometer. The fabricated pressure sensors were easily mountable on external surface of commercial catheters. Elaborate experiments were performed to demonstrate the applicability of PVDF sensors towards catheter based biomedical application. The resonant frequency of the PVDF sensor was found to be 6.34 MHz. The PVDF sensors can operate over a broad pressure range of 0-300 mmHg. The average sensitivity of the PVDF sensor was found to be four times higher (99 μV/mmHg) than commercial pressure sensor while the PVDF sensor (0.26 s) had fivefold shorter response time than commercial pressure sensor (1.30 s), making the PVDF sensors highly suitable for real-time pressure measurements using catheters. PMID:23519532

  1. Optical chirality sensing using macrocycles, synthetic and supramolecular oligomers/polymers, and nanoparticle based sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhan; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xin; Li, Zhao; Jiang, Yun-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Optical sensors that respond to enantiomeric excess of chiral analytes are highly demanded in chirality related research fields and demonstrate their potential in many applications, for example, screening of asymmetric reaction products. Most sensors developed so far are small molecules. This Tutorial Review covers recent advances in chirality sensing systems that are different from the traditional small molecule-based sensors, by using macrocycles, synthetic oligomers/polymers, supramolecular polymers and nanoparticles as the sensors, in which supramolecular interactions operate. PMID:25714523

  2. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform.

  3. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform. PMID:26356763

  4. Thin-film chemical sensors based on electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.; Leduc, H. G.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanisms underlying a novel chemical sensor based on electron tunneling in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions were studied. Chemical sensors based on electron tunneling were shown to be sensitive to a variety of substances that include iodine, mercury, bismuth, ethylenedibromide, and ethylenedichloride. A sensitivity of 13 parts per billion of iodine dissolved in hexane was demonstrated. The physical mechanisms involved in the chemical sensitivity of these devices were determined to be the chemical alteration of the surface electronic structure of the top metal electrode in the MIM structure. In addition, electroreflectance spectroscopy (ERS) was studied as a complementary surface-sensitive technique. ERS was shown to be sensitive to both iodine and mercury. Electrolyte electroreflectance and solid-state MIM electroreflectance revealed qualitatively the same chemical response. A modified thin-film structure was also studied in which a chemically active layer was introduced at the top Metal-Insulator interface of the MIM devices. Cobalt phthalocyanine was used for the chemically active layer in this study. Devices modified in this way were shown to be sensitive to iodine and nitrogen dioxide. The chemical sensitivity of the modified structure was due to conductance changes in the active layer.

  5. Fabrication of paper-based microfluidic sensors by printing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Tian, Junfei; Garnier, Gil; Shen, Wei

    2010-04-01

    A novel method for the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic diagnostic devices is reported; it consists of selectively hydrophobizing paper using cellulose reactive hydrophobization agents. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic contrast of patterns so created has excellent ability to control capillary penetration of aqueous liquids in paper channels. Incorporating this idea with digital ink jet printing techniques, a new fabrication method of paper-based microfluidic devices is established. Ink jet printing can deliver biomolecules and indicator reagents with precision into the microfluidic patterns to form bio-chemical sensing zones within the device. This method thus allows the complete sensor, i.e. channel patterns and the detecting chemistries, to be fabricated only by two printing steps. This fabrication method can be scaled up and adapted to use high speed, high volume and low cost commercial printing technology. Sensors can be fabricated for specific tests, or they can be made as general devices to perform on-demand quantitative analytical tasks by incorporating the required detection chemistries for the required tasks.

  6. Aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-11-01

    The development of an aptamer-based viability impedimetric sensor for bacteria (AptaVISens-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to live Salmonella typhimurium were selected via the cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against viable S. typhimurium and a negative selection step against heat killed S. typhimurium and a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii to ensure the species specificity of the selected aptamers. The DNA sequence showing the highest binding affinity to the bacteria was further integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNP-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. typhimurium down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 live cells in 30 μL of assay volume) and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. enteritidis and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based viability sensing of a variety of microorganisms, particularly viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  7. Aptamer-based impedimetric sensor for bacterial typing.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-10-01

    The development of an aptamer-based impedimetric sensor for typing of bacteria (AIST-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to Salmonella enteritidis were selected via Cell-SELEX technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against S. enteritidis and a negative selection step against a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii, to ensure the species-specificity of the selected aptamers. After sequencing of the pool showing the highest binding affinity to S. enteritidis, a DNA sequence of high affinity to the bacteria was integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticles-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNPs-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. enteritidis down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 CFU in 30 μL assay volume) in 10 min and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based typing of a variety of microorganisms using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  8. LED-based near infrared sensor for cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ageev, Vladimir; Zabarylo, Urszula; Usenov, Iskander; Schulte, Franziska; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Minet, Olaf; Feliksberger, E.; Meshkovsky, I.; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic technologies are increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Feasibility of differentiation between malignant and healthy samples of human kidney using Fluorescence, Raman, MIR and NIR spectroscopy has been recently reported . In the present work, a simplification of NIR spectroscopy method has been studied. Traditional high-resolution NIR spectrometry was replaced by an optical sensor based on a set of light-emitting diodes at selected wavelengths as light sources and a photodiode. Two prototypes of the sensor have been developed and tested using 14 in-vitro samples of seven kidney tumor patients. Statistical evaluation of results using principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis has been performed. Despite only partial discrimination between tumor and healthy tissue achieved by the presented new technique, the results evidence benefits of LED-based near-infrared sensing used for oncological diagnostics. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 4 March, 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 7 April, 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  9. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This methodmore » can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.« less

  10. Fabrication of diamond based sensors for use in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-04-23

    Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. Here, we demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  11. Immobilization, stabilization and patterning techniques for enzyme based sensor systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Flounders, A.W.; Carichner, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Volponi, J.V.; Schoeniger, J.S.; Wally, K.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently opened the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL) in Livermore CA to address the detection needs of a variety of government agencies (e.g., Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Agriculture) as well as provide a fertile environment for the cooperative development of new industrial technologies. This laboratory consolidates a variety of existing chemical and radiation detection efforts and enables Sandia to expand into the novel area of biochemically based sensors. One aspect of this biosensor effort is further development and optimization of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs). Recent work has focused upon covalent attachment of enzymes to silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces for EnFET fabrication. They are also investigating methods to pattern immobilized proteins; a critical component for development of array-based sensor systems. Novel enzyme stabilization procedures are key to patterning immobilized enzyme layers while maintaining enzyme activity. Results related to maximized enzyme loading, optimized enzyme activity and fluorescent imaging of patterned surfaces will be presented.

  12. Knowledge-based imaging-sensor fusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrom, George

    1989-01-01

    An imaging system which applies knowledge-based technology to supervise and control both sensor hardware and computation in the imaging system is described. It includes the development of an imaging system breadboard which brings together into one system work that we and others have pursued for LaRC for several years. The goal is to combine Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Knowledge-Based Processing and also include Neural Net processing. The system is considered a smart camera. Imagine that there is a microgravity experiment on-board Space Station Freedom with a high frame rate, high resolution camera. All the data cannot possibly be acquired from a laboratory on Earth. In fact, only a small fraction of the data will be received. Again, imagine being responsible for some experiments on Mars with the Mars Rover: the data rate is a few kilobits per second for data from several sensors and instruments. Would it not be preferable to have a smart system which would have some human knowledge and yet follow some instructions and attempt to make the best use of the limited bandwidth for transmission. The system concept, current status of the breadboard system and some recent experiments at the Mars-like Amboy Lava Fields in California are discussed.

  13. Polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreja, Paula; Cristea, Dana; Kusko, Mihai; Dinescu, Adrian

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a design and low-cost techniques for polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. To obtain a polymer chip with a prism, microchannels and a chamber at microscale dimensions, replication techniques in polymers with controlled refractive index have been developed. Photoresist, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and epoxy resin were used. Silicon dioxide/silicon-based molds have been obtained by anisotropic etching of silicon, and glass prisms were used as masters for replication. The photoresist molds were obtained by optical lithography and were used to obtain the microchannels and the chamber. A liquid prepolymer (PDMS, Sylgard 184) with curing agent at a ratio of 10:1 was used, and a special technique was developed in order to fabricate the components of the structure at the same time. For the deposition and direct patterning of the metallic layers onto the polymer surface, different methods were experimented with, including sputtering. The materials and techniques used to achieve SPR sensors are presented, and the possibilities and limitations of the technology are discussed.

  14. Wireless, magnetic-based sensors for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ong, Keat Ghee; Tan, Ee Lim; Pereles, Brandon; Horton, Brock

    2009-01-01

    Wireless magnetic sensor technologies are gaining popularity in biomedical community due to their remote query nature, which allows them to be used as long-term implantable sensors. Some of these sensors are also low cost so they are suitable for use on a disposable basis. In this paper, two wireless magnetic sensors are described: the magnetoelastic sensor and the magneto-harmonic sensor. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of magnetoelastic materials that when under an AC magnetic field excitation, vibrate and resonate at their resonant frequencies. Since the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor is proportional to the mass or viscosity of the surrounding material, it has been used to detect chemical and biological targets by incorporating coatings that change mass/elasticity in response to the parameters of interest. Conversely, magneto-harmonic sensors detect parameters of interest by monitoring the change in the pattern or amplitude of the magnetic higher-order harmonic fields. Typically, a magneto-harmonic sensor consists of a magnetically soft material (sensing element) and a permanent magnet (biasing element). When energized by an AC magnetic field, the sensing element generates higher-order magnetic fields that change with the biasing field from the biasing element. By designing the sensor so the separation distance between these two elements varies with the parameters of interest, the magneto-harmonic sensor has been used for remote measurement of pressure and stress. This paper presents the operating principles and biomedical applications of these sensors.

  15. [Measurement Error Analysis and Calibration Technique of NTC - Based Body Temperature Sensor].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chi; Hu, Wei; Diao, Shengxi; Lin, Fujiang; Qian, Dahong

    2015-11-01

    A NTC thermistor-based wearable body temperature sensor was designed. This paper described the design principles and realization method of the NTC-based body temperature sensor. In this paper the temperature measurement error sources of the body temperature sensor were analyzed in detail. The automatic measurement and calibration method of ADC error was given. The results showed that the measurement accuracy of calibrated body temperature sensor is better than ± 0.04 degrees C. The temperature sensor has high accuracy, small size and low power consumption advantages.

  16. Remote PCF-based sensors multiplexing by using optical add-drop multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Mikel; Candiani, Alessandro; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Lopez-Amo, Manuel; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay

    2014-04-01

    A 100 km remote PCF micro-displacement sensor multiplexing system based on optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) has been experimentally demonstrated. The PCF sensors are placed in an OADM bus structure which is illuminated by a home-made tunable fiber optic ring laser. Four micro-displacement photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensors based on a suspended core fiber inserted into a Sagnac loop filter are multiplexed. Furthermore, being the first proposal to solve this issue in PCF sensor multiplexing structures, these sensors can be referenced with an extra wavelength.

  17. Design and development of diaphragm-based EFPI pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish, P. P.; Linesh, J.; Libish, T. M.; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2011-08-01

    An extrinsic fabry-perot interferometric pressure sensor is fabricated using a cavity formed by a metal diaphragm and a single mode optical fiber. The compact sensor probe has been tested for static pressure response using diaphragms of different metals.

  18. Design and development of diaphragm-based EFPI pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish, P. P.; Linesh, J.; Libish, T. M.; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2010-12-01

    An extrinsic fabry-perot interferometric pressure sensor is fabricated using a cavity formed by a metal diaphragm and a single mode optical fiber. The compact sensor probe has been tested for static pressure response using diaphragms of different metals.

  19. VCSEL-based sensors for distance and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Carpaij, Mark; Gerlach, Philipp; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gudde, Ralph; Hellmig, Jochen; Kolb, Johanna; van der Lee, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    VCSEL based sensors can measure distance and velocity in three dimensional space and are already produced in high quantities for professional and consumer applications. Several physical principles are used: VCSELs are applied as infrared illumination for surveillance cameras. High power arrays combined with imaging optics provide a uniform illumination of scenes up to a distance of several hundred meters. Time-of-flight methods use a pulsed VCSEL as light source, either with strong single pulses at low duty cycle or with pulse trains. Because of the sensitivity to background light and the strong decrease of the signal with distance several Watts of laser power are needed at a distance of up to 100m. VCSEL arrays enable power scaling and can provide very short pulses at higher power density. Applications range from extended functions in a smartphone over industrial sensors up to automotive LIDAR for driver assistance and autonomous driving. Self-mixing interference works with coherent laser photons scattered back into the cavity. It is therefore insensitive to environmental light. The method is used to measure target velocity and distance with very high accuracy at distances up to one meter. Single-mode VCSELs with integrated photodiode and grating stabilized polarization enable very compact and cost effective products. Besides the well know application as computer input device new applications with even higher accuracy or for speed over ground measurement in automobiles and up to 250km/h are investigated. All measurement methods exploit the known VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for packages with integrated optics and electronics. This makes VCSEL sensors ideally suited for new mass applications in consumer and automotive markets.

  20. Pulse based sensor networking using mechanical waves through metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, S.; Dong, B.; Huo, Q.; Tomlinson, W. J.; Biswas, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless sensor networking technique using ultrasonic signal as the carrier wave for binary data exchange. Using the properties of lamb wave propagation through metal substrates, the proposed network structure can be used for runtime transport of structural fault information to ultrasound access points. Primary applications of the proposed sensor networking technique will include conveying fault information on an aircraft wing or on a bridge to an ultrasonic access point using ultrasonic wave through the structure itself (i.e. wing or bridge). Once a fault event has been detected, a mechanical pulse is forwarded to the access node using shortest path multi-hop ultrasonic pulse routing. The advantages of mechanical waves over traditional radio transmission using pulses are the following: First, unlike radio frequency, surface acoustic waves are not detectable outside the medium, which increases the inherent security for sensitive environments in respect to tapping. Second, event detection can be represented by the injection of a single mechanical pulse at a specific temporal position, whereas radio messages usually take several bits. The contributions of this paper are: 1) Development of a transceiver for transmitting/receiving ultrasound pulses with a pulse loss rate below 2·10-5 and false positive rate with an upper bound of 2·10-4. 2) A novel one-hop distance estimation based on the properties of lamb wave propagation with an accuracy of above 80%. 3) Implementation of a wireless sensor network using mechanical wave propagation for event detection on a 2024 aluminum alloy commonly used for aircraft skin construction.

  1. Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

    2010-04-01

    A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

  2. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  3. System-on-chip based Doppler radar occupancy sensor.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    System-on-Chip (SoC) based Doppler radar occupancy sensor is developed through non contact detection of respiratory signals. The radio was developed using off the shelf low power RF CC2530 SoC chip by Texas Instruments. In order to save power, the transmitter sends signal intermittently at 2.405 GHz. Reflected pulses are demodulated, and the baseband signals are processed to recover periodic motion. The system was tested both with mechanical target and a human subject. In both cases Doppler radar detected periodic motion closely matched the actual motion, and it has been shown that an SoC based system can be used for subject detection. PMID:22254705

  4. Background Subtraction Based on Color and Depth Using Active Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Enrique J.; Diaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage. PMID:23857259

  5. A Design of Sensor Network for Remote Communication Based on GPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yubao; Ma, Chong; Wu, Changqi

    2012-09-01

    A new scheme is proposed to realize the remote communication and monitor the sensor network, which is based on GPON. It is suited to carry data collected from optical sensor networks and to monitor environment on a public network. It is a cost-effective system architecture, which not only avoids re-laying of additional sensor fiber channel for sensor data communication, but also increases the flexibility of sensor network. In order to facilitate sensor monitoring center to receive and analyze sensor data, a novel frame format of sensor signal is designed to carry the low-rate sensor data. Here, TDMA techniques have been employed to upload data of various sensor networks to one port of ONU, which makes full use of time domain resources. The delay effect, identification method of the sensor data, and various interference factors which influence the sensor data to be correctly received are analyzed. The uplink simulation indicates that the accurate judgement can be obtained in the condition of time synchronization. The integration of the sensor network and communication network is feasible in reality. However, the time synchronization error, the laser response time delay and the received signal power difference will degrade the system performance to some extent.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiuxin; Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Gao, Xiaotong; Peng, Wei

    2015-12-01

    A fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica tubing with its cladding stripped and coated with gold film as SPR sensing area is presented. Theoretical simulate of the proposed sensing structure for different sensing area length and different film thickness of sensors is done to obtain the suitable parameters, and the simulation for different refractive index is carried out. Meanwhile, the experiments for refractive index (RI) measurement have been demonstrated using the developed sensor, 400 μm optical fiber sensor and 125 μm optical fiber sensor. Experimental results have shown the capillary sensor has advantage in terms of sensitivity and resolution. The capillary sensor is also used for detecting and monitoring biochemical binding and dissociation processes of the RNase B and Con A. It is proved that the sensor with chemical modification can be implemented for specific biochemical sensing

  7. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xu; Bo, You; Xin, Li; Juan, Cui

    2007-12-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm °C-1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 °C.

  8. Cell-Based Odorant Sensor Array for Odor Discrimination Based on Insect Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Termtanasombat, Maneerat; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Misawa, Nobuo; Yamahira, Shinya; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    The olfactory system of living organisms can accurately discriminate numerous odors by recognizing the pattern of activation of several odorant receptors (ORs). Thus, development of an odorant sensor array based on multiple ORs presents the possibility of mimicking biological odor discrimination mechanisms. Recently, we developed novel odorant sensor elements with high sensitivity and selectivity based on insect OR-expressing Sf21 cells that respond to target odorants by displaying increased fluorescence intensity. Here we introduce the development of an odorant sensor array composed of several Sf21 cell lines expressing different ORs. In this study, an array pattern of four cell lines expressing Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 was successfully created using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane film template and cell-immobilizing reagents, termed biocompatible anchor for membrane (BAM). We demonstrated that BAM could create a clear pattern of Sf21 sensor cells without impacting their odorant-sensing performance. Our sensor array showed odorant-specific response patterns toward both odorant mixtures and single odorant stimuli, allowing us to visualize the presence of 1-octen-3-ol, geosmin, bombykol, and bombykal as an increased fluorescence intensity in the region of Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, we successfully developed a new methodology for creating a cell-based odorant sensor array that enables us to discriminate multiple target odorants. Our method might be expanded into the development of an odorant sensor capable of detecting a large range of environmental odorants that might become a promising tool used in various applications including the study of insect semiochemicals and food contamination.

  9. Smart sprayer project: sensor-based selective herbicide application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lei F.; Steward, Brian L.; Tang, Lie

    2000-12-01

    The smart sprayer, a local-vision-sensor-based precision chemical application system, was developed and tested. The long-term objectives of this project were to develop new technologies to estimate weed density and size in real-time, to realize site-specific weed control, and to effectively reduce the amount of herbicide applied to major crop fields. This research integrated a real-time machine vision sensing system and individual nozzle controlling device with a commercial map-driven-ready herbicide sprayer to create an intelligent sensing and spraying system. The machine vision system was specially designed to work under outdoor variable lighting conditions. Multiple vision sensors were used to cover the target area. Instead of trying to identify each individual plant in the field, weed infestation conditions in each control zone (management zone) were detected. To increase the delivery accuracy, each individual spray nozzle was controlled separately. The integrated system was tested to evaluate the effectiveness and performance under varying commercial field conditions. Using the on-board differential GPS, geo-referenced chemical input maps (equivalent to weed maps) were also recorded in real-time. The maps generated with this system have been compared with other sensing and referencing systems.

  10. Melamine sensing based on evanescent field enhanced optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji; Yao, Jun; Wang, Wei-min; Zhuang, Xu-ye; Ma, Wen-ying; Lin, Qiao

    2013-08-01

    Melamine is an insalubrious chemical, and has been frequently added into milk products illegally, to make the products more protein-rich. However, it can cause some various diseases, such as kidney stones and bladder cancer. In this paper, a novel optical fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on absorption of the evanescent field for melamine detection is successfully proposed and developed. Different concentrations of melamine changing from 0 to 10mg/mL have been detected using the micro/nano-sensing fiber decorated with silver nanoparticles cluster layer. As the concentration increases, the sensing fiber's output intensity gradually deceases and the absorption of the analyte becomes large. The concentration changing of 1mg/ml can cause the absorbance varying 0.664 and the limit of the melamine detectable concentration is 1ug/mL. Besides, the coupling properties between silver nanoparticles have also been analyzed by the FDTD method. Overall, this evanescent field enhanced optical fiber sensor has potential to be used in oligo-analyte detection and will promote the development of biomolecular and chemical sensing applications.

  11. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  12. Sensors based on galvanic cell generated electrochemiluminescence and its application.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lirong; Zhang, Zhujun

    2006-10-27

    In this paper, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging sensor array was developed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which was based on Cu/Zn alloy galvanic cell generated ECL. In alkaline solution, Cu/Zn galvanic cell was formed because of corrosion effect, the galvanic cell could supply stable potential for ECL generation of luminol, and the weak ECL emission could be enhanced by H(2)O(2). The galvanic cell sensor array was designed by putting Cu/Zn alloy in 96-well microtiter plates separately. The relative ECL intensity was proportional with the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) and the detection limit was 3.0 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) (3sigma), the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 11 parallel measurements of 1.0 x 10(-5)mol l(-1) H2O2 was 4.0%.

  13. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel Riza

    2008-09-30

    In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

  14. MEMS magnetic field sensor based on magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marauska, Stephan; Jahns, Robert; Greve, Henry; Quandt, Eckhard; Knöchel, Reinhard; Wagner, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    For the measurement of biomagnetic signals in the pico- and femtotesla regime superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs) are commonly used. Their major limitation comes from helium cooling which makes these sensors bulky and expensive. We show that MEMS sensors based on magnetoelectric (ME) composites could be capable as a replacement for biomagnetic measurements. Using surface micromachining processes a cantilever beam with a stack composed of SiO2/Ti/Pt/AlN/Cr/FeCoSiB was fabricated on a 150 mm Si (1 0 0) wafer. First measurements of a rectangular micro cantilever with a thickness of 4 µm and lateral dimensions of 0.2 mm × 1.12 mm showed a giant ME coefficient αME = 1000 (V m-1)/(A m-1) in resonance at 2.4 kHz. The resulting static ME coefficient is αME = 14 (V m-1)/(A m-1). In resonance operation a sensitivity of 780 V T-1 and noise levels as low as 100 pT Hz-1/2 have been reached.

  15. [On-Orbit Multispectral Sensor Characterization Based on Spectral Tarps].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Li-ming; Chen, Hong-yao; Xu, Wei-wei

    2016-03-01

    The multispectral remote sensing technology has been a primary means in the research of biomass monitoring, climate change, disaster prediction and etc. The spectral sensitivity is essential in the quantitative analysis of remote sensing data. When the sensor is running in the space, it will be influenced by cosmic radiation, severe change of temperature, chemical molecular contamination, cosmic dust and etc. As a result, the spectral sensitivity will degrade by time, which has great implication on the accuracy and consistency of the physical measurements. This paper presents a characterization method of the degradation based on man-made spectral targets. Firstly, a degradation model is established in the paper. Then, combined with equivalent reflectance of spectral targets measured and inverted from image, the degradation characterization can be achieved. The simulation and on orbit experiment results showed that, using the proposed method, the change of center wavelength and band width can be monotored. The method proposed in the paper has great significance for improving the accuracy of long time series remote sensing data product and comprehensive utilization level of multi sensor data products. PMID:27400529

  16. Bio-mimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-07-30

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  17. Cathodoluminescence Emission Studies for Selected Phosphor-Based Sensor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Goedeke, Shawn; Hollerman, William Andrew; Allison, Stephen W; Gray, P A; Lewis, Linda A; Smithwick III, Robert W; Boatner, Lynn A; Glasgow, David C; Ivanov, Ilia N; Wise, H.

    2005-01-01

    The current interest in returning to the Moon and Mars by 2030 makes cost effective and low mass health monitoring sensors essential for spacecraft development. In space, there are many surface measurements that are required to monitor the condition of the spacecraft including: surface temperature, radiation dose, and impact. Through the use of phosphors, these conditions can be monitored. Practical space-based phosphor sensors will depend heavily upon research investigating the resistance of phosphors to ionizing radiation and the ability to anneal or self-heal from damage caused by ionizing radiation. The cathodoluminescence (CL) testing was performed using the low energy electron system located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. For the materials tested, several interesting results were observed. For most materials, increases in both beam energy and current density improved the CL fluorescence yield. It was also noted that YAG:Nd,Ce has the greatest near infrared intensity for any of the tested materials. The evaluation of dopant concentration in YPO{sub 4}:Nd showed minimal differences in spectral shape and intensity. While the total electron dose was small, the intention was to maximize the number of irradiated materials.

  18. Gas Sensors Based on Single-Arm Waveguide Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Curley, Michael; Diggs, Darnell; Adamovsky, Grigory

    1998-01-01

    Various optical technologies can be implemented in chemical sensing. Sensitive, rugged, and compact systems will be more likely built using interferometric waveguide sensors. Currently existing sensors comprise dual-arm systems with external reference arm, dual-arm devices with internal reference arm such as integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and single-arm systems which employ the interference between different waveguide modes. These latter ones are the most compact and rugged but still sensitive enough to monitor volatile pollutants such as NH3 coming out of industrial refrigerators and fertilizer plants and stocks, NO, NO2, SO2, emitted by industrial burning processes. Single-arm devices in planar waveguide configuration most frequently use two orthogonally polarized modes TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) of the same order i. Sensing effect is based on the difference in propagation conditions for the modes caused by the environment. However, dual-mode single-order interferometers still have relatively low sensitivity with respect to the environment related changes in the waveguide core because of small difference between propagation constants of TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) modes of the same order. Substantial sensitivity improvement without significant complication can be achieved for planar waveguide interferometers using modes of different orders with much greater difference between propagation constants.

  19. Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-06-01

    Based on the Doppler effect of light wave transmission in optical fiber, Doppler effect-based fiber-optic (FOD) sensor possesses outstanding advantages in acquiring vibration/acoustic waves with high sensitivity. Furthermore, when shape of the FOD sensor was properly selected, its sensitivity was bonding direction-independent, namely non-directionality. In this paper, characteristics of the FOD sensor were investigated for the purpose of ultrasonic detection. A piezoelectric wafer was applied as an actuator to excite Lamb waves, a kind of ultrasonic wave, in an aluminum-alloy plate. Features of the ultrasonic wave signals, collected using a number of spiral FOD sensors with various inner diameters and outer diameters, were compared to investigate characteristics of FOD sensor. Amplitude curves of the FOD sensors were hereby obtained for the future applications in ultrasonic acquisition. The results demonstrated that sensitivity of the spiral FOD sensor with longer optical fiber length was higher than that with shorter fiber length.

  20. 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on aligned carbon nanotube networks: overcoming the fundamental limitation of network-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Hyungwoo; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, June; Jhon, Young Min; Seong, Maeng-Je; Hong, Seunghun

    2010-02-01

    Nanoscale sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks have been considered impractical due to several fundamental limitations such as a poor sensitivity and small signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we present a strategy to overcome these fundamental problems and build highly-sensitive low-noise nanoscale sensors simply by controlling the structure of the SWNT networks. In this strategy, we prepared nanoscale width channels based on aligned SWNT networks using a directed assembly strategy. Significantly, the aligned network-based sensors with narrower channels exhibited even better signal-to-noise ratio than those with wider channels, which is opposite to conventional random network-based sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated 100 nm scale low-noise sensors to detect mercury ions with the detection limit of approximately 1 pM, which is superior to any state-of-the-art portable detection system and is below the allowable limit of mercury ions in drinking water set by most government environmental protection agencies. This is the first demonstration of 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on SWNT networks. Considering the increased interests in high-density sensor arrays for healthcare and environmental protection, our strategy should have a significant impact on various industrial applications.

  1. Chromium(III) selective membrane sensors based on Schiff bases as chelating ionophores.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Gupta, V K; Gupta, Barkha

    2007-02-28

    The two chromium chelates of Schiff bases, N-(acetoacetanilide)-1,2-diaminoethane (L(1)) and N,N'-bis(acetoacetanilide)-triethylenetetraammine (L(2)), have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Cr(III). The addition of lipophilic anion excluder (NaTPB) and various plasticizers viz. o-Nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), dioctylpthalate (DOP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), and benzyl acetate (BA) have found to improve the performance of the sensors. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(1):PVC:DBP:NaTPB in the ratio 5:150:250:3 (w/w). The sensor exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 8.9 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M Cr(3+) with limit of detection 5.6 x 10(-8) M. The proposed sensor manifest advantages of relatively fast response (10s) and good selectivity over some alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The selectivity behavior of the proposed electrode revealed a considerable improvement as compared to the best previously PVC-membrane electrode for chromium(III) ion. The potentiometric response of the proposed sensor was independent of pH of the test solution in the range of 2.0-7.0. The sensor has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 20% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The proposed electrode was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of chromium ion with EDTA and in direct determination in different water and food samples.

  2. A new collaborative knowledge-based approach for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Velasco, Juan Ramón

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for collaboration among sensors in Wireless Sensor Networks. These networks are composed of a large number of sensor nodes with constrained resources: limited computational capability, memory, power sources, etc. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the integration of Soft Computing technologies into Wireless Sensor Networks. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems into collaborative Wireless Sensor Networks. The objective of this work is to design a collaborative knowledge-based network, in which each sensor executes an adapted Fuzzy Rule-Based System, which presents significant advantages such as: experts can define interpretable knowledge with uncertainty and imprecision, collaborative knowledge can be separated from control or modeling knowledge and the collaborative approach may support neighbor sensor failures and communication errors. As a real-world application of this approach, we demonstrate a collaborative modeling system for pests, in which an alarm about the development of olive tree fly is inferred. The results show that knowledge-based sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications and that the behavior of a knowledge-based sensor may be modified by inferences and knowledge of neighbor sensors in order to obtain a more accurate and reliable output.

  3. Node Deployment Algorithm Based on Viscous Fluid Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Huanyan

    2014-01-01

    With the scale expands, traditional deployment algorithms are becoming increasingly complicated than before, which are no longer fit for sensor networks. In order to reduce the complexity, we propose a node deployment algorithm based on viscous fluid model. In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are abstracted as fluid particles. Similar to the diffusion and self-propagation behavior of fluid particles, sensor nodes realize deployment in unknown region following the motion rules of fluid. Simulation results show that our algorithm archives good coverage rate and homogeneity in large-scale sensor networks. PMID:25133222

  4. Data collection method for mobile sensor networks based on the theory of thermal fields.

    PubMed

    Macuha, Martin; Tariq, Muhammad; Sato, Takuro

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor applications are aimed for mobile objects, where conventional routing approaches of data delivery might fail. Such applications are habitat monitoring, human probes or vehicular sensing systems. This paper targets such applications and proposes lightweight proactive distributed data collection scheme for Mobile Sensor Networks (MSN) based on the theory of thermal fields. By proper mapping, we create distribution function which allows considering characteristics of a sensor node. We show the functionality of our proposed forwarding method when adapted to the energy of sensor node. We also propose enhancement in order to maximize lifetime of the sensor nodes. We thoroughly evaluate proposed solution and discuss the tradeoffs. PMID:22164011

  5. A SPR sensor based on twin-core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yong; Liu, Zhihai; Zhao, Enming; Zhang, Yaxun; Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a twin-core fiber (TCF). We grind the TCF tip into a frustum wedge shape, and plate a 50nm sensing gold film on the end face, two 500nm reflected gold films on the side faces of the wedge. We launch light source into the core of the TCF by using the high accuracy three-dimensional adjusting mount and microscope objective system. This SPR probe can be combined with microfluidic chip, and realize the real-time monitoring of the refractive index (RI) sensing of flow liquid in the microfluidic channel. The probe successfully monitors the refractive index of liquid ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 and the average sensitivity reaches to 5213nm/RIU in the solution.

  6. A permalloy zigzag structure based magnetic bio-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ger, Tzong-Rong; Xu, You-Ren; Huang, Hao-Ting; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2012-04-01

    A magnetic fluid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles is embedded inside cells by intracellular uptake. A micro-fabricated magnetic zigzag-shaped surface structure is studied for use as a biosensor. We have developed a MOKE magnetometer based methodology to measure the different hysteresis loop signals between cells with and without being placed on zigzag sensors. Adding the magnetic cells on the structure decreases the coercivity from the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) signal of zigzag magnetic thin films because of the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The magnetoresistance measurement observed is that the switching fields of the zigzag structure with magnetic cells are significantly increased compared to the case without cells in the hard axis of the external field applied.

  7. Curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Catarina; Ferreira, Marta S.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-05-01

    A curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed. A capillary tube of silica is fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing a Fabry-Perot cavity. The light propagates in air, when passing through the capillary tube. Two different cavities are subjected to curvature and temperature. The cavity with shorter length shows insensitivity to both measurands. The larger cavity shows two operating regions for curvature measurement, where a linear response is shown, with a maximum sensitivity of 18.77pm/m-1 for the high curvature radius range. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produces a similar response for different curvature radius, with a sensitivity of 0.87pm/°C.

  8. Loop-mirror-based slot waveguide refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-12-01

    Loop mirror has been widely used in fiber optical devices and systems for it provides a smart way to make use of the fiber birefringence properties and can enhance the sensitivity greatly. On the other hand, slot waveguide is very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper, we propose and analyze a loop-mirror-based slot waveguide (LMSW) sensor which can be routinely fabricated in modern high-volume complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The finite element method (FEM) simulation results show that the birefringence can be as high as 0.8 which is orders of magnitude than that in conventional birefringent fiber loop mirror. High sensitivity up to 6 × 103 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is achieved by this scheme.

  9. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  10. An invisible acoustic sensor based on parity-time symmetry.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Romain; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Sensing an incoming signal is typically associated with absorbing a portion of its energy, inherently perturbing the measurement and creating reflections and shadows. Here, in contrast, we demonstrate a non-invasive, shadow-free, invisible sensor for airborne sound waves at audible frequencies, which fully absorbs the impinging signal, without at the same time perturbing its own measurement or creating a shadow. This unique sensing device is based on the unusual scattering properties of a parity-time (PT) symmetric metamaterial device formed by a pair of electro-acoustic resonators loaded with suitably tailored non-Foster electrical circuits, constituting the acoustic equivalent of a coherent perfect absorber coupled to a coherent laser. Beyond the specific application to non-invasive sensing, our work broadly demonstrates the unique relevance of PT-symmetric metamaterials for acoustics, loss compensation and extraordinary wave manipulation. PMID:25562746

  11. Faraday effect based optical fiber current sensor for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Aerssens, M.; Gusarov, A.; Brichard, B.; Massaut, V.; Megret, P.; Wuilpart, M.

    2011-07-01

    Fiber optical current sensor (FOCS) is a technique considered to be compatible with the ITER nuclear environment. FOCS principle is based on the magneto-optic Faraday effect that produces non-reciprocal circular birefringence when a magnetic field is applied in the propagation direction of the light beam. The magnetic field or the electrical current is deduced from the modification of the state of polarization of light. The linear birefringence of the fiber related with non-perfect manufacturing, temperature changes or stress constitute a parasitic effect that reduces the precision and sensitivity of FOCS. A two-pass optical scheme with a Faraday mirror at the end has been proposed to compensate the influence of linear birefringence. In this paper we perform a Stokes analysis of the two-pass optical scheme to highlight the fact that the linear birefringence is not compensated perfectly by the Faraday mirror when non-reciprocal birefringence such as Faraday effect is also present. (authors)

  12. Piezoresistive cantilever based nanoflow and viscosity sensor for microchannels.

    PubMed

    Quist, Arjan; Chand, Ami; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Cohen, Dan; Lal, Ratnesh

    2006-11-01

    Microfluidic channels are microreactors with a wide range of applications, including molecular separations based upon micro/nanoscale physicochemical properties, targeting and delivery of small amount of fluids and molecules, and patterned/directed growth. Their successful applications would require a detailed understanding of phenomena associated with the microscale flow of liquids through these channels, including velocity, viscosity and miscibility. Here we demonstrate a highly sensitive piezoresistive cantilever to measure flow properties in microfluidic channels. By milling down the legs of the piezoresistive cantilevers, we have achieved significantly higher mechanical sensitivity and a smaller spring constant, as determined by AFM. These cantilevers were used in microchannels to measure the viscosity and flow rate of ethylene glycol mixtures in water over a range of concentrations, as well as of low viscosity biologically relevant buffers with different serum levels. The sensor can be used alone or can be integrated in AFM systems for multidimensional study in micro and nanochannels. PMID:17066169

  13. Business model for sensor-based fall recognition systems.

    PubMed

    Fachinger, Uwe; Schöpke, Birte

    2014-01-01

    AAL systems require, in addition to sophisticated and reliable technology, adequate business models for their launch and sustainable establishment. This paper presents the basic features of alternative business models for a sensor-based fall recognition system which was developed within the context of the "Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing" (GAL). The models were developed parallel to the R&D process with successive adaptation and concretization. An overview of the basic features (i.e. nine partial models) of the business model is given and the mutual exclusive alternatives for each partial model are presented. The partial models are interconnected and the combinations of compatible alternatives lead to consistent alternative business models. However, in the current state, only initial concepts of alternative business models can be deduced. The next step will be to gather additional information to work out more detailed models.

  14. CCD fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Ning, T. G.; Pei, L.; Li, J.; Wen, X. D.; Li, Z. X.

    2010-11-01

    A CCD fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation system based on FPGA is proposed. The system is divided into three units: spectral imaging unit, signal detection unit and signal acquisition and processing unit. The spectral imaging unit uses reflective imaging system, which has few aberration, small size, simple structure and low cost. In the signal detection unit, information of spectrum are accessed by CCD detector, the measurement of spectral line is converted into the measurement of the pixel position of spot, multi point can be simultaneously measured, so the system's reusability, stability and reliability are improved. In the signal acquisition and processing unit, drive circuit and signal acquisition and processing circuit are designed by programmable logic device FPGA, fully use of programmable and high real-time features, simplified system design, improved the system's real-time monitoring capabilities and demodulation speed.

  15. AOTF-based remote sensor with sol-gel probe

    SciTech Connect

    Volkan, M.; Lee, Y.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1999-11-01

    The authors report the development and application of a sensor using acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and sol-gel probe technology. A pH-sensitive probe is used as a model sensing system with dextran derivatives of pH sensitive dyes doped into sol-gel thin films. They used a unique combination of pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive dual-label dye system. For optimization studies, the performance of these films as a pH sensing probe was evaluated using synchronous fluorescence detection. The performance of the prototype AOTF-based monitor using a low-power argon laser as an ion excitation source was evaluated.

  16. Monitoring eating habits using a piezoelectric sensor-based necklace.

    PubMed

    Kalantarian, Haik; Alshurafa, Nabil; Le, Tuan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining appropriate levels of food intake and developing regularity in eating habits is crucial to weight loss and the preservation of a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, awareness of eating habits is an important step towards portion control and weight loss. In this paper, we introduce a novel food-intake monitoring system based around a wearable wireless-enabled necklace. The proposed necklace includes an embedded piezoelectric sensor, small Arduino-compatible microcontroller, Bluetooth LE transceiver, and Lithium-Polymer battery. Motion in the throat is captured and transmitted to a mobile application for processing and user guidance. Results from data collected from 30 subjects indicate that it is possible to detect solid and liquid foods, with an F-measure of 0.837 and 0.864, respectively, using a naive Bayes classifier. Furthermore, identification of extraneous motions such as head turns and walking are shown to significantly reduce the false positive rate of swallow detection.

  17. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  18. Isotope-selective sensor for medical diagnostics based on PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Groninga, H. G.; Harde, H.

    2005-06-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Of the permanently increasing number of non-invasive 13C-breath tests, the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent. However, many recent developments go beyond gastroenterological applications. We present a new detection scheme for breath analysis that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. Using a wavelength-modulated DFB-diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive isotope-selective measurements on CO2. Detection limits for 13CO2 of a few ppm and for the variation of the 13CO2 concentration of approximately 1% were achieved.

  19. A fluorescence high-temperature sensor based on fluorescence lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinling; Wang, Yutian; Wang, Xinian

    2006-11-01

    A kind of fluorescence optic-fiber temperature sensor is devised based on the alexandrite crystal. In this system, a new optic- fiber probe fabrication techniques is proposed. This system is particularly adapted to the temperature measurement in the range of room temperature to 650°C. During the cause of experimentation, using the PLD-PMTR (termed the Pulse Modulated Phase-locked detection with Two References) signal processing scheme. This temperature measurement method is proved to be effective and useful for its highly resolution and precision. It ensured the detected fluorescence signal to noise ratio was high enough to be measurable when the temperature is raised to 650°C.

  20. Fuzzy logic based clustering in wireless sensor networks: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Purohit, N.; Varma, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have limited resources, thus extending the lifetime has always been an issue of great interest. Recent developments in WSNs have led to various new fuzzy systems, specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential consideration. In several applications, the clustered WSN are known to perform better than flat WSN, if the energy consumption in clustering operation itself could be minimised. Routing in clustered WSN is very efficient, especially when the challenge of finding the optimum number of intermediate cluster heads can be resolved. Fortunately, several fuzzy logic based solutions have been proposed for these jobs. Both single- and two-level fuzzy logic approaches are being used for cluster head election in which several distinguished features of WSN have been considered in making a decision. This article surveys the recent fuzzy applications for cluster head selection in WSNs and presents a comparative study for the various approaches pursued.

  1. Positioning Based on Integration of Muti-Sensor Systems Using Kalman Filter and Least Square Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidalizarandi, M.; Cao, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Sensor fusion is to combine different sensor data from different sources in order to make a more accurate model. In this research, different sensors (Optical Speed Sensor, Bosch Sensor, Odometer, XSENS, Silicon and GPS receiver) have been utilized to obtain different kinds of datasets to implement the multi-sensor system and comparing the accuracy of the each sensor with other sensors. The scope of this research is to estimate the current position and orientation of the Van. The Van's position can also be estimated by integrating its velocity and direction over time. To make these components work, it needs an interface that can bridge each other in a data acquisition module. The interface of this research has been developed based on using Labview software environment. Data have been transferred to PC via A/D convertor (LabJack) and make a connection to PC. In order to synchronize all the sensors, calibration parameters of each sensor is determined in preparatory step. Each sensor delivers result in a sensor specific coordinate system that contains different location on the object, different definition of coordinate axes and different dimensions and units. Different test scenarios (Straight line approach and Circle approach) with different algorithms (Kalman Filter, Least square Adjustment) have been examined and the results of the different approaches are compared together.

  2. Research on a new type of fiber Bragg grating based corrosion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Song, Shide; Wang, Xiaona; Zhou, Weijie; Zhang, Zuocai

    2015-08-01

    Investigations of the corrosion of rebars in concrete structures are widely studied because of the serious damage to concrete caused by rebar corrosion. The rebar corrosion products in reinforced concrete take up 2~6 times the volume of the rebar. Based on this principle, a new type of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) corrosion sensor is proposed in this paper, which consists of two sensors, an FBG corrosion measurement sensor to measure the expansion strain caused by rebar corrosion, and a temperature compensation sensor to eliminate the cross-sensitivity of FBG corrosion sensor. The corrosion rate is derived by the wavelength shift of FBG corrosion sensor, so rebar corrosion can be monitored and assessed by the FBG wavelength shift. A customized rebar with epoxy fixing groove is designed to install a corrosion sensor on its surface and an embedded temperature compensation sensor. The corrosion sensor is embedded in cement mortar and subsequently casted in concrete. The performance of the corrosion sensor is studied in an accelerated electrochemical corrosion test. Experimental results show that the new type of corrosion sensor has advantage of relatively large measurement range of corrosion rate. The corrosion sensor is suitable to monitor slightly and moderately corroded rebars.

  3. FPGA-based fused smart sensor for dynamic and vibration parameter extraction in industrial robot links.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

  4. FPGA-based fused smart sensor for dynamic and vibration parameter extraction in industrial robot links.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). PMID:22319345

  5. FPGA-Based Fused Smart Sensor for Dynamic and Vibration Parameter Extraction in Industrial Robot Links

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robotics demands the integration of smart sensors that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Industrial manipulator robots require a constant monitoring of several parameters such as motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration. This work presents a novel smart sensor to estimate motion dynamics, inclination, and vibration parameters on industrial manipulator robot links based on two primary sensors: an encoder and a triaxial accelerometer. The proposed smart sensor implements a new methodology based on an oversampling technique, averaging decimation filters, FIR filters, finite differences and linear interpolation to estimate the interest parameters, which are computed online utilizing digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). PMID:22319345

  6. High-performance NO2 sensors based on chemically modified graphene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenjing; Liu, Anran; Huang, Liang; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-02-01

    Covalently grafting reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets with sulfophenyl or ethylenediamine groups can produce chemically modified graphene (CMG) for fabricating high-performance gas sensors. The NO(2) sensors based on these CMGs exhibit sensitivities 4 to 16 times higher than that of a sensor based on rGO. They also show excellent selectivity and repeatability without the aid of UV-light or thermal treatment. PMID:23139053

  7. Conflict management based on belief function entropy in sensor fusion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network plays an important role in intelligent navigation. It incorporates a group of sensors to overcome the limitation of single detection system. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory can combine the sensor data of the wireless sensor network by data fusion, which contributes to the improvement of accuracy and reliability of the detection system. However, due to different sources of sensors, there may be conflict among the sensor data under uncertain environment. Thus, this paper proposes a new method combining Deng entropy and evidence distance to address the issue. First, Deng entropy is adopted to measure the uncertain information. Then, evidence distance is applied to measure the conflict degree. The new method can cope with conflict effectually and improve the accuracy and reliability of the detection system. An example is illustrated to show the efficiency of the new method and the result is compared with that of the existing methods. PMID:27330904

  8. Development of an accelerometer-based underwater acoustic intensity sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang; Gabrielson, Thomas B; Lauchle, Gerald C

    2004-12-01

    An underwater acoustic intensity sensor is described. This sensor derives acoustic intensity from simultaneous, co-located measurement of the acoustic pressure and one component of the acoustic particle acceleration vector. The sensor consists of a pressure transducer in the form of a hollow piezoceramic cylinder and a pair of miniature accelerometers mounted inside the cylinder. Since this sensor derives acoustic intensity from measurement of acoustic pressure and acoustic particle acceleration, it is called a p-a intensity probe. The sensor is ballasted to be nearly neutrally buoyant. It is desirable for the accelerometers to measure only the rigid body motion of the assembled probe and for the effective centers of the pressure sensor and accelerometer to be coincident. This is achieved by symmetric disposition of a pair of accelerometers inside the ceramic cylinder. The response of the intensity probe is determined by comparison with a reference hydrophone in a predominantly reactive acoustic field.

  9. High Sensitivity Stress Sensor Based on Hybrid Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Xian-An (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A sensing device is used to detect the spatial distributions of stresses applied by physical contact with the surface of the sensor or induced by pressure, temperature gradients, and surface absorption. The sensor comprises a hybrid active layer that includes luminophores doped in a polymeric or organic host, altogether embedded in a matrix. Under an electrical bias, the sensor simultaneously converts stresses into electrical and optical signals. Among many applications, the device may be used for tactile sensing and biometric imaging.

  10. Determining ionizing radiation using sensors based on organic semiconducting material

    SciTech Connect

    Raval, Harshil N.; Tiwari, Shree Prakash; Navan, Ramesh R.; Rao, V. Ramgopal

    2009-03-23

    The use of organic semiconducting material sensors as total dose radiation detectors is proposed, wherein the change in conductivity of an organic material is measured as a function of ionizing radiation dose. The simplest sensor is a resistor made using organic semiconductor. Furthermore, for achieving higher sensitivity, organic field effect transistor (OFET) is used as a sensor. A solution processed organic semiconductor resistor and an OFET were fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), a p-type organic semiconductor material. The devices are exposed to Cobalt-60 radiation for different total dose values. The changes in electrical characteristics indicate the potential of these devices as radiation sensors.

  11. The coverage problem in video-based wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks. PMID:22163651

  12. The Coverage Problem in Video-Based Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks. PMID:22163651

  13. An RFID-based on-lens sensor system for long-term IOP monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Liao, Yu-Te; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an RFID-based on-lens sensor system is proposed for noninvasive long-term intraocular pressure monitoring. The proposed sensor IC, fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS process, consists of capacitive sensor readout circuitry, RFID communication circuits, and digital processing units. The sensor IC is integrated with electroplating capacitive sensors and a receiving antenna on the contact lens. The sensor IC can be wirelessly powered, communicate with RFID compatible equipment, and perform IOP measurement using on-lens capacitive sensor continuously from a 2cm distance while the incident power from an RFID reader is 20 dBm. The proposed system is compatible to Gen2 RFID protocol, extending the flexibility and reducing the self-developed firmware efforts. PMID:26738033

  14. Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-04-07

    This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect-based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector.

  15. Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect–based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector. PMID:27070604

  16. An RFID-based on-lens sensor system for long-term IOP monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Liao, Yu-Te; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an RFID-based on-lens sensor system is proposed for noninvasive long-term intraocular pressure monitoring. The proposed sensor IC, fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS process, consists of capacitive sensor readout circuitry, RFID communication circuits, and digital processing units. The sensor IC is integrated with electroplating capacitive sensors and a receiving antenna on the contact lens. The sensor IC can be wirelessly powered, communicate with RFID compatible equipment, and perform IOP measurement using on-lens capacitive sensor continuously from a 2cm distance while the incident power from an RFID reader is 20 dBm. The proposed system is compatible to Gen2 RFID protocol, extending the flexibility and reducing the self-developed firmware efforts.

  17. Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect-based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector. PMID:27070604

  18. Frequency Shift of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Mass Sensor Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Hsu, Jung-Chang; Chang, Win-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The frequency equation of carbon-nanotube-based cantilever sensor with an attached mass is derived analytically using nonlocal elasticity theory. According to the equation, the relationship between the frequency shift of the sensor and the attached mass can be obtained. When the nonlocal effect is not taken into account, the variation of frequency shift with the attached mass on the sensor is compared with the previous study. According to this study, the result shows that the frequency shift of the sensor increases with increasing the attached mass. When the attached mass is small compared with that of the sensor, the nonlocal effect is obvious and increasing nonlocal parameter decreases the frequency shift of the sensor. In addition, when the location of the attached mass is closer to the free end, the frequency shift is more significant and that makes the sensor reveal more sensitive. When the attached mass is small, a high sensitivity is obtained.

  19. A miniature extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor based on fiber etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yixian; Zhou, Junping; Wang, Tingting

    2011-11-01

    A miniature fiber optic pressure sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference fabricated on the tip of a single mode (SM) fiber is presented. The sensor measures only 125μm in diameter. A Fabry-Perot cavity and a thin silica diaphragm are fabricated by simple techniques involving only cleaving, wet chemical etching and fusion splicing. Interference pattern of the sensor is analyzed and issues in sensor design are discussed. The overall chemical reaction of the fiber wet etching is specifically represented. Pressure testing system is carried out. By tracing a peak point in the interference spectrum, the gap length of the sensor can be demodulated. Experimental results show the sensor has a good linearity. The sensor is made entirely of fused silica, whose structure has good stability, cabinet, simple for fabrication and low cost.

  20. Bayesian based design of real-time sensor systems for high-risk indoor contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2007-01-01

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardousto building occupants. To respond effectively, the contaminant release must be quicklydetected and characterized to determine unobserved parameters, such as release locationand strength. Characterizing the release requires solving an inverse problem. Designinga robust real-time sensor system that solves the inverse problem is challenging becausethe fate and transport of contaminants is complex, sensor information is limited andimperfect, and real-time estimation is computationally constrained.This dissertation uses a system-level approach, based on a Bayes Monte Carloframework, to develop sensor-system design concepts and methods. I describe threeinvestigations that explore complex relationships among sensors, network architecture,interpretation algorithms, and system performance. The investigations use data obtainedfrom tracer gas experiments conducted in a real building. The influence of individual sensor characteristics on the sensor-system performance for binary-type contaminant sensors is analyzed. Performance tradeoffs among sensor accuracy, threshold level and response time are identified; these attributes could not be inferred without a system-level analysis. For example, more accurate but slower sensors are found to outperform less accurate but faster sensors. Secondly, I investigate how the sensor-system performance can be understood in terms of contaminant transport processes and the model representation that is used to solve the inverse problem. The determination of release location and mass are shown to be related to and constrained by transport and mixing time scales. These time scales explain performance differences among different sensor networks. For example, the effect of longer sensor response times is comparably less for releases with longer mixing time scales. The third investigation explores how information fusion from heterogeneous sensors may improve the sensor

  1. [The Trace Methane Sensor Based on TDLAS-WMS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Jia-nan; Chen, Mei-mei; Yang, Xin-hua; Chen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Methane is a colorless, odorless, flammable and explosive gas, which not only is the cause to induce significant security risk in coal mining operation, but also one of the important greenhouse gases, so the monitoring of methane is extremely critical. A trace methane gas sensor is designed and developed using the combination of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) detection technology, which is based on the methane R(3) absorption branch in 2v3 second harmonic band. Through tuning parameters -0.591 cm(-1) x K(-1), using the method that change the working temperature of distributed feedback (DFB) laser to obtain the best absorption wavelength of methane at 1.654 μm. When the mid-wavelength of DFB laser is selected, the appropriate emitting intension can be obtained via adjusting the amplitude of inject current of DFB laser. Meanwhile, combining the frequency modulation technology to move the bandwidth of detection signal from low frequency to high frequency to reduce the 1/f noise. With aspect to the optical structure, utilizing herriott cell with 76 m effective optical path to guarantee the detection of trace methane is successful. Utilizing the proposed trace methane sensor to extract the second harmonic signal of detected methane in the range of 50 to 5 000 μmol x mol(-1), and adopting minimum mean square error criterion to fit the relationship between methane concentration and signal noise ratio, harmonic peak signal and methane concentration, respectively. In addition, the minimum detection limit is 1.4 μmol x mol(-1). The experiment results show the symmetry of harmonic waveform is good, no intensity modulation, and the factor of intensity-modulated impacts on harmonic detection is eliminated.

  2. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  3. A Dynamic Path Planning Approach for Multirobot Sensor-Based Coverage Considering Energy Constraints.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Ahmet; Kirlik, Gokhan; Parlaktuna, Osman; Sipahioglu, Aydin

    2014-03-01

    Multirobot sensor-based coverage path planning determines a tour for each robot in a team such that every point in a given workspace is covered by at least one robot using its sensors. In sensor-based coverage of narrow spaces, i.e., obstacles lie within the sensor range, a generalized Voronoi diagram (GVD)-based graph can be used to model the environment. A complete sensor-based coverage path plan for the robot team can be obtained by using the capacitated arc routing problem solution methods on the GVD-based graph. Unlike capacitated arc routing problem, sensor-based coverage problem requires to consider two types of edge demands. Therefore, modified Ulusoy algorithm is used to obtain mobile robot tours by taking into account two different energy consumption cases during sensor-based coverage. However, due to the partially unknown nature of the environment, the robots may encounter obstacles on their tours. This requires a replanning process that considers the remaining energy capacities and the current positions of the robots. In this paper, the modified Ulusoy algorithm is extended to incorporate this dynamic planning problem. A dynamic path-planning approach is proposed for multirobot sensor-based coverage of narrow environments by considering the energy capacities of the mobile robots. The approach is tested in a laboratory environment using Pioneer 3-DX mobile robots. Simulations are also conducted for a larger test environment. PMID:23757551

  4. A Novel Low-Cost, Large Curvature Bend Sensor Based on a Bowden-Cable.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Useok; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2016-06-24

    Bend sensors have been developed based on conductive ink, optical fiber, and electronic textiles. Each type has advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance, ease of use, and cost. This study proposes a new and low-cost bend sensor that can measure a wide range of accumulated bend angles with large curvatures. This bend sensor utilizes a Bowden-cable, which consists of a coil sheath and an inner wire. Displacement changes of the Bowden-cable's inner wire, when the shape of the sheath changes, have been considered to be a position error in previous studies. However, this study takes advantage of this position error to detect the bend angle of the sheath. The bend angle of the sensor can be calculated from the displacement measurement of the sensing wire using a Hall-effect sensor or a potentiometer. Simulations and experiments have shown that the accumulated bend angle of the sensor is linearly related to the sensor signal, with an R-square value up to 0.9969 and a root mean square error of 2% of the full sensing range. The proposed sensor is not affected by a bend curvature of up to 80.0 m(-1), unlike previous bend sensors. The proposed sensor is expected to be useful for various applications, including motion capture devices, wearable robots, surgical devices, or generally any device that requires an affordable and low-cost bend sensor.

  5. A Novel Low-Cost, Large Curvature Bend Sensor Based on a Bowden-Cable

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Useok; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bend sensors have been developed based on conductive ink, optical fiber, and electronic textiles. Each type has advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance, ease of use, and cost. This study proposes a new and low-cost bend sensor that can measure a wide range of accumulated bend angles with large curvatures. This bend sensor utilizes a Bowden-cable, which consists of a coil sheath and an inner wire. Displacement changes of the Bowden-cable’s inner wire, when the shape of the sheath changes, have been considered to be a position error in previous studies. However, this study takes advantage of this position error to detect the bend angle of the sheath. The bend angle of the sensor can be calculated from the displacement measurement of the sensing wire using a Hall-effect sensor or a potentiometer. Simulations and experiments have shown that the accumulated bend angle of the sensor is linearly related to the sensor signal, with an R-square value up to 0.9969 and a root mean square error of 2% of the full sensing range. The proposed sensor is not affected by a bend curvature of up to 80.0 m−1, unlike previous bend sensors. The proposed sensor is expected to be useful for various applications, including motion capture devices, wearable robots, surgical devices, or generally any device that requires an affordable and low-cost bend sensor. PMID:27347959

  6. A Novel Low-Cost, Large Curvature Bend Sensor Based on a Bowden-Cable.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Useok; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bend sensors have been developed based on conductive ink, optical fiber, and electronic textiles. Each type has advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance, ease of use, and cost. This study proposes a new and low-cost bend sensor that can measure a wide range of accumulated bend angles with large curvatures. This bend sensor utilizes a Bowden-cable, which consists of a coil sheath and an inner wire. Displacement changes of the Bowden-cable's inner wire, when the shape of the sheath changes, have been considered to be a position error in previous studies. However, this study takes advantage of this position error to detect the bend angle of the sheath. The bend angle of the sensor can be calculated from the displacement measurement of the sensing wire using a Hall-effect sensor or a potentiometer. Simulations and experiments have shown that the accumulated bend angle of the sensor is linearly related to the sensor signal, with an R-square value up to 0.9969 and a root mean square error of 2% of the full sensing range. The proposed sensor is not affected by a bend curvature of up to 80.0 m(-1), unlike previous bend sensors. The proposed sensor is expected to be useful for various applications, including motion capture devices, wearable robots, surgical devices, or generally any device that requires an affordable and low-cost bend sensor. PMID:27347959

  7. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Neale A W; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643

  8. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Metal Oxide One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; Wan, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of recent (2008 and 2009) progress in gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. During last few years, gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide 1D nanostructures have been widely investigated. Additionally, modified or doped oxide nanowires/nanobelts have also been synthesized and used for gas sensor applications. Moreover, novel device structures such as electronic noses and low power consumption self-heated gas sensors have been invented and their gas sensing performance has also been evaluated. Finally, we also point out some challenges for future investigation and practical application. PMID:22303154

  9. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643

  10. Design method for a distributed Bragg resonator based evanescent field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, David; Kehl, Florian; Michler, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an analytic design method for a distributed Bragg resonator based evanescent field sensor. Such sensors can, for example, be used to measure changing refractive indices of the cover medium of a waveguide, as well as molecule adsorption at the sensor surface. For given starting conditions, the presented design method allows the analytical calculation of optimized sensor parameters for quantitative simulation and fabrication. The design process is based on the Fabry-Pérot resonator and analytical solutions of coupled mode theory.

  11. Disposable nitrate-selective optical sensor based on fluorescent dye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, disposable thin-film optical nitrate sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by applying a nitrate-selective polymer membrane on the surface of a thin polyester film. The membrane was composed of polyvinylchloride (PVC), plasticizer, fluorescent dye, and nitrate-selective ionophore...

  12. Methods of use for sensor based fluid detection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods of use and devices for detecting analyte in fluid. A system for detecting an analyte in a fluid is described comprising a substrate having a sensor comprising a first organic material and a second organic material where the sensor has a response to permeation by an analyte. A detector is operatively associated with the sensor. Further, a fluid delivery appliance is operatively associated with the sensor. The sensor device has information storage and processing equipment, which is operably connected with the device. This device compares a response from the detector with a stored ideal response to detect the presence of analyte. An integrated system for detecting an analyte in a fluid is also described where the sensing device, detector, information storage and processing device, and fluid delivery device are incorporated in a substrate. Methods for use for the above system are also described where the first organic material and a second organic material are sensed and the analyte is detected with a detector operatively associated with the sensor. The method provides for a device, which delivers fluid to the sensor and measures the response of the sensor with the detector. Further, the response is compared to a stored ideal response for the analyte to determine the presence of the analyte. In different embodiments, the fluid measured may be a gaseous fluid, a liquid, or a fluid extracted from a solid. Methods of fluid delivery for each embodiment are accordingly provided.

  13. Generic Helicopter-Based Testbed for Surface Terrain Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, James; Goldberg, Hannah; Montgomery, James; Spiers, Gary; Liebe, Carl; Johnson, Andrew; Gromov, Konstantin; Konefat, Edward; Lam, Raymond; Meras, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To be certain that a candidate sensor system will perform as expected during missions, we have developed a field test system and have executed test flights with a helicopter-mounted sensor platform over desert terrains, which simulate Lunar features. A key advantage to this approach is that different sensors can be tested and characterized in an environment relevant to the flight needs prior to flight. Testing the various sensors required the development of a field test system, including an instrument to validate the truth of the sensor system under test. The field test system was designed to be flexible enough to cover the test needs of many sensors (lidar, radar, cameras) that require an aerial test platform, including helicopters, airplanes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), or balloons. To validate the performance of the sensor under test, the dynamics of the test platform must be known with sufficient accuracy to provide accurate models for input into algorithm development. The test system provides support equipment to measure the dynamics of the field test sensor platform, and allow computation of the truth position, velocity, attitude, and time.

  14. The Development of Silicon Carbide Based Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    1994-01-01

    Silicon carbide is a high temperature electronic material. Its potential for development of chemical sensors in a high temperature environment has not been explored. The objective of this study is to use silicon carbide as the substrate material for the construction of chemical sensors for high temperature applications. Sensors for the detection of hydrogen and hydrocarbon are developed in this program under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, NASA. Metal-semiconductor or metal-insulator-semiconductor structures are used in this development. Specifically, using palladium-silicon carbide Schottky diodes as gas sensors in the temperature range of 100 to 400 C are designed, fabricated and assessed. The effect of heat treatment on the Pd-SiC Schottky diode is examined. Operation of the sensors at 400 C demonstrate sensitivity of the sensor to hydrogen and hydrocarbons. Substantial progress has been made in this study and we believe that the Pd-SiC Schottky diode has potential as a hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensor over a wide range of temperatures. However, the long term stability and operational life of the sensor need to be assessed. This aspect is an important part of our future continuing investigation.

  15. Chemical sensors based on micromachined transducers with integrated piezoresistive readout.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Leach, Andrew; Morris, William G; Gamage, Sisira Kankanam

    2006-08-15

    We demonstrate an approach for the development of chemical sensors utilizing silicon micromachined physical transducers with integrated piezoresistive readout. Originally, these transducers were developed and optimized as sensitive accelerometers for automotive applications. However, by applying a chemically responsive layer onto the transducer, we convert these transducers into chemical sensors. These transducers are attractive for chemical sensing applications for several key reasons. First, the required sensitivity of the chemical sensor can be achieved by choosing the right spring constant of the transducer. Second, the integrated piezoresistive readout of the transducer is already optimized and is very straightforward, providing a desired reproducibility in measurements, while not requiring bulky equipment. Third, chemically responsive film deposition is simple due to the ease of access to the transducer's surface. Fourth, such transducers are already available for another (automotive) application, making these sensors very cost-effective. The applicability of this approach is illustrated by the fabrication of highly sensitive CO2 sensors. To study hysteresis effects, we selected high CO2 concentrations (10-100% CO2) to provide the worst-case scenario for the sensor operation. These sensors demonstrate a hysteresis-free performance over the concentration range from 10 to 100% vol CO2, have detection limits of 160-370 ppm of CO2, and exhibit a relatively rapid response time, T(90) = 45 s. Importantly, we demonstrate a simple method for cancellation of vibration effects when these physical transducers, initially developed as accelerometers, are applied as chemical sensors. PMID:16906705

  16. Enviro-Net: From Networks of Ground-Based Sensor Systems to a Web Platform for Sensor Data Management

    PubMed Central

    Pastorello, Gilberto Z.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Nascimento, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis. PMID:22163965

  17. A high-resolution sensor based on tri-aural perception

    SciTech Connect

    Peremans, H.; Audenaert, K.; Van Campenhout, J.M. )

    1993-02-01

    By virtue of their low cost and simplicity, ultrasonic sensors are widely used in time-of-flight ranging systems. Unfortunately, correctly interpreting the readings from such sensors proves to be very difficult. The authors present a high-resolution sensor composed of three ultrasonic sensors: one transmitter/receiver and two extra receivers, which allows a significant improvement in the information-extraction process. With this sensor they can determine the position, both distance and bearing, of all isolated objects in the field of view ([approx]25[degree]) using information contained in one single snapshot of a moderately complex scene. It is further shown that, within limits, the sensor system can also discriminate between different types of reflectors, based on their radius of curvature. In particular, the sensor can discriminate between walls and edges. These results are all based on the determination of the arrival times of the echoes present at the three receivers. In this respect, too, the authors sensor differs from the conventional ultrasonic sensor, which processes only the first echo to arrive at the receiver. A noise model, explaining the measured variations of the arrival times, is used to derive limits on the resolution of the results provided by the sensor. Furthermore, based on this model it is shown that, to a large extent, the results of the sensor are impervious to measurement variations common to all three receivers. Finally, this sensor is used in a realistic environment and the results are compared with those obtained from a conventional time-of-flight sensor.

  18. Comparative studies of praseodymium(III) selective sensors based on newly synthesized Schiff's bases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Goyal, Rajendra N; Pal, Manoj K; Sharma, Ram A

    2009-10-27

    Praseodymium ion selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors, based on two new Schiff's bases 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-diylidenebis(azan-1-ylidene)diphenol (M(1)) and N,N'-bis(pyridoxylideneiminato) ethylene (M(2)) have been developed and studied. The sensor having membrane composition of PVC: o-NPOE: ionophore (M(1)): NaTPB (w/w; mg) of 150: 300: 8: 5 showed best performances in comparison to M(2) based membranes. The sensor based on (M(1)) exhibits the working concentration range 1.0x10(-8) to 1.0x10(-2) M with a detection limit of 5.0x10(-9) M and a Nernstian slope 20.0+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) of activity. It exhibited a quick response time as <8 s and its potential responses were pH independent across the range of 3.5-8.5. The influence of the membrane composition and possible interfering ions have also been investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 15% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol or acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The selectivity coefficients determined by using fixed interference method (FIM) indicate high selectivity for praseodymium(III) ions over wide variety of other cations. To asses its analytical applicability the prepared sensor was successfully applied for determination of praseodymium(III) in spiked water samples.

  19. Vision-based traffic data collection sensor for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Llorca, David F; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry. PMID:22315572

  20. Model Based Object Recognition Using LORD LTS-300 Touch Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. W.; Paripati, P. K.; Wade, M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports the result of a model driven touch sensor recognition experiment. The touch sensor employed is a large field tactile array. Object features appropriate for touch sensor recognition are extracted from a geometric model of an object, the dual spherical image. Both geometric and dynamic features are used to identify objects and their position and orientation on the touch sensor. Experiments show that geometric features extracted from the model are effective but that dynamic features must be determined empirically. Correct object identification rates even for very similar objects exceed ninety percent, a success rate much higher than we would have expected from only two-dimensional contact patterns. Position and orientation of objects once identified are very reliable. We conclude that large field tactile sensors could prove very useful in the automatic palletizing problem when object models (from a CAD system, for example) can be utilized.