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Sample records for based targeted protein

  1. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Target identification with quantitative activity based protein profiling (ABPP).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Wong, Yin Kwan; Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Lee, Yew-Mun; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2017-02-01

    As many small bioactive molecules fulfill their functions through interacting with protein targets, the identification of such targets is crucial in understanding their mechanisms of action (MOA) and side effects. With technological advancements in target identification, it has become possible to accurately and comprehensively study the MOA and side effects of small molecules. While small molecules with therapeutic potential were derived solely from nature in the past, the remodeling and synthesis of such molecules have now been made possible. Presently, while some small molecules have seen successful application as drugs, the majority remain undeveloped, requiring further understanding of their MOA and side effects to fully tap into their potential. Given the typical promiscuity of many small molecules and the complexity of the cellular proteome, a high-flux and high-accuracy method is necessary. While affinity chromatography approaches combined with MS have had successes in target identification, limitations associated with nonspecific results remain. To overcome these complications, quantitative chemical proteomics approaches have been developed including metabolic labeling, chemical labeling, and label-free methods. These new approaches are adopted in conjunction with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), allowing for a rapid process and accurate results. This review will briefly introduce the principles involved in ABPP, then summarize current advances in quantitative chemical proteomics approaches as well as illustrate with examples how ABPP coupled with quantitative chemical proteomics has been used to detect the targets of drugs and other bioactive small molecules including natural products.

  3. Weighted feature value based Drug Target Protein prediction.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Bo-ra; Jung, Hwiesung; Jang, Woo-Hyuk; Jung, Suk Hoon; Han, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Drug discovery is a long process in which only a few successful new therapeutic discoveries are made and identification of drug target candidate proteins requires considerable time and efforts. However, the accumulation of information on drugs has made it possible to devise new computational methods for classifying drug target candidates. In this paper, we devise a Drug Target Protein (DT-P) classification method by the summation of weighted features which is extracted from known DT-P. The method is validated using Bayesian decision theory and SVM, and it was revealed to achieve high specificity of 89.5% with 88% accuracy.

  4. Screening of nuclear targeting proteins in Acinetobacter baumannii based on nuclear localization signals.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Gurung, Mamata; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Yong Seok; Choi, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins is an emerging pathogenic mechanism in bacteria. However, due to the absence of an appropriate screening system for nuclear targeting proteins, systematic approaches to nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins and subsequent host cell pathology are limited. In this study, we developed a screening system for nuclear targeting proteins in Acinetobacter baumannii using a combination of bioinformatic analysis based on nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the Gateway(®) recombinational cloning system. Among 3367 open reading frames of A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 34 functional or hypothetical proteins were predicted to carry the putative NLS sequences. Of the 29 clones generated by the Gateway(®) recombinational cloning system, 14 proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were targeted to nuclei of host cells. Among the 14 nuclear targeting proteins, S21, L20, and L32 ribosomal proteins and transposase carried putative nuclear export signal (NES) sequences, but only transposase harbored the functional NES. After translocation to nuclei of host cells, four A. baumannii proteins induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we have developed a screening system for nuclear targeting proteins in A. baumannii. This system may open the way to a new field of bacterial pathogenesis.

  5. IFPTarget: A Customized Virtual Target Identification Method Based on Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprinting Analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Bo; Yu, Zhu-Jun; Liu, Sha; Huang, Lu-Yi; Yang, Ling-Ling; Lohans, Christopher T; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2017-07-24

    Small-molecule target identification is an important and challenging task for chemical biology and drug discovery. Structure-based virtual target identification has been widely used, which infers and prioritizes potential protein targets for the molecule of interest (MOI) principally via a scoring function. However, current "universal" scoring functions may not always accurately identify targets to which the MOI binds from the retrieved target database, in part due to a lack of consideration of the important binding features for an individual target. Here, we present IFPTarget, a customized virtual target identification method, which uses an interaction fingerprinting (IFP) method for target-specific interaction analyses and a comprehensive index (Cvalue) for target ranking. Evaluation results indicate that the IFP method enables substantially improved binding pose prediction, and Cvalue has an excellent performance in target ranking for the test set. When applied to screen against our established target library that contains 11,863 protein structures covering 2842 unique targets, IFPTarget could retrieve known targets within the top-ranked list and identified new potential targets for chemically diverse drugs. IFPTarget prediction led to the identification of the metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2 as a target for quercetin as validated by enzymatic inhibition assays. This study provides a new in silico target identification tool and will aid future efforts to develop new target-customized methods for target identification.

  6. S-linked protein homocysteinylation: identifying targets based on structural, physicochemical and protein-protein interactions of homocysteinylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Silla, Yumnam; Sundaramoorthy, Elayanambi; Talwar, Puneet; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2013-05-01

    An elevated level of homocysteine, a thiol-containing amino acid is associated with a wide spectrum of disease conditions. A majority (>80 %) of the circulating homocysteine exist in protein-bound form. Homocysteine can bind to free cysteine residues in the protein or could cleave accessible cysteine disulfide bonds via thiol disulfide exchange reaction. Binding of homocysteine to proteins could potentially alter the structure and/or function of the protein. To date only 21 proteins have been experimentally shown to bind homocysteine. In this study we attempted to identify other proteins that could potentially bind to homocysteine based on the criteria that such proteins will have significant 3D structural homology with the proteins that have been experimentally validated and have solvent accessible cysteine residues either with high dihedral strain energy (for cysteine-cysteine disulfide bonds) or low pKa (for free cysteine residues). This analysis led us to the identification of 78 such proteins of which 68 proteins had 154 solvent accessible disulfide cysteine pairs with high dihedral strain energy and 10 proteins had free cysteine residues with low pKa that could potentially bind to homocysteine. Further, protein-protein interaction network was built to identify the interacting partners of these putative homocysteine binding proteins. We found that the 21 experimentally validated proteins had 174 interacting partners while the 78 proteins identified in our analysis had 445 first interacting partners. These proteins are mainly involved in biological activities such as complement and coagulation pathway, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor, ErbB signalling and cancer pathways, etc. paralleling the disease-specific attributes associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  7. Structure-based prediction of DNA target sites by regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Kono, H; Sarai, A

    1999-04-01

    Regulatory proteins play a critical role in controlling complex spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in higher organism, by recognizing multiple DNA sequences and regulating multiple target genes. Increasing amounts of structural data on the protein-DNA complex provides clues for the mechanism of target recognition by regulatory proteins. The analyses of the propensities of base-amino acid interactions observed in those structural data show that there is no one-to-one correspondence in the interaction, but clear preferences exist. On the other hand, the analysis of spatial distribution of amino acids around bases shows that even those amino acids with strong base preference such as Arg with G are distributed in a wide space around bases. Thus, amino acids with many different geometries can form a similar type of interaction with bases. The redundancy and structural flexibility in the interaction suggest that there are no simple rules in the sequence recognition, and its prediction is not straightforward. However, the spatial distributions of amino acids around bases indicate a possibility that the structural data can be used to derive empirical interaction potentials between amino acids and bases. Such information extracted from structural databases has been successfully used to predict amino acid sequences that fold into particular protein structures. We surmised that the structures of protein-DNA complexes could be used to predict DNA target sites for regulatory proteins, because determining DNA sequences that bind to a particular protein structure should be similar to finding amino acid sequences that fold into a particular structure. Here we demonstrate that the structural data can be used to predict DNA target sequences for regulatory proteins. Pairwise potentials that determine the interaction between bases and amino acids were empirically derived from the structural data. These potentials were then used to examine the compatibility between DNA

  8. Mechanism-based Proteomic Screening Identifies Targets of Thioredoxin-like Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Lia S.; Everley, Robert A.; Marino, Stefano M.; Lo, Sze M.; de Souza, Luiz E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx)-fold proteins are protagonists of numerous cellular pathways that are subject to thiol-based redox control. The best characterized regulator of thiols in proteins is Trx1 itself, which together with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) and peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprises a key redox regulatory system in mammalian cells. However, there are numerous other Trx-like proteins, whose functions and redox interactors are unknown. It is also unclear if the principles of Trx1-based redox control apply to these proteins. Here, we employed a proteomic strategy to four Trx-like proteins containing CXXC motifs, namely Trx1, Rdx12, Trx-like protein 1 (Txnl1) and nucleoredoxin 1 (Nrx1), whose cellular targets were trapped in vivo using mutant Trx-like proteins, under conditions of low endogenous expression of these proteins. Prxs were detected as key redox targets of Trx1, but this approach also supported the detection of TR1, which is the Trx1 reductant, as well as mitochondrial intermembrane proteins AIF and Mia40. In addition, glutathione peroxidase 4 was found to be a Rdx12 redox target. In contrast, no redox targets of Txnl1 and Nrx1 could be detected, suggesting that their CXXC motifs do not engage in mixed disulfides with cellular proteins. For some Trx-like proteins, the method allowed distinguishing redox and non-redox interactions. Parallel, comparative analyses of multiple thiol oxidoreductases revealed differences in the functions of their CXXC motifs, providing important insights into thiol-based redox control of cellular processes. PMID:25561728

  9. From laptop to benchtop to bedside: Structure-based Drug Design on Protein Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Morrow, John K.; Tran, Hoang T.; Phatak, Sharangdhar S.; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    As an important aspect of computer-aided drug design, structure-based drug design brought a new horizon to pharmaceutical development. This in silico method permeates all aspects of drug discovery today, including lead identification, lead optimization, ADMET prediction and drug repurposing. Structure-based drug design has resulted in fruitful successes drug discovery targeting protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Meanwhile, challenges, noted by low accuracy and combinatoric issues, may also cause failures. In this review, state-of-the-art techniques for protein modeling (e.g. structure prediction, modeling protein flexibility, etc.), hit identification/optimization (e.g. molecular docking, focused library design, fragment-based design, molecular dynamic, etc.), and polypharmacology design will be discussed. We will explore how structure-based techniques can facilitate the drug discovery process and interplay with other experimental approaches. PMID:22316152

  10. Colorimetric detection of proteins based on target-induced activation of aptazyme.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Gao, Tao; Lei, Lin; Yang, Dawei; Mao, Xiaoxia; Li, Genxi

    2016-10-26

    The detection of protein is vital to fundamental research as well as practical applications. However, most detection methods depend on antibody-based assays which are faced with many shortcomings. Herein, we propose a colorimetric method for protein assays based on target-triggered activation of aptazyme, which may offer simple, rapid and cost-effective detection of the target protein. In this method, the conformation change of aptazyme induced by target protein is designed to be associated with aptazyme activation. Consequently, in the presence of the target protein, the designed DNA linkers will be cleaved into two fragments that fail to cross-link gold nanoparticles (GNPs), thus the color of GNP solution remains red, while the color will be changed in the absence of the target. Because of the advantages of aptazyme such as economic synthesis, stable, easy modification and its ability to accomplish signal recognition and signal amplification simultaneously, the method is thermostable, simple and cost-efficient. In this work, we have taken the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an example, which can present an analytical performance with as low as 0.1 nM detection limit, spanning a detection range of 3 orders of magnitude. What is more, the principle of this proposed new method can be extended as a universal assay method not only for the detection of analytes which have an aptamer but also for those analytes that have ligands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting Hsp90/Hsp70-based protein quality control for treatment of adult onset neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Pratt, William B; Gestwicki, Jason E; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Currently available therapies for adult onset neurodegenerative diseases provide symptomatic relief but do not modify disease progression. Here we explore a new neuroprotective approach based on drugs targeting chaperone-directed protein quality control. Critical target proteins that unfold and aggregate in these diseases, such as the polyglutamine androgen receptor in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, huntingtin in Huntington's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, and tau in Alzheimer's disease, are client proteins of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), and their turnover is regulated by the protein quality control function of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery. Hsp90 and Hsp70 have opposing effects on client protein stability in protein quality control; Hsp90 stabilizes the clients and inhibits their ubiquitination, whereas Hsp70 promotes ubiquitination dependent on CHIP (C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) and proteasomal degradation. We discuss how drugs that modulate proteostasis by inhibiting Hsp90 function or promoting Hsp70 function enhance the degradation of the critical aggregating proteins and ameliorate toxic symptoms in cell and animal disease models.

  12. From laptop to benchtop to bedside: structure-based drug design on protein targets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Morrow, John K; Tran, Hoang T; Phatak, Sharangdhar S; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    As an important aspect of computer-aided drug design, structure-based drug design brought a new horizon to pharmaceutical development. This in silico method permeates all aspects of drug discovery today, including lead identification, lead optimization, ADMET prediction and drug repurposing. Structure-based drug design has resulted in fruitful successes drug discovery targeting proteinligand and protein-protein interactions. Meanwhile, challenges, noted by low accuracy and combinatoric issues, may also cause failures. In this review, state-of-the-art techniques for protein modeling (e.g. structure prediction, modeling protein flexibility, etc.), hit identification/ optimization (e.g. molecular docking, focused library design, fragment-based design, molecular dynamic, etc.), and polypharmacology design will be discussed. We will explore how structure-based techniques can facilitate the drug discovery process and interplay with other experimental approaches.

  13. A Strategy Based on Protein-Protein Interface Motifs May Help in Identifying Drug Off-Targets

    PubMed Central

    Engin, H. Billur; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth; Gursoy, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Networks are increasingly used to study the impact of drugs at the systems level. From the algorithmic standpoint, a drug can ‘attack’ nodes or edges of a protein-protein interaction network. In this work, we propose a new network strategy, “The Interface Attack”, based on protein-protein interfaces. Similar interface architectures can occur between unrelated proteins. Consequently, in principle, a drug that binds to one has a certain probability of binding others. The interface attack strategy simultaneously removes from the network all interactions that consist of similar interface motifs. This strategy is inspired by network pharmacology and allows inferring potential off-targets. We introduce a network model which we call “Protein Interface and Interaction Network (P2IN)”, which is the integration of protein-protein interface structures and protein interaction networks. This interface-based network organization clarifies which protein pairs have structurally similar interfaces, and which proteins may compete to bind the same surface region. We built the P2IN of p53 signaling network and performed network robustness analysis. We show that (1) ‘hitting’ frequent interfaces (a set of edges distributed around the network) might be as destructive as eleminating high degree proteins (hub nodes); (2) frequent interfaces are not always topologically critical elements in the network; and (3) interface attack may reveal functional changes in the system better than attack of single proteins. In the off-target detection case study, we found that drugs blocking the interface between CDK6 and CDKN2D may also affect the interaction between CDK4 and CDKN2D. PMID:22817115

  14. A strategy based on protein-protein interface motifs may help in identifying drug off-targets.

    PubMed

    Engin, H Billur; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth; Gursoy, Attila

    2012-08-27

    Networks are increasingly used to study the impact of drugs at the systems level. From the algorithmic standpoint, a drug can "attack" nodes or edges of a protein-protein interaction network. In this work, we propose a new network strategy, "The Interface Attack", based on protein-protein interfaces. Similar interface architectures can occur between unrelated proteins. Consequently, in principle, a drug that binds to one has a certain probability of binding to others. The interface attack strategy simultaneously removes from the network all interactions that consist of similar interface motifs. This strategy is inspired by network pharmacology and allows inferring potential off-targets. We introduce a network model that we call "Protein Interface and Interaction Network (P2IN)", which is the integration of protein-protein interface structures and protein interaction networks. This interface-based network organization clarifies which protein pairs have structurally similar interfaces and which proteins may compete to bind the same surface region. We built the P2IN with the p53 signaling network and performed network robustness analysis. We show that (1) "hitting" frequent interfaces (a set of edges distributed around the network) might be as destructive as eleminating high degree proteins (hub nodes), (2) frequent interfaces are not always topologically critical elements in the network, and (3) interface attack may reveal functional changes in the system better than the attack of single proteins. In the off-target detection case study, we found that drugs blocking the interface between CDK6 and CDKN2D may also affect the interaction between CDK4 and CDKN2D.

  15. Target-Based Drug Repositioning Using Large-Scale Chemical-Protein Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryusuke; Iwata, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-28

    Drug repositioning, or the identification of new indications for known drugs, is a useful strategy for drug discovery. In this study, we developed novel computational methods to predict potential drug targets and new drug indications for systematic drug repositioning using large-scale chemical-protein interactome data. We explored the target space of drugs (including primary targets and off-targets) based on chemical structure similarity and phenotypic effect similarity by making optimal use of millions of compound-protein interactions. On the basis of the target profiles of drugs, we constructed statistical models to predict new drug indications for a wide range of diseases with various molecular features. The proposed method outperformed previous methods in terms of interpretability, applicability, and accuracy. Finally, we conducted a comprehensive prediction of the drug-target-disease association network for 8270 drugs and 1401 diseases and showed biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug targets and drug indications. The predictive model is useful to understand the mechanisms of the predicted drug indications.

  16. Identification of polycystic ovary syndrome potential drug targets based on pathobiological similarity in the protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan; Wei, Wenqing; Li, Yiran; Xie, Ruiqiang; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Binbin; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinological disorders in reproductive aged women. PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are closely linked in multiple levels and possess high pathobiological similarity. Here, we put forward a new computational approach based on the pathobiological similarity to identify PCOS potential drug target modules (PPDT-Modules) and PCOS potential drug targets in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). From the systems level and biological background, 1 PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets were identified, 21 of which were verified by literatures to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. 42 drugs targeting to 13 PCOS potential drug targets were investigated experimentally or clinically for PCOS. Evaluated by independent datasets, the whole PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets could not only reveal the drug response, but also distinguish the statuses between normal and disease. Our identified PPDT-Module and PCOS potential drug targets would shed light on the treatment of PCOS. And our approach would provide valuable insights to research on the pathogenesis and drug response of other diseases. PMID:27191267

  17. Biophysical and computational fragment-based approaches to targeting protein-protein interactions: applications in structure-guided drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Winter, Anja; Higueruelo, Alicia P; Marsh, May; Sigurdardottir, Anna; Pitt, Will R; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-11-01

    Drug discovery has classically targeted the active sites of enzymes or ligand-binding sites of receptors and ion channels. In an attempt to improve selectivity of drug candidates, modulation of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) of multiprotein complexes that mediate conformation or colocation of components of cell-regulatory pathways has become a focus of interest. However, PPIs in multiprotein systems continue to pose significant challenges, as they are generally large, flat and poor in distinguishing features, making the design of small molecule antagonists a difficult task. Nevertheless, encouragement has come from the recognition that a few amino acids - so-called hotspots - may contribute the majority of interaction-free energy. The challenges posed by protein-protein interactions have led to a wellspring of creative approaches, including proteomimetics, stapled α-helical peptides and a plethora of antibody inspired molecular designs. Here, we review a more generic approach: fragment-based drug discovery. Fragments allow novel areas of chemical space to be explored more efficiently, but the initial hits have low affinity. This means that they will not normally disrupt PPIs, unless they are tethered, an approach that has been pioneered by Wells and co-workers. An alternative fragment-based approach is to stabilise the uncomplexed components of the multiprotein system in solution and employ conventional fragment-based screening. Here, we describe the current knowledge of the structures and properties of protein-protein interactions and the small molecules that can modulate them. We then describe the use of sensitive biophysical methods - nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry or isothermal calorimetry - to screen and validate fragment binding. Fragment hits can subsequently be evolved into larger molecules with higher affinity and potency. These may provide new leads for drug candidates

  18. Avidin-Based Targeting and Purification of a Protein IX-Modified, Metabolically Biotinylated Adenoviral Vector

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Samuel K.; Parrott, M. Brandon; Barry, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    While genetic modification of adenoviral vectors can produce vectors with modified tropism, incorporation of targeting peptides/proteins into the structural context of the virion can also result in destruction of ligand targeting or virion integrity. To combat this problem, we have developed a versatile targeting system using metabolically biotinylated adenoviral vectors bearing biotinylated fiber proteins. These vectors have been demonstrated to be useful as a platform for avidin-based ligand screening and vector targeting by conjugating biotinylated ligands to the virus using high-affinity tetrameric avidin (Kd = 10−15 M). The biotinylated vector could also be purified by biotin-reversible binding on monomeric avidin (Kd = 10−7 M). In this report, a second metabolically biotinylated adenovirus vector, Ad-IX-BAP, has been engineered by fusing a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) to the C-terminus of the adenovirus pIX protein. This biotinylated vector displays twice as many biotins and was markedly superior for single-step affinity purification on monomeric avidin resin. However, unlike the fiber-biotinylated vector, Ad-IX-BAP failed to retarget to cells with biotinylated antibodies including anti-CD71 against the transferrin receptor. In contrast, Ad-IX-BAP was retargeted if transferrin, the cognate ligand for CD71, was used as a ligand rather than the anti-CD71. This work demonstrates the utility of metabolic biotinylation as a molecular screening tool to assess the utility of different viral capsid proteins for ligand display and the biology and compatibility of different ligands and receptors for vector targeting applications. These results also demonstrate the utility of the pIX-biotinylated vector as a platform for gentle single-step affinity purification of adenoviral vectors. PMID:15194061

  19. Ligand-Based Peptide Design and Combinatorial Peptide Libraries to Target G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Christian W.; Muttenthaler, Markus; Freissmuth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are considered to represent the most promising drug targets; it has been repeatedly said that a large fraction of the currently marketed drugs elicit their actions by binding to GPCRs (with cited numbers varying from 30–50%). Closer scrutiny, however, shows that only a modest fraction of (~60) GPCRs are, in fact, exploited as drug targets, only ~20 of which are peptide-binding receptors. The vast majority of receptors in the humane genome have not yet been explored as sites of action for drugs. Given the drugability of this receptor class, it appears that opportunities for drug discovery abound. In addition, GPCRs provide for binding sites other than the ligand binding sites (referred to as the “orthosteric site”). These additional sites include (i) binding sites for ligands (referred to as “allosteric ligands”) that modulate the affinity and efficacy of orthosteric ligands, (ii) the interaction surface that recruits G proteins and arrestins, (iii) the interaction sites of additional proteins (GIPs, GPCR interacting proteins that regulate G protein signaling or give rise to G protein-independent signals). These sites can also be targeted by peptides. Combinatorial and natural peptide libraries are therefore likely to play a major role in identifying new GPCR ligands at each of these sites. In particular the diverse natural peptide libraries such as the venom peptides from marine cone-snails and plant cyclotides have been established as a rich source of drug leads. High-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches allow for progressing from these starting points to potential drug candidates. This will be illustrated by focusing on the ligand-based drug design of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) receptor ligands using natural peptide leads as starting points. PMID:20687879

  20. Carbohydrate-Based Nanocarriers Exhibiting Specific Cell Targeting with Minimum Influence from the Protein Corona.

    PubMed

    Kang, Biao; Okwieka, Patricia; Schöttler, Susanne; Winzen, Svenja; Langhanki, Jens; Mohr, Kristin; Opatz, Till; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-06-15

    Whenever nanoparticles encounter biological fluids like blood, proteins adsorb on their surface and form a so-called protein corona. Although its importance is widely accepted, information on the influence of surface functionalization of nanocarriers on the protein corona is still sparse, especially concerning how the functionalization of PEGylated nanocarriers with targeting agents will affect protein corona formation and how the protein corona may in turn influence the targeting effect. Herein, hydroxyethyl starch nanocarriers (HES-NCs) were prepared, PEGylated, and modified on the outer PEG layer with mannose to target dendritic cells (DCs). Their interaction with human plasma was then studied. Low overall protein adsorption with a distinct protein pattern and high specific affinity for DC binding were observed, thus indicating an efficient combination of "stealth" and targeting behavior.

  1. Intracellular targeting with engineered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Miersch, Shane; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2016-01-01

    If the isolation, production, and clinical use of insulin marked the inception of the age of biologics as therapeutics, the convergence of molecular biology and combinatorial engineering techniques marked its coming of age. The first wave of recombinant protein-based drugs in the 1980s demonstrated emphatically that proteins could be engineered, formulated, and employed for clinical advantage. Yet despite the successes of protein-based drugs such as antibodies, enzymes, and cytokines, the druggable target space for biologics is currently restricted to targets outside the cell. Insofar as estimates place the number of proteins either secreted or with extracellular domains in the range of 8000 to 9000, this represents only one-third of the proteome and circumscribes the pathways that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. Clearly, a major objective for this field to reach maturity is to access, interrogate, and modulate the majority of proteins found inside the cell. However, owing to the large size, complex architecture, and general cellular impermeability of existing protein-based drugs, this poses a daunting challenge. In recent years, though, advances on the two related fronts of protein engineering and drug delivery are beginning to bring this goal within reach. First, prompted by the restrictions that limit the applicability of antibodies, intense efforts have been applied to identifying and engineering smaller alternative protein scaffolds for the modulation of intracellular targets. In parallel, innovative solutions for delivering proteins to the intracellular space while maintaining their stability and functional activity have begun to yield successes. This review provides an overview of bioactive intrabodies and alternative protein scaffolds amenable to engineering for intracellular targeting and also outlines advances in protein engineering and formulation for delivery of functional proteins to the interior of the cell to achieve therapeutic action

  2. N-Terminal-Based Targeted, Inducible Protein Degradation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Karthik; Gentile, Andrew M.; Bostick, John W.; Tyo, Keith E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamically altering protein concentration is a central activity in synthetic biology. While many tools are available to modulate protein concentration by altering protein synthesis rate, methods for decreasing protein concentration by inactivation or degradation rate are just being realized. Altering protein synthesis rates can quickly increase the concentration of a protein but not decrease, as residual protein will remain for a while. Inducible, targeted protein degradation is an attractive option and some tools have been introduced for higher organisms and bacteria. Current bacterial tools rely on C-terminal fusions, so we have developed an N-terminal fusion (Ntag) strategy to increase the possible proteins that can be targeted. We demonstrate Ntag dependent degradation of mCherry and beta-galactosidase and reconfigure the Ntag system to perform dynamic, exogenously inducible degradation of a targeted protein and complement protein depletion by traditional synthesis repression. Model driven analysis that focused on rates, rather than concentrations, was critical to understanding and engineering the system. We expect this tool and our model to enable inducible protein degradation use particularly in metabolic engineering, biological study of essential proteins, and protein circuits. PMID:26900850

  3. Structure-based Drug Design: From Nucleic Acid to Membrane Protein Targets

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Magdalena M.; Hait, Chayanendu; Holt, Patrick A.; Maguire, Jon M.; Meier, Jason B.; Miller, M. Clarke; Petraccone, Luigi; Trent, John O.

    2009-01-01

    The in silico methods for drug discovery are becoming increasingly powerful and useful. That, in combination with increasing computer processor power, in our case using a novel distributed computing grid, has enabled us to greatly enhance our virtual screening efforts. Herein we review some of these efforts using both receptor and ligand-based virtual screening, with the goal of finding new anticancer agents. In particular, nucleic acids are a neglected set of targets, especially the different morphologies of duplex, triplex, and quadruplex DNA, many of which have increasing biological relevance. We also review examples of molecular modeling to understand receptors and using virtual screening against G-protein coupled receptor membrane proteins. PMID:19454265

  4. Supramolecular Chemistry Targeting Proteins.

    PubMed

    van Dun, Sam; Ottmann, Christian; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc

    2017-09-28

    The specific recognition of protein surface elements is a fundamental challenge in the life sciences. New developments in this field will form the basis of advanced therapeutic approaches and lead to applications such as sensors, affinity tags, immobilization techniques, and protein-based materials. Synthetic supramolecular molecules and materials are creating new opportunities for protein recognition that are orthogonal to classical small molecule and protein-based approaches. As outlined here, their unique molecular features enable the recognition of amino acids, peptides, and even whole protein surfaces, which can be applied to the modulation and assembly of proteins. We believe that structural insights into these processes are of great value for the further development of this field and have therefore focused this Perspective on contributions that provide such structural data.

  5. Prediction of TF target sites based on atomistic models of protein-DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Pérez, Abel González; Vasconcelos, Ana T; Collado-Vides, Julio; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background The specific recognition of genomic cis-regulatory elements by transcription factors (TFs) plays an essential role in the regulation of coordinated gene expression. Studying the mechanisms determining binding specificity in protein-DNA interactions is thus an important goal. Most current approaches for modeling TF specific recognition rely on the knowledge of large sets of cognate target sites and consider only the information contained in their primary sequence. Results Here we describe a structure-based methodology for predicting sequence motifs starting from the coordinates of a TF-DNA complex. Our algorithm combines information regarding the direct and indirect readout of DNA into an atomistic statistical model, which is used to estimate the interaction potential. We first measure the ability of our method to correctly estimate the binding specificities of eight prokaryotic and eukaryotic TFs that belong to different structural superfamilies. Secondly, the method is applied to two homology models, finding that sampling of interface side-chain rotamers remarkably improves the results. Thirdly, the algorithm is compared with a reference structural method based on contact counts, obtaining comparable predictions for the experimental complexes and more accurate sequence motifs for the homology models. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that atomic-detail structural information can be feasibly used to predict TF binding sites. The computational method presented here is universal and might be applied to other systems involving protein-DNA recognition. PMID:18922190

  6. Ranking targets in structure-based virtual screening of three-dimensional protein libraries: methods and problems.

    PubMed

    Kellenberger, Esther; Foata, Nicolas; Rognan, Didier

    2008-05-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is a promising tool to identify putative targets for a specific ligand. Instead of docking multiple ligands into a single protein cavity, a single ligand is docked in a collection of binding sites. In inverse screening, hits are in fact targets which have been prioritized within the pool of best ranked proteins. The target rate depends on specificity and promiscuity in protein-ligand interactions and, to a considerable extent, on the effectiveness of the scoring function, which still is the Achilles' heel of molecular docking. In the present retrospective study, virtual screening of the sc-PDB target library by GOLD docking was carried out for four compounds (biotin, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, 6-hydroxy-1,6-dihydropurine ribonucleoside, and methotrexate) of known sc-PDB targets and, several ranking protocols based on GOLD fitness score and topological molecular interaction fingerprint (IFP) comparison were evaluated. For the four investigated ligands, the fusion of GOLD fitness and two IFP scores allowed the recovery of most targets, including the rare proteins which are not readily suitable for statistical analysis, while significantly filtering out most false positive entries. The current survey suggests that selecting a small number of targets (<20) for experimental evaluation is achievable with a pure structure-based approach.

  7. Implementation of pseudoreceptor-based pharmacophore queries in the prediction of probable protein targets: explorations in the protein structural profile of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jha, Prakash C; Pandya, Himanshu A; Jasrai, Yogesh T

    2014-07-01

    Molecular docking plays an important role in the protein target identification by prioritizing probable druggable proteins using docking energies. Due to the limitations of docking scoring schemes, there arises a need for structure-based approaches to acquire confidence in theoretical binding affinities. In this direction, we present here a receptor (protein)-based approach to predict probable protein targets using a small molecule of interest. We adopted a reverse approach wherein the ligand pharmacophore features were used to decipher interaction complementary amino acids of protein cavities (a pseudoreceptor) and expressed as queries to match the cavities or binding sites of the protein dataset. These pseudoreceptor-based pharmacophore queries were used to estimate total probabilities of each protein cavity thereby representing the ligand binding efficiency of the protein. We applied this approach to predict 3 experimental protein targets among 28 Zea mays structural data using 3 co-crystallized ligands as inputs and compared its effectiveness using conventional docking results. We suggest that the combination of total probabilities and docking energies increases the confidence in prioritizing probable protein targets using docking methods. These prediction hypotheses were further supported by DrugScoreX (DSX) pair potential calculations and molecular dynamic simulations.

  8. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Organophosphorus and Thiocarbamate Pesticides Reveals Multiple Serine Hydrolase Targets in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    NOMURA, DANIEL K.; CASIDA, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and thiocarbamate (TC) agrochemicals are used worldwide as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, but their safety assessment in terms of potential off-targets remains incomplete. In this study, we used a chemoproteomic platform, termed activity-based protein profiling, to broadly define serine hydrolase targets in mouse brain of a panel of 29 OP and TC pesticides. Among the secondary targets identified, enzymes involved in degradation of endocannabinoid signaling lipids, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, were inhibited by several OP and TC pesticides. Blockade of these two enzymes led to elevations in brain endocannabinoid levels and dysregulated brain arachidonate metabolism. Other secondary targets include enzymes thought to also play important roles in the nervous system and unannotated proteins. This study reveals a multitude of secondary targets for OP and TC pesticides and underscores the utility of chemoproteomic platforms in gaining insights into biochemical pathways that are perturbed by these toxicants. PMID:21341672

  9. Thioredoxin Selectivity for Thiol-based Redox Regulation of Target Proteins in Chloroplasts*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hara, Satoshi; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Redox regulation based on the thioredoxin (Trx) system is believed to ensure light-responsive control of various functions in chloroplasts. Five Trx subtypes have been reported to reside in chloroplasts, but their functional diversity in the redox regulation of Trx target proteins remains poorly clarified. To directly address this issue, we studied the Trx-dependent redox shifts of several chloroplast thiol-modulated enzymes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays using a series of Arabidopsis recombinant proteins provided new insights into Trx selectivity for the redox regulation as well as the underpinning for previous suggestions. Most notably, by combining the discrimination of thiol status with mass spectrometry and activity measurement, we identified an uncharacterized aspect of the reductive activation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase; two redox-active Cys pairs harbored in this enzyme were reduced via distinct utilization of Trxs even within a single polypeptide. In our in vitro assays, Trx-f was effective in reducing all thiol-modulated enzymes analyzed here. We then investigated the in vivo physiological relevance of these in vitro findings, using Arabidopsis wild-type and Trx-f-deficient plants. Photoreduction of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was partially impaired in Trx-f-deficient plants, but the global impact of Trx-f deficiency on the redox behaviors of thiol-modulated enzymes was not as striking as expected from the in vitro data. Our results provide support for the in vivo functionality of the Trx system and also highlight the complexity and plasticity of the chloroplast redox network. PMID:25878252

  10. How protein targeting to primary plastids via the endomembrane system could have evolved? A new hypothesis based on phylogenetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that a heterotrophic ancestor of the supergroup Archaeplastida/Plantae engulfed a cyanobacterium that was transformed into a primary plastid; however, it is still unclear how nuclear-encoded proteins initially were imported into the new organelle. Most proteins targeted to primary plastids carry a transit peptide and are transported post-translationally using Toc and Tic translocons. There are, however, several proteins with N-terminal signal peptides that are directed to higher plant plastids in vesicles derived from the endomembrane system (ES). The existence of these proteins inspired a hypothesis that all nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted proteins initially carried signal peptides and were targeted to the ancestral primary plastid via the host ES. Results We present the first phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana α-carbonic anhydrase (CAH1), Oryza sativa nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP1), and two O. sativa α-amylases (αAmy3, αAmy7), proteins that are directed to higher plant primary plastids via the ES. We also investigated protein disulfide isomerase (RB60) from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii because of its peculiar dual post- and co-translational targeting to both the plastid and ES. Our analyses show that these proteins all are of eukaryotic rather than cyanobacterial origin, and that their non-plastid homologs are equipped with signal peptides responsible for co-translational import into the host ES. Our results indicate that vesicular trafficking of proteins to primary plastids evolved long after the cyanobacterial endosymbiosis (possibly only in higher plants) to permit their glycosylation and/or transport to more than one cellular compartment. Conclusions The proteins we analyzed are not relics of ES-mediated protein targeting to the ancestral primary plastid. Available data indicate that Toc- and Tic-based translocation dominated protein import into primary plastids from the

  11. How protein targeting to primary plastids via the endomembrane system could have evolved? A new hypothesis based on phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Gagat, Przemysław; Bodył, Andrzej; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2013-07-11

    It is commonly assumed that a heterotrophic ancestor of the supergroup Archaeplastida/Plantae engulfed a cyanobacterium that was transformed into a primary plastid; however, it is still unclear how nuclear-encoded proteins initially were imported into the new organelle. Most proteins targeted to primary plastids carry a transit peptide and are transported post-translationally using Toc and Tic translocons. There are, however, several proteins with N-terminal signal peptides that are directed to higher plant plastids in vesicles derived from the endomembrane system (ES). The existence of these proteins inspired a hypothesis that all nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted proteins initially carried signal peptides and were targeted to the ancestral primary plastid via the host ES. We present the first phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana α-carbonic anhydrase (CAH1), Oryza sativa nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP1), and two O. sativa α-amylases (αAmy3, αAmy7), proteins that are directed to higher plant primary plastids via the ES. We also investigated protein disulfide isomerase (RB60) from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii because of its peculiar dual post- and co-translational targeting to both the plastid and ES. Our analyses show that these proteins all are of eukaryotic rather than cyanobacterial origin, and that their non-plastid homologs are equipped with signal peptides responsible for co-translational import into the host ES. Our results indicate that vesicular trafficking of proteins to primary plastids evolved long after the cyanobacterial endosymbiosis (possibly only in higher plants) to permit their glycosylation and/or transport to more than one cellular compartment. The proteins we analyzed are not relics of ES-mediated protein targeting to the ancestral primary plastid. Available data indicate that Toc- and Tic-based translocation dominated protein import into primary plastids from the beginning. Only a handful of host

  12. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and <0.8 % are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  13. False-positive rate determination of protein target discovery using a covalent modification- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics platform.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Erin C; Geer, M Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  14. False Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. The Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX) technique is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False positive rates of 1.2–2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed. PMID:24114261

  15. Drug Target Protein-Protein Interaction Networks: A Systematic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanghe; Wang, Qi; Wang, Tengjiao

    2017-01-01

    The identification and validation of drug targets are crucial in biomedical research and many studies have been conducted on analyzing drug target features for getting a better understanding on principles of their mechanisms. But most of them are based on either strong biological hypotheses or the chemical and physical properties of those targets separately. In this paper, we investigated three main ways to understand the functional biomolecules based on the topological features of drug targets. There are no significant differences between targets and common proteins in the protein-protein interactions network, indicating the drug targets are neither hub proteins which are dominant nor the bridge proteins. According to some special topological structures of the drug targets, there are significant differences between known targets and other proteins. Furthermore, the drug targets mainly belong to three typical communities based on their modularity. These topological features are helpful to understand how the drug targets work in the PPI network. Particularly, it is an alternative way to predict potential targets or extract nontargets to test a new drug target efficiently and economically. By this way, a drug target's homologue set containing 102 potential target proteins is predicted in the paper.

  16. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Engin, H. Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10−4) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10−3). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10−8). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  17. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Engin, H Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10(-4)) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10(-3)). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10(-8)). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  18. Purification method for recombinant proteins based on a fusion between the target protein and the C-terminus of calmodulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauer-Vukasinovic, Vesna; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) was used as an affinity tail to facilitate the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was used as a model target protein. The protein GFP was fused to the C-terminus of CaM, and a factor Xa cleavage site was introduced between the two proteins. A CaM-GFP fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and purified on a phenothiazine-derivatized silica column. CaM binds to the phenothiazine on the column in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion and it was, therefore, used as an affinity tail for the purification of GFP. The fusion protein bound to the affinity column was then subjected to a proteolytic digestion with factor Xa. Pure GFP was eluted with a Ca(2+)-containing buffer, while CaM was eluted later with a buffer containing the Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA. The purity of the isolated GFP was verified by SDS-PAGE, and the fluorescence properties of the purified GFP were characterized.

  19. Purification method for recombinant proteins based on a fusion between the target protein and the C-terminus of calmodulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauer-Vukasinovic, Vesna; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) was used as an affinity tail to facilitate the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was used as a model target protein. The protein GFP was fused to the C-terminus of CaM, and a factor Xa cleavage site was introduced between the two proteins. A CaM-GFP fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and purified on a phenothiazine-derivatized silica column. CaM binds to the phenothiazine on the column in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion and it was, therefore, used as an affinity tail for the purification of GFP. The fusion protein bound to the affinity column was then subjected to a proteolytic digestion with factor Xa. Pure GFP was eluted with a Ca(2+)-containing buffer, while CaM was eluted later with a buffer containing the Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA. The purity of the isolated GFP was verified by SDS-PAGE, and the fluorescence properties of the purified GFP were characterized.

  20. Assessing an ensemble docking-based virtual screening strategy for kinase targets by considering protein flexibility.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sheng; Sun, Huiyong; Pan, Peichen; Li, Dan; Zhen, Xuechu; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2014-10-27

    In this study, to accommodate receptor flexibility, based on multiple receptor conformations, a novel ensemble docking protocol was developed by using the naïve Bayesian classification technique, and it was evaluated in terms of the prediction accuracy of docking-based virtual screening (VS) of three important targets in the kinase family: ALK, CDK2, and VEGFR2. First, for each target, the representative crystal structures were selected by structural clustering, and the capability of molecular docking based on each representative structure to discriminate inhibitors from non-inhibitors was examined. Then, for each target, 50 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to generate an ensemble of the conformations, and multiple representative structures/snapshots were extracted from each MD trajectory by structural clustering. On average, the representative crystal structures outperform the representative structures extracted from MD simulations in terms of the capabilities to separate inhibitors from non-inhibitors. Finally, by using the naïve Bayesian classification technique, an integrated VS strategy was developed to combine the prediction results of molecular docking based on different representative conformations chosen from crystal structures and MD trajectories. It was encouraging to observe that the integrated VS strategy yields better performance than the docking-based VS based on any single rigid conformation. This novel protocol may provide an improvement over existing strategies to search for more diverse and promising active compounds for a target of interest.

  1. NMR approaches in structure-based lead discovery: recent developments and new frontiers for targeting multi-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Dias, David M; Ciulli, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a pivotal method for structure-based and fragment-based lead discovery because it is one of the most robust techniques to provide information on protein structure, dynamics and interaction at an atomic level in solution. Nowadays, in most ligand screening cascades, NMR-based methods are applied to identify and structurally validate small molecule binding. These can be high-throughput and are often used synergistically with other biophysical assays. Here, we describe current state-of-the-art in the portfolio of available NMR-based experiments that are used to aid early-stage lead discovery. We then focus on multi-protein complexes as targets and how NMR spectroscopy allows studying of interactions within the high molecular weight assemblies that make up a vast fraction of the yet untargeted proteome. Finally, we give our perspective on how currently available methods could build an improved strategy for drug discovery against such challenging targets.

  2. Design of a Modular Protein-Based MRI Contrast Agent for Targeted Application

    PubMed Central

    Kraff, Oliver; Heider, Dominik; Schramm, Alexander; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a non-radioactive alternative for the non-invasive detection of tumours. Low molecular weight MRI contrast agents currently in clinical use suffer either from a lack of specificity for tumour tissue or from low relaxivity and thus low contrast amplification. In this study, we present the newly designed two domain fusion protein Zarvin, which is able to bind to therapeutic IgG antibodies suitable for targeting, while facilitating contrast enhancement through high affinity binding sites for Gd3+. We show that the Zarvin fold is stable under serum conditions, specifically targets a cancer cell-line when bound to the Cetuximab IgG, and allows for imaging with high relaxivity, a property that would be advantageous for the detection of small tumours and metastases at 1.5 or 3 T. PMID:23762349

  3. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleoid-associated protein HU with structure-based inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ghosh, Soumitra; Dixit, Karuna; Ganesan, Varsha; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Dey, Debayan; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoid-associated protein HU plays an important role in maintenance of chromosomal architecture and in global regulation of DNA transactions in bacteria. Although HU is essential for growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), there have been no reported attempts to perturb HU function with small molecules. Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HU from Mtb. We identify a core region within the HU-DNA interface that can be targeted using stilbene derivatives. These small molecules specifically inhibit HU-DNA binding, disrupt nucleoid architecture and reduce Mtb growth. The stilbene inhibitors induce gene expression changes in Mtb that resemble those induced by HU deficiency. Our results indicate that HU is a potential target for the development of therapies against tuberculosis.

  4. Targeting protein translation, RNA splicing, and degradation by morpholino-based conjugates in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aprajita; Wesolowski, Donna; Alonso, Dulce; Deitsch, Kirk W; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Altman, Sidney

    2015-09-22

    Identification and genetic validation of new targets from available genome sequences are critical steps toward the development of new potent and selective antimalarials. However, no methods are currently available for large-scale functional analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Here we present evidence for successful use of morpholino oligomers (MO) to mediate degradation of target mRNAs or to inhibit RNA splicing or translation of several genes of P. falciparum involved in chloroquine transport, apicoplast biogenesis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Consistent with their role in the parasite life cycle, down-regulation of these essential genes resulted in inhibition of parasite development. We show that a MO conjugate that targets the chloroquine-resistant transporter PfCRT is effective against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites, causes enlarged digestive vacuoles, and renders chloroquine-resistant strains more sensitive to chloroquine. Similarly, we show that a MO conjugate that targets the PfDXR involved in apicoplast biogenesis inhibits parasite growth and that this defect can be rescued by addition of isopentenyl pyrophosphate. MO-based gene regulation is a viable alternative approach to functional analysis of the P. falciparum genome.

  5. Targeted protein degradation by PROTACs.

    PubMed

    Neklesa, Taavi K; Winkler, James D; Crews, Craig M

    2017-02-14

    Targeted protein degradation using the PROTAC technology is emerging as a novel therapeutic method to address diseases driven by the aberrant expression of a disease-causing protein. PROTAC molecules are bifunctional small molecules that simultaneously bind a target protein and an E3-ubiquitin ligase, thus causing ubiquitination and degradation of the target protein by the proteasome. Like small molecules, PROTAC molecules possess good tissue distribution and the ability to target intracellular proteins. Herein, we highlight the advantages of protein degradation using PROTACs, and provide specific examples where degradation offers therapeutic benefit over classical enzyme inhibition. Foremost, PROTACs can degrade proteins regardless of their function. This includes the currently "undruggable" proteome, which comprises approximately 85% of all human proteins. Other beneficial aspects of protein degradation include the ability to target overexpressed and mutated proteins, as well as the potential to demonstrate prolonged pharmacodynamics effect beyond drug exposure. Lastly, due to their catalytic nature and the pre-requisite ubiquitination step, an exquisitely potent molecules with a high degree of degradation selectivity can be designed. Impressive preclinical in vitro and in vivo PROTAC data have been published, and these data have propelled the development of clinically viable PROTACs. With the molecular weight falling in the 700-1000Da range, the delivery and bioavailability of PROTACs remain the largest hurdles on the way to the clinic. Solving these issues and demonstrating proof of concept clinical data will be the focus of many labs over the next few years.

  6. Protein-protein interactions as druggable targets: recent technological advances.

    PubMed

    Higueruelo, Alicia P; Jubb, Harry; Blundell, Tom L

    2013-10-01

    Classical target-based drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are screened using inhibitory assays for a single target, has struggled to find ligands that inhibit protein-protein interactions (PPI). Nevertheless, in the past decade there have been successes that have demonstrated that PPI can be useful drug targets, and the field is now evolving fast. This review focuses on the new approaches and concepts that are being developed to tackle these challenging targets: the use of fragment based methods to explore the chemical space, stapled peptides to regulate intracellular PPI, alternatives to competitive inhibition and the use of antibodies to enable small molecule discovery for these targets.

  7. Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bruckman, Michael A; Czapar, Anna E; VanMeter, Allen; Randolph, Lauren N; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-06-10

    Drug delivery systems are required for drug targeting to avoid adverse effects associated with chemotherapy treatment regimes. Our approach is focused on the study and development of plant virus-based materials as drug delivery systems; specifically, this work focuses on the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Native TMV forms a hollow, high aspect-ratio nanotube measuring 300×18nm with a 4nm-wide central channel. Heat-transformation can be applied to TMV yielding spherical nanoparticles (SNPs) measuring ~50nm in size. While bioconjugate chemistries have been established to modify the TMV rod, such methods have not yet been described for the SNP platform. In this work, we probed the reactivity of SNPs toward bioconjugate reactions targeting lysine, glutamine/aspartic acid, and cysteine residues. We demonstrate functionalization of SNPs using these chemistries yielding efficient payload conjugation. In addition to covalent labeling techniques, we developed encapsulation techniques, where the cargo is loaded into the SNP during heat-transition from rod-to-sphere. Finally, we developed TMV and SNP formulations loaded with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and we demonstrate the application of TMV rods and spheres for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer.

  8. Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Czapar, Anna E.; VanMeter, Allen; Randolph, Lauren N.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery systems are required for drug targeting to avoid adverse effects associated with chemotherapy treatment regimes. Our approach is focused on the study and development of plant virus-based materials as drug delivery systems; specifically, this work focuses on the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Native TMV forms a hollow, high aspect-ratio nanotube measuring 300 × 18 nm with a 4 nm-wide central channel. Heat-transformation can be applied to TMV yielding spherical nanoparticles (SNPs) measuring ~50 nm in size. While bioconjugate chemistries have been established to modify the TMV rod, such methods have not yet been described for the SNP platform. In this work, we probed the reactivity of SNPs toward bioconjugate reactions targeting lysine, glutamine/aspartic acid, and cysteine residues. We demonstrate functionalization of SNPs using these chemistries yielding efficient payload conjugation. In addition to covalent labeling techniques, we developed encapsulation techniques, where the cargo is loaded into the SNP during heat-transition from rod-to-sphere. Finally, we developed TMV and SNP formulations loaded with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and we demonstrate the application of TMV rods and spheres for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. PMID:26941034

  9. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  10. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in.

  11. Chemical biology based on target-selective degradation of proteins and carbohydrates using light-activatable organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Kazunobu

    2013-05-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes, including serious diseases. The development of novel and innovative methods for selective control of specific proteins and carbohydrates functions has attracted much attention in the field of chemical biology. In this account article, the development of novel chemical tools, which can degrade target proteins and carbohydrates by irradiation with a specific wavelength of light under mild conditions without any additives, is introduced. This novel class of photochemical agents promise bright prospects for finding not only molecular-targeted bioprobes for understanding of the structure-activity relationships of proteins and carbohydrates but also novel therapeutic drugs targeting proteins and carbohydrates.

  12. Protein-protein interactions as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Skwarczynska, Malgorzata; Ottmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is becoming increasingly important in drug discovery and chemical biology. While a few years ago this 'target class' was deemed to be largely undruggable an impressing number of publications and success stories now show that targeting PPIs with small, drug-like molecules indeed is a feasible approach. Here, we summarize the current state of small-molecule inhibition and stabilization of PPIs and review the active molecules from a structural and medicinal chemistry angle, especially focusing on the key examples of iNOS, LFA-1 and 14-3-3.

  13. Expression of an immunogenic LTB-based chimeric protein targeting Zaire ebolavirus epitopes from GP1 in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Huerta, Regina; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    An antigenic protein targeting two epitopes from the Zaire ebolavirus GP1 protein was expressed in plant cells rendering an antigen capable of inducing humoral responses in mouse when administered subcutaneously or orally. The 2014 Ebola outbreak made clear that new treatments and prophylactic strategies to fight this disease are needed. Since vaccination is an intervention that could achieve the control of this epidemic disease, exploring the production of new low-cost vaccines is a key path to consider; especially in developing countries. In this context, plants are attractive organisms for the synthesis and delivery of subunit vaccines. This study aimed at producing a chimeric protein named LTB-EBOV, based on the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as an immunogenic carrier and two epitopes from the Zaire ebolavirus GP1 protein recognized by neutralizing antibodies. The LTB-EBOV protein was expressed in plant tissues at levels up to 14.7 µg/g fresh leaf tissue and proven to be immunogenic in BALB/c mice when administered by either subcutaneous or oral routes. Importantly, IgA and IgG responses were induced following the oral immunization. The potential use of the plant-made LTB-EBOV protein against EBOV is discussed.

  14. Identification of potential inhibitors based on compound proposal contest: Tyrosine-protein kinase Yes as a target.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shuntaro; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishida, Takashi; Gromiha, M Michael; Taguchi, Y-H; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Hideaki; Hsin, Kun-Yi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Koya; Okuno, Tatsuya; Chikenji, George; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Yasuo, Nobuaki; Yoshino, Ryunosuke; Yanagisawa, Keisuke; Ban, Tomohiro; Teramoto, Reiji; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Thangakani, A Mary; Velmurugan, D; Prathipati, Philip; Ito, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Honma, Teruki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Akiyama, Yutaka; Sekijima, Masakazu

    2015-11-26

    A search of broader range of chemical space is important for drug discovery. Different methods of computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) are known to propose compounds in different chemical spaces as hit molecules for the same target protein. This study aimed at using multiple CADD methods through open innovation to achieve a level of hit molecule diversity that is not achievable with any particular single method. We held a compound proposal contest, in which multiple research groups participated and predicted inhibitors of tyrosine-protein kinase Yes. This showed whether collective knowledge based on individual approaches helped to obtain hit compounds from a broad range of chemical space and whether the contest-based approach was effective.

  15. Characterization of a dockerin-based affinity tag: application for purification of a broad variety of target proteins.

    PubMed

    Demishtein, Alik; Karpol, Alon; Barak, Yoav; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose, a major component of plant matter, is degraded by a cell surface multiprotein complex called the cellulosome produced by several anaerobic bacteria. This complex coordinates the assembly of different glycoside hydrolases, via a high-affinity Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between the enzyme-borne dockerin and the scaffoldin-borne cohesin modules. In this study, we characterized a new protein affinity tag, ΔDoc, a truncated version (48 residues) of the Clostridium thermocellum Cel48S dockerin. The truncated dockerin tag has a binding affinity (K(A)) of 7.7 × 10(8)M(-1), calculated by a competitive enzyme-linked assay system. In order to examine whether the tag can be used for general application in affinity chromatography, it was fused to a range of target proteins, including Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), C. thermocellum β-glucosidase, Escherichia coli thioesterase/protease I (TEP1), and the antibody-binding ZZ-domain from Staphylococcus aureus protein A. The results of this study significantly extend initial studies performed using the Geobacillus stearothermophilus xylanase T-6 as a model system. In addition, the enzymatic activity of a C. thermocellum β-glucosidase, purified using this approach, was tested and found to be similar to that of a β-glucosidase preparation (without the ΔDoc tag) purified using the standard His-tag. The truncated dockerin derivative functioned as an effective affinity tag through specific interaction with a cognate cohesin, and highly purified target proteins were obtained in a single step directly from crude cell extracts. The relatively inexpensive beaded cellulose-based affinity column was reusable and maintained high capacity after each cycle. This study demonstrates that deletion into the first Ca(2+)-binding loop of the dockerin module results in an efficient and robust affinity tag that can be generally applied for protein purification. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL) with Nucleoside-Based Bisubstrate Adenylation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Petrelli, Riccardo; De la Mora-Rey, Teresa; Tiwari, Divya; Liu, Feng; Dawadi, Surrendra; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responsible for both latent and symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) remains the second leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Mycobacterial biotin protein ligase (MtBPL) is an essential enzyme in Mtb and regulates lipid metabolism through the post-translational biotinylation of acyl coenzyme A carboxylases. We report the synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of potent nucleoside-based inhibitors of MtBPL that contain modifications to the ribofuranosyl ring of the nucleoside. All compounds were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and shown to bind potently with KD's below 2 nM. Additionally, we obtained high-resolution co-crystal structures for a majority of the compounds. Despite fairly uniform biochemical potency, the whole-cell Mtb activity varied greatly with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.78 to >100 μM. Cellular accumulation studies showed a nearly 10-fold enhanced accumulation of a C-2′-α analog over the corresponding C-2′-β analog, consistent with their differential whole-cell activity. PMID:26299766

  17. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  18. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  19. A Fragment-Based Method of Creating Small-Molecule Libraries to Target the Aggregation of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Habchi, Johnny; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-03-14

    The aggregation process of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has been associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, however, no drug in clinical use targets IDP aggregation. To facilitate drug discovery programs in this important and challenging area, we describe a fragment-based approach of generating small-molecule libraries that target specific IDPs. The method is based on the use of molecular fragments extracted from compounds reported in the literature to inhibit of the aggregation of IDPs. These fragments are used to screen existing large generic libraries of small molecules to form smaller libraries specific for given IDPs. We illustrate this approach by describing three distinct small-molecule libraries to target, Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein, which are three IDPs implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The strategy described here offers novel opportunities for the identification of effective molecular scaffolds for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disorders and to provide insights into the mechanism of small-molecule binding to IDPs.

  20. Self-assembling, protein-based intracellular bacterial organelles: emerging vehicles for encapsulating, targeting and delivering therapeutical cargoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial species contain intracellular nano- and micro-compartments consisting of self-assembling proteins that form protein-only shells. These structures are built up by combinations of a reduced number of repeated elements, from 60 repeated copies of one unique structural element self-assembled in encapsulins of 24 nm to 10,000-20,000 copies of a few protein species assembled in a organelle of around 100-150 nm in cross-section. However, this apparent simplicity does not correspond to the structural and functional sophistication of some of these organelles. They package, by not yet definitely solved mechanisms, one or more enzymes involved in specific metabolic pathways, confining such reactions and sequestering or increasing the inner concentration of unstable, toxics or volatile intermediate metabolites. From a biotechnological point of view, we can use the self assembling properties of these particles for directing shell assembling and enzyme packaging, mimicking nature to design new applications in biotechnology. Upon appropriate engineering of the building blocks, they could act as a new family of self-assembled, protein-based vehicles in Nanomedicine to encapsulate, target and deliver therapeutic cargoes to specific cell types and/or tissues. This would provide a new, intriguing platform of microbial origin for drug delivery. PMID:22046962

  1. Promiscuous tumor targeting phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amanda L; Gillespie, James W; Petrenko, Valery A

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cell-specific targeting ligands against numerous cancer cell lines have been selected previously and used as ligands for cell-specific delivery of chemotherapies and various nanomedicines. However, tumor heterogeneity is one recognized problem hampering clinical translation of targeted anti-cancer medicines. Therefore, a novel class of targeting ligands is required that recognize receptors expressed between a variety of cancer phenotypes, identified here as 'promiscuous' ligands. In this work, promiscuous phage fusion proteins were first identified by a novel selection scheme to enrich for pan-cancer cell binding abilities, as indicated by conserved structural motifs identified previously in other cancer types. Additionally, peptide sequences containing a combination of motifs were identified to modulate binding. A panel of phage fusion proteins was studied for their specificity and selectivity for lung and pancreatic cancer cells. Phage displaying the fusion peptides GSLEEVSTL or GEFDELMTM, the two predominate clones with greatest binding ability, were used to modify preformed, doxorubicin-loaded, liposomes. These modified liposomes increased cytotoxicity up to 8.1-fold in several cancer cell lines when compared with unmodified liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, these data indicate that promiscuous phage proteins, selected against different cancer cell lines, can be used as targeting ligands for treatment of heterogeneous tumor populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Protein search for multiple targets on DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Martin; Kochugaeva, Maria; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-09-14

    Protein-DNA interactions are crucial for all biological processes. One of the most important fundamental aspects of these interactions is the process of protein searching and recognizing specific binding sites on DNA. A large number of experimental and theoretical investigations have been devoted to uncovering the molecular description of these phenomena, but many aspects of the mechanisms of protein search for the targets on DNA remain not well understood. One of the most intriguing problems is the role of multiple targets in protein search dynamics. Using a recently developed theoretical framework we analyze this question in detail. Our method is based on a discrete-state stochastic approach that takes into account most relevant physical-chemical processes and leads to fully analytical description of all dynamic properties. Specifically, systems with two and three targets have been explicitly investigated. It is found that multiple targets in most cases accelerate the search in comparison with a single target situation. However, the acceleration is not always proportional to the number of targets. Surprisingly, there are even situations when it takes longer to find one of the multiple targets in comparison with the single target. It depends on the spatial position of the targets, distances between them, average scanning lengths of protein molecules on DNA, and the total DNA lengths. Physical-chemical explanations of observed results are presented. Our predictions are compared with experimental observations as well as with results from a continuum theory for the protein search. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations fully support our theoretical calculations.

  3. ADAPT, a Novel Scaffold Protein-Based Probe for Radionuclide Imaging of Molecular Targets That Are Expressed in Disseminated Cancers.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Lindbo, Sarah; Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Buijs, Jos; Sandström, Mattias; Honarvar, Hadis; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Hober, Sophia

    2015-10-15

    Small engineered scaffold proteins have attracted attention as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. One class of these imaging probes, termed ABD-Derived Affinity Proteins (ADAPT), has been created using the albumin-binding domain (ABD) of streptococcal protein G as a stable protein scaffold. In this study, we report the development of a clinical lead probe termed ADAPT6 that binds HER2, an oncoprotein overexpressed in many breast cancers that serves as a theranostic biomarker for several approved targeting therapies. Surface-exposed amino acids of ABD were randomized to create a combinatorial library enabling selection of high-affinity binders to various proteins. Furthermore, ABD was engineered to enable rapid purification, to eradicate its binding to albumin, and to enable rapid blood clearance. Incorporation of a unique cysteine allowed site-specific conjugation to a maleimido derivative of a DOTA chelator, enabling radionuclide labeling, ¹¹¹In for SPECT imaging and ⁶⁸Ga for PET imaging. Pharmacologic studies in mice demonstrated that the fully engineered molecule (111)In/⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-(HE)3-ADAPT6 was specifically bound and taken up by HER2-expressing tumors, with a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio in xenograft models of human cancer. Unbound tracer underwent rapid renal clearance followed by high renal reabsorption. HER2-expressing xenografts were visualized by gamma-camera or PET at 1 hour after infusion. PET experiments demonstrated feasibility for discrimination of xenografts with high or low HER2 expression. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of ADAPT probes for noninvasive in vivo imaging.

  4. Domain based assays of individual antibody concentrations in an oligoclonal combination targeting a single protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Q.; Li, M.; Silberg, M.A.; Conrad, F.; Bettencourt, J.; To, R.; Huang, C.; Ma, J.; Meyer, K.; Shimizu, R.; Cao, L.; Tomic, M.T.; Marks, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitation of individual mAbs within a combined antibody drug product is required for preclinical and clinical drug development including pharmacokinetics (PK), toxicology, stability and biochemical characterization studies of such drugs. We have developed an antitoxin (XOMA 3AB) consisting of three recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that potently neutralizes the known subtypes of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A). The three mAbs bind non-overlapping BoNT/A epitopes with high affinity. XOMA3AB is being developed as a treatment for botulism resulting from BoNT/A. To develop antibody-specific assays, we cloned, expressed, and purified BoNT/A domains from E. coli. Each mAb bound only to its specific domain with affinity comparable to the binding to holotoxin. MAb specific domains were used to develop an ELISA for characterization of the integrity and binding activity of the three mAbs in the drug product. An electrochemiluminescence bridging assay was also developed that is robust to interference from components in serum and we demonstrate that it can be used for PK assays. This type of antigen engineering to generate mAb-specific domains is a general method allowing quantitation and characterization of individual mAbs in a mAb cocktail that bind the same protein and is superior to anti-idiotype approaches. PMID:22037290

  5. Engineered domain based assays to identify individual antibodies in oligoclonal combinations targeting the same protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Q.; Garcia-Rodriguez, C.; Manzanarez, G.; Silberg, M.A.; Conrad, F.; Bettencourt, J.; Pan, X.; Breece, T.; To, R.; Li, M.; Lee, D.; Thorner, L.; Tomic, M.T.; Marks, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitation of individual mAbs within a combined antibody drug product is required for preclinical and clinical drug development. We have developed two antitoxins (XOMA 3B and XOMA 3E) each consisting of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize type B and type E botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/B and BoNT/E) to treat serotype B and E botulism. To develop mAb-specific binding assays for each antitoxin, we mapped the epitopes of the six mAbs. Each mAb bound an epitope on either the BoNT light chain (LC) or translocation domain (HN). Epitope mapping data was used to design LC-HN domains with orthogonal mutations to make them specific for only one mAb in either XOMA 3B or 3E. Mutant LC-HN domains were cloned, expressed, and purified from E. coli. Each mAb bound only to its specific domain with affinity comparable to the binding to holotoxin. Further engineering of domains allowed construction of ELISAs that could characterize the integrity, binding affinity, and identity of each of the six mAbs in XOMA 3B, and 3E without interference from the three BoNT/A mAbs in XOMA 3AB. Such antigen engineering is a general method allowing quantitation and characterization of individual mAbs in a mAb cocktail that bind the same protein. PMID:22922799

  6. Targeting YAP/TAZ-TEAD protein-protein interactions using fragment-based and computational modeling approaches

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway, which is implicated in the regulation of organ size, has emerged as a potential target for the development of cancer therapeutics. YAP, TAZ (transcription co-activators) and TEAD (transcription factor) are the downstream transcriptional machinery and effectors of the pathway. Formation of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex leads to transcription of growth-promoting genes. Conversely, disrupting the interactions of the complex decreases cell proliferation. Herein, we screened a 1000-member fragment library using Thermal Shift Assay and identified a hit fragment. We confirmed its binding at the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interface by X-ray crystallography, and showed that it occupies the same hydrophobic pocket as a conserved phenylalanine of YAP/TAZ. This hit fragment serves as a scaffold for the development of compounds that have the potential to disrupt YAP/TAZ-TEAD interactions. Structure-activity relationship studies and computational modeling were also carried out to identify more potent compounds that may bind at this validated druggable binding site. PMID:28570566

  7. Targeting YAP/TAZ-TEAD protein-protein interactions using fragment-based and computational modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Sim, Adelene Y L; Tan, Siew Kim Joyce; Verma, Chandra; Song, Haiwei

    2017-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway, which is implicated in the regulation of organ size, has emerged as a potential target for the development of cancer therapeutics. YAP, TAZ (transcription co-activators) and TEAD (transcription factor) are the downstream transcriptional machinery and effectors of the pathway. Formation of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex leads to transcription of growth-promoting genes. Conversely, disrupting the interactions of the complex decreases cell proliferation. Herein, we screened a 1000-member fragment library using Thermal Shift Assay and identified a hit fragment. We confirmed its binding at the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interface by X-ray crystallography, and showed that it occupies the same hydrophobic pocket as a conserved phenylalanine of YAP/TAZ. This hit fragment serves as a scaffold for the development of compounds that have the potential to disrupt YAP/TAZ-TEAD interactions. Structure-activity relationship studies and computational modeling were also carried out to identify more potent compounds that may bind at this validated druggable binding site.

  8. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions for Parasite Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Fischer, Kerstin; Abubucker, Sahar; Wang, Zhengyuan; Martin, John; Jiang, Daojun; Magliano, Marc; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Li, Ben-Wen; Fischer, Peter U.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2011-01-01

    Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs) offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific ortholgous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank). EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite) and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite), which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly applicable. PMID

  9. [New protein vectors based on an alpha-fetoprotein fragment for targeted DNA delivery into cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, O N; Gorokhovets, N V; Makarov, V A; Posypanova, G A; Serebriakova, M V; Pozmogova, G E

    2010-01-01

    A human alpha-fetoprotein fragment (AFP) modified with oligocationic homologs of nuclear localization signal was used to construct new target cell-selective DNA-carrier proteins. The new recombinant vectors containing C- or N-terminal polynucleotide-binding domains are able to form stable complexes with single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA. Using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, it was shown that such nucleoprotein complexes can be selectively internalized in target cells receptors superexpressing AFP receptors. The results obtained are important both for understanding mechanisms of formation of DNA-protein complexes and for studying their interaction with intracellular molecular targets. The new proteins can be used as a tool for the development of highly selective and efficacious gene-selective antitumour drugs.

  10. RFDT: A Rotation Forest-based Predictor for Predicting Drug-Target Interactions using Drug Structure and Protein Sequence Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Yan, Xin; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-14

    Identification of interaction between drugs and target proteins plays an important role in discovering new drug candidates. However, through the experimental method to identify the drug-target interactions remain to be extremely time-consuming, expensive and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new computational methods to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). In this article, a novel computational model is developed for predicting potential drug-target interactions under the theory that each drug-target interaction pair can be represented by the structural properties from drugs and evolutionary information derived from proteins. Specifically, the protein sequences are encoded as Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) descriptor which contains information of biological evolutionary and the drug molecules are encoded as fingerprint feature vector which represents the existence of certain functional groups or fragments. Four benchmark datasets involving enzymes, ion channels, GPCRs and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with Rotation Forest (RF) model. The proposed method achieved the prediction accuracy of 91.3%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 71.1% for four datasets respectively. In order to make our method more persuasive, we compared our classifier with the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We also compared the proposed method with other excellent methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in the prediction of DTI, and can provide assistance for new drug research and development.

  11. Large-scale identification of target proteins of a glycosyltransferase isozyme by Lectin-IGOT-LC/MS, an LC/MS-based glycoproteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Daisuke; Kaji, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Kazushi; Asano, Masahide; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Model organisms containing deletion or mutation in a glycosyltransferase-gene exhibit various physiological abnormalities, suggesting that specific glycan motifs on certain proteins play important roles in vivo. Identification of the target proteins of glycosyltransferase isozymes is the key to understand the roles of glycans. Here, we demonstrated the proteome-scale identification of the target proteins specific for a glycosyltransferase isozyme, β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (β4GalT-I). Although β4GalT-I is the most characterized glycosyltransferase, its distinctive contribution to β1,4-galactosylation has been hardly described so far. We identified a large number of candidates for the target proteins specific to β4GalT-I by comparative analysis of β4GalT-I-deleted and wild-type mice using the LC/MS-based technique with the isotope-coded glycosylation site-specific tagging (IGOT) of lectin-captured N-glycopeptides. Our approach to identify the target proteins in a proteome-scale offers common features and trends in the target proteins, which facilitate understanding of the mechanism that controls assembly of a particular glycan motif on specific proteins. PMID:23002422

  12. Targeting protein-protein interactions as an anticancer strategy.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Andrei A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian

    2013-07-01

    The emergence and convergence of cancer genomics, targeted therapies, and network oncology have significantly expanded the landscape of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in cancer for therapeutic discovery. Extensive biological and clinical investigations have led to the identification of protein interaction hubs and nodes that are critical for the acquisition and maintenance of characteristics of cancer essential for cell transformation. Such cancer-enabling PPIs have become promising therapeutic targets. With technological advances in PPI modulator discovery and validation of PPI-targeting agents in clinical settings, targeting of PPI interfaces as an anticancer strategy has become a reality. Future research directed at genomics-based PPI target discovery, PPI interface characterization, PPI-focused chemical library design, and patient-genomic subpopulation-driven clinical studies is expected to accelerate the development of the next generation of PPI-based anticancer agents for personalized precision medicine. Here we briefly review prominent PPIs that mediate cancer-acquired properties, highlight recognized challenges and promising clinical results in targeting PPIs, and outline emerging opportunities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach for Protein-Ligand Binding Analyses in Complex Biological Mixtures Using a Phenacyl Bromide Modification Strategy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lorrain; Wang, Dongyu; Gooden, David M; Ball, Carol H; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2016-11-15

    The characterization of protein folding stability changes on the proteomic scale is useful for protein-target discovery and for the characterization of biological states. The Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX) technique is one of several mass spectrometry-based techniques recently established for the making proteome-wide measurements of protein folding and stability. A critical part of proteome-wide applications of SPROX is the identification and quantitation of methionine-containing peptides. Demonstrated here is a targeted mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy for the detection and quantitation of methionine-containing peptides in SPROX experiments. The strategy involves the use of phenacyl bromide (PAB) for the targeted detection and quantitation of methionine-containing peptides in SPROX using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS). As proof-of-principle, the known binding interaction of Cyclosporine A with cyclophilin A protein in a yeast cell lysate is successfully detected and quantified using a targeted SRM workflow. Advantages of the described workflow over other SPROX protocols include a 20-fold reduction in the amount of total protein needed for analysis and the ability to work with the endogenous proteins in a given sample (e.g., stabile isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture is not necessary).

  14. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction networks based on drug chemical structure and protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengwei; Han, Pengyong; You, Zhu-Hong; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yusen; Yu, Haiquan; Nie, Ru; Chen, Xing

    2017-09-11

    Analysis of drug-target interactions (DTIs) is of great importance in developing new drug candidates for known protein targets or discovering new targets for old drugs. However, the experimental approaches for identifying DTIs are expensive, laborious and challenging. In this study, we report a novel computational method for predicting DTIs using the highly discriminative information of drug-target interactions and our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. More specifically, each target protein sequence is transformed as the position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM), in which the evolutionary information is retained; then the local binary pattern (LBP) operator is used to calculate the LBP histogram descriptor. For a drug molecule, a novel fingerprint representation is utilized to describe its chemical structure information representing existence of certain functional groups or fragments. When applying the proposed method to the four datasets (Enzyme, GPCR, Ion Channel and Nuclear Receptor) for predicting DTIs, we obtained good average accuracies of 93.16%, 89.37%, 91.73% and 92.22%, respectively. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the proposed model with that of the state-of-the-art SVM model and other previous methods. The achieved results demonstrate that our method is effective and robust and can be taken as a useful tool for predicting DTIs.

  15. A modular DNA carrier protein based on the structure of diphtheria toxin mediates target cell-specific gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Uherek, C; Fominaya, J; Wels, W

    1998-04-10

    Modular fusion proteins that combine distinct functions required for cell type-specific uptake and intracellular delivery of DNA present an attractive approach for the development of self-assembling vectors for targeted gene delivery. Here, we describe a novel DNA carrier protein termed GD5 that mimics the structure of the bacterial diphtheria toxin (DT) and facilitates target cell-specific gene transfer via receptor-mediated endocytosis. GD5 carries at the N terminus the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor Gal4, which is connected to a C-terminal antibody fragment specific for the tumor-associated ErbB2 antigen via an internal DT translocation domain as an endosome escape activity. Bacterially expressed GD5 protein specifically bound to ErbB2-expressing cells and formed protein-DNA complexes with a luciferase reporter gene construct. These complexes, after compensation of excess negative charge with poly-L-lysine, served as a specific transfection vector for ErbB2-expressing cells. Inhibitors of endosomal acidification drastically reduced GD5-mediated transfection, indicating that the DT translocation domain of GD5, similar to the parental toxin, is strictly dependent on the transit through an acidic environment. Our results suggest that fusion proteins that employ the natural endosome escape mechanism of bacterial toxins might aid in the development of efficient nonviral vectors for applications in gene therapy.

  16. Nonfouling NTA-PEG-Based TEM Grid Coatings for Selective Capture of Histidine-Tagged Protein Targets from Cell Lysates.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Christopher J; Wright, Kyle J; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Krynski, Kyle; Yu, Guimei; Bajaj, Ruchika; Guo, Fei; Stauffacher, Cynthia V; Jiang, Wen; Thompson, David H

    2016-01-19

    We report the preparation and performance of TEM grids bearing stabilized nonfouling lipid monolayer coatings. These films contain NTA capture ligands of controllable areal density at the distal end of a flexible poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 (PEG2000) spacer to avoid preferred orientation of surface-bound histidine-tagged (His-tag) protein targets. Langmuir-Schaefer deposition at 30 mN/m of mixed monolayers containing two novel synthetic lipids-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[(5-amido-1-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid]polyethylene glycolamide 2000) (NTA-PEG2000-DSPE) and 1,2-(tricosa-10',12'-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxypolyethylene glycolamide 350) (mPEG350-DTPE)-in 1:99 and 5:95 molar ratios prior to treatment with a 5 min, 254 nm light exposure was used for grid fabrication. These conditions were designed to limit nonspecific protein adsorption onto the stabilized lipid coating by favoring the formation of a mPEG350 brush layer below a flexible, mushroom conformation of NTA-PEG2000 at low surface density to enable specific immobilization and random orientation of the protein target on the EM grid. These grids were then used to capture His6-T7 bacteriophage and RplL from cell lysates, as well as purified His8-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and nanodisc solubilized maltose transporter, His6-MalFGK2. Our findings indicate that TEM grid supported, polymerized NTA lipid monolayers are capable of capturing His-tag protein targets in a manner that controls their areal densities, while efficiently blocking nonspecific adsorption and limiting film degradation, even upon prolonged detergent exposure.

  17. Characterization of protein complexes using targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Yassel Ramos; Gallien, Sebastien; Huerta, Vivian; van Oostrum, Jan; Domon, Bruno; Gonzalez, Luis Javier

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems are not only controlled by the abundance of individual proteins, but also by the formation of complexes and the dynamics of protein-protein interactions. The identification of the components of protein complexes can be obtained by shotgun proteomics using affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Such studies include the analyses of several samples and experimental controls in order to discriminate true specific interactions from unspecific interactions and contaminants. However, shotgun proteomics have limited quantification capabilities for low abundant proteins on large sample sets due to the undersampling and the stochastic precursor ion selection. In this context, targeted proteomics constitutes a powerful analytical tool to systematically detect and quantify peptides in multiple samples, for instance those obtained from affinity purification experiments. Hypothesis-driven strategies have mainly relied on the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) technique performed on triple quadrupole instruments, which enables highly selective and sensitive measurements of peptides, acting as surrogates of the pre-selected proteins, over a wide range of concentrations. More recently, novel quantitative methods based on high resolution instruments, such as the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) technique implemented on the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument, have arisen and provided alternatives to perform quantitative analyses with enhanced selectivity.The application of targeted proteomics to protein-protein interaction experiments from plasma and other physiological fluid samples and the inclusion of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), combined with other recent technology developments opens a vast area for clinical application of proteomics. It is anticipated that it will reveal valuable information about specific, individual, responses against drugs, exogenous proteins or pathogens.

  18. Properties of Protein Drug Target Classes

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Simon C.; Doig, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate identification of drug targets is a crucial part of any drug development program. We mined the human proteome to discover properties of proteins that may be important in determining their suitability for pharmaceutical modulation. Data was gathered concerning each protein’s sequence, post-translational modifications, secondary structure, germline variants, expression profile and drug target status. The data was then analysed to determine features for which the target and non-target proteins had significantly different values. This analysis was repeated for subsets of the proteome consisting of all G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases and proteases, as well as proteins that are implicated in cancer. Machine learning was used to quantify the proteins in each dataset in terms of their potential to serve as a drug target. This was accomplished by first inducing a random forest that could distinguish between its targets and non-targets, and then using the random forest to quantify the drug target likeness of the non-targets. The properties that can best differentiate targets from non-targets were primarily those that are directly related to a protein’s sequence (e.g. secondary structure). Germline variants, expression levels and interactions between proteins had minimal discriminative power. Overall, the best indicators of drug target likeness were found to be the proteins’ hydrophobicities, in vivo half-lives, propensity for being membrane bound and the fraction of non-polar amino acids in their sequences. In terms of predicting potential targets, datasets of proteases, ion channels and cancer proteins were able to induce random forests that were highly capable of distinguishing between targets and non-targets. The non-target proteins predicted to be targets by these random forests comprise the set of the most suitable potential future drug targets, and should therefore be prioritised when building a drug development programme. PMID

  19. Activity-based targeting of secretory phospholipase A2 enzymes: A fatty-acid-binding-protein assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Amir; Zelaya, Ligia; Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha; Hajdu, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Syntheses and enzymological characterization of fluorogenic substrate probes targeting secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) for detection and quantitative assays are presented. Three fluorogenic phosphatidylcholine analogs PC-1, PC-2, and PC-3 each containing the duo of 7-mercapto-4-methyl-coumarin fluorophore and 2,4-dinitroanaline quencher on either tail were synthesized from (R)-3-amino-1,2-propanediol and R-(-)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol. These small reporter groups are advantageous in preserving natural membrane integrity. Phosphocholine was incorporated into the sn-3 position of the glycerol backbone. Acyl amino group at the sn-1 position in PC-1 and PC-2 is meant to block sPLA1. The sn-1 and sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbone in PC-1 have a quencher terminated 12-carbon chain and fluorophore terminated 11-carbon chain respectively. PC-2 has a quencher terminated 3-carbon chain at the sn-2 and chain terminating fluorescent reporter at the sn-1 positions. PC-3 resembles PC-1 except for an ester instead of amide at the sn-1 position, because of which it is more similar to natural phospholipids than PC-1. It was designed to elucidate the effect of replacing the ester group with amide by comparing its hydrolysis rate with that of PC-1. Design principles apply to synthesis of other labeled phospholipids. Enzymological characterization using bee-venom sPLA2 was performed by a fatty-acid-binding-protein fluorescence assay and by pH-Stat method in which the amount of fatty acid released by hydrolysis is given by the amount of base required to maintain a constant pH of 8.0. Hydrolytic activity toward PC-1 and PC-3 were each about 238±25μmol/mg/min and 537μmol/mg/min on unmodified phospholipid. Ester to amide change did not affect hydrolysis rates. Activity toward PC-2 was about 45-μmol/mg/min. PC-1 and PC-3 show potential for targeted real-time spectrophotometric assay of sPLA2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In Silico Identification of Proteins Associated with Drug-induced Liver Injury Based on the Prediction of Drug-target Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Sergey; Semin, Maxim; Lagunin, Alexey; Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the leading cause of acute liver failure as well as one of the major reasons for drug withdrawal from clinical trials and the market. Elucidation of molecular interactions associated with DILI may help to detect potentially hazardous pharmacological agents at the early stages of drug development. The purpose of our study is to investigate which interactions with specific human protein targets may cause DILI. Prediction of interactions with 1534 human proteins was performed for the dataset with information about 699 drugs, which were divided into three categories of DILI: severe (178 drugs), moderate (310 drugs) and without DILI (211 drugs). Based on the comparison of drug-target interactions predicted for different drugs' categories and interpretation of those results using clustering, Gene Ontology, pathway and gene expression analysis, we identified 61 protein targets associated with DILI. Most of the revealed proteins were linked with hepatocytes' death caused by disruption of vital cellular processes, as well as the emergence of inflammation in the liver. It was found that interaction of a drug with the identified targets is the essential molecular mechanism of the severe DILI for the most of the considered pharmaceuticals. Thus, pharmaceutical agents interacting with many of the identified targets may be considered as candidates for filtering out at the early stages of drug research. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. An Automated High-Throughput Cell-Based Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Assay to Identify Novel Compounds to Target Candida albicans Virulence-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Stella M.; Allen, Christopher P.; Waller, Anna; Young, Susan M.; Oprea, Tudor; Sklar, Larry A.; Lee, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Although three major classes of systemic antifungal agents are clinically available, each is characterized by important limitations. Thus, there has been considerable ongoing effort to develop novel and repurposed agents for the therapy of invasive fungal infections. In an effort to address these needs, we developed a novel high-throughput, multiplexed screening method that utilizes small molecules to probe candidate drug targets in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. This method is amenable to high-throughput automated screening and is based upon detection of changes in GFP levels of individually tagged target proteins. We first selected four GFP-tagged membrane-bound proteins associated with virulence or antifungal drug resistance in C. albicans. We demonstrated proof-of-principle that modulation of fluorescence intensity can be used to assay the expression of specific GFP-tagged target proteins to inhibitors (and inducers), and this change is measurable within the HyperCyt automated flow cytometry sampling system. Next, we generated a multiplex of differentially color-coded C. albicans strains bearing C-terminal GFP-tags of each gene encoding candidate drug targets incubated in the presence of small molecules from the Prestwick Chemical Library in 384-well microtiter plate format. Following incubation, cells were sampled through the HyperCyt system and modulation of protein levels, as indicated by changes in GFP-levels of each strain, was used to identify compounds of interest. The hit rate for both inducers and inhibitors identified in the primary screen did not exceed 1% of the total number of compounds in the small-molecule library that was probed, as would be expected from a robust target-specific, high-throughput screening campaign. Secondary assays for virulence characteristics based on null mutant strains were then used to further validate specificity. In all, this study presents a method for the identification and verification of new

  2. Aptamer Recognition Induced Target-Bridged Strategy for Proteins Detection Based on Magnetic Chitosan and Silver/Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Jincan; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-11-03

    Poor selectivity and biocompability remain problems in applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for direct detection of proteins due to similar spectra of most proteins and overlapping Raman bands in complex mixtures. To solve these problems, an aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy based on magnetic chitosan (MCS) and silver/chitosan nanoparticles (Ag@CS NPs) using SERS was developed for detection of protein benefiting from specific affinity of aptamers and biocompatibility of chitosan (CS). In this process, one aptamer (or antibody) modified MCS worked as capture probes through the affinity binding site of protein. The other aptamer modified Raman report molecules encapsulated Ag@CS NPs were used as SERS sensing probes based on the other binding site of protein. The sandwich complexes of aptamer (antibody)/protein/aptamer were separated easily with a magnet from biological samples, and the concentration of protein was indirectly reflected by the intensity variation of SERS signal of Raman report molecules. To explore the universality of the strategy, three different kinds of proteins including thrombin, platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB) and immunoglobulin E (lgE) were investigated. The major advantages of this aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy are convenient operation with a magnet, stable signal expressing resulting from preventing loss of report molecules with the help of CS shell, and the avoidance of slow diffusion-limited kinetics problems occurring on a solid substrate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, the method was applied to detection of PDGF BB in clinical samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of PDGF BB was estimated to be 3.2 pg/mL. The results obtained from human serum of healthy persons and cancer patients using the proposed strategy showed good agreement with that of the ELISA method but with wider linear range, more convenient operation, and lower cost. The proposed

  3. Structure-based discovery of an inhibitor of Arf activation by Sec7 domains through targeting of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Viaud, Julien; Zeghouf, Mahel; Barelli, Hélène; Zeeh, Jean-Christophe; Padilla, André; Guibert, Bernard; Chardin, Pierre; Royer, Catherine A; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Chavanieu, Alain

    2007-06-19

    Small molecules that produce nonfunctional protein-protein complexes are an alternative to competitive inhibitors for the inhibition of protein functions. Here we target the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Arf1, a major regulator of membrane traffic, by the Sec7 catalytic domain of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO. The crystal structure of the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex, which initiates the exchange reaction, was used to discover an inhibitor, LM11, using in silico screening of a flexible pocket near the Arf1/ARNO interface. Using fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy, NMR spectroscopy and mutagenesis, we show that LM11 acts following a noncompetitive mechanism in which the inhibitor targets both Arf1-GDP and the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex and produces a nonfunctional Arf-GDP/ARNO complex whose affinity is similar to that of the native complex. In addition, LM11 recognizes features of both Arf and ARNO near the Arf/Sec7 interface, a characteristic reminiscent of the paradigm interfacial inhibitor Brefeldin A. We then show that LM11 is a cell-active inhibitor that impairs Arf-dependent trafficking structures at the Golgi. Furthermore, LM11 inhibits ARNO-dependent migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, demonstrating that ARNO is a target of LM11 in cells. Remarkably, LM11 inhibits the activation of Arf1 but not Arf6 in vitro, pointing to a possible synergy between Arf1 and Arf6 activation by ARNO in cell migration. Our design method shows that flexible regions in protein-protein complexes provide drugable sites with the potential to develop novel tools for investigating and inhibiting signaling pathways.

  4. Targeting Proteostasis Through the Protein Quality Control Function of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based Chaperone Machinery for Treatment of Adult Onset Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, William B.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available therapies for adult onset neurodegenerative diseases provide symptomatic relief, but are not disease modifying. We explore here a new neuroprotective approach based on drugs targeting chaperone-directed protein quality control. Critical target proteins that unfold and aggregate in these diseases, such as the polylglutamine androgen receptor (spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy), huntingtin (Huntington’s disease), α-synuclein (Parkinson’s disease) and tau (Alzheimer’s disease) are client proteins of Hsp90, and their turnover is regulated by the protein quality control function of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery. In protein quality control Hsp90 and Hsp70 have opposing effects on client protein stability; Hsp90 stabilizes the clients and inhibits their ubiquitination, whereas Hsp70 promotes CHIP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We discuss how drugs that modulate proteostasis by inhibiting Hsp90 function or by promoting Hsp70 function enhance the degradation of the critical aggregating proteins and ameliorate toxic symptoms in cell and animal disease models. PMID:25292434

  5. Identification of target proteins of mangiferin in mice with acute lung injury using functionalized magnetic microspheres based on click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Nie, Yan; Li, Yunjuan; Hou, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Wei; Deng, Jiagang; Wang, Peng George; Bai, Gang

    2015-11-18

    Prevention of the occurrence and development of inflammation is a vital therapeutic strategy for treating acute lung injury (ALI). Increasing evidence has shown that a wealth of ingredients from natural foods and plants have potential anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone that is primarily obtained from the peels and kernels of mango fruits and the bark of the Mangifera indica L. tree, alleviated the inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. Mangiferin-modified magnetic microspheres (MMs) were developed on the basis of click chemistry to capture the target proteins of mangiferin. Mass spectrometry and molecular docking identified 70 kDa heat-shock protein 5 (Hspa5) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (Ywhae) as mangiferin-binding proteins. Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that mangiferin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by binding Hspa5 and Ywhae to suppress downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Thoroughly revealing the mechanism and function of mangiferin will contribute to the development and utilization of agricultural resources from M. indica L.

  6. Liposomes targeted by fusion phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Jayanna, Prashanth K; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Petrenko, Valery A

    2009-03-01

    Targeting of nanocarriers has long been sought after to improve the therapeutic indices of anticancer drugs. Here we provide the proof of principle for a novel approach of nanocarrier targeting through their fusion with target-specific phage coat proteins. The source of the targeted phage coat proteins are landscape phage libraries--collections of recombinant filamentous phages with foreign random peptides fused to all 4000 copies of the major coat protein. We exploit in our approach the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phage major coat protein as a typical membrane protein. Landscape phage peptides specific for specific tumors can be obtained by affinity selection, and purified fusion coat proteins can be assimilated into liposomes to obtain specific drug-loaded nanocarriers. As a paradigm for inceptive experiments, a streptavidin-specific phage peptide selected from a landscape phage library was incorporated into approximately 100-nm liposomes. Targeting of liposomes was proved by their specific binding to streptavidin-coated beads.

  7. Luciferase-based protein-denaturation assay for quantification of radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia: developing an intracellular thermometer

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Zhu, Cihui; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported targeted hyperthermia at the cellular level using remote activation of nanoparticles by radiofrequency waves. To date, methods to quantify intracellular thermal dose have not been reported. In this report we study the relationship between radio wave exposure and luciferase denaturation with and without intracellular nanoparticles. The findings are used to devise a strategy to quantify targeted thermal dose in a primary human liver cancer cell line. Methods Water-bath or non-invasive external RF generator (600W, 13.56 MHz) was used for hyperthermia exposures. Luciferase activity was measured using a bioluminescence assay and viability was assessed using Annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide staining. Heat shock proteins were analyzed using western-blot analysis Results Duration-dependent luciferase denaturation was observed in SNU449 cells exposed to RF field that preceded measurable loss in viability. Loss of luciferase activity was higher in cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticle (C225-AuNP) treated cells. Using a standard curve from water-bath experiments, the intracellular thermal dose was calculated. Cells treated with C225-AuNP accumulated 6.07 times higher intracellular thermal dose than the untreated controls over initial 4 minutes of RF exposure. Conclusions Cancer cells when exposed to an external RF field exhibit dose-dependent protein denaturation. Luciferase denaturation assay can be used to quantify thermal dose delivered after RF exposures to cancer cells with and without nanoparticles. PMID:22515341

  8. A physics-based scoring function for protein structural decoys: Dynamic testing on targets of CASP-ROLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García, Yamila; Puris, Amilkar; Bello, Rafael; Green, James; Sotomayor-Torres, Clivia M.

    2014-08-01

    Most successful structure prediction strategies use knowledge-based functions for global optimization, in spite of their intrinsic limited potential to create new folds, while physics-based approaches are often employed only during structure refinement steps. We here propose a physics-based scoring potential intended to perform global searches of the conformational space. We introduce a dynamic test to evaluate the discrimination power of our function, and compare it with predictions of targets from the CASP-ROLL competition. Results demonstrate that this dynamic test is able to generate 3D models which outrank 59% (according GDT_TS score) of models generated with ab initio structure prediction servers.

  9. Screening for target toxins of the antiophidic protein DM64 through a gel-based interactomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-16

    DM64 is a glycosylated protein with antivenom activity isolated from the serum of the opossum Didelphis aurita. It binds non-covalently to myotoxins I (Asp49) and II (Lys49) from Bothrops asper venom and inhibits their myotoxic effect. In this study, an affinity column with immobilized DM64 as bait was used to fish potential target toxins. All ten isolated myotoxins tested were able to effectively bind to the DM64 column. To better access the specificity of the inhibitor, crude venoms from Bothrops (8 species), Crotalus (2 species) and Naja naja atra were submitted to the affinity purification. Venom fractions bound and nonbound to the DM64 column were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Although venom fractions bound to the column were mainly composed of basic PLA2, a few spots corresponding to acidic PLA2 were also observed. Some unexpected protein spots were also identified: C-type lectins and CRISP may represent putative new targets for DM64, whereas the presence of serine peptidases in the venom bound fraction is likely a consequence of nonspecific binding to the column matrix. The present results contribute to better delineate the inhibitory potential of DM64, providing a framework for the development of more specific antivenom therapies. Local tissue damage induced by myotoxic PLA2 remains a serious consequence of snake envenomation, since it is only partially neutralized by traditional antivenom serotherapy. Myotoxin inhibition by highly specific molecules offers great promise in the treatment of snakebites, a health problem largely neglected by governments and pharmaceutical industries. Bioactive compounds such as DM64 can represent a valuable source of scaffolds for drug development in this area. The present study has systematically profiled the binding specificity of DM64 toward a variety of snake venom toxin classes and therefore can lead to a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of this important

  10. MALDI based identification of soybean protein markers--possible analytical targets for allergen detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart

    2012-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is extensively used all over the world due to its nutritional qualities. However, soybean is included in the "big eight" list of food allergens. According to the EU directive 2007/68/EC, food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers. Mass spectrometry of marker proteolytical fragments of protein allergens is growingly recognized as a detection method in food control. However, quantification of soybean at the peptide level is hindered due to limited information regarding specific stable markers derived after proteolytic digestion. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF/MS and MS/MS as a fast screening tool for the identification of stable soybean derived tryptic markers which were still identifiable even if the proteins were subjected to various changes at the molecular level through a number of reactions typically occurring during food processing (denaturation, the Maillard reaction and oxidation). The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods.

  11. Targeting protein prenylation in progeria.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen G; Yang, Shao H; Davies, Brandon S J; Jung, Hea-Jin; Fong, Loren G

    2013-02-06

    A clinical trial of a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor (lonafarnib) for the treatment of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) was recently completed. Here, we discuss the mutation that causes HGPS, the rationale for inhibiting protein farnesyltransferase, the potential limitations of this therapeutic approach, and new potential strategies for treating the disease.

  12. Small Molecules Target Carcinogenic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    An ingenious cellular mechanism of effecting protein localization is prenylation: the covalent attachment of a hydrophobic prenyl group to a protein that facilitates protein association with cell membranes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate whether the oncogenic Stat3 protein can undergo artificial prenylation via high-affinity prenylated small-molecule binding agents and thus be rendered inactive by localization at the plasma membrane instead of nucleus. The measurements were performed on a home-built instrument capable of recording simultaneously several optical parameters (lifetime, polarization, color, etc) and with single-molecule sensitivity. A pH-invariant fluorescein derivative with double moiety was designed to bridge a prenyl group and a small peptide that binds Stat3 with high affinity. Confocal fluorescence images show effective localization of the ligand to the membrane of liposomes. Stat3 predominantly localizes at the membrane only in the presence of the prenylated ligand. Single-molecule FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between donor-labeled prenylated agents and acceptor-labeled, surface tethered Stat3 protein is used to determine the dynamic heterogeneity of the protein-ligand interaction and follow individual binding-unbinding events in real time. The data indicates that molecules can effect protein localization, validating a therapeutic design that influences protein activity via induced localization.

  13. Antibiotics that target protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lisa S; Xie, Yun; Tor, Yitzhak

    2011-01-01

    The key role of the bacterial ribosome makes it an important target for antibacterial agents. Indeed, a large number of clinically useful antibiotics target this complex translational ribonucleoprotein machinery. The majority of these compounds, mostly of natural origin, bind to one of the three key ribosomal sites: the decoding (or A-site) on the 30S, the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the 50S, and the peptide exit tunnel on the 50S. Antibiotics that bind the A-site, such as the aminoglycosides, interfere with codon recognition and translocation. Peptide bond formation is inhibited when small molecules like oxazolidinones bind at the PTC. Finally, macrolides tend to block the growth of the amino acid chain at the peptide exit tunnel. In this article, the major classes of antibiotics that target the bacterial ribosome are discussed and classified according to their respective target. Notably, most antibiotics solely interact with the RNA components of the bacterial ribosome. The surge seen in the appearance of resistant bacteria has not been met by a parallel development of effective and broad-spectrum new antibiotics, as evident by the introduction of only two novel classes of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones and lipopeptides, in the past decades. Nevertheless, this significant health threat has revitalized the search for new antibacterial agents and novel targets. High resolution structural data of many ribosome-bound antibiotics provide unprecedented insight into their molecular contacts and mode of action and inspire the design and synthesis of new candidate drugs that target this fascinating molecular machine.

  14. Enzyme-free and label-free fluorescence aptasensing strategy for highly sensitive detection of protein based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Jiang, Aiwen; Hou, Ting; Li, Haiyin; Li, Feng

    2015-08-15

    Proteins are of great importance in medical and biological fields. In this paper, a novel fluorescent aptasensing strategy for protein assay has been developed based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and graphene oxide (GO)-based selective fluorescence quenching. Three DNA probes, a helper DNA probe (HP), hairpin probe 1 (H1) and hairpin probe 2 (H2) are ingeniously designed. In the presence of the target, the aptamer sequences in HP recognize the target to form a target-aptamer complex, which causes the HP conformation change, and then triggers the chain-like assembly of H1 and H2 through the hybridization chain reaction, generating a long chain of HP leading complex of H1 and H2. At last the fluorescence indicator SYBR Green I (SG) binds with the long double strands of the HCR product through both intercalation and minor groove binding. When GO was added into the solutions after HCR, the free H1, H2 and SG would be closely adsorbed onto GO surface via π-π stacking. However, the HCR product cannot be adsorbed on GO surface, thereby the SG bound to HCR product gives a strong fluorescence signal dependent on the concentration of the target. With the use of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) as the model analyte, this newly designed protocol provides a highly sensitive fluorescence detection of PDGF-BB with a limit of detection down to 1.25 pM, and also exhibit good selectivity and applicability in complex matrixes. Therefore, the proposed aptasensing strategy based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction amplification should have wide applications in the diagnosis of genetic diseases due to its simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity at extremely low target concentrations.

  15. Targeting "Undruggable" Proteins: Design of Synthetic Cyclopeptides.

    PubMed

    Russo, Anna; Aiello, Carmela; Grieco, Paolo; Marasco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The development of synthetic macrocycles represents a powerful approach toward the identification of new protein binders or inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) which are known to play key biological roles in cancer signaling as well as in the regulation of cell division cycle. Structural investigations led to identify "hot loops" sharing common motifs that are mainly involved in PPIs. Most PPIs occur through large and flat surfaces; currently these protein complexes are defined as "undruggable" by conventional drug-discovery approaches, since the identification of small molecules to inhibit these targets is often unreachable. Typically macrocycles are 500-2000 Da in size, having 12-membered, or more, ring architecture: they do not obey the Lipinski's rule but, for them nature offers many examples as therapeutic agents such as erythromycin (antibiotic), cyclosporin (immunosuppressant) and somatostatin (hormone). Peptide-based macrocycles offer the advantages of directly mimicking secondary structures involved in PPIs and their pharmacological application is related to the potential improvement of lead peptides in terms of potency, selectivity, stability and cell permeation. The promising relevance of cyclopeptides prompted to develop new synthetic methods for cyclization: often biotechnological approaches as well as regioselective reactions have been employed to cyclize peptides rapidly and nearly quantitatively. Moreover, different synthetic strategies in peptidomimetics' macrocyclization are actually available based on surrogate peptide bonds or NCL (Native Chemical Ligation) methods. In this review we focus on the most common methods for the preparation of cyclopeptides and interesting applications of the last decade.

  16. Production of a plant-derived immunogenic protein targeting ApoB100 and CETP: toward a plant-based atherosclerosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Gonzalez, Jorge Alberto; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to initiate the development of a plant-based vaccination model against atherosclerosis, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-based chimeric protein was designed to target both ApoB100 and CETP epitopes associated with immunotherapeutic effects in atherosclerosis. Epitopes were fused at the C-terminus of CTB to yield a protein called CTB:p210:CETPe. A synthetic gene coding for CTB:p210:CETPe was successfully transferred to tobacco plants with no phenotypic alterations. Plant-derived CTB:p210:CETPe was expressed and assembled in the pentameric form. This protein retained the target antigenic determinants, as revealed by GM1-ELISA and Western blot analyses. Higher expresser lines reached recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 10 µg/g fresh weight in leaf tissues and these lines carry a single insertion of the transgene as determined by qPCR. Moreover, when subcutaneously administered, the biomass from these CTB:p210:CETPe-producing plants was able to elicit humoral responses in mice against both ApoB100 and CETP epitopes and human serum proteins. These findings evidenced for the first time that atherosclerosis-related epitopes can be expressed in plants retaining immunogenicity, which opens a new path in the molecular farming field for the development of vaccines against atherosclerosis.

  17. Training based on ligand efficiency improves prediction of bioactivities of ligands and drug target proteins in a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nobuyoshi

    2013-10-28

    Machine learning methods based on ligand-protein interaction data in bioactivity databases are one of the current strategies for efficiently finding novel lead compounds as the first step in the drug discovery process. Although previous machine learning studies have succeeded in predicting novel ligand-protein interactions with high performance, all of the previous studies to date have been heavily dependent on the simple use of raw bioactivity data of ligand potencies measured by IC50, EC50, K(i), and K(d) deposited in databases. ChEMBL provides us with a unique opportunity to investigate whether a machine-learning-based classifier created by reflecting ligand efficiency other than the IC50, EC50, K(i), and Kd values can also offer high predictive performance. Here we report that classifiers created from training data based on ligand efficiency show higher performance than those from data based on IC50 or K(i) values. Utilizing GPCRSARfari and KinaseSARfari databases in ChEMBL, we created IC50- or K(i)-based training data and binding efficiency index (BEI) based training data then constructed classifiers using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM classifiers from the BEI-based training data showed slightly higher area under curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the cross-validation tests. Application of the classifiers to the validation data demonstrated that the AUCs and specificities of the BEI-based classifiers dramatically increased in comparison with the IC50- or K(i)-based classifiers. The improvement of the predictive power by the BEI-based classifiers can be attributed to (i) the more separated distributions of positives and negatives, (ii) the higher diversity of negatives in the BEI-based training data in a feature space of SVMs, and (iii) a more balanced number of positives and negatives in the BEI-based training data. These results strongly suggest that training data based on ligand efficiency as well as data based on classical IC50

  18. Particle-based transcutaneous administration of HIV-1 p24 protein to human skin explants and targeting of epidermal antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Amselgruber, Sarah; Hadam, Sabrina; Munier, Sevérine; Pavot, Vincent; Verrier, Bernard; Hackbarth, Steffen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2014-02-28

    Transcutaneous immunization is a promising vaccination strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigate the combination of cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) and particle-based antigen delivery to target the HIV-1 p24 protein to skin antigen presenting cells (APC). The CSSS treatment pre-activates skin APC and opens hair follicles, where protein-loaded particles accumulate and allow for sustained delivery of the loaded antigen to perifollicular APC. We found that poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) particles targeted the adsorbed HIV-1 p24 protein to the hair follicles. Small amounts of PS and PLA particles were found to translocate to the epidermis and be internalized by skin cells, whereas most of the particles aggregated in the hair follicle canal, where they released the loaded antigen. The p24 protein diffused to the epidermis and dermis and was detected in skin cells, especially in Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Furthermore, the combination of CSSS and particle-based delivery resulted in activation and maturation of Langerhans cells (HLA-DR, CD80 and CD83). We conclude that particle-based antigen delivery across partially disrupted skin barrier is a feasible and effective approach to needle-free transcutaneous vaccination.

  19. Selective Target Protein Degradation via Phthalimide Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Georg E.; Buckley, Dennis L.; Paulk, Joshiawa; Roberts, Justin M.; Souza, Amanda; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Bradner, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule antagonists disable discrete biochemical properties of protein targets. For multi-domain protein targets, the pharmacologic consequence of drug action is limited by selective disruption of one domain-specific activity. More broadly, target inhibition is kinetically limited by the durability and degree of target engagement. These features of traditional drug molecules are challenging to the development of inhibitors targeting transcription factors and chromatin-associated epigenetic proteins, which function as multi-domain biomolecular scaffolds and generally feature rapid association and dissociation kinetics. We therefore devised a chemical strategy to prompt ligand-dependent target protein degradation, via chemical conjugation with derivatized phthalimides that hijack the function of the Cereblon E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Using this approach, we converted an acetyl-lysine competitive antagonist that displaces BET bromodomains from chromatin (JQ1) to a phthalimide-conjugated ligand that prompts immediate Cereblon-dependent BET protein degradation (dBET1). Expression proteomics confirms high specificity for BET family members BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 among 7429 proteins detected. Degradation of BET bromodomains is associated with a more rapid and robust apoptotic response compared to bromodomain inhibition in primary human leukemic blasts, and dBET1 exhibits in vivo efficacy in a human leukemia xenograft. The reach of this approach is illustrated by a second series of probes that degrade the cytosolic signaling protein, FKBP12. Together, these findings identify a facile and general new strategy to control target protein stability, with implications for approaching previously intractable protein targets. PMID:25999370

  20. A combined ligand-based and target-based drug design approach for G-protein coupled receptors: application to salvinorin A, a selective kappa opioid receptor agonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Chevé, Gwénaël; Ferguson, David M.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2006-08-01

    Combined ligand-based and target-based drug design approaches provide a synergistic advantage over either method individually. Therefore, we set out to develop a powerful virtual screening model to identify novel molecular scaffolds as potential leads for the human KOP (hKOP) receptor employing a combined approach. Utilizing a set of recently reported derivatives of salvinorin A, a structurally unique KOP receptor agonist, a pharmacophore model was developed that consisted of two hydrogen bond acceptor and three hydrophobic features. The model was cross-validated by randomizing the data using the CatScramble technique. Further validation was carried out using a test set that performed well in classifying active and inactive molecules correctly. Simultaneously, a bovine rhodopsin based "agonist-bound" hKOP receptor model was also generated. The model provided more accurate information about the putative binding site of salvinorin A based ligands. Several protein structure-checking programs were used to validate the model. In addition, this model was in agreement with the mutation experiments carried out on KOP receptor. The predictive ability of the model was evaluated by docking a set of known KOP receptor agonists into the active site of this model. The docked scores correlated reasonably well with experimental p K i values. It is hypothesized that the integration of these two independently generated models would enable a swift and reliable identification of new lead compounds that could reduce time and cost of hit finding within the drug discovery and development process, particularly in the case of GPCRs.

  1. Cytosolic events involved in chloroplast protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wook; Jung, Chanjin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-02-01

    Chloroplasts are unique organelles that are responsible for photosynthesis. Although chloroplasts contain their own genome, the majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome. These proteins are transported to the chloroplasts after translation in the cytosol. Chloroplasts contain three membrane systems (outer/inner envelope and thylakoid membranes) that subdivide the interior into three soluble compartments known as the intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoid lumen. Several targeting mechanisms are required to deliver proteins to the correct chloroplast membrane or soluble compartment. These mechanisms have been extensively studied using purified chloroplasts in vitro. Prior to targeting these proteins to the various compartments of the chloroplast, they must be correctly sorted in the cytosol. To date, it is not clear how these proteins are sorted in the cytosol and then targeted to the chloroplasts. Recently, the cytosolic carrier protein AKR2 and its associated cofactor Hsp17.8 for outer envelope membrane proteins of chloroplasts were identified. Additionally, a mechanism for controlling unimported plastid precursors in the cytosol has been discovered. This review will mainly focus on recent findings concerning the possible cytosolic events that occur prior to protein targeting to the chloroplasts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Paclitaxel-loaded PEG-PE-based micellar nanopreparations targeted with tumor specific landscape phage fusion protein enhance apoptosis and efficiently reduce tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Shenghong; Mei, Leslie A.; Parmar, Chirag K.; Gillespie, James W.; Praveen, Kulkarni P.; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the therapeutic index of cancer chemotherapy, we developed an advanced nanopreparation based on the combination of landscape phage display to obtain new targeting ligands with micellar nanoparticles for tumor targeting of water insoluble neoplastic agents. With paclitaxel as a drug, this self-assembled nanopreparation composed of MCF-7-specific phage protein and polyethylene glycol phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG- PE) micelles showed selective toxicity to target cancer cells rather than non-target, non- cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the targeted phage-micelles triggered a dramatic tumor reduction and extensive necrosis as a result of improved tumor delivery of paclitaxel. The enhanced anticancer effect was also verified by an enhanced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation following the treatment with the targeted micellar paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo. The absence of hepatotoxicity and pathological changes in tissue sections of vital organs, together with maintenance of overall health of mice following the treatment, further support its translational potential as an effective and safe chemotherapy for improved breast cancer treatment. PMID:25239936

  3. Ligand efficiency-based support vector regression models for predicting bioactivities of ligands to drug target proteins.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nobuyoshi

    2014-10-27

    The concept of ligand efficiency (LE) indices is widely accepted throughout the drug design community and is frequently used in a retrospective manner in the process of drug development. For example, LE indices are used to investigate LE optimization processes of already-approved drugs and to re-evaluate hit compounds obtained from structure-based virtual screening methods and/or high-throughput experimental assays. However, LE indices could also be applied in a prospective manner to explore drug candidates. Here, we describe the construction of machine learning-based regression models in which LE indices are adopted as an end point and show that LE-based regression models can outperform regression models based on pIC50 values. In addition to pIC50 values traditionally used in machine learning studies based on chemogenomics data, three representative LE indices (ligand lipophilicity efficiency (LLE), binding efficiency index (BEI), and surface efficiency index (SEI)) were adopted, then used to create four types of training data. We constructed regression models by applying a support vector regression (SVR) method to the training data. In cross-validation tests of the SVR models, the LE-based SVR models showed higher correlations between the observed and predicted values than the pIC50-based models. Application tests to new data displayed that, generally, the predictive performance of SVR models follows the order SEI > BEI > LLE > pIC50. Close examination of the distributions of the activity values (pIC50, LLE, BEI, and SEI) in the training and validation data implied that the performance order of the SVR models may be ascribed to the much higher diversity of the LE-based training and validation data. In the application tests, the LE-based SVR models can offer better predictive performance of compound-protein pairs with a wider range of ligand potencies than the pIC50-based models. This finding strongly suggests that LE-based SVR models are better than pIC50-based

  4. Functionalization of OEP-based benzochlorins to develop carbohydrate-conjugated photosensitizers. Attempt to target beta-galactoside-recognized proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Pandey, Suresh K; Graham, Andrew; Dobhal, Mahabeer P; Mehta, Ricky; Chen, Yihui; Gryshuk, Amy; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Oseroff, Allan; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2004-01-09

    meso-(2-Formylvinyl)octaethylporphyrin on reaction with cyanotrimethylsilane in the presence of various catalysts [copper triflate [Cu(OTf)(2)], indium triflate [In(OTf)(3)], or magnesium bromide diethyl etherate (MgBr(2).Et(2)O)] produced a mixture of the intermediate 3-hydroxy-3-cyanopropenoporphyrin, the corresponding trimethylsilyl ether derivative, and the unexpected propenochlorins. The yields of the reaction products were found to depend on the reaction conditions and the catalysts used. The intermediate porphyrins on treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid yielded the free-base cyanobenzochlorins in major quantity along with several other novel benzochlorins as minor products. Reduction of ethyl-3-hydroxy-1-pentenoate-porphyrin with DIBAL-H/NaBH(4) and subsequent acid treatment provided the corresponding free-base 10(3)-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzochlorin, which upon a sequence of reactions gave a free-base benzochlorin bearing a carboxylic acid functionality in good yield. It was then condensed with a variety of carbohydrates (glucosamine, galactosamine, and lactosamine), and the related conjugates were screened using the galectin-binding-ability assay. Among the carbohydrate conjugates investigated, the lactose and galactose analogues displayed the galectin-binding ability with an enhancement of about 300-400-fold compared to lactose. In preliminary studies, all photosensitizers (with or without carbohydrate moieties) were found to be active in vitro [radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor cells]. However, the cells incubated with lactose (known to bind to beta-galactoside-recognized proteins) prior to the addition of the photosensitizers containing the beta-galactose moiety (e.g., galactose and lactose) produced a 100% decrease in their photosensitizing efficacy. Under similar experimental conditions, benzochlorin without a beta-galactoside moiety or the related glucose conjugate did not show any inhibition in its photosensitizing efficacy. These results

  5. Targeting Cell Survival Proteins for Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Deb, Lokesh; Huang, Jiamin; Karelia, Deepkamal N.; Amin, Shantu G.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Escaping from cell death is one of the adaptations that enable cancer cells to stave off anticancer therapies. The key players in avoiding apoptosis are collectively known as survival proteins. Survival proteins comprise the Bcl-2, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), and heat shock protein (HSP) families. The aberrant expression of these proteins is associated with a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, and resistance to therapy. Several therapeutic strategies that target survival proteins are based on mimicking BH3 domains or the IAP-binding motif or competing with ATP for the Hsp90 ATP-binding pocket. Alternative strategies, including use of nutraceuticals, transcriptional repression, and antisense oligonucleotides, provide options to target survival proteins. This review focuses on the role of survival proteins in chemoresistance and current therapeutic strategies in preclinical or clinical trials that target survival protein signaling pathways. Recent approaches to target survival proteins-including nutraceuticals, small-molecule inhibitors, peptides, and Bcl-2-specific mimetic are explored. Therapeutic inventions targeting survival proteins are promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. However, complete eradication of resistance is a distant dream. For a successful clinical outcome, pretreatment with novel survival protein inhibitors alone or in combination with conventional therapies holds great promise. PMID:26927133

  6. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  8. Targeted anti-thrombotic protein micelles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wookhyun; Haller, Carolyn; Dai, Erbin; Wang, Xiowei; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.; Liu, David R.; Peter, Karlheinz; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2015-01-01

    Activated platelets provide a promising target for imaging inflammatory and thrombotic events along with site-specific delivery of a variety of therapeutic agents. Herein, we report the efficient design of multifunctional protein micelles bearing targeting and therapeutic proteins by one-pot transpeptidation using an evolved sortase A. Conjugation to the corona of a single-chain antibody (scFv), which binds to the ligand induced binding site (LIBS) of activated GPIIb/IIIa receptors enabled efficient detection of thrombi. Inhibiting thrombus formation was subsequently accomplished by incorporating the catalytically active domain of thrombomodulin (TM) onto the micelle corona for local generation of activated protein C, which serves to inhibit thrombin formation. An effective strategy has been developed for preparation of protein micelles that can be targeted to sites of activated platelets with broad potential for treatment of acute thrombotic events. PMID:25504546

  9. Protein Targeting to the Plastid of Euglena.

    PubMed

    Durnford, Dion G; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges. Early immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that the light-harvesting complexes, photosynthetic proteins in the thylakoid membrane, are post-translationally targeted to the plastid via the Golgi apparatus, an unexpected discovery at the time. Proteins targeted to the Euglena plastid have complex, bipartite presequences that direct them into the endomembrane system, through the Golgi apparatus and ultimately on to the plastid, presumably via transport vesicles. From transcriptome sequencing, dozens of plastid-targeted proteins were identified, leading to the identification of two different presequence structures. Both have an amino terminal signal peptide followed by a transit peptide for plastid import, but only one of the two classes of presequences has a third domain-the stop transfer sequence. This discovery implied two different transport mechanisms; one where the protein was fully inserted into the lumen of the ER and another where the protein remains attached to, but effectively outside, the endomembrane system. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and bioinformatic evidence for plastid targeting, discuss the evolution of the targeting system, and ultimately provide a working model for the targeting and import of proteins into the plastid of Euglena.

  10. Preclinical Refinements of a Broadly Protective VLP-based HPV Vaccine Targeting the Minor Capsid Protein, L2

    PubMed Central

    Tumban, Ebenezer; Muttil, Pavan; Escobar, Carolina Andrea A.; Peabody, Julianne; Wafula, Denis; Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    An ideal prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine would provide broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against all high-risk HPV types, would be effective after a single dose, and would be formulated in such a manner to allow for long-term storage without the necessity for refrigeration. We have developed candidate HPV vaccines consisting of bacteriophage virus-like particles (VLPs) that display a broadly neutralizing epitope derived from the HPV16 minor capsid protein, L2. Immunization with 16L2 VLPs elicited high titer and broadly cross-reactive and cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse HPV types. In this study we introduce two refinements for our candidate vaccines, with an eye towards enhancing efficacy and clinical applicability in the developing world. First, we assessed the role of antigen dose and boosting on immunogenicity. Mice immunized with 16L2-MS2 VLPs at doses ranging from 2–25 μg with or without alum were highly immunogenic at all doses; alum appeared to have an adjuvant effect at the lowest dose. Although boosting enhanced antibody titers, even a single immunization could elicit strong and long-lasting antibody responses. We also developed a method to enhance vaccine stability. Using a spray dry apparatus and a combination of sugars & an amino acid as protein stabilizers, we generated dry powder vaccine formulations of our L2 VLPs. Spray drying of our L2 VLPs did not affect the integrity or immunogenicity of VLPs upon reconstitution. Spray dried VLPs were stable at room temperature and at 37°C for over one month and the VLPs were highly immunogenic. Taken together, these enhancements are designed to facilitate implementation of a next-generation VLP-based HPV vaccine which addresses U.S. and global disparities in vaccine affordability and access in rural/remote populations. PMID:26003490

  11. Preclinical refinements of a broadly protective VLP-based HPV vaccine targeting the minor capsid protein, L2.

    PubMed

    Tumban, Ebenezer; Muttil, Pavan; Escobar, Carolina Andrea A; Peabody, Julianne; Wafula, Denis; Peabody, David S; Chackerian, Bryce

    2015-06-26

    An ideal prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine would provide broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against all high-risk HPV types, would be effective after a single dose, and would be formulated in such a manner to allow for long-term storage without the necessity for refrigeration. We have developed candidate HPV vaccines consisting of bacteriophage virus-like particles (VLPs) that display a broadly neutralizing epitope derived from the HPV16 minor capsid protein, L2. Immunization with 16L2 VLPs elicited high titer and broadly cross-reactive and cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse HPV types. In this study we introduce two refinements for our candidate vaccines, with an eye towards enhancing efficacy and clinical applicability in the developing world. First, we assessed the role of antigen dose and boosting on immunogenicity. Mice immunized with 16L2-MS2 VLPs at doses ranging from 2 to 25 μg with or without alum were highly immunogenic at all doses; alum appeared to have an adjuvant effect at the lowest dose. Although boosting enhanced antibody titers, even a single immunization could elicit strong and long-lasting antibody responses. We also developed a method to enhance vaccine stability. Using a spray dry apparatus and a combination of sugars & an amino acid as protein stabilizers, we generated dry powder vaccine formulations of our L2 VLPs. Spray drying of our L2 VLPs did not affect the integrity or immunogenicity of VLPs upon reconstitution. Spray dried VLPs were stable at room temperature and at 37 °C for over one month and the VLPs were highly immunogenic. Taken together, these enhancements are designed to facilitate implementation of a next-generation VLP-based HPV vaccine which addresses U.S. and global disparities in vaccine affordability and access in rural/remote populations.

  12. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family.

    PubMed

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β-lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β-lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β-lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  13. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  14. LigSearch: a knowledge-based web server to identify likely ligands for a protein target

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Tjaart A. P. de; Laskowski, Roman A.; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Chan, A. W. Edith; Anderson, Wayne F.; Thornton, Janet M.

    2013-12-01

    LigSearch is a web server for identifying ligands likely to bind to a given protein. Identifying which ligands might bind to a protein before crystallization trials could provide a significant saving in time and resources. LigSearch, a web server aimed at predicting ligands that might bind to and stabilize a given protein, has been developed. Using a protein sequence and/or structure, the system searches against a variety of databases, combining available knowledge, and provides a clustered and ranked output of possible ligands. LigSearch can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/LigSearch.

  15. Antibody-drug conjugates: targeting melanoma with cisplatin encapsulated in protein-cage nanoparticles based on human ferritin.

    PubMed

    Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Fraioli, Rocco; Leonetti, Carlo; Zamparelli, Carlotta; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2013-12-21

    A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4(+) melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4(-) breast carcinoma cell line. As compared to the cisplatin-containing ferritin nanoparticle alone (HFt-Pt), which inhibited thymidine incorporation more efficiently in breast carcinoma than melanoma cells, the mAb-derivatized HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had a 25-fold preference for the latter. A similar preference for melanoma was observed upon systemic intravenous administration of HFt-Pt-Ep1 to nude mice xenotransplanted with pre-established, palpable melanoma and breast carcinoma tumors. Thus, we have been able to determine precise combinations and stoichiometric relationships between mAbs and nanoparticle protein cages, whereby the latter lose their tropism for ubiquitously distributed cellular receptors, and acquire instead remarkably lineage-selective binding. HFt-Pt-Ep1 is therefore an interesting model to improve the therapeutic index of antiblastic therapy in a tumor such as melanoma, which at its advanced stages is totally refractory to mono- and combination-chemotherapy.

  16. DNA-Templated Aptamer Probe for Identification of Target Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wenjing; Bai, Xue; Gao, Fan; Lu, Congcong; Wang, Ye; Zhai, Guijin; Tian, Shanshan; Fan, Enguo; Zhang, Yukui; Zhang, Kai

    2017-04-04

    Using aptamers as molecular probes for biomarker discovery has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, it is still a big challenge to accurately identify those protein markers that are targeted by aptamers under physiological conditions due to weak and noncovalent aptamer-protein interactions. Herein, we developed an aptamer based dual-probe using DNA-templated chemistry and photo-cross-linking technique for the identification of target proteins that are recognized by aptamers. In this system, the aptamer was modified by a single strand DNA as binding probe (BP), and another complementary DNA with a photoactive group and reporter group was modified as capture probe (CP). BP was first added to recruit the binding protein via aptamer recognition, and subsequently CP was added to let the cross-linker close to the target via DNA self-assembly, and then a covalent bond between CP and its binding protein was achieved via photo-cross-linking reaction. The captured protein can be detected or affinity enrichment using the tag, finally identified by MS. By use of lysozyme as a model substrate, we demonstrated that this multiple functionalized probe can be utilized for a successful labeling and enrichment of target protein even under a complicated and real environment. Thus, a novel method to precisely identify the aptamer-targeted proteins has been developed and it has a potential application for discovery of aptamer-based biomarkers.

  17. Targeted Delivery of Protein Drugs by Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, Roberto; Chiellini, Federica; Battisti, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology demonstrate that peptides and proteins are the basis of a new generation of drugs. However, the transportation of protein drugs in the body is limited by their high molecular weight, which prevents the crossing of tissue barriers, and by their short lifetime due to immuno response and enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the ability to selectively deliver drugs to target organs, tissues or cells is a major challenge in the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer. Indeed, targeted delivery can be much more efficient than systemic application, while improving bioavailability and limiting undesirable side effects. This review describes how the use of targeted nanocarriers such as nanoparticles and liposomes can improve the pharmacokinetic properties of protein drugs, thus increasing their safety and maximizing the therapeutic effect.

  18. BET Bromodomain Proteins as Cancer Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shaokun; Polyak, Kornelia

    2017-01-06

    Epigenetic regulators are emerging therapeutic targets in a wide variety of human cancers. BET bromodomain proteins have been identified as key regulators of oncogenic transcription factors including MYC; therefore, their inhibition might provide a way to block these "undruggable" targets. Several BET bromodomain inhibitors are in clinical development with promising preliminary findings. However, tumors acquire resistance to these agents in several different ways. In this review, we summarize the role that BET bromodomain proteins play in tumorigenesis as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying therapeutic responses and resistance to their inhibition with emphasis on BRD4 and breast cancer.

  19. Dynamics of co-translational protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Elvekrog, Margaret M.; Walter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Most membrane and secretory proteins are delivered co-translationally to protein translocation channels in their destination membrane by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor. This co-translational molecular machinery is conserved across all kingdoms of life, though it varies in composition and function. Here we report recent progress towards understanding the mechanism of SRP function, focusing on findings about E. coli SRP’s conformational dynamics throughout the targeting process. These insights shed light on a key checkpoint in the targeting cycle: how SRP regulates engagement of an actively translating ribosome with the translocation machinery at the membrane. PMID:26517565

  20. Targeted Quantitation of Proteins by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332

  1. Targeted Protein Degradation by Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, Daniel P; Crews, Craig M

    2017-01-06

    Protein homeostasis networks are highly regulated systems responsible for maintaining the health and productivity of cells. Whereas therapeutics have been developed to disrupt protein homeostasis, more recently identified techniques have been used to repurpose homeostatic networks to effect degradation of disease-relevant proteins. Here, we review recent advances in the use of small molecules to degrade proteins in a selective manner. First, we highlight all-small-molecule techniques with direct clinical application. Second, we describe techniques that may find broader acceptance in the biomedical research community that require little or no synthetic chemistry. In addition to serving as innovative research tools, these new approaches to control intracellular protein levels offer the potential to develop novel therapeutics targeting proteins that are not currently pharmaceutically vulnerable.

  2. Antibody-drug conjugates: targeting melanoma with cisplatin encapsulated in protein-cage nanoparticles based on human ferritin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Fraioli, Rocco; Leonetti, Carlo; Zamparelli, Carlotta; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2013-11-01

    A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4+ melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4- breast carcinoma cell line. As compared to the cisplatin-containing ferritin nanoparticle alone (HFt-Pt), which inhibited thymidine incorporation more efficiently in breast carcinoma than melanoma cells, the mAb-derivatized HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had a 25-fold preference for the latter. A similar preference for melanoma was observed upon systemic intravenous administration of HFt-Pt-Ep1 to nude mice xenotransplanted with pre-established, palpable melanoma and breast carcinoma tumors. Thus, we have been able to determine precise combinations and stoichiometric relationships between mAbs and nanoparticle protein cages, whereby the latter lose their tropism for ubiquitously distributed cellular receptors, and acquire instead remarkably lineage-selective binding. HFt-Pt-Ep1 is therefore an interesting model to improve the therapeutic index of antiblastic therapy in a tumor such as melanoma, which at its advanced stages is totally refractory to mono- and combination-chemotherapy.A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4+ melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4- breast carcinoma cell

  3. Protein engineering methods applied to membrane protein targets.

    PubMed

    Lluis, M W; Godfroy, J I; Yin, H

    2013-02-01

    Genes encoding membrane proteins have been estimated to comprise as much as 30% of the human genome. Among these membrane, proteins are a large number of signaling receptors, transporters, ion channels and enzymes that are vital to cellular regulation, metabolism and homeostasis. While many membrane proteins are considered high-priority targets for drug design, there is a dearth of structural and biochemical information on them. This lack of information stems from the inherent insolubility and instability of transmembrane domains, which prevents easy obtainment of high-resolution crystals to specifically study structure-function relationships. In part, this lack of structures has greatly impeded our understanding in the field of membrane proteins. One method that can be used to enhance our understanding is directed evolution, a molecular biology method that mimics natural selection to engineer proteins that have specific phenotypes. It is a powerful technique that has considerable success with globular proteins, notably the engineering of protein therapeutics. With respect to transmembrane protein targets, this tool may be underutilized. Another powerful tool to investigate membrane protein structure-function relationships is computational modeling. This review will discuss these protein engineering methods and their tremendous potential in the study of membrane proteins.

  4. LigSearch: a knowledge-based web server to identify likely ligands for a protein target

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Laskowski, Roman A.; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Chan, A. W. Edith; Anderson, Wayne F.; Thornton, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying which ligands might bind to a protein before crystallization trials could provide a significant saving in time and resources. LigSearch, a web server aimed at predicting ligands that might bind to and stabilize a given protein, has been developed. Using a protein sequence and/or structure, the system searches against a variety of databases, combining available knowledge, and provides a clustered and ranked output of possible ligands. LigSearch can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/LigSearch. PMID:24311580

  5. Plastid Protein Targeting: Preprotein Recognition and Translocation.

    PubMed

    Chotewutmontri, P; Holbrook, K; Bruce, B D

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defined by their endomembrane system and various organelles. The membranes that define these organelles require complex protein sorting and molecular machines that selectively mediate the import of proteins from the cytosol to their functional location inside the organelle. The plastid possibly represents the most complex system of protein sorting, requiring many different translocons located in the three membranes found in this organelle. Despite having a small genome of its own, the vast majority of plastid-localized proteins is nuclear encoded and must be posttranslationally imported from the cytosol. These proteins are encoded as a larger molecular weight precursor that contains a special "zip code," a targeting sequence specific to the intended final destination of a given protein. The "zip code" is located at the precursor N-terminus, appropriately called a transit peptide (TP). We aim to provide an overview of plastid trafficking with a focus on the mechanism and regulation of the general import pathway, which serves as a central import hub for thousands of proteins that function in the plastid. We extend comparative analysis of plant proteomes to develop a better understanding of the evolution of TPs and differential TP recognition. We also review alternate import pathways, including vesicle-mediated trafficking, dual targeting, and import of signal-anchored and tail-anchored proteins. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of human serum protein targets of Qianggu Decoction () in primary type I osteoporosis based on tandem mass tag labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo-Cheng; Shi, Xiao-Lin; Li, Chun-Wen; Shi, Zhen-Yu; He, Wei-Tao; Yao, Jian-Liang; Kong, Ling-Cheng; Li, Xu-Yun

    2016-07-07

    To investigate the serum protein targets of Qianggu Decoction (, QGD) on treating osteoporosis by the proteomics analysis using tandem mass tag (TMT) and liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Twenty serum protein samples were recruited (10 patients with primary type I osteoporosis before and after QGD treatment) and the high abundance ratios protein was removed, two serum samples were extracted and labeled with TMT reagent. Then, mass spectrometric detection, identifification of differentially expressed proteins and bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed proteins were carried out. A total of 60 proteins were identified, within a 99% confidence interval, to be differentially regulated of which, 34 proteins were up-regulated and 26 proteins were down-regulated. Differentially expressed proteins analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation mainly get involved in 12 different biological processes, 7 types of cellular components, and 6 kinds of molecular functions. Angiotensinogen (AGT), stromelysin-1 (MMP3), heparanase (HPSE) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were screened as candidate protein targets of QGD treatment, which were related to metabolic mechanism of bone remodeling and/or bone collagen of osteoporosis. By the utilization of the protein-protein interaction network analysis tool named STRING10.0, it can be confifirmed that AGT, MMP3, HPSE and GAPDH were located in the key node of the protein-protein interactions network. Furthermore, AGT, MMP3, HPSE and GAPDH were found to be directly related to BMP, MAPK, Wnt, SMAD and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) families. The proteomics analysis by using TMT combined with LC-MS/MS was a feasible method for screening the potential therapeutic targets associated with QGD treatment. It suggests that AGT, MMP3, HPSE and GAPDH may be candidate protein targets of QGD treatment which can be used as therapeutic effect monitor and early diagnosis of

  7. Nonhistone protein acetylation as cancer therapy targets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhang, Guanghua; Hwa, Yi L; Li, Jinping; Dowdy, Sean C; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation are counteracting, post-translational modifications that affect a large number of histone and nonhistone proteins. The significance of histone acetylation in the modification of chromatin structure and dynamics, and thereby gene transcription regulation, has been well recognized. A steadily growing number of nonhistone proteins have been identified as acetylation targets and reversible lysine acetylation in these proteins plays an important role(s) in the regulation of mRNA stability, protein localization and degradation, and protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions. The recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the transcriptional machinery is a key element in the dynamic regulation of genes controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Many nonhistone proteins targeted by acetylation are the products of oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes and are directly involved in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. Aberrant activity of HDACs has been documented in several types of cancers and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been employed for therapeutic purposes. Here we review the published literature in this field and provide updated information on the regulation and function of nonhistone protein acetylation. While concentrating on the molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the addition and removal of the acetyl moiety, therapeutic modalities of HDACi are also discussed. PMID:20553216

  8. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets.

    PubMed

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Andreu, José M; Monasterio, Octavio

    2014-08-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of proteins and the availability of crystal structures has increased our knowledge on bacterial cell division considerably in this century. Consequently, bacterial cell division proteins are more and more recognized as potential new antibiotic targets. An international effort to find small molecules that inhibit the cell division initiating protein FtsZ has yielded many compounds of which some are promising as leads for preclinical use. The essential transglycosylase activity of peptidoglycan synthases has recently become accessible to inhibitor screening. Enzymatic assays for and structural information on essential integral membrane proteins such as MraY and FtsW involved in lipid II (the peptidoglycan building block precursor) biosynthesis have put these proteins on the list of potential new targets. This review summarises and discusses the results and approaches to the development of lead compounds that inhibit bacterial cell division.

  9. Small molecules that target protein misfolding.

    PubMed

    Gavrin, Lori Krim; Denny, Rajiah Aldrin; Saiah, Eddine

    2012-12-27

    Protein misfolding is a process in which proteins are unable to attain or maintain their biologically active conformation. Factors contributing to protein misfolding include missense mutations and intracellular factors such as pH changes, oxidative stress, or metal ions. Protein misfolding is linked to a large number of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and less familiar diseases such as Gaucher's disease, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In this Perspective, we report on small molecules that bind to and stabilize the aberrant protein, thereby helping it to attain a native or near-native conformation and restoring its function. The following targets will be specifically discussed: transthyretin, p53, superoxide dismutase 1, lysozyme, serum amyloid A, prions, vasopressin receptor 2, and α-1-antitrypsin.

  10. Hsp70 Protein Complexes as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Assimon, Victoria A.; Gillies, Anne T.; Rauch, Jennifer N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70’s interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, such as pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein-protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to those goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology. PMID:22920901

  11. Hsp70 protein complexes as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Assimon, Victoria A; Gillies, Anne T; Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70's interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, including roles in pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking pathways. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein- protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to these goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology.

  12. Targeting BET bromodomain proteins in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, Vaibhav; Redig, Amanda J.; Collier, Katharine A.; Eckerdt, Frank D.; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in inhibitors targeting BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) proteins because of the association between this family of proteins and cancer progression. BET inhibitors were initially shown to have efficacy in hematologic malignancies; however, a number of studies have now shown that BET inhibitors can also block progression of non-hematologic malignancies. In this Review, we summarize the efficacy of BET inhibitors in select solid tumors; evaluate the role of BET proteins in mediating resistance to current targeted therapies; and consider potential toxicities of BET inhibitors. We also evaluate recently characterized mechanisms of resistance to BET inhibitors; summarize ongoing clinical trials with these inhibitors; and discuss potential future roles of BET inhibitors in patients with solid tumors. PMID:27283767

  13. Targeting BET bromodomain proteins in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Vaibhav; Redig, Amanda J; Collier, Katharine A; Eckerdt, Frank D; Munshi, Hidayatullah G

    2016-08-16

    There is increasing interest in inhibitors targeting BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) proteins because of the association between this family of proteins and cancer progression. BET inhibitors were initially shown to have efficacy in hematologic malignancies; however, a number of studies have now shown that BET inhibitors can also block progression of non-hematologic malignancies. In this Review, we summarize the efficacy of BET inhibitors in select solid tumors; evaluate the role of BET proteins in mediating resistance to current targeted therapies; and consider potential toxicities of BET inhibitors. We also evaluate recently characterized mechanisms of resistance to BET inhibitors; summarize ongoing clinical trials with these inhibitors; and discuss potential future roles of BET inhibitors in patients with solid tumors.

  14. Separating the mechanism-based and off-target actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors with CETP gene polymorphisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background—Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive...

  15. Small molecules that target phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Nobumoto; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    Protein-protein interaction is one of the key events in the signal transduction pathway. The interaction changes the conformations, activities, localization and stabilities of the proteins, and transduces the signal to the next step. Frequently, this interaction occurs upon the protein phosphorylation. When upstream signals are stimulated, protein kinase(s) is/are activated and phosphorylate(s) their substrates, and induce the phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interaction. For this interaction, several domains in proteins are known to specifically recognize the phosphorylated residues of target proteins. These specific domains for interaction are important in the progression of the diseases caused by disordered signal transduction such as cancer. Thus small molecules that modulate this interaction are attractive lead compounds for the treatment of such diseases. In this review, we focused on three examples of phosphorylation dependent protein-protein interaction modules (14-3-3, polo box domain of Plk1 and F-box proteins in SCF ubiquitin ligases) and summarize small molecules that modulate their interaction. We also introduce our original screening system to identify such small molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  17. Inference of Expanded Lrp-Like Feast/Famine Transcription Factor Targets in a Non-Model Organism Using Protein Structure-Based Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Justin; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Lo, Fang Yin; Reiss, David J.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread microbial genome sequencing presents an opportunity to understand the gene regulatory networks of non-model organisms. This requires knowledge of the binding sites for transcription factors whose DNA-binding properties are unknown or difficult to infer. We adapted a protein structure-based method to predict the specificities and putative regulons of homologous transcription factors across diverse species. As a proof-of-concept we predicted the specificities and transcriptional target genes of divergent archaeal feast/famine regulatory proteins, several of which are encoded in the genome of Halobacterium salinarum. This was validated by comparison to experimentally determined specificities for transcription factors in distantly related extremophiles, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and cis-regulatory sequence conservation across eighteen related species of halobacteria. Through this analysis we were able to infer that Halobacterium salinarum employs a divergent local trans-regulatory strategy to regulate genes (carA and carB) involved in arginine and pyrimidine metabolism, whereas Escherichia coli employs an operon. The prediction of gene regulatory binding sites using structure-based methods is useful for the inference of gene regulatory relationships in new species that are otherwise difficult to infer. PMID:25255272

  18. Protein Targeting during Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates the formation of an endospore in response to conditions of nutrient limitation. The morphological differentiation that spores undergo initiates with the formation of an asymmetric septum near to one pole of the cell, forming a smaller compartment, the forespore, and a larger compartment, the mother cell. This process continues with the complex morphogenesis of the spore as governed by an intricate series of interactions between forespore and mother cell proteins across the inner and outer forespore membranes. Given that these interactions occur at a particular place in the cell, a critical question is how the proteins involved in these processes get properly targeted, and we discuss recent progress in identifying mechanisms responsible for this targeting.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors target family landscape: A chemometrical approach to ligand selectivity based on protein binding site analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirard, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors which over the last couple of years have been the focus of considerable research efforts aiming to identify compounds with well-defined selectivity profiles for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The ligand binding domains (LBD) of the three known PPAR subtypes exhibit between 60 and 70% sequence identity. To gain insight into the structural determinants of selectivity for the PPAR subtypes, a set of 13 crystal structures of PPAR LBD were classified, using the GRID/CPCA approach. As a result, nearly all of the crystal structures of each different PPAR subtype were found clustered in different regions of the CPCA score plots, and hydrophobic as well as steric interactions were identified as the major determinants of PPAR subtypes selectivity. Furthermore, interpretation of the GRID/CPCA model in structural terms led to the identification of LBD regions which could be targeted to improve the selectivity for a given PPAR subtype. Our findings are consistent with published structure-activity relationships for PPAR ligands as well as with site-directed mutagenesis results.

  20. Multi-Conformer Ensemble Docking to Difficult Protein Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Sally R.; Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-09-08

    We investigate large-scale ensemble docking using five proteins from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD, dud.docking.org) for which docking to crystal structures has proven difficult. Molecular dynamics trajectories are produced for each protein and an ensemble of representative conformational structures extracted from the trajectories. Docking calculations are performed on these selected simulation structures and ensemble-based enrichment factors compared with those obtained using docking in crystal structures of the same protein targets or random selection of compounds. We also found simulation-derived snapshots with improved enrichment factors that increased the chemical diversity of docking hits for four of the five selected proteins. A combination of all the docking results obtained from molecular dynamics simulation followed by selection of top-ranking compounds appears to be an effective strategy for increasing the number and diversity of hits when using docking to screen large libraries of chemicals against difficult protein targets.

  1. Multi-conformer ensemble docking to difficult protein targets.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Sally R; Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-01-22

    Large-scale ensemble docking is investigated using five proteins from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD, dud.docking.org ) for which docking to crystal structures has proven difficult. Molecular dynamics trajectories are produced for each protein and an ensemble of representative conformational structures extracted from the trajectories. Docking calculations are performed on these selected simulation structures and ensemble-based enrichment factors compared with those obtained using docking in crystal structures of the same protein targets or random selection of compounds. Simulation-derived snapshots are found with improved enrichment factors that increase the chemical diversity of docking hits for four of the five selected proteins. A combination of all the docking results obtained from molecular dynamics simulation followed by selection of top-ranking compounds appears to be an effective strategy for increasing the number and diversity of hits when using docking to screen large libraries of chemicals against difficult protein targets.

  2. Protein Damage by Reactive Electrophiles: Targets and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Liebler, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    It has been sixty years since the Millers first described the covalent binding of carcinogens to tissue proteins. Protein covalent binding was gradually overshadowed by the emergence of DNA adduct formation as the dominant paradigm in chemical carcinogenesis, but re-emerged in the early 1970s as a critical mechanism of drug and chemical toxicity. Technology limitations hampered the characterization of protein adducts until the emergence of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in the late 1990s. The time since has seen rapid progress in the characterization of the protein targets of electrophiles and the consequences of protein damage. Recent integration of novel affinity chemistries for electrophile probes, shotgun proteomics methods and systems modeling tools has led to the identification of hundreds of protein targets of electrophiles in mammalian systems. The technology now exists to map the targets of damage to critical components of signaling pathways and metabolic networks and to understand mechanisms of damage at a systems level. The implementation of sensitive, specific analyses for protein adducts from both xenobiotic-derived and endogenous electrophiles offers a means to link protein damage to clinically relevant health effects of both chemical exposures and disease processes. PMID:18052106

  3. Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men

    PubMed Central

    Zangbar, Mohammad-Sadegh Soltani; Keshtgar, Sara; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of couples that meet the definition of infertility at reproductive ages is increasing worldwide. One of the most known conditions of infertility in males is azoospermia, defined as complete absence of spermatozoa in the semen. Azoospermia manifests in two forms, namely obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Although the presence of antisperm antibody (ASA) has been reported in 88% of the patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA), interestingly, there is no data regarding ASA targets in OA individuals. AIM: The present study aimed to identify sperm antibody targets in a group of OA men. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was carried out on 27 OA infertile men and 27 healthy fertile age-matched males as cases and controls, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sperm proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique, transferred onto the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane, and blotted with the sera of a group of OA men. Then, it was compared with the membranes blotted with the sera of a group of healthy fertile men. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry was used to identify the different blotted spots and finally the results of the mass analysis were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The results indicated that OA patients might produce antibody against two sperm proteins, Tektin-2 and triose phosphate isomerase. Moreover, the expressions of the two targeted proteins were confirmed at RNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed two functionally important sperm proteins as antibody targets in azoospermic men. PMID:27110078

  4. Protein-intrinsic and signaling network-based sources of resistance to EGFR- and ErbB family-targeted therapies in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ranee; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Robinson, Matthew K.; Burtness, Barbara; Golemis, Erica A.

    2011-01-01

    Agents targeting EGFR and related ErbB family proteins are valuable therapies for the treatment of many cancers. For some tumor types, including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN), antibodies targeting EGFR were the first protein-directed agents to show clinical benefit, and remain a standard component of clinical strategies for management of the disease. Nevertheless, many patients display either intrinsic or acquired resistance to these drugs; hence, major research goals are to better understand the underlying causes of resistance, and to develop new therapeutic strategies that boost the impact of EGFR/ErbB inhibitors. In this review, we first summarize current standard use of EGFR inhibitors in the context of SCCHN, and described new agents targeting EGFR currently moving through pre-clinical and clinical development. We then discuss how changes in other transmembrane receptors, including IGF1R, c-Met, and TGF-β, can confer resistance to EGFR-targeted inhibitors, and discuss new agents targeting these proteins. Moving downstream, we discuss critical EGFR-dependent effectors, including PLC-γ; PI3K and PTEN; SHC, GRB2, and RAS and the STAT proteins, as factors in resistance to EGFR-directed inhibitors and as alternative targets of therapeutic inhibition. We summarize alternative sources of resistance among cellular changes that target EGFR itself, through regulation of ligand availability, post-translational modification of EGFR, availability of EGFR partners for hetero-dimerization and control of EGFR intracellular trafficking for recycling versus degradation. Finally, we discuss new strategies to identify effective therapeutic combinations involving EGFR-targeted inhibitors, in the context of new system level data becoming available for analysis of individual tumors. PMID:21920801

  5. STRUCTURE BASED DESIGN OF PROTEIN LIGANDS: A STUDY OF ANTIBODY-LIKE SCAFFOLDS TARGETED AGAINST THE ANTHRAX TOXIN

    SciTech Connect

    P. SHIFLETT; E. HONG-GELLER; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    We have adopted structure-based approaches to enhance the affinities of two single chain antibodies, scFv1 and scFv4, that bind to two different epitopes on the Protective Antigen (PA), a toxin from Bacillus anthracis. In one approach, we have modified scFv4 and re-engineered a novel antibody-like scaffold in which we have placed V{sub L} on the N terminus and V{sub H} on the C-terminus and joined them by a 10 amino-acid-long linker. This scaffold preserves the native V{sub L}-V{sub H} contact interface and the dispositions of the CDR loops. It binds to PA with 10 fold higher affinity than scFv4. In a second approach, we have created a bispecific ligand by covalently joining scFv1 and scFv4 by a flexible linker that supports simultaneous and synergistic binding of the two scFvs to PA. This bispecific scFv1-linker-scFv4 binds to PA with 10 fold higher affinity than the individual scFvs. The newly re-engineered antibody-like scaffold of scFv4 and scFv1-linker-scFv4 are expected to be potent inhibitors of PA binding to the host cells.

  6. Targeting activated protein C to treat hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Polderdijk, Stéphanie G.I.; Baglin, Trevor P.; Huntington, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Hemophilia is a debilitating disease, marked by frequent, painful bleeding events, joint deterioration and early death. All current treatments consist of i.v. infusions of replacement factor or other procoagulant factors, and are incompletely effective, due in part to the short half-lives of the proteins. An alternative approach is to rebalance hemostasis by inhibiting natural anticoagulant mechanisms. In this article, we explain why activated protein C (APC) is an appropriate and safe target for the treatment of hemophilia. Recent findings A serpin (serine protease inhibitor) was engineered to specifically inhibit APC and was found to rescue hemostasis in a hemophilia mouse model, even after a severe tail clip injury. However, APC is also anti-inflammatory and has cytoprotective activities, raising safety concerns over the use of an APC inhibitor to treat hemophilia. We summarize the molecular basis of the anticoagulant and signaling activities of APC to assess the potential impact of targeting APC. Summary We conclude that the signaling and anticoagulant functions of APC are in spatially and kinetically distinct compartments, and that it is possible to specifically inhibit the anticoagulant activity of APC. Targeting APC with a serpin is remarkably effective and may be safe for long-term prophylactic use in the treatment of hemophilia. PMID:28632502

  7. A targeted mass spectrometry-based approach for the identification and characterization of proteins containing α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde residues

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Juan D.; Bisson, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The site-specific identification of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) residues in proteins is reported. Semialdehydic protein modifications result from the metal-catalyzed oxidation of Lys or Arg and Pro residues, respectively. Most of the analytical methods for the analysis of protein carbonylation measure change to the global level of carbonylation and fail to provide details regarding protein identity, site, and chemical nature of the carbonylation. In this work, we used a targeted approach, which combines chemical labeling, enrichment, and tandem mass spectrometric analysis, for the site-specific identification of AAS and GGS sites in proteins. The approach is applied to in vitro oxidized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and an untreated biological sample, namely cardiac mitochondrial proteins. The analysis of GAPDH resulted in the site-specific identification of two AAA and four GGS residues. Computational evaluation of the identified AAS and GGS sites in GAPDH indicated that these sites are located in flexible regions, show high solvent accessibility values, and are in proximity with possible metal ion binding sites. The targeted proteomic analysis of semialdehydic modifications in cardiac mitochondria yielded nine AAS modification sites which were unambiguously assigned to distinct lysine residues in the following proteins: ATP/ATP translocase isoforms 1 and 2, ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase core protein 2, and ATP synthase α-subunit. PMID:20957471

  8. Targeted Protein Degradation: from Chemical Biology to Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Cromm, Philipp M; Crews, Craig M

    2017-09-21

    Traditional pharmaceutical drug discovery is almost exclusively focused on directly controlling protein activity to cure diseases. Modulators of protein activity, especially inhibitors, are developed and applied at high concentration to achieve maximal effects. Thereby, reduced bioavailability and off-target effects can hamper compound efficacy. Nucleic acid-based strategies that control protein function by affecting expression have emerged as an alternative. However, metabolic stability and broad bioavailability represent development hurdles that remain to be overcome for these approaches. More recently, utilizing the cell's own protein destruction machinery for selective degradation of essential drivers of human disorders has opened up a new and exciting area of drug discovery. Small-molecule-induced proteolysis of selected substrates offers the potential of reaching beyond the limitations of the current pharmaceutical paradigm to expand the druggable target space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BRUCE Protein, New Marker for Targeted Therapy of Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Somayeh; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Montazer, Mehdi; Moghbeli, Meysam; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Evading apoptosis is one of the major hallmarks of cancer cells. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) proteins are considered as a most important gene families involved in apoptosis. BRUCE protein, a member of IAPs, is able to quench apoptosis as well as playing role in cell division. Our aim in this study was to analyze BRUCE protein expression in gastric carcinoma (GC) and its correlation with the clinicopathological features. Using immunohistochemistry, 52 GC specimens were studied for BRUCE protein expression. A validated scoring method was applied. BRUCE protein expression was detected in majority of tumor tissues (98.07 %). A significant correlation between gender and BRUCE expression (p = 0.024) was detected. Indeed, females showed higher level of BRUCE expression than male patients. Since specific expression of BRUCE protein was revealed in majority of GC tissues, BRUCE protein may be a useful therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Furthermore, based on the native role of BRUCE protein in inhibition of apoptosis, using this protein in targeted therapy of tumor cells may help to inhibit tumor cells growth and survival leading to rapid elimination of tumor mass.

  10. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D; Iverson, Nicole M; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T; Landry, Markita P; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S

    2016-01-08

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications.

  11. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications.

  12. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications. PMID:26742890

  13. Selective protein covalent binding and target organ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S D; Pumford, N R; Khairallah, E A; Boekelheide, K; Pohl, L R; Amouzadeh, H R; Hinson, J A

    1997-03-01

    Protein covalent binding by xenobiotic metabolites has long been associated with target organ toxicity but mechanistic involvement of such binding has not been widely demonstrated. Modern biochemical, molecular, and immunochemical approaches have facilitated identification of specific protein targets of xenobiotic covalent binding. Such studies have revealed that protein covalent binding is not random, but rather selective with respect to the proteins targeted. Selective binding to specific cellular target proteins may better correlate with toxicity than total protein covalent binding. Current research is directed at characterizing and identifying the targeted proteins and clarifying the effect of such binding on their structure, function, and potential roles in target organ toxicity. The approaches employed to detect and identify the tartgeted proteins are described. Metabolites of acetaminophen, halothane, and 2,5-hexanedione form covalently bound adducts to recently identified protein targets. The selective binding may influence homeostatic or other cellular responses which in turn contribute to drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, or autoimmunity.

  14. Comprehensive peptidomimetic libraries targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Landon R; Boger, Dale L

    2012-10-16

    Transient protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential components in cellular signaling pathways as well as in important processes such as viral infection, replication, and immune suppression. The unknown or uncharacterized PPIs involved in such interaction networks often represent compelling therapeutic targets for drug discovery. To date, however, the main strategies for discovery of small molecule modulators of PPIs are typically limited to structurally characterized targets. Recent developments in molecular scaffolds that mimic the side chain display of peptide secondary structures have yielded effective designs, but few screening libraries of such mimetics are available to interrogate PPI targets. We initiated a program to prepare a comprehensive small molecule library designed to mimic the three major recognition motifs that mediate PPIs (α-helix, β-turn, and β-strand). Three libraries would be built around templates designed to mimic each such secondary structure and substituted with all triplet combinations of groups representing the 20 natural amino acid side chains. When combined, the three libraries would contain a member capable of mimicking the key interaction and recognition residues of most targetable PPIs. In this Account, we summarize the results of the design, synthesis, and validation of an 8000 member α-helix mimetic library and a 4200 member β-turn mimetic library. We expect that the screening of these libraries will not only provide lead structures against α-helix- or β-turn-mediated protein-protein or peptide-receptor interactions, even if the nature of the interaction is unknown, but also yield key insights into the recognition motif (α-helix or β-turn) and identify the key residues mediating the interaction. Consistent with this expectation, the screening of the libraries against p53/MDM2 and HIV-1 gp41 (α-helix mimetic library) or the opioid receptors (β-turn mimetic library) led to the discovery of library members expected

  15. Specifically targeted delivery of protein to phagocytic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Chen, Zeming; Guo, Wenjun; Wang, Jin; Feng, Yupeng; Kong, Xiuqi; Hong, Zhangyong

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases, and are important potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, macrophages are key antigen-presenting cells and important in vaccine design. In this study, we report on the novel formulation (bovine serum albumin [BSA]-loaded glucan particles [GMP-BSA]) based on β-glucan particles from cell walls of baker’s yeast for the targeted delivery of protein to macrophages. Using this formulation, chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and alginate were used to fabricate colloidal particles with the model protein BSA via electrostatic interactions, which were caged and incorporated BSA very tightly within the β-glucan particle shells. The prepared GMP-BSA exhibited good protein-release behavior and avoided protein leakage. The particles were also highly specific to phagocytic macrophages, such as Raw 264.7 cells, primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and peritoneal exudate macrophages, whereas the particles were not taken up by nonphagocytic cells, including NIH3T3, AD293, HeLa, and Caco-2. We hypothesize that these tightly encapsulated protein-loaded glucan particles deliver various types of proteins to macrophages with notably high selectivity, and may have broad applications in targeted drug delivery or vaccine design against macrophages. PMID:25784802

  16. A PCR-Based Assay Targeting the Major Capsid Protein Gene of a Dinorna-Like ssRNA Virus That Infects Coral Photosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo-Proaño, Jose; Buerger, Patrick; Weynberg, Karen D.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2017-01-01

    The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we used coral virome data to develop a novel PCR-based assay for examining the presence and diversity of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus by targeting its major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Illumina sequence analysis of amplicons obtained with novel primers showed 99.8% of the reads had the closest taxonomic affinity with the MCP gene of the virus, Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV) known to infect dinoflagellates, indicating that dinorna-like viruses are commonly associated with corals on the Great Barrier Reef. A phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene sequences revealed strong coral species specificity of viral operational taxon units (OTUs). This assay allows a relatively easy and rapid evaluation of the presence and diversity of this particular viral group and will assist in enhancing our understanding of the role of viral lysis in coral bleaching. PMID:28919883

  17. A PCR-Based Assay Targeting the Major Capsid Protein Gene of a Dinorna-Like ssRNA Virus That Infects Coral Photosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Proaño, Jose; Buerger, Patrick; Weynberg, Karen D; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2017-01-01

    The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we used coral virome data to develop a novel PCR-based assay for examining the presence and diversity of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus by targeting its major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Illumina sequence analysis of amplicons obtained with novel primers showed 99.8% of the reads had the closest taxonomic affinity with the MCP gene of the virus, Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV) known to infect dinoflagellates, indicating that dinorna-like viruses are commonly associated with corals on the Great Barrier Reef. A phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene sequences revealed strong coral species specificity of viral operational taxon units (OTUs). This assay allows a relatively easy and rapid evaluation of the presence and diversity of this particular viral group and will assist in enhancing our understanding of the role of viral lysis in coral bleaching.

  18. Heterotrimeric G proteins as emerging targets for network based therapy in cancer: End of a long futile campaign striking heads of a Hydra.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-07-01

    Most common diseases, e.g., cancer are driven by not one, but multiple cell surface receptors that trigger and sustain a pathologic signaling network. The largest fraction of therapeutic agents that target individual receptors/pathways eventually fail due to the emergence of compensatory mechanisms that reestablish the pathologic network. Recently, a rapidly emerging paradigm has revealed GIV/Girdin as a central platform for receptor cross-talk which integrates signals downstream of a myriad of cell surface receptors, and modulates several key pathways within downstream signaling network, all via non-canonical activation of trimeric G proteins. Unlike canonical signal transduction via G proteins, which is spatially and temporally restricted, the temporal and spatial features of non-canonical activation of G protein via GIV is unusually unrestricted. Consequently, the GIV●G protein interface serves as a central hub allowing for control over several pathways within the pathologic signaling network, all at once. The relevance of this new paradigm in cancer and other disease states and the pros and cons of targeting the GIV●G protein interface are discussed.

  19. Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Proteins with Spatial and Temporal Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While a host of methods exist to deliver genetic materials or small molecules to cells, very few are available for protein delivery to the cytosol. We describe a modular, light-activated nanocarrier that transports proteins into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the cargo to the cytosol by light triggered endosomal escape. The platform is based on hollow gold nanoshells (HGN) with polyhistidine tagged proteins attached through an avidity-enhanced, nickel chelation linking layer; here, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model deliverable cargo. Endosomal uptake of the GFP loaded nanocarrier was mediated by a C-end Rule (CendR) internalizing peptide fused to the GFP. Focused femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation triggered protein release from the nanocarrier and endosome disruption, and the released protein was capable of targeting the nucleoli, a model intracellular organelle. We further demonstrate the generality of the approach by loading and releasing Sox2 and p53. This method for targeting of individual cells, with resolution similar to microinjection, provides spatial and temporal control over protein delivery. PMID:25490248

  20. Towards structure-based protein drug design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Lai, Luhua

    2011-10-01

    Structure-based drug design for chemical molecules has been widely used in drug discovery in the last 30 years. Many successful applications have been reported, especially in the field of virtual screening based on molecular docking. Recently, there has been much progress in fragment-based as well as de novo drug discovery. As many protein-protein interactions can be used as key targets for drug design, one of the solutions is to design protein drugs based directly on the protein complexes or the target structure. Compared with protein-ligand interactions, protein-protein interactions are more complicated and present more challenges for design. Over the last decade, both sampling efficiency and scoring accuracy of protein-protein docking have increased significantly. We have developed several strategies for structure-based protein drug design. A grafting strategy for key interaction residues has been developed and successfully applied in designing erythropoietin receptor-binding proteins. Similarly to small-molecule design, we also tested de novo protein-binder design and a virtual screen of protein binders using protein-protein docking calculations. In comparison with the development of structure-based small-molecule drug design, we believe that structure-based protein drug design has come of age.

  1. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  2. Evolving dual targeting of a prokaryotic protein in yeast.

    PubMed

    Burak, Efrat; Yogev, Ohad; Sheffer, Shimon; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Pines, Ophry

    2013-07-01

    Dual targeting is an important and abundant phenomenon. Indeed, we estimate that more than a third of the yeast mitochondrial proteome is dual localized. The enzyme fumarase is a highly conserved protein in all organisms with respect to its sequence, structure, and enzymatic activity. In eukaryotes, it is dual localized to the cytosol and mitochondria. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dual localization of fumarase is achieved by the reverse translocation mechanism; all fumarase molecules harbor a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS), are targeted to mitochondria, begin their translocation, and are processed by mitochondrial processing peptidase in the matrix. A subset of these processed fumarase molecules in transit is then fully imported into the matrix, whereas the majority moves back into the cytosol by reverse translocation. The proposed driving force for fumarase distribution is protein folding during import. Here, we asked how reverse translocation could have evolved on a prokaryotic protein that had already acquired expression from the nuclear genome and a targeting sequence. To address this question, we used, as a model, the Escherichia coli FumC Class II fumarase, which is homologous to eukaryotic fumarases (∼58% identity and ∼74% similarity to the yeast Fum1). Starting with an exclusively mitochondrial targeted FumC (attached to a strong MTS), we show that two randomly acquired mutations within the prokaryotic FumC sequence are sufficient to cause substantial dual targeting by reverse translocation. In fact, the unmutated MTS-FumC also has some ability to be dual targeted but only at low temperatures. Our results suggest that in this case, evolution of dual targeting by reverse translocation is based on naturally occurring and fortuitously conserved features of fumarase folding.

  3. ING Proteins as Potential Anticancer Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Harris, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies. PMID:19442116

  4. Targeting of passenger protein domains to multiple intracellular membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Janiak, F; Glover, J R; Leber, B; Rachubinski, R A; Andrews, D W

    1994-01-01

    The role of passenger domains in protein targeting was examined by fusing previously characterized targeting motifs to different protein sequences. To compare the targeting requirements for a variety of subcellular compartments, targeting of the fusion proteins was examined for endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and peroxisomes in vitro and in yeast. Although most passenger domains were only partially passive to translocation, motif-dependent targeting via motifs positioned at either end of one passenger domain (gPA) was demonstrated for all of the subcellular compartments tested. The data presented extend earlier suggestions that translocation competence is an intrinsic property of the passenger protein. However, the properties that determine protein targeting are not mutually exclusive for the compartments tested. Therefore, although the primary determinant of specificity is the targeting motif, our results suggest that translocation competence of the targeted protein augments the fidelity of transport. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8198533

  5. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Nobu C; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-14

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  6. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobu C.; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-01

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  7. A novel approach for targeted elimination of CSPG4-positive triple-negative breast cancer cells using a MAP tau-based fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Amoury, Manal; Mladenov, Radoslav; Nachreiner, Thomas; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Hristodorov, Dmitrij; Di Fiore, Stefano; Helfrich, Wijnand; Pardo, Alessa; Fey, Georg; Schwenkert, Michael; Thepen, Theophilus; Kiessling, Fabian; Hussain, Ahmad F; Fischer, Rainer; Kolberg, Katharina; Barth, Stefan

    2016-08-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) has been identified as a highly promising target antigen for immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC represents a highly aggressive heterogeneous group of tumors lacking expression of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC is particularly prevalent among young premenopausal women. No suitable targeted therapies are currently available and therefore, novel agents for the targeted elimination of TNBC are urgently needed. Here, we present a novel cytolytic fusion protein (CFP), designated αCSPG4(scFv)-MAP, that consists of a high affinity CSPG4-specific single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) genetically fused to a functionally enhanced form of the human microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau. Our data indicate that αCSPG4(scFv)-MAP efficiently targets CSPG4(+) TNBC-derived cell lines MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T and potently inhibits their growth with IC50 values of ∼200 nM. Treatment with αCSPG(scFv)-MAP resulted in induction of the mitochondrial stress pathway by activation of caspase-9 as well as endonuclease G translocation to the nucleus, while induction of the caspase-3 apoptosis pathway was not detectable. Importantly, in vivo studies in mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts revealed efficient targeting to and accumulation of αCSPG4(scFv)-MAP at tumor sites resulting in prominent tumor regression. Taken together, this preclinical proof of concept study confirms the potential clinical value of αCSPG4(scFv)-MAP as a novel targeted approach for the elimination of CSPG4-positive TNBC.

  8. Expanding the Number of “Druggable” Targets: Non-Enzymes and Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Makley, Leah N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2012-01-01

    Following sequencing and assembly of the human genome, the preferred methods for identification of new drug targets have changed dramatically. Modern tactics such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and deep sequencing are fundamentally different from the pharmacology-guided approaches used previously, in which knowledge of small molecule ligands acting at their cellular targets was the primary discovery engine. A consequence of the “target-first, pharmacology-second” strategy is that many predicted drug targets are non-enzymes, such as scaffolding, regulatory or structural proteins, and their activities are often dependent on protein-protein interactions (PPIs). These types of targets create unique challenges to drug discovery efforts because enzymatic turnover cannot be used as a convenient surrogate for compound potency. Moreover, it is often challenging to predict how ligand binding to non-enzymes might affect changes in protein function and/or pathobiology. Thus, in the post-genomic era, targets might be strongly implicated by molecular biology-based methods, yet they often later earn the designation of “undruggable.” Can the scope of available targets be widened to include these promising, but challenging, non-enzymes? In this review, we discuss advances in high throughput screening technology and chemical library design that are emerging to deal with these challenges. PMID:23253128

  9. Protein Kinase C: An Attractive Target for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Barbara; De Ciucis, Chiara; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Pronzato, Maria A.; Marinari, Umberto M.; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role during all stages of carcinogenesis and the development of chemoresistance in tumor cells may be due to their selective defects in the intracellular signaling proteins, central to apoptotic pathways. Consequently, many studies have focused on rendering the chemotherapy more effective in order to prevent chemoresistance and pre-clinical and clinical data has suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) may represent an attractive target for cancer therapy. Therefore, a complete understanding of how PKC regulates apoptosis and chemoresistance may lead to obtaining a PKC-based therapy that is able to reduce drug dosages and to prevent the development of chemoresistance. PMID:24212628

  10. Structure-based discovery of an inhibitor of Arf activation by Sec7 domains through targeting of protein–protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Viaud, Julien; Zeghouf, Mahel; Barelli, Hélène; Zeeh, Jean-Christophe; Padilla, André; Guibert, Bernard; Chardin, Pierre; Royer, Catherine A.; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Chavanieu, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Small molecules that produce nonfunctional protein–protein complexes are an alternative to competitive inhibitors for the inhibition of protein functions. Here we target the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Arf1, a major regulator of membrane traffic, by the Sec7 catalytic domain of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO. The crystal structure of the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex, which initiates the exchange reaction, was used to discover an inhibitor, LM11, using in silico screening of a flexible pocket near the Arf1/ARNO interface. Using fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy, NMR spectroscopy and mutagenesis, we show that LM11 acts following a noncompetitive mechanism in which the inhibitor targets both Arf1-GDP and the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex and produces a nonfunctional Arf-GDP/ARNO complex whose affinity is similar to that of the native complex. In addition, LM11 recognizes features of both Arf and ARNO near the Arf/Sec7 interface, a characteristic reminiscent of the paradigm interfacial inhibitor Brefeldin A. We then show that LM11 is a cell-active inhibitor that impairs Arf-dependent trafficking structures at the Golgi. Furthermore, LM11 inhibits ARNO-dependent migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, demonstrating that ARNO is a target of LM11 in cells. Remarkably, LM11 inhibits the activation of Arf1 but not Arf6 in vitro, pointing to a possible synergy between Arf1 and Arf6 activation by ARNO in cell migration. Our design method shows that flexible regions in protein–protein complexes provide drugable sites with the potential to develop novel tools for investigating and inhibiting signaling pathways. PMID:17563369

  11. Identifying relationships between unrelated pharmaceutical target proteins on the basis of shared active compounds.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Filip; Kunimoto, Ryo; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Computational exploration of small-molecule-based relationships between target proteins from different families. Target annotations of drugs and other bioactive compounds were systematically analyzed on the basis of high-confidence activity data. A total of 286 novel chemical links were established between distantly related or unrelated target proteins. These relationships involved a total of 1859 bioactive compounds including 147 drugs and 141 targets. Computational analysis of large amounts of compounds and activity data has revealed unexpected relationships between diverse target proteins on the basis of compounds they share. These relationships are relevant for drug discovery efforts. Target pairs that we have identified and associated compound information are made freely available.

  12. Visualization and targeted disruption of protein interactions in living cells.

    PubMed

    Herce, Henry D; Deng, Wen; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the basis of all processes in living cells, but most studies of these interactions rely on biochemical in vitro assays. Here we present a simple and versatile fluorescent-three-hybrid (F3H) strategy to visualize and target protein-protein interactions. A high-affinity nanobody anchors a GFP-fusion protein of interest at a defined cellular structure and the enrichment of red-labelled interacting proteins is measured at these sites. With this approach, we visualize the p53-HDM2 interaction in living cells and directly monitor the disruption of this interaction by Nutlin 3, a drug developed to boost p53 activity in cancer therapy. We further use this approach to develop a cell-permeable vector that releases a highly specific peptide disrupting the p53 and HDM2 interaction. The availability of multiple anchor sites and the simple optical readout of this nanobody-based capture assay enable systematic and versatile analyses of protein-protein interactions in practically any cell type and species.

  13. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  14. Computational Drug Target Screening through Protein Interaction Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Quezada, Elías; Uriarte, Eugenio; Costanzi, Stefano; Borges, Fernanda; Viña, Dolores; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    The development of computational methods to discover novel drug-target interactions on a large scale is of great interest. We propose a new method for virtual screening based on protein interaction profile similarity to discover new targets for molecules, including existing drugs. We calculated Target Interaction Profile Fingerprints (TIPFs) based on ChEMBL database to evaluate drug similarity and generated new putative compound-target candidates from the non-intersecting targets in each pair of compounds. A set of drugs was further studied in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme through molecular docking and experimental assays. The drug ethoxzolamide and the natural compound piperlongumine, present in Piper longum L, showed hMAO-B activity with IC50 values of 25 and 65 μM respectively. Five candidates, including lapatinib, SB-202190, RO-316233, GW786460X and indirubin-3′-monoxime were tested against human COX-1. Compounds SB-202190 and RO-316233 showed a IC50 in hCOX-1 of 24 and 25 μM respectively (similar range as potent inhibitors such as diclofenac and indomethacin in the same experimental conditions). Lapatinib and indirubin-3′-monoxime showed moderate hCOX-1 activity (19.5% and 28% of enzyme inhibition at 25 μM respectively). Our modeling constitutes a multi-target predictor for large scale virtual screening with potential in lead discovery, repositioning and drug safety. PMID:27845365

  15. Exploring polypharmacology using a ROCS-based target fishing approach.

    PubMed

    AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Singh, Narender; Sun, Hongmao; Wallqvist, Anders; Tawa, Gregory J

    2012-02-27

    Polypharmacology has emerged as a new theme in drug discovery. In this paper, we studied polypharmacology using a ligand-based target fishing (LBTF) protocol. To implement the protocol, we first generated a chemogenomic database that links individual protein targets with a specified set of drugs or target representatives. Target profiles were then generated for a given query molecule by computing maximal shape/chemistry overlap between the query molecule and the drug sets assigned to each protein target. The overlap was computed using the program ROCS (Rapid Overlay of Chemical Structures). We validated this approach using the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). DUD contains 2950 active compounds, each with 36 property-matched decoys, against 40 protein targets. We chose a set of known drugs to represent each DUD target, and we carried out ligand-based virtual screens using data sets of DUD actives seeded into DUD decoys for each target. We computed Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and associated area under the curve (AUC) values. For the majority of targets studied, the AUC values were significantly better than for the case of a random selection of compounds. In a second test, the method successfully identified off-targets for drugs such as rimantadine, propranolol, and domperidone that were consistent with those identified by recent experiments. The results from our ROCS-based target fishing approach are promising and have potential application in drug repurposing for single and multiple targets, identifying targets for orphan compounds, and adverse effect prediction.

  16. Multi-Conformer Ensemble Docking to Difficult Protein Targets

    DOE PAGES

    Ellingson, Sally R.; Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome; ...

    2014-09-08

    We investigate large-scale ensemble docking using five proteins from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD, dud.docking.org) for which docking to crystal structures has proven difficult. Molecular dynamics trajectories are produced for each protein and an ensemble of representative conformational structures extracted from the trajectories. Docking calculations are performed on these selected simulation structures and ensemble-based enrichment factors compared with those obtained using docking in crystal structures of the same protein targets or random selection of compounds. We also found simulation-derived snapshots with improved enrichment factors that increased the chemical diversity of docking hits for four of the five selected proteins.more » A combination of all the docking results obtained from molecular dynamics simulation followed by selection of top-ranking compounds appears to be an effective strategy for increasing the number and diversity of hits when using docking to screen large libraries of chemicals against difficult protein targets.« less

  17. Affinity-based target deconvolution of safranal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Affinity-based target deconvolution is an emerging method for the identification of interactions between drugs/drug candidates and cellular proteins, and helps to predict potential activities and side effects of a given compound. In the present study, we hypothesized that a part of safranal pharmacological effects, one of the major constituent of Crocus sativus L., relies on its physical interaction with target proteins. Methods Affinity chromatography solid support was prepared by covalent attachment of safranal to agarose beads. After passing tissue lysate through the column, safranal-bound proteins were isolated and separated on SDS-PAGE or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot software. Results and major conclusion Data showed that safranal physically binds to beta actin, cytochrome b-c1 complex sub-unit 1, trifunctional enzyme sub-unit beta and ATP synthase sub-unit alpha and beta. These interactions may explain part of safranal’s pharmacological effects. However, phenotypic and/or biological relevance of these interactions remains to be elucidated by future pharmacological studies. PMID:23514587

  18. Peptide drugs to target G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2010-09-01

    Major indications for use of peptide-based therapeutics include endocrine functions (especially diabetes mellitus and obesity), infectious diseases, and cancer. Whereas some peptide pharmaceuticals are drugs, acting as agonists or antagonists to directly treat cancer, others (including peptide diagnostics and tumour-targeting pharmaceuticals) use peptides to 'shuttle' a chemotherapeutic agent or a tracer to the tumour and allow sensitive imaging or targeted therapy. Significant progress has been made in the last few years to overcome disadvantages in peptide design such as short half-life, fast proteolytic cleavage, and low oral bioavailability. These advances include peptide PEGylation, lipidisation or multimerisation; the introduction of peptidomimetic elements into the sequences; and innovative uptake strategies such as liposomal, capsule or subcutaneous formulations. This review focuses on peptides targeting G protein-coupled receptors that are promising drug candidates or that have recently entered the pharmaceutical market.

  19. Discovery of Manassantin A Protein Targets Using Large-Scale Protein Folding and Stability Measurements.

    PubMed

    Geer Wallace, M Ariel; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Weitzel, Douglas H; Lee, Chen-Ting; Stephenson, Tesia N; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Mook, Robert A; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2016-08-05

    Manassantin A is a natural product that has been shown to have anticancer activity in cell-based assays, but has a largely unknown mode-of-action. Described here is the use of two different energetics-based approaches to identify protein targets of manassantin A. Using the stability of proteins from rates of oxidation technique with an isobaric mass tagging strategy (iTRAQ-SPROX) and the pulse proteolysis technique with a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture strategy (SILAC-PP), over 1000 proteins in a MDA-MB-231 cell lysate grown under hypoxic conditions were assayed for manassantin A interactions (both direct and indirect). A total of 28 protein hits were identified with manassantin A-induced thermodynamic stability changes. Two of the protein hits (filamin A and elongation factor 1α) were identified using both experimental approaches. The remaining 26 hit proteins were only assayed in either the iTRAQ-SPROX or the SILAC-PP experiment. The 28 potential protein targets of manassantin A identified here provide new experimental avenues along which to explore the molecular basis of manassantin A's mode of action. The current work also represents the first application iTRAQ-SPROX and SILAC-PP to the large-scale analysis of protein-ligand binding interactions involving a potential anticancer drug with an unknown mode-of-action.

  20. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D

    2011-07-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain proteomes, mostly derived using 2D-gel based technologies, have been described and hundreds of proteins identified. However, very little is still known about post-translational modifications, subcellular proteomes, and protein-protein interactions in cereal grains. Development of techniques for improved extraction, separation and identification of proteins and peptides is facilitating functional proteomics and analysis of sub-proteomes from small amounts of starting material, such as seed tissues. The combination of proteomics with structural and functional analysis is increasingly applied to target subsets of proteins. These "next-generation" proteomics studies will vastly increase our depth of knowledge about the processes controlling cereal grain development, nutritional and processing characteristics.

  1. MZF-1/Elk-1 interaction domain as therapeutic target for protein kinase Cα-based triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Jen; Hsu, Li-Sung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Lin, Ho; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yu-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hung, Mien-Chie; Liu, Jer-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate that the expression of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) correlates with decreased survival outcomes. However, off-target effects of targeting PKCα and limited understanding of the signaling mechanisms upstream of PKCα have hampered previous efforts to manipulate this ubiquitous gene. This study shows that the expression of both myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF-1) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) correlates with PKCα expression in TNBC. We found that the acidic domain of MZF-1 and the heparin-binding domain of Elk-1 facilitate the heterodimeric interaction between the two genes before the complex formation binds to the PKCα promoter. Blocking the formation of the heterodimer by transfection of MZF-160–72 or Elk-1145–157 peptide fragments at the MZF-1 / Elk-1 interface decreases DNA-binding activity of the MZF-1 / Elk-1 complex at the PKCα promoter. Subsequently, PKCα expression, migration, tumorigenicity, and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition potential of TNBC cells decrease. These subsequent effects are reversed by transfection with full-length PKCα, confirming that the MZF-1/Elk-1 heterodimer is a mediator of PKCα in TNBC cells. These data suggest that the next therapeutic strategy in treating PKCα-related cancer will be developed from blocking MZF-1/Elk-1 interaction through their binding domain. PMID:27542222

  2. MZF-1/Elk-1 interaction domain as therapeutic target for protein kinase Cα-based triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Jen; Hsu, Li-Sung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Lin, Ho; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yu-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hung, Mien-Chie; Liu, Jer-Yuh

    2016-09-13

    Recent reports demonstrate that the expression of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) correlates with decreased survival outcomes. However, off-target effects of targeting PKCα and limited understanding of the signaling mechanisms upstream of PKCα have hampered previous efforts to manipulate this ubiquitous gene. This study shows that the expression of both myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF-1) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) correlates with PKCα expression in TNBC. We found that the acidic domain of MZF-1 and the heparin-binding domain of Elk-1 facilitate the heterodimeric interaction between the two genes before the complex formation binds to the PKCα promoter. Blocking the formation of the heterodimer by transfection of MZF-160-72 or Elk-1145-157 peptide fragments at the MZF-1 / Elk-1 interface decreases DNA-binding activity of the MZF-1 / Elk-1 complex at the PKCα promoter. Subsequently, PKCα expression, migration, tumorigenicity, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition potential of TNBC cells decrease. These subsequent effects are reversed by transfection with full-length PKCα, confirming that the MZF-1/Elk-1 heterodimer is a mediator of PKCα in TNBC cells. These data suggest that the next therapeutic strategy in treating PKCα-related cancer will be developed from blocking MZF-1/Elk-1 interaction through their binding domain.

  3. Protein homology reveals new targets for bioactive small molecules.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, David; Zoete, Vincent

    2015-08-15

    The functional impact of small molecules is increasingly being assessed in different eukaryotic species through large-scale phenotypic screening initiatives. Identifying the targets of these molecules is crucial to mechanistically understand their function and uncover new therapeutically relevant modes of action. However, despite extensive work carried out in model organisms and human, it is still unclear to what extent one can use information obtained in one species to make predictions in other species. Here, for the first time, we explore and validate at a large scale the use of protein homology relationships to predict the targets of small molecules across different species. Our results show that exploiting target homology can significantly improve the predictions, especially for molecules experimentally tested in other species. Interestingly, when considering separately orthology and paralogy relationships, we observe that mapping small molecule interactions among orthologs improves prediction accuracy, while including paralogs does not improve and even sometimes worsens the prediction accuracy. Overall, our results provide a novel approach to integrate chemical screening results across multiple species and highlight the promises and remaining challenges of using protein homology for small molecule target identification. Homology-based predictions can be tested on our website http://www.swisstargetprediction.ch. david.gfeller@unil.ch or vincent.zoete@isb-sib.ch. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Identifying Unexpected Therapeutic Targets via Chemical-Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Chen, Jian; Shi, Leming; Hudock, Michael P.; Wang, Kejian; He, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug-oriented chemical-protein interactome (CPI) using a matrix of 10 drug molecules known to treat AD towards 401 human protein pockets, we found that such cryptic targets exist. We recovered from CPI the only validated therapeutic target of AD, acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), and highlighted several other putative targets. For example, we discovered that estrogen receptor (ER) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), which have recently been identified as two new therapeutic targets of AD, might already have been targeted by the marketed AD drugs. We further established that the CPI profile of a drug can reflect its interacting character towards multi-protein sets, and that drugs with the same therapeutic attribute will share a similar interacting profile. These findings indicate that the CPI could represent the landscape of chemical-protein interactions and uncover “behind-the-scenes” aspects of the therapeutic mechanisms of existing drugs, providing testable hypotheses of the key nodes for network pharmacology or brand new drug targets for one-target pharmacology paradigm. PMID:20221449

  5. Identification and validation of protein targets of bioactive small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Titov, Denis V.; Liu, Jun O.

    2013-01-01

    Identification and validation of protein targets of bioactive small molecules is an important problem in chemical biology and drug discovery. Currently, no single method is satisfactory for this task. Here, we provide an overview of common methods for target identification and validation that historically were most successful. We have classified for the first time the existing methods into two distinct and complementary types, the “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. In a typical top-down approach, the cellular phenotype is used as a starting point and the molecular target is approached through systematic narrowing down of possibilities by taking advantage of the detailed existing knowledge of cellular pathways and processes. In contrast, the bottom-up approach entails the direct detection and identification of the molecular targets using affinity-based or genetic methods. A special emphasis is placed on target validation, including correlation analysis and genetic methods, as this area is often ignored despite its importance. PMID:22226983

  6. Identification and validation of protein targets of bioactive small molecules.

    PubMed

    Titov, Denis V; Liu, Jun O

    2012-03-15

    Identification and validation of protein targets of bioactive small molecules is an important problem in chemical biology and drug discovery. Currently, no single method is satisfactory for this task. Here, we provide an overview of common methods for target identification and validation that historically were most successful. We have classified for the first time the existing methods into two distinct and complementary types, the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. In a typical top-down approach, the cellular phenotype is used as a starting point and the molecular target is approached through systematic narrowing down of possibilities by taking advantage of the detailed existing knowledge of cellular pathways and processes. In contrast, the bottom-up approach entails the direct detection and identification of the molecular targets using affinity-based or genetic methods. A special emphasis is placed on target validation, including correlation analysis and genetic methods, as this area is often ignored despite its importance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Proteins with Stimulating Activity on Ovarian Estradiol Biosynthesis from Four Different Dioscorea Species in vitro Using Both Phenotypic and Target-based Approaches: Implication for Treating Menopause.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Wong, R N S; Zhang, L; Wong, R Y L; Ng, T B; Lee, K F; Zhang, Y B; Lao, L X; Liu, J Y; Sze, S C W

    2016-09-01

    Rhizomes of Dioscorea species are traditionally used for relieving menopausal syndromes in Chinese medicine. The estrogen-stimulating bioactive principles have been demonstrated in our previous study. In this study, the estrogen-stimulating effects of proteins isolated from four Dioscorea species [D. alata L. (DA), D. zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DH), D. collettii var. hypoglauca (Palib.) S.J. Pei & C.T. Ting (DH), and D. oppositifolia L. (DO)] have been investigated and compared. Microscopic authentication of four Dioscorea species was performed by using paraffin and powder sections of the rhizomes. The potential bioactive proteins of four Dioscorea species have been rapidly isolated by using a DOI-antibody affinity column chromatography on immobilized antibodies against on estradiol-stimulating protein from DO (DOI), and their bioactivity has been rapidly confirmed and compared by phenotypic (i.e., estradiol-stimulating effect) and target-based (i.e., STAR, aromatase, estrogen receptors) screening approaches. The estrogen-stimulating activity of bioactive proteins from DO is the highest. In addition, bioactive proteins from DO upregulated the estradiol-metabolizing enzymes (aromatase and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein). Meanwhile, bioactive proteins from DA, DH and DO upregulated estrogen receptor β (ERβ). All bioactive proteins did not change the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERα). The estrogen-stimulating bioactive proteins isolated from DO increased biosynthesis of estradiol and upregulated the protein expression of aromatase, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and ERβ. The results scientifically support the traditional use of DO in Chinese medicine for relieving menopausal syndrome. Besides, proteins from DA and DZ could also upregulate the translational levels of ERβ, and potentially reducing the risk of ovarian cancer, which also support the clinical use of them for treating female aging disorder. Graphical Abstract Comparative

  8. Rationally designed chemokine-based toxin targeting the viral G protein-coupled receptor US28 potently inhibits cytomegalovirus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen; Dulal, Kalpana; Cheng, Tong; Hjortø, Gertrud M.; Larsen, Olav; Burg, John S.; Jarvis, Michael A.; Christopher Garcia, K.; Zhu, Hua; Kledal, Thomas N.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of receptor–ligand interactions to direct toxins to kill diseased cells selectively has shown considerable promise for treatment of a number of cancers and, more recently, autoimmune disease. Here we move the fusion toxin protein (FTP) technology beyond cancer/autoimmune therapeutics to target the human viral pathogen, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), on the basis of its expression of the 7TM G protein-coupled chemokine receptor US28. The virus origin of US28 provides an exceptional chemokine-binding profile with high selectivity and improved binding for the CX3C chemokine, CX3CL1. Moreover, US28 is constitutively internalizing by nature, providing highly effective FTP delivery. We designed a synthetic CX3CL1 variant engineered to have ultra-high affinity for US28 and greater specificity for US28 than the natural sole receptor for CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and we fused the synthetic variant with the cytotoxic domain of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A. This novel strategy of a rationally designed FTP provided unparalleled anti-HCMV efficacy and potency in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26080445

  9. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloois, Edwin van; Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M. ten; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  10. [Immunotherapy targeting misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative disease].

    PubMed

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi

    2013-04-01

    Aberrant protein aggregation is closely linked to the molecular pathogeneses of most neurodegenerative diseases. The major components of pathological aggregates have been characterized in various neurodegenerative diseases; for example, amyloid β-protein and phosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, SOD1 or TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and huntingtin in Huntington's disease. These misfolded protein aggregates play a vital role in disease initiation and progression, and they have recently been shown to have prion-like spreading or seeded aggregation properties. Immunotherapy with specific monoclonal antibodies is a promising approach to clear misfolded protein aggregates and treat various neurodegenerative diseases; it is planned for use in clinical trials in the near future.

  11. Predicting the protein targets for athletic performance-enhancing substances.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Lazaros; Mitchell, John Bo

    2013-06-25

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the Prohibited List, a manually compiled international standard of substances and methods prohibited in-competition, out-of-competition and in particular sports. It would be ideal to be able to identify all substances that have one or more performance-enhancing pharmacological actions in an automated, fast and cost effective way. Here, we use experimental data derived from the ChEMBL database (~7,000,000 activity records for 1,300,000 compounds) to build a database model that takes into account both structure and experimental information, and use this database to predict both on-target and off-target interactions between these molecules and targets relevant to doping in sport. The ChEMBL database was screened and eight well populated categories of activities (Ki, Kd, EC50, ED50, activity, potency, inhibition and IC50) were used for a rule-based filtering process to define the labels "active" or "inactive". The "active" compounds for each of the ChEMBL families were thereby defined and these populated our bioactivity-based filtered families. A structure-based clustering step was subsequently performed in order to split families with more than one distinct chemical scaffold. This produced refined families, whose members share both a common chemical scaffold and bioactivity against a common target in ChEMBL. We have used the Parzen-Rosenblatt machine learning approach to test whether compounds in ChEMBL can be correctly predicted to belong to their appropriate refined families. Validation tests using the refined families gave a significant increase in predictivity compared with the filtered or with the original families. Out of 61,660 queries in our Monte Carlo cross-validation, belonging to 19,639 refined families, 41,300 (66.98%) had the parent family as the top prediction and 53,797 (87.25%) had the parent family in the top four hits. Having thus validated our approach, we used it to identify the protein targets

  12. Protein interactions in genome maintenance as novel antibacterial targets.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Aimee H; Bernstein, Douglas A; Walsh, Brian W; Shapiro, Walker; Simmons, Lyle A; Keck, James L

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial compounds typically act by directly inhibiting essential bacterial enzyme activities. Although this general mechanism of action has fueled traditional antibiotic discovery efforts for decades, new antibiotic development has not kept pace with the emergence of drug resistant bacterial strains. These limitations have severely restricted the therapeutic tools available for treating bacterial infections. Here we test an alternative antibacterial lead-compound identification strategy in which essential protein-protein interactions are targeted rather than enzymatic activities. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) form conserved protein interaction "hubs" that are essential for recruiting many DNA replication, recombination, and repair proteins to SSB/DNA nucleoprotein substrates. Three small molecules that block SSB/protein interactions are shown to have antibacterial activity against diverse bacterial species. Consistent with a model in which the compounds target multiple SSB/protein interactions, treatment of Bacillus subtilis cultures with the compounds leads to rapid inhibition of DNA replication and recombination, and ultimately to cell death. The compounds also have unanticipated effects on protein synthesis that could be due to a previously unknown role for SSB/protein interactions in translation or to off-target effects. Our results highlight the potential of targeting protein-protein interactions, particularly those that mediate genome maintenance, as a powerful approach for identifying new antibacterial compounds.

  13. Claudin 4-targeted protein incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles can mediate M cell targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Stover-Hamer, Mary; Fernandez, Xiomara; Eckelhoefer, Holly A.; Lo, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are in clinical use mainly for their ability to provide controlled release of peptides and compounds, but they are also being explored for their potential to deliver vaccines and drugs as suspensions directly into mucosal sites. It is generally assumed that uptake is mediated by epithelial M cells, but this is often not directly measured. To study the potential for optimizing M cell uptake of polymer microparticles in vivo, we produced sub-micron size PLGA particles incorporating a recombinant protein. This recombinant protein was produced with or without a c-terminal peptide previously shown to have high affinity binding to Claudin 4, a protein associated with M cell endocytosis. While the PLGA nanoparticles incorporate the protein throughout the matrix, much of the protein was also displayed on the surface, allowing us to take advantage of the binding activity of the targeting peptide. Accordingly, we found that instillation of these nanoparticles into the nasal passages or stomach of mice was found to significantly enhance their uptake by upper airway and intestinal M cells. Our results suggest that a reasonably simple nanoparticle manufacture method can provide insight into developing an effective needle-free delivery system. PMID:19896996

  14. Targeting protein-protein interactions with trimeric ligands: high affinity inhibitors of the MAGUK protein family.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Klaus B; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Wilbek, Theis S; Nielsen, Line S; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins.

  15. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions with Trimeric Ligands: High Affinity Inhibitors of the MAGUK Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Klaus B.; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M.; Wilbek, Theis S.; Nielsen, Line S.; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S.; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins. PMID:25658767

  16. Microbial Protein-Antigenome Determination (MAD) Technology: A Proteomics-Based Strategy for Rapid Identification of Microbial Targets of Host Humoral Immune Responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunogenic, pathogen-specific proteins have excellent potential for development of novel management modalities. Here, we describe an innovative application of proteomics called Microbial protein-Antigenome Determination (MAD) Technology for rapid identification of native microbial proteins that eli...

  17. Microbial Protein-Antigenome Determination (MAD) Technology: A Proteomics-Based Strategy for Rapid Identification of Microbial Targets of Host Humoral Immune Responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunogenic, pathogen-specific proteins have excellent potential for development of novel management modalities. Here, we describe an innovative application of proteomics called Microbial protein-Antigenome Determination (MAD) Technology for rapid identification of native microbial proteins that el...

  18. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the azido group into recombinant proteins, a method that directly converts specific amino groups in endogenous proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first biotin-tethered diazotransfer reagent DtBio and demonstrate that it selectively modifies the model proteins streptavidin and avidin and the membrane protein BioY on cell surface. The reagent converts amines in the proximity of the binding pocket to azides and leaves the remaining amino groups in streptavidin untouched. Reagents of this novel class will find use in target identification as well as the selective functionalization and bioorthogonal protection of proteins. PMID:28355874

  19. Recent Patents on Heat Shock Proteins Targeting Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joao C; Alves, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are major chaperone molecules that have recently emerged as cancer therapeutic targets owing to their involvement in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. High levels of extracellular Hsp90 and Hsp70 have been closely associated with a wide range of human cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pharmacological inhibition of these molecules can play a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment. Efforts have been taken to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments targeting extracellular Hsp90 and Hsp70, alone or conjugated with standard anticancer agents, to control several types of cancer, such as breast, colon, prostate or melanoma. To provide an overview on the development of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments with capacity to bind Hsp90 and Hsp70, aiming at being used for cancer treatment. A systematic review was performed using European Patent Office and Google patents databases. Based on the available literature and patents, we report the potential anticancer strategies based on these biological molecules. Supported by the recent developments in this field, Hsp targeting antibodies therapy may emerge for clinical use in the future for cancer patients, namely as antibody-drug conjugates combining the specificity of these antibodies with the potency of cytotoxic drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Principles of protein targeting to the nucleolus

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robert M; Ter-Avetisyan, Gohar; Herce, Henry D; Ludwig, Anne K; Lättig-Tünnemann, Gisela; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus is the hallmark of nuclear compartmentalization and has been shown to exert multiple roles in cellular metabolism besides its main function as the place of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomes. Nucleolar proteins dynamically localize and accumulate in this nuclear compartment relative to the surrounding nucleoplasm. In this study, we have assessed the molecular requirements that are necessary and sufficient for the localization and accumulation of peptides and proteins inside the nucleoli of living cells. The data showed that positively charged peptide entities composed of arginines alone and with an isoelectric point at and above 12.6 are necessary and sufficient for mediating significant nucleolar accumulation. A threshold of 6 arginines is necessary for peptides to accumulate in nucleoli, but already 4 arginines are sufficient when fused within 15 amino acid residues of a nuclear localization signal of a protein. Using a pH sensitive dye, we found that the nucleolar compartment is particularly acidic when compared to the surrounding nucleoplasm and, hence, provides the ideal electrochemical environment to bind poly-arginine containing proteins. In fact, we found that oligo-arginine peptides and GFP fusions bind RNA in vitro. Consistent with RNA being the main binding partner for arginines in the nucleolus, we found that the same principles apply to cells from insects to man, indicating that this mechanism is highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:26280391

  1. Principles of protein targeting to the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert M; Ter-Avetisyan, Gohar; Herce, Henry D; Ludwig, Anne K; Lättig-Tünnemann, Gisela; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus is the hallmark of nuclear compartmentalization and has been shown to exert multiple roles in cellular metabolism besides its main function as the place of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomes. Nucleolar proteins dynamically localize and accumulate in this nuclear compartment relative to the surrounding nucleoplasm. In this study, we have assessed the molecular requirements that are necessary and sufficient for the localization and accumulation of peptides and proteins inside the nucleoli of living cells. The data showed that positively charged peptide entities composed of arginines alone and with an isoelectric point at and above 12.6 are necessary and sufficient for mediating significant nucleolar accumulation. A threshold of 6 arginines is necessary for peptides to accumulate in nucleoli, but already 4 arginines are sufficient when fused within 15 amino acid residues of a nuclear localization signal of a protein. Using a pH sensitive dye, we found that the nucleolar compartment is particularly acidic when compared to the surrounding nucleoplasm and, hence, provides the ideal electrochemical environment to bind poly-arginine containing proteins. In fact, we found that oligo-arginine peptides and GFP fusions bind RNA in vitro. Consistent with RNA being the main binding partner for arginines in the nucleolus, we found that the same principles apply to cells from insects to man, indicating that this mechanism is highly conserved throughout evolution.

  2. Targeting protein prenylation for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Norbert; Hamilton, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, together referred to as prenylation, are lipid post-translational modifications that are required for the transforming activity of many oncogenic proteins, including some RAS family members. This observation prompted the development of inhibitors of farnesyltransferase (FT) and geranylgeranyltransferase 1 (GGT1) as potential anticancer drugs. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which FT and GGT1 inhibitors (FTIs and GGTIs, respectively) affect signal transduction pathways, cell cycle progression, proliferation and cell survival. In contrast to their preclinical efficacy, only a small subset of patients responds to FTIs. Identifying tumours that depend on farnesylation for survival remains a challenge, and strategies to overcome this are discussed. One GGTI has recently entered the clinic, and the safety and efficacy of GGTIs await results from clinical trials. PMID:22020205

  3. TSTMP: target selection for structural genomics of human transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Varga, Julia; Dobson, László; Reményi, István; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2017-01-04

    The TSTMP database is designed to help the target selection of human transmembrane proteins for structural genomics projects and structure modeling studies. Currently, there are only 60 known 3D structures among the polytopic human transmembrane proteins and about a further 600 could be modeled using existing structures. Although there are a great number of human transmembrane protein structures left to be determined, surprisingly only a small fraction of these proteins have 'selected' (or above) status according to the current version the TargetDB/TargetTrack database. This figure is even worse regarding those transmembrane proteins that would contribute the most to the structural coverage of the human transmembrane proteome. The database was built by sorting out proteins from the human transmembrane proteome with known structure and searching for suitable model structures for the remaining proteins by combining the results of a state-of-the-art transmembrane specific fold recognition algorithm and a sequence similarity search algorithm. Proteins were searched for homologues among the human transmembrane proteins in order to select targets whose successful structure determination would lead to the best structural coverage of the human transmembrane proteome. The pipeline constructed for creating the TSTMP database guarantees to keep the database up-to-date. The database is available at http://tstmp.enzim.ttk.mta.hu. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. TSTMP: target selection for structural genomics of human transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Julia; Dobson, László; Reményi, István; Tusnády, Gábor E.

    2017-01-01

    The TSTMP database is designed to help the target selection of human transmembrane proteins for structural genomics projects and structure modeling studies. Currently, there are only 60 known 3D structures among the polytopic human transmembrane proteins and about a further 600 could be modeled using existing structures. Although there are a great number of human transmembrane protein structures left to be determined, surprisingly only a small fraction of these proteins have ‘selected’ (or above) status according to the current version the TargetDB/TargetTrack database. This figure is even worse regarding those transmembrane proteins that would contribute the most to the structural coverage of the human transmembrane proteome. The database was built by sorting out proteins from the human transmembrane proteome with known structure and searching for suitable model structures for the remaining proteins by combining the results of a state-of-the-art transmembrane specific fold recognition algorithm and a sequence similarity search algorithm. Proteins were searched for homologues among the human transmembrane proteins in order to select targets whose successful structure determination would lead to the best structural coverage of the human transmembrane proteome. The pipeline constructed for creating the TSTMP database guarantees to keep the database up-to-date. The database is available at http://tstmp.enzim.ttk.mta.hu. PMID:27924015

  5. Protein kinase Cι: human oncogene, prognostic marker and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Alan P.; Regala, Roderick P.

    2009-01-01

    The Protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been the subject of intensive study in the field of cancer since their initial discovery as major cellular receptors for the tumor promoting phorbol esters nearly thirty years ago. However, despite these efforts, the search for a direct genetic link between members of the PKC family and human cancer has yielded only circumstantial evidence that any PKC isozyme is a true cancer gene. This situation changed in the past year with the discovery that atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is a bonafide human oncogene. PKCι is required for the transformed growth of human cancer cells and the PKCι gene is the target of tumor-specific gene amplification in multiple forms of human cancer. PKCι participates in multiple aspects of the transformed phenotype of human cancer cells including transformed growth, invasion and survival. Herein, we review pertinent aspects of atypical PKC structure, function and regulation that relate to the role of these enzymes in oncogenesis. We discuss the evidence that PKCι is a human oncogene, review mechanisms controlling PKCι expression in human cancers, and describe the molecular details of PKCι-mediated oncogenic signaling. We conclude with a discussion of how oncogenic PKCι signaling has been successfully targeted to identify a novel, mechanism-based therapeutic drug currently entering clinical trials for treatment of human lung cancer. Throughout, we identify key unanswered questions and exciting future avenues of investigation regarding this important oncogenic molecule. PMID:17570678

  6. Multiple Distinct Targeting Signals in Integral Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacob M.; Morrell, James C.; Gould, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomal proteins are synthesized on free polysomes and then transported from the cytoplasm to peroxisomes. This process is mediated by two short well-defined targeting signals in peroxisomal matrix proteins, but a well-defined targeting signal has not yet been described for peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). One assumption in virtually all prior studies of PMP targeting is that a given protein contains one, and only one, distinct targeting signal. Here, we show that the metabolite transporter PMP34, an integral PMP, contains at least two nonoverlapping sets of targeting information, either of which is sufficient for insertion into the peroxisome membrane. We also show that another integral PMP, the peroxin PEX13, also contains two independent sets of peroxisomal targeting information. These results challenge a major assumption of most PMP targeting studies. In addition, we demonstrate that PEX19, a factor required for peroxisomal membrane biogenesis, interacts with the two minimal targeting regions of PMP34. Together, these results raise the interesting possibility that PMP import may require novel mechanisms to ensure the solubility of integral PMPs before their insertion in the peroxisome membrane, and that PEX19 may play a central role in this process. PMID:11402059

  7. α/β-Peptide Foldamers Targeting Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions with Activity in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Checco, James W; Lee, Erinna F; Evangelista, Marco; Sleebs, Nerida J; Rogers, Kelly; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Kershaw, Nadia J; Eddinger, Geoffrey A; Belair, David G; Wilson, Julia L; Eller, Chelcie H; Raines, Ronald T; Murphy, William L; Smith, Brian J; Gellman, Samuel H; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2015-09-09

    Peptides can be developed as effective antagonists of protein-protein interactions, but conventional peptides (i.e., oligomers of l-α-amino acids) suffer from significant limitations in vivo. Short half-lives due to rapid proteolytic degradation and an inability to cross cell membranes often preclude biological applications of peptides. Oligomers that contain both α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") manifest decreased susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and when properly designed these unnatural oligomers can mimic the protein-recognition properties of analogous "α-peptides". This report documents an extension of the α/β-peptide approach to target intracellular protein-protein interactions. Specifically, we have generated α/β-peptides based on a "stapled" Bim BH3 α-peptide, which contains a hydrocarbon cross-link to enhance α-helix stability. We show that a stapled α/β-peptide can structurally and functionally mimic the parent stapled α-peptide in its ability to enter certain types of cells and block protein-protein interactions associated with apoptotic signaling. However, the α/β-peptide is nearly 100-fold more resistant to proteolysis than is the parent stapled α-peptide. These results show that backbone modification, a strategy that has received relatively little attention in terms of peptide engineering for biomedical applications, can be combined with more commonly deployed peripheral modifications such as side chain cross-linking to produce synergistic benefits.

  8. Biotin Protein Ligase Is a Target for New Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiage; Paparella, Ashleigh S.; Booker, Grant W.; Polyak, Steven W.; Abell, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a desperate need for novel antibiotic classes to combat the rise of drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibitors of the essential metabolic enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL) represent a promising drug target for new antibacterials. Structural and biochemical studies on the BPL from S. aureus have paved the way for the design and development of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. BPL employs an ordered ligand binding mechanism for the synthesis of the reaction intermediate biotinyl-5′-AMP from substrates biotin and ATP. Here we review the structure and catalytic mechanism of the target enzyme, along with an overview of chemical analogues of biotin and biotinyl-5′-AMP as BPL inhibitors reported to date. Of particular promise are studies to replace the labile phosphoroanhydride linker present in biotinyl-5′-AMP with alternative bioisosteres. A novel in situ click approach using a mutant of S. aureus BPL as a template for the synthesis of triazole-based inhibitors is also presented. These approaches can be widely applied to BPLs from other bacteria, as well as other closely related metabolic enzymes and antibacterial drug targets. PMID:27463729

  9. Autumnalamide targeted proteins of the immunophilin family.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jon Andoni; Alfonso, Amparo; Thomas, Olivier P; Botana, Luís M

    2017-02-01

    Previous works with autumnalamide reported that Store Operated Calcium (SOC) channels were blocked through mitochondrial modulation. In the present paper we studied the effect of autumnalamide on ionomycin Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, autumnalamide did not modify ionomycin-sensitive intracellular pools while the ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx was blocked with similar potency whether the incubation was done before or after ionomycin-sensitive pools depletion. Nevertheless, autumnalamide was not able to inhibit ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx once the membrane channels were activated. Moreover, the compound efficiently inhibited flufenamic acid (FFA) Ca(2+) release induced in this organelle but no the next influx. Since in previous work the effect of autumnalamide was inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA), structures that target this drug were studied. Therefore, the affinity of autumnalamide for cyclophilin D (Cyp D) was examined. The KD obtained for Cyp D- autumnalamide was 1.51±1.399. Moreover, the KD for Cyp A- autumnalamide was calculated. The peptide had a similar order of Cyp A binding affinity than CsA (8.08±1.23 and 6.85±1.1μM respectively). After testing autumnalamide-binding capacity for Cyp A, the activity of this compound on Cyp A pathway was tested. Thus, the effect on interleukin (IL)-2 release on activated T-lymphocytes was checked. Autumnalamide was able to reduce IL-2 levels near to T cells in resting conditions. Next, the effect over calcineurin and NFATc1 was also evaluated. While CsA inhibits both calcineurin and NFATc1, autumnalamide did not produce any effect. From these results we can conclude that, autumnalamide targeted mitochondrion and prevent T-cells from IL-2 production through the modulation of SOC Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrin‐Targeting Fluorescent Proteins: Exploration of RGD Insertion Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Michael H.; Schill, Jurgen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The potential of the fluorescent protein scaffold to control peptide sequence functionality is illustrated by an exploration of fluorescent proteins as novel probes for targeting integrins. A library of fluorescent mCitrine proteins with RGD motifs incorporated at several positions in loops within the protein main chain was generated and characterized. Amino acid mutations to RGD as well as RGD insertions were evaluated: both led to constructs with typical mCitrine fluorescent properties. Screening experiments against four human integrin receptors revealed two strong‐binding constructs and two selective integrin binders. The effect of the site of RGD incorporation illustrates the importance of the protein scaffold on RGD sequence functionality, leading to fluorescent protein constructs with the potential for selective integrin targeting. PMID:28004511

  11. Targeting p97 to Disrupt Protein Homeostasis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vekaria, Pratikkumar Harsukhbhai; Home, Trisha; Weir, Scott; Schoenen, Frank J.; Rao, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are addicted to numerous non-oncogenic traits that enable them to thrive. Proteotoxic stress is one such non-oncogenic trait that is experienced by all tumor cells owing to increased genomic abnormalities and the resulting synthesis and accumulation of non-stoichiometric amounts of cellular proteins. This imbalance in the amounts of proteins ultimately culminates in proteotoxic stress. p97, or valosin-containing protein (VCP), is an ATPase whose function is essential to restore protein homeostasis in the cells. Working in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system, p97 promotes the retrotranslocation from cellular organelles and/or degradation of misfolded proteins. Consequently, p97 inhibition has emerged as a novel therapeutic target in cancer cells, especially those that have a highly secretory phenotype. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of p97 in maintaining protein homeostasis and its inhibition with small molecule inhibitors as an emerging strategy to target cancer cells. PMID:27536557

  12. Small molecule therapeutics targeting F-box proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2016-02-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays vital roles in maintaining protein equilibrium mainly through proteolytic degradation of targeted substrates. The archetypical SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase complex contains a substrate recognition subunit F-box protein that recruits substrates to the catalytic ligase core for its polyubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Several well-characterized F-box proteins have been demonstrated that are tightly linked to neoplasia. There is mounting information characterizing F-box protein-substrate interactions with the rationale to develop unique therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here we review that how F-box proteins function in cancer and summarize potential small molecule inhibitors for cancer therapy.

  13. Small molecule therapeutics targeting F-Box proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays vital roles in maintaining protein equilibrium mainly through proteolytic degradation of targeted substrates. The archetypical SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase complex contains a substrate recognition subunit F-box protein that recruits substrates to the catalytic ligase core for its polyubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Several well characterized F-box proteins have been demonstrated that are tightly linked to neoplasia. There is mounting information characterizing F-box protein-substrate interactions with the rationale to develop unique therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here we review that how F-box proteins function in cancer and summarize potential small molecule inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:26427329

  14. Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases for Anticancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya. M.; Lawrence, Harshani. R.; Sebti, Saïd. M.; Lawrence, Nicholas. J.; Wu, Jie.

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery. PMID:20337577

  15. Targeting protein kinases in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chico, Laura K.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Watterson, D. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are a growing drug target class in disorders in peripheral tissues, but the development of kinase-targeted therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge, largely owing to issues associated specifically with CNS drug discovery. However, several candidate therapeutics that target CNS protein kinases are now in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. We review candidate compounds and discuss selected CNS protein kinases that are emerging as important therapeutic targets. In addition, we analyse trends in small-molecule properties that correlate with key challenges in CNS drug discovery, such as blood–brain barrier penetrance and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and discuss the potential of future approaches that will integrate molecular-fragment expansion with pharmacoinformatics to address these challenges. PMID:19876042

  16. Artificially controlled aggregation of proteins and targeting in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hanna; Gao, Ying; Johnsson, Ellinor; Olsson, Inge

    2003-11-01

    The targeting mechanisms for granule proteins in hematopoietic cells are largely unknown. Aggregation is believed to be important for protein sorting-for-entry and sorting-by-retention in endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. We asked whether artificially induced multimerization/aggregation of chimeric proteins could affect their sorting in hematopoietic cells. A system was used that permits ligand-controlled intracellular oligomerization of hybrid proteins containing the FK506-binding protein (FKBP). The hybrid proteins ELA-(FKBP)3 with neutrophil elastase (ELA) and (FKBP*)4-FCS-hGH with a furin cleavage site (FCS) and human growth hormone (hGH) were expressed in the myeloblastic 32D and the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1) hematopoietic cell lines. ELA alone is normally targeted to secretory lysosomes. However, the hybrid proteins and ligand-induced aggregates of them were constitutively secreted and not targeted. The hGH that was released at the FCS in (FKBP*)4-FCS-hGH was also constitutively secreted. We conclude that protein multimerization/aggregation per se is not enough to facilitate sorting-for-entry to secretory lysosomes in hematopoietic cells and that improperly folded proteins may be eliminated from sorting by constitutive secretion.

  17. A universal method for fishing target proteins from mixtures of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingding; Sun, Qingxiang; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Sivaraman, J.

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization. PMID:18621915

  18. A Universal Method for Fishing Target Proteins from Mixtures of Biomolecules using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Sun, Q; Kini, R; Sivaraman, J

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization.

  19. Engineering therapeutic antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Migyeong; Jung, Sang Taek

    2016-02-05

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most attractive therapeutic target classes because of their critical roles in intracellular signaling and their clinical relevance to a variety of diseases, including cancer, infection and inflammation. However, high conformational variability, the small exposed area of extracellular epitopes and difficulty in the preparation of GPCR antigens have delayed both the isolation of therapeutic anti-GPCR antibodies as well as studies on the structure, function and biochemical mechanisms of GPCRs. To overcome the challenges in generating highly specific anti-GPCR antibodies with enhanced efficacy and safety, various forms of antigens have been successfully designed and employed for screening with newly emerged systems based on laboratory animal immunization and high-throughput-directed evolution.

  20. Mitochondrial Protein Targets of Thiol-Reactive Electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hansen L.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria serve a pivotal role in the regulation of apoptosis or programmed cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated that reactive electrophiles induce mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. We hypothesize that covalent modification of specific mitochondrial proteins by reactive electrophiles serves as a trigger leading to the initiation of apoptosis. In this study, we identified protein targets of the model biotin-tagged electrophile probes N-iodoacetyl-N-biotinylhexylene-diamine (IAB) and 1-biotinamido-4-(4′-[maleimidoethylcyclohexane]carboxamido)butane (BMCC) in HEK293 cell mitochondrial fractions by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). These electrophiles reproducibly adducted a total of 1693 cysteine residues that mapped to 809 proteins. Protein modifications were selective in that only 438 cysteine sites in 1255 cysteinyl peptide adducts (35%) and 362 of the 809 identified protein targets (45%) were adducted by both electrophiles. Of these, approximately one-third were annotated to the mitochondria following protein database analysis. IAB initiated apoptotic events including cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas BMCC did not. Of the identified targets of IAB and BMCC, 44 were apoptosis-related proteins, and adduction site specificity on these targets differed between the two probes. Differences in sites of modification between these two electrophiles may reveal alkylation sites whose modification triggers apoptosis. PMID:18324786

  1. Development of target protein-selective degradation inducer for protein knockdown.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Minoru; Kitaguchi, Risa; Sato, Shinichi; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2011-05-15

    Our previous technique for inducing selective degradation of target proteins with ester-type SNIPER (Specific and Nongenetic Inhibitor-of-apoptosis-proteins (IAPs)-dependent Protein ERaser) degrades both the target proteins and IAPs. Here, we designed a small-molecular amide-type SNIPER to overcome this issue. As proof of concept, we synthesized and biologically evaluated an amide-type SNIPER which induces selective degradation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II), but not IAPs. Such small-molecular, amide-type SNIPERs that induce target protein-selective degradation without affecting IAPs should be effective tools to study the biological roles of target proteins in living cells.

  2. Terahertz-based target typing.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.; Barrick, Todd A.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to create a THz component set and understanding to aid in the rapid analysis of transient events. This includes the development of fast, tunable, THz detectors, along with filter components for use with standard detectors and accompanying models to simulate detonation signatures. The signature effort was crucial in order to know the spectral range to target for detection. Our approach for frequency agile detection was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays.

  3. Target based drug design - a reality in virtual sphere.

    PubMed

    Verma, Saroj; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S

    2015-01-01

    The target based drug design approaches are a series of computational procedures, including visualization tools, to support the decision systems of drug design/discovery process. In the essence of biological targets shaping the potential lead/drug molecules, this review presents a comprehensive position of different components of target based drug design which include target identification, protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, binding/catalytic sites identification, docking, virtual screening, fragment based strategies, substructure treatment of targets in tackling drug resistance, in silico ADMET, structural vaccinology, etc along with the key issues involved therein and some well investigated case studies. The concepts and working of these procedures are critically discussed to arouse interest and to advance the drug research.

  4. Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Sharon, David; Jovel, Juan; Liu, Lei; Wine, Eytan; Tahbaz, Nasser; Indik, Stanislav; Mason, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV), assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A) resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies showed that MMTV capsids accumulate around centrioles suggesting that, similar to M-PMV, the pericentriolar region may be a site for MMTV assembly. Together, the data imply that MMTV Gag targets the pericentriolar region as a result of the MMTV cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal, possibly aided by the Y box protein-1 required for the assembly of centrosomal microtubules. PMID:26121257

  5. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  6. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  7. Malaria heat shock proteins: drug targets that chaperone other drug targets.

    PubMed

    Pesce, E-R; Cockburn, I L; Goble, J L; Stephens, L L; Blatch, G L

    2010-06-01

    Ongoing research into the chaperone systems of malaria parasites, and particularly of Plasmodium falciparum, suggests that heat shock proteins (Hsps) could potentially be an excellent class of drug targets. The P. falciparum genome encodes a vast range and large number of chaperones, including 43 Hsp40, six Hsp70, and three Hsp90 proteins (PfHsp40s, PfHsp70s and PfHsp90s), which are involved in a number of fundamental cellular processes including protein folding and assembly, protein translocation, signal transduction and the cellular stress response. Despite the fact that Hsps are relatively conserved across different species, PfHsps do exhibit a considerable number of unique structural and functional features. One PfHsp90 is thought to be sufficiently different to human Hsp90 to allow for selective targeting. PfHsp70s could potentially be used as drug targets in two ways: either by the specific inhibition of Hsp70s by small molecule modulators, as well as disruption of the interactions between Hsp70s and co-chaperones such as the Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop) and Hsp40s. Of the many PfHsp40s present on the parasite, there are certain unique or essential members which are considered to have good potential as drug targets. This review critically evaluates the potential of Hsps as malaria drug targets, as well as the use of chaperones as aids in the heterologous expression of other potential malarial drug targets.

  8. Delivery of siRNA into breast cancer cells via phage fusion protein-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Deepa; Musacchio, Tiziana; Fagbohun, Olusegun A; Gillespie, James W; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Bird, R Curtis; Bookbinder, Lonnie; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Petrenko, Valery A

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy of siRNAs as potential anticancer therapeutics can be increased by their targeted delivery into cancer cells via tumor-specific ligands. Phage display offers a unique approach to identify highly specific and selective ligands that can deliver nanocarriers to the site of disease. In this study, we proved a novel approach for intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through their encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. The targeted siRNA liposomes were obtained by a fusion of two parental liposomes containing spontaneously inserted siRNA and fusion phage proteins. The presence of pVIII coat protein fused to a MCF-7 cell-targeting peptide DMPGTVLP in the liposomes was confirmed by Western blotting. The novel phage-targeted siRNA-nanopharmaceuticals demonstrate significant down-regulation of PRDM14 gene expression and PRDM14 protein synthesis in the target MCF-7 cells. This approach offers the potential for development of new anticancer siRNA-based targeted nanomedicines. In this study, the authors report a novel approach for targeted intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Processing and targeting of granule proteins in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, U; Bengtsson, N; Bülow, E; Garwicz, D; Lindmark, A; Olsson, I

    1999-12-17

    Neutrophils contain an assembly of granules destined for regulated secretion, each granule type with distinct constituents formed before terminal differentiation. The earliest granules are designated azurophil (primary), followed in time by specific (secondary), and gelatinase granules as well as secretory vesicles. Transcription factors regulate the genes for the granule proteins to ensure that expression of the gene products to be stored in different organelles is separated in time. Similar to lysosomal enzymes, many granule proteins, in particular those of the heterogeneous azurophil granules, are trimmed by proteolytic processing into mature proteins. Rodent myeloid cell lines have been utilized for research on the processing and targeting of human granule proteins after transfection of cDNA. Results from extensive work on the hematopoietic serine proteases of azurophil granules, employing in vitro mutagenesis, indicate that both an immature and a mature conformation are compatible with targeting for storage in granules. On the other hand, the amino-terminal propeptide of myeloperoxidase facilitates both the export from the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting for storage in granules. Similarly, targeting of defensins rely on an intact propeptide. The proteolytic processing into mature granule protein is most commonly a post-sorting event. Mis-sorting of specific granule proteins into azurophil or lysosome-like granules can result in premature activation and degradation, but represents a potential for manipulating the composition and function of neutrophil granules.

  10. Green targeting predictor and ambiguous targeting predictor 2: the pitfalls of plant protein targeting prediction and of transient protein expression in heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Janina; Liegmann, Oliver; Krause, Kirsten; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-12-01

    The challenges of plant protein targeting prediction are the existence of dual subcellular targets and the bias of experimentally confirmed data towards few and mostly nonplant model species. To assess whether training with proteins from evolutionarily distant species has a negative impact on prediction accuracy, we developed the Green Targeting Predictor tool, which was trained with a species-specific data set for Physcomitrella patens. Its performance was compared with that of the same tool trained with a mixed data set. In addition, we updated the Ambiguous Targeting Predictor. We found that predictions deviated from in vivo observations predominantly for proteins diverging within the green lineage, as well as for dual targeted proteins. To evaluate the usefulness of heterologous expression systems, selected proteins were subjected to localization studies in P. patens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Four out of six proteins that show dual targeting in the original plant system were located only in a single compartment in one or both heterologous systems. We conclude that targeting signals of divergent plant species exhibit differences, calling for custom in silico and in vivo approaches when aiming to unravel the actual distribution patterns of proteins within a plant cell. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Heat shock proteins as key biological targets of the marine natural cyclopeptide perthamide C.

    PubMed

    Margarucci, Luigi; Monti, Maria Chiara; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cassiano, Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Riccio, Raffaele; Zampella, Angela; Casapullo, Agostino

    2012-04-01

    Linking bioactive compounds to their cellular targets is a central challenge in chemical biology. Herein we report the mode of action of perthamide C, a natural cyclopeptide isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Through an emerging mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach, Heat Shock Protein 90 and Glucose Regulated Protein 94 were identified as key targets of perthamide C and this evidence has been validated using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of perthamide C to influence heat shock protein-mediated cell apoptosis revealed that this marine metabolite could be a good candidate for the development of a lead compound with therapeutic applications based on apoptosis modulation.

  12. Validation of the Target Protein of Insecticidal Dihydroagarofuran Sesquiterpene Polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lina; Qi, Zhijun; Li, Qiuli; Wu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A series of insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters were isolated from the root bark of Chinese bittersweet (Celastrus angulatus Max). A previous study indicated that these compounds affect the digestive system of insects, and aminopeptidase N3 and V-ATPase have been identified as the most putative target proteins by affinity chromatography. In this study, the correlation between the affinity of the compounds to subunit H and the insecticidal activity or inhibitory effect on the activity of V-ATPase was analyzed to validate the target protein. Results indicated that the subunit H of V-ATPase was the target protein of the insecticidal compounds. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of the compounds was discussed. The results provide new ideas for developing pesticides acting on V-ATPase of insects. PMID:26999207

  13. Molecular mechanisms of protein and lipid targeting to ciliary membranes

    PubMed Central

    Emmer, Brian T.; Maric, Danijela; Engman, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Cilia are specialized surface regions of eukaryotic cells that serve a variety of functions, ranging from motility to sensation and to regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The discovery that a number of human diseases, collectively known as ciliopathies, result from defective cilium function has expanded interest in these structures. Among the many properties of cilia, motility and intraflagellar transport have been most extensively studied. The latter is the process by which multiprotein complexes associate with microtubule motors to transport structural subunits along the axoneme to and from the ciliary tip. By contrast, the mechanisms by which membrane proteins and lipids are specifically targeted to the cilium are still largely unknown. In this Commentary, we review the current knowledge of protein and lipid targeting to ciliary membranes and outline important issues for future study. We also integrate this information into a proposed model of how the cell specifically targets proteins and lipids to the specialized membrane of this unique organelle. PMID:20145001

  14. Cytosolic N-terminal arginine-based signals together with a luminal signal target a type II membrane protein to the plant ER

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic cells, the membrane compartments that constitute the exocytic pathway are traversed by a constant flow of lipids and proteins. This is particularly true for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the main "gateway of the secretory pathway", where biosynthesis of sterols, lipids, membrane-bound and soluble proteins, and glycoproteins occurs. Maintenance of the resident proteins in this compartment implies they have to be distinguished from the secretory cargo. To this end, they must possess specific ER localization determinants to prevent their exit from the ER, and/or to interact with receptors responsible for their retrieval from the Golgi apparatus. Very few information is available about the signal(s) involved in the retention of membrane type II protein in the ER but it is generally accepted that sorting of ER type II cargo membrane proteins depends on motifs mainly located in their cytosolic tails. Results Here, using Arabidopsis glucosidase I as a model, we have identified two types of signals sufficient for the location of a type II membrane protein in the ER. A first signal is located in the luminal domain, while a second signal corresponds to a short amino acid sequence located in the cytosolic tail of the membrane protein. The cytosolic tail contains at its N-terminal end four arginine residues constitutive of three di-arginine motifs (RR, RXR or RXXR) independently sufficient to confer ER localization. Interestingly, when only one di-arginine motif is present, fusion proteins are located both in the ER and in mobile punctate structures, distinct but close to Golgi bodies. Soluble and membrane ER protein markers are excluded from these punctate structures, which also do not colocalize with an ER-exit-site marker. It is hypothesized they correspond to sites involved in Golgi to ER retrotransport. Conclusion Altogether, these results clearly show that cytosolic and luminal signals responsible for ER retention could coexist in a same type

  15. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil I.; Grace, Karen M.; Grace, Wynne K.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  16. Heat Shock Protein (HSP) Drug Discovery and Development: Targeting Heat Shock Proteins in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Liza; Bolaender, Alexander; Patel, Hardik J.; Taldone, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) present as a double edged sword. While they play an important role in maintaining protein homeostasis in a normal cell, cancer cells have evolved to co-opt HSP function to promote their own survival. As a result, HSPs such as HSP90 have attracted a great deal of interest as a potential anticancer target. These efforts have resulted in over 20 distinct compounds entering clinical evaluation for the treatment of cancer. However, despite the potent anticancer activity demonstrated in preclinical models, to date no HSP90 inhibitor has obtained regulatory approval. In this review we discuss the unique challenges faced in targeting HSPs that have likely contributed to their lack of progress in the clinic and suggest ways to overcome these so that the enormous potential of these compounds to benefit patients can finally be realized. We also provide a guideline for the future development of HSP-targeted agents based on the many lessons learned during the last two decades in developing HSP90 inhibitors. PMID:27072696

  17. Targeting a dynamic protein-protein interaction: fragment screening against the malaria myosin A motor complex.

    PubMed

    Douse, Christopher H; Vrielink, Nina; Wenlin, Zhang; Cota, Ernesto; Tate, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Motility is a vital feature of the complex life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the apicomplexan parasite that causes human malaria. Processes such as host cell invasion are thought to be powered by a conserved actomyosin motor (containing myosin A or myoA), correct localization of which is dependent on a tight interaction with myosin A tail domain interacting protein (MTIP) at the inner membrane of the parasite. Although disruption of this protein-protein interaction represents an attractive means to investigate the putative roles of myoA-based motility and to inhibit the parasitic life cycle, no small molecules have been identified that bind to MTIP. Furthermore, it has not been possible to obtain a crystal structure of the free protein, which is highly dynamic and unstable in the absence of its natural myoA tail partner. Herein we report the de novo identification of the first molecules that bind to and stabilize MTIP via a fragment-based, integrated biophysical approach and structural investigations to examine the binding modes of hit compounds. The challenges of targeting such a dynamic system with traditional fragment screening workflows are addressed throughout.

  18. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  19. Notch Signaling Proteins: Legitimate Targets for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins and small peptides (growth factors and hormones) are key molecules in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To that end, Notch signaling pathway proteins are known to play critical roles in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and thus it has been suggested that Notch may be responsible for the development and progression of human malignancies. Therefore, the Notch signaling pathway proteins may present novel therapeutic targets, which could have promising therapeutic impact on eradicating human malignancies. This review describes the role of Notch signaling pathway proteins in cancer and how its deregulation is involved in tumor development and progression leading to metastasis and the ultimate demise of patients diagnosed with cancer. Further, we summarize the role of several Notch inhibitors especially “natural agents” that could represent novel therapeutic strategies targeting Notch signaling toward better treatment outcome of patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:20491628

  20. Direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Hundsrucker, C; Klussmann, E

    2008-01-01

    A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a diverse family of about 50 scaffolding proteins. They are defined by the presence of a structurally conserved protein kinase A (PKA)-binding domain. AKAPs tether PKA and other signalling proteins such as further protein kinases, protein phosphatases and phosphodiesterases by direct protein-protein interactions to cellular compartments. Thus, AKAPs form the basis of signalling modules that integrate cellular signalling processes and limit these to defined sites. Disruption of AKAP functions by gene targeting, knockdown approaches and, in particular, pharmacological disruption of defined AKAP-dependent protein-protein interactions has revealed key roles of AKAPs in numerous processes, including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility and vasopressin-mediated water reabsorption in the kidney. Dysregulation of such processes causes diseases, including cardiovascular and renal disorders. In this review, we discuss AKAP functions elucidated by gene targeting and knockdown approaches, but mainly focus on studies utilizing peptides for disruption of direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions. The latter studies point to direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions as targets for novel drugs.

  1. Protein Degradation by In-Cell Self-Assembly of Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective degradation of proteins by proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) offers a promising potential alternative to protein inhibition for therapeutic intervention. Current PROTAC molecules incorporate a ligand for the target protein, a linker, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase recruiting group, which bring together target protein and ubiquitinating machinery. Such hetero-bifunctional molecules require significant linker optimization and possess high molecular weight, which can limit cellular permeation, solubility, and other drug-like properties. We show here that the hetero-bifunctional molecule can be formed intracellularly by bio-orthogonal click combination of two smaller precursors. We designed a tetrazine tagged thalidomide derivative which reacts rapidly with a trans-cyclo-octene tagged ligand of the target protein in cells to form a cereblon E3 ligase recruiting PROTAC molecule. The in-cell click-formed proteolysis targeting chimeras (CLIPTACs) were successfully used to degrade two key oncology targets, BRD4 and ERK1/2. ERK1/2 degradation was achieved using a CLIPTAC based on a covalent inhibitor. We expect this approach to be readily extendable to other inhibitor-protein systems because the tagged E3 ligase recruiter is capable of undergoing the click reaction with a suitably tagged ligand of any protein of interest to elicit its degradation. PMID:28058282

  2. Virus-Mimetic Fusogenic Exosomes for Direct Delivery of Integral Membrane Proteins to Target Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoosoo; Hong, Yeonsun; Nam, Gi-Hoon; Chung, Jin Hwa; Koh, Eunee; Kim, In-San

    2017-02-06

    An efficient system for direct delivery of integral membrane proteins is successfully developed using a new biocompatible exosome-based platform. Fusogenic exosomes harboring viral fusogen, vascular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein, can fuse with and modify plasma membranes in a process called "membrane editing." This can facilitate the transfer of biologically active membrane proteins into the target cell membranes both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Target Highlights in CASP9: Experimental Target Structures for the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Moult, John; Bartual, Sergio G.; Bazan, J. Fernando; Berman, Helen; Casteel, Darren E.; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Everett, John K.; Hausmann, Jens; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Hills, Tanya; Hui, Raymond; Hunt, John F.; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kennedy, Michael A.; Kim, Choel; Lingel, Andreas; Michalska, Karolina; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Otero, José M.; Perrakis, Anastassis; Pizarro, Juan C.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Rousseau, Francois; Tong, Liang; Wernimont, Amy K.; Young, Jasmine; Schwede, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    One goal of the CASP Community Wide Experiment on the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction is to identify the current state of the art in protein structure prediction and modeling. A fundamental principle of CASP is blind prediction on a set of relevant protein targets, i.e. the participating computational methods are tested on a common set of experimental target proteins, for which the experimental structures are not known at the time of modeling. Therefore, the CASP experiment would not have been possible without broad support of the experimental protein structural biology community. In this manuscript, several experimental groups discuss the structures of the proteins which they provided as prediction targets for CASP9, highlighting structural and functional peculiarities of these structures: the long tail fibre protein gp37 from bacteriophage T4, the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ (PKGIβ) dimerization/docking domain, the ectodomain of the JTB (Jumping Translocation Breakpoint) transmembrane receptor, Autotaxin (ATX) in complex with an inhibitor, the DNA-Binding J-Binding Protein 1 (JBP1) domain essential for biosynthesis and maintenance of DNA base-J (β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil) in Trypanosoma and Leishmania, an so far uncharacterized 73 residue domain from Ruminococcus gnavus with a fold typical for PDZ-like domains, a domain from the Phycobilisome (PBS) core-membrane linker (LCM) phycobiliprotein ApcE from Synechocystis, the Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) activators PFC0360w and PFC0270w from Plasmodium falciparum, and 2-oxo-3-deoxygalactonate kinase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:22020785

  4. Protein Targeting to Exosomes/Microvesicles by Plasma Membrane Anchors*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Beiyi; Wu, Ning; Yang, Jr-Ming; Gould, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal cells secrete small vesicles, otherwise known as exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs). A short, N-terminal acylation tag can target a highly oligomeric cytoplasmic protein, TyA, into secreted vesicles (Fang, Y., Wu, N., Gan, X., Yan, W., Morell, J. C., and Gould, S. J. (2007) PLoS Biol. 5, 1267–1283). However, it is not clear whether this is true for other membrane anchors or other highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins. We show here that a variety of plasma membrane anchors can target TyA-GFP to sites of vesicle budding and into EMVs, including: (i) a myristoylation tag; (ii) a phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-binding domain; (iii), a phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate-binding domain; (iv) a prenylation/palmitoylation tag, and (v) a type-1 plasma membrane protein, CD43. However, the relative budding efficiency induced by these plasma membrane anchors varied over a 10-fold range, from 100% of control (AcylTyA-GFP) for the myristoylation tag and PIP2-binding domain, to one-third or less for the others, respectively. Targeting TyA-GFP to endosome membranes by fusion to a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding domain induced only a slight budding of TyA-GFP, ∼2% of control, and no budding was observed when TyA-GFP was targeted to Golgi membranes via a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-binding domain. We also found that a plasma membrane anchor can target two other highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins to EMVs. These observations support the hypothesis that plasma membrane anchors can target highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins to EMVs. Our data also provide additional parallels between EMV biogenesis and retrovirus budding, as the anchors that induced the greatest budding of TyA-GFP are the same as those that mediate retrovirus budding. PMID:21300796

  5. Direct Proximity Tagging of Small Molecule Protein Targets Using an Engineered NEDD8 Ligase.

    PubMed

    Hill, Zachary B; Pollock, Samuel B; Zhuang, Min; Wells, James A

    2016-10-12

    Identifying the protein targets of bioactive small molecules remains a major problem in the discovery of new chemical probes and therapeutics. While activity-based probes and photo-cross-linkers have had success in identifying protein targets of small molecules, each technique has limitations. Here we describe a method for direct proximity tagging of proteins that bind small molecules. We engineered a promiscuous ligase based on the NEDD8 conjugating enzyme, Ubc12, which can be covalently linked to a small molecule of interest. When target proteins bind the small molecule, they are directly labeled on surface lysines with a biotinylated derivative of the small ubiquitin homologue, NEDD8. This unique covalent tag can then be used to identify the small molecule binding proteins. Utilizing the drug dasatinib, we have shown that dasatinib-directed NEDDylation occurs for known endogenous protein binders in complex cell lysates. In addition, we have been able to improve NEDDylation efficiency through rational mutagenesis. Finally, we have shown that affinity-directed NEDDylation can be applied to two other protein-ligand interactions beyond kinases. Proximity tagging using this engineered ligase requires direct binding of the target and, thus, provides a useful and orthogonal approach to facilitate small molecule target identification.

  6. Wheat PR-1 proteins are targeted by necrotrophic pathogen effector proteins.

    PubMed

    Breen, Susan; Williams, Simon J; Winterberg, Britta; Kobe, Bostjan; Solomon, Peter S

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have identified that proteinaceous effectors secreted by Parastagonospora nodorum are required to cause disease on wheat. These effectors interact in a gene-for-gene manner with host-dominant susceptibilty loci, resulting in disease. However, whilst the requirement of these effectors for infection is clear, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. A yeast-two-hybrid library approach was used to search for wheat proteins that interacted with the necrotrophic effector SnTox3. Using this strategy we indentified an interaction between SnTox3 and the wheat pathogenicity-related protein TaPR-1-1, and confirmed it by in-planta co-immunprecipitation. PR-1 proteins represent a large family (23 in wheat) of proteins that are upregulated early in the defence response; however, their function remains ellusive. Interestingly, the P. nodorum effector SnToxA has recently been shown to interact specifically with TaPR-1-5. Our analysis of the SnTox3-TaPR-1 interaction demonstrated that SnTox3 can interact with a broader range of TaPR-1 proteins. Based on these data we utilised homology modeling to predict, and validate, regions on TaPR-1 proteins that are likely to be involved in the SnTox3 interaction. Precipitating from this work, we identified that a PR-1-derived defence signalling peptide from the C-terminus of TaPR-1-1, known as CAPE1, enhanced the infection of wheat by P. nodorum in an SnTox3-dependent manner, but played no role in ToxA-mediated disease. Collectively, our data suggest that P. nodorum has evolved unique effectors that target a common host-protein involved in host defence, albeit with different mechanisms and potentially outcomes.

  7. Bypassing Protein Corona Issue on Active Targeting: Zwitterionic Coatings Dictate Specific Interactions of Targeting Moieties and Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Sohi, Reihaneh; Maghari, Shokoofeh; Raoufi, Mohammad; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Hajipour, Mohammad J; Ghassempour, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-09-07

    Surface functionalization strategies for targeting nanoparticles (NP) to specific organs, cells, or organelles, is the foundation for new applications of nanomedicine to drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Interaction of NPs with biological media leads to the formation of a biomolecular layer at the surface of NPs so-called as "protein corona". This corona layer can shield active molecules at the surface of NPs and cause mistargeting or unintended scavenging by the liver, kidney, or spleen. To overcome this corona issue, we have designed biotin-cysteine conjugated silica NPs (biotin was employed as a targeting molecule and cysteine was used as a zwitterionic ligand) to inhibit corona-induced mistargeting and thus significantly enhance the active targeting capability of NPs in complex biological media. To probe the targeting yield of our engineered NPs, we employed both modified silicon wafer substrates with streptavidin (i.e., biotin receptor) to simulate a target and a cell-based model platform using tumor cell lines that overexpress biotin receptors. In both cases, after incubation with human plasma (thus forming a protein corona), cellular uptake/substrate attachment of the targeted NPs with zwitterionic coatings were significantly higher than the same NPs without zwitterionic coating. Our results demonstrated that NPs with a zwitterionic surface can considerably facilitate targeting yield of NPs and provide a promising new type of nanocarriers in biological applications.

  8. Mitochondrial genomes are retained by selective constraints on protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, Patrik; Harish, Ajith; Hagström, Erik; Ernst, Andreas M.; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells considered to be of bacterial origin. The mitochondrial genome has evolved under selection for minimization of gene content, yet it is not known why not all mitochondrial genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome. Here, we predict that hydrophobic membrane proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genomes would be recognized by the signal recognition particle and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum if they were nuclear-encoded and translated in the cytoplasm. Expression of the mitochondrially encoded proteins Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, Apocytochrome b, and ATP synthase subunit 6 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells confirms export to the endoplasmic reticulum. To examine the extent to which the mitochondrial proteome is driven by selective constraints within the eukaryotic cell, we investigated the occurrence of mitochondrial protein domains in bacteria and eukaryotes. The accessory protein domains of the oxidative phosphorylation system are unique to mitochondria, indicating the evolution of new protein folds. Most of the identified domains in the accessory proteins of the ribosome are also found in eukaryotic proteins of other functions and locations. Overall, one-third of the protein domains identified in mitochondrial proteins are only rarely found in bacteria. We conclude that the mitochondrial genome has been maintained to ensure the correct localization of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. Taken together, the results suggest that selective constraints on the eukaryotic cell have played a major role in modulating the evolution of the mitochondrial genome and proteome. PMID:26195779

  9. Exogenous agents that target transmembrane domains of proteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang

    2008-01-01

    Although membrane proteins account for approximately one third of all proteins encoded in the human genome, the functions and structures of their transmembrane domains are much less understood than the water-soluble regions. A major hurdle in studying these transmembrane domains is the lack of appropriate exogenous agents that can be used as specific probes. Despite the daunting challenges, major strides have recently been made in targeting the transmembrane domains of a variety of membrane proteins. High affinity and selectivity have been achieved in model biophysical systems, membranes of bacteria, and mammalian cells.

  10. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review. PMID:28772877

  11. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. Results In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. Conclusions The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing. PMID:25861037

  12. A comparative study of disease genes and drug targets in the human protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhu, Kevin; Zheng, W; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Disease genes cause or contribute genetically to the development of the most complex diseases. Drugs are the major approaches to treat the complex disease through interacting with their targets. Thus, drug targets are critical for treatment efficacy. However, the interrelationship between the disease genes and drug targets is not clear. In this study, we comprehensively compared the network properties of disease genes and drug targets for five major disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system disease, metabolic disease, and nervous system disease). We first collected disease genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for five disease categories and collected their corresponding drugs based on drugs' Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Then, we obtained the drug targets for these five different disease categories. We found that, though the intersections between disease genes and drug targets were small, disease genes were significantly enriched in targets compared to their enrichment in human protein-coding genes. We further compared network properties of the proteins encoded by disease genes and drug targets in human protein-protein interaction networks (interactome). The results showed that the drug targets tended to have higher degree, higher betweenness, and lower clustering coefficient in cancer Furthermore, we observed a clear fraction increase of disease proteins or drug targets in the near neighborhood compared with the randomized genes. The study presents the first comprehensive comparison of the disease genes and drug targets in the context of interactome. The results provide some foundational network characteristics for further designing computational strategies to predict novel drug targets and drug repurposing.

  13. Targeting of nucleus-encoded proteins to chloroplasts in plants.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Paul

    2008-07-01

    Most chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized on free, cytosolic ribosomes in precursor form. Each precursor has an amino-terminal extension called a transit peptide, which directs the protein through a post-translational targeting pathway and is removed upon arrival inside the organelle. This 'protein import' process is mediated by the coordinate action of two multiprotein complexes, one in each of the envelope membranes: the TOC and TIC (Translocon at the Outer/ Inner envelope membrane of Chloroplasts) machines. Many components of these complexes have been identified biochemically in pea; these include transit peptide receptors, channel proteins, and molecular chaperones. Intriguingly, the Arabidopsis genome encodes multiple, homologous genes for receptor components of the TOC complex. Careful analysis indicated that the different receptor isoforms operate in different import pathways with distinct precursor recognition specificities. These 'substrate-specific' import pathways might play a role in the differentiation of different plastid types, and/or act to prevent deleterious competition effects between abundant and nonabundant precursors. Until recently, all proteins destined for internal chloroplast compartments were thought to possess a cleavable transit peptide, and to engage the TOC/TIC machinery. New studies using proteomics and other approaches have revealed that this is far from true. Remarkably, a significant number of chloroplast proteins are transported via a pathway that involves the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Other recent reports have elucidated an intriguing array of protein targeting routes leading to the envelope membranes themselves.

  14. Chromatin-regulating proteins as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Amornwichet, Napapat; Nakano, Takashi; Kohno, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin-regulating proteins represent a large class of novel targets for cancer therapy. In the context of radiotherapy, acetylation and deacetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks generated by ionizing irradiation, and are therefore attractive targets for radiosensitization. Small-molecule inhibitors of HATs (garcinol, anacardic acid and curcumin) and HDACs (vorinostat, sodium butyrate and valproic acid) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to ionizing irradiation in preclinical models, and some of these molecules are being tested in clinical trials, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy. Meanwhile, recent large-scale genome analyses have identified frequent mutations in genes encoding chromatin-regulating proteins, especially in those encoding subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, in various human cancers. These observations have driven researchers toward development of targeted therapies against cancers carrying these mutations. DOT1L inhibition in MLL-rearranged leukemia, EZH2 inhibition in EZH2-mutant or MLL-rearranged hematologic malignancies and SNF5-deficient tumors, BRD4 inhibition in various hematologic malignancies, and BRM inhibition in BRG1-deficient tumors have demonstrated promising anti-tumor effects in preclinical models, and these strategies are currently awaiting clinical application. Overall, the data collected so far suggest that targeting chromatin-regulating proteins is a promising strategy for tomorrow's cancer therapy, including radiotherapy and molecularly targeted chemotherapy. PMID:24522270

  15. Screening of Protein-Protein Interaction Modulators via Sulfo-Click Kinetic Target-Guided Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sameer S.; Hu, Xiangdong; Doi, Kenichiro; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic Target-Guided Synthesis (TGS) and in situ click chemistry are among unconventional discovery strategies having the potential to streamline the development of protein-protein interaction modulators (PPIMs). In kinetic TGS and in situ click chemistry, the target is directly involved in the assembly of its own potent, bidentate ligand from a pool of reactive fragments. Herein, we report the use and validation of kinetic TGS based on the sulfo-click reaction between thio acids and sulfonyl azides as a screening and synthesis platform for the identification of high-quality PPIMs. Starting from a randomly designed library consisting of 9 thio acids and 9 sulfonyl azides leading to 81 potential acylsulfonamides, the target protein, Bcl-XL selectively assembled four PPIMs, acylsulfonamides SZ4TA2, SZ7TA2, SZ9TA1, and SZ9TA5, which have been shown to modulate Bcl-XL/BH3 interactions. To further investigate the Bcl-XL templation effect, control experiments were carried out using two mutants of Bcl-XL. In one mutant, phenylalanine Phe131 and aspartic acid Asp133, which are critical for the BH3 domain binding, have been substituted by alanines, while arginine Arg139, a residue identified to play a crucial role in the binding of ABT-737, a BH3 mimetic, has been replaced by an alanine in the other mutant. Incubation of these mutants with the reactive fragments and subsequent LC/MS-SIM analysis confirmed that these building block combinations yield the corresponding acylsulfonamides at the BH3 binding site, the actual “hot spot” of Bcl-XL. These results validate kinetic TGS using the sulfo-click reaction as a valuable tool for the straightforward identification of high-quality PPIMs. PMID:21506574

  16. Stabilized helical peptides: a strategy to target protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mark A

    2014-08-14

    Protein-protein interactions are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Peptides hold great promise for clinical applications focused on targeting protein-protein interactions. Advantages of peptides include a large chemical space and potential diversity of sequences and structures. However, peptides do present well-known challenges for drug development. Progress has been made in the development of stabilizing alpha helices for potential therapeutic applications. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of helical peptide stabilization are discussed.

  17. Protein kinases as targets for interventive biogerontology: overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wing-Fu

    2012-04-01

    Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of γ phosphate from adenosine triphosphate to substrate proteins, and are important signal transduction mediators in a diversity of biological processes, ranging from apoptosis to energy metabolism. In this article, we will take this prominent class of proteins as an example to illustrate the involvement of proteins in modulation of aging and to highlight the prospects and challenges of protein-targeted interventions for anti-aging purposes. It is hoped that through this article, more empirical work on interventive gerontology will follow, and with collaborative endeavors among researchers, hurdles in anti-aging intervention development can be overcome in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of signal peptides in targeting of proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Mackle, M M; Zilinskas, B A

    1994-01-01

    Proteins of cyanobacteria may be transported across one of two membrane systems: the typical eubacterial cell envelope (consisting of an inner membrane, periplasmic space, and an outer membrane) and the photosynthetic thylakoids. To investigate the role of signal peptides in targeting in cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was transformed with vectors carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to coding sequences for one of four different signal peptides. These included signal peptides of two proteins of periplasmic space origin (one from Escherichia coli and the other from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942) and two other signal peptides of proteins located in the thylakoid lumen (one from a cyanobacterium and the other from a higher plant). The location of the gene fusion products expressed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was determined by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of subcellular fractions. The distribution pattern for gene fusions with periplasmic signal peptides was different from that of gene fusions with thylakoid lumen signal peptides. Primary sequence analysis revealed conserved features in the thylakoid lumen signal peptides that were absent from the periplasmic signal peptides. These results suggest the importance of the signal peptide in protein targeting in cyanobacteria and point to the presence of signal peptide features conserved between chloroplasts and cyanobacteria for targeting of proteins to the thylakoid lumen. Images PMID:8144451

  19. Nanoparticle-target interactions parallel antibody-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Koh, Isaac; Hong, Rui; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles can act as magnetic relaxation switches (MRSw's) when they bind to target analytes, and switch between their dispersed and aggregated states resulting in changes in the spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) of their surrounding water protons. Both nanoparticles (NPs, 10-100 nm) and micrometer-sized particles (MPs) have been employed as MRSw's, to sense drugs, metabolites, oligonucleotides, proteins, bacteria, and mammalian cells. To better understand how NPs or MPs interact with targets, we employed as a molecular recognition system the reaction between the Tag peptide of the influenza virus hemagglutinin and a monoclonal antibody to that peptide (anti-Tag). To obtain targets of different size and valency, we attached the Tag peptide to BSA (M(w)= 65000 Daltons, diameter = 8 nm) and to Latex spheres (diameter = 900 nm). To obtain magnetic probes of very different sizes, anti-Tag was conjugated to 40 nm NPs and 1 microm MPs. MP and NP probes reacted with Tag peptide targets in a manner similar to antibody/antigen reactions in solution, exhibiting so-called Prozone effects. MPs detected all types of targets with higher sensitivity than NPs with targets of higher valency being better detected than those of lower valency. The Tag/anti Tag recognition system can be used to synthesize combinations of molecular targets and magnetic probes, to more fully understand the aggregation reaction that occurs when probes bind targets in solution and the ensuing changes in water relaxation times that result.

  20. ETRAP (efficient trapping and purification) of target protein polyclonal antibodies from GST-protein immune sera.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Dan L; Brada, Nancy A; Lockwood, Christina M; Griest, Terry A; Waldemer, Rachel J; Cervinski, Mark A; Ohlendorf, Matthew F; McQuillan, Jay J; Ladenson, Jack H

    2010-12-01

    Recombinant GST (glutathione transferase) proteins are widely used as immunogens to generate polyclonal antibodies. Advantages of using GST proteins include: commercially available cloning vectors, vast literature for protein expression in Escherichia coli, the ease of protein purification, immunogen can be used as an ELISA standard and GST can be removed in some systems. However, there are disadvantages: GST oligomerization, inclusion body formation and target protein insolubility after GST removal. Perhaps the most detrimental is the significant generation of anti-GST antibodies by the host animal. A two-column procedure using a glutathione-GST column and a glutathione-(GST-protein) column can yield affinity-purified anti-(GST-protein) polyclonal antibody. Several passes over the first column are often required, though, to completely extract the anti-GST antibodies from the immune sera. We reasoned that knowledge of the target protein linear epitope(s) would allow construction of a peptide affinity resin for a single-pass 'one and done' purification termed ETRAP (efficient trapping and purification). In the present paper, we describe our efforts and present data on rabbits and sheep immunized with GST proteins having target protein molecular masses of ~8, 21 and 33 kDa. The titre and purity of the target antibodies using the ETRAP protocol were comparable to the more laborious multi-column purifications but with a considerable saving in time.

  1. Targeting Human Cancer by a Glycosaminoglycan Binding Malaria Protein.

    PubMed

    Salanti, Ali; Clausen, Thomas M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Oo, Htoo Z; Lee, Sherry; Gustavsson, Tobias; Rich, Jamie R; Hedberg, Bradley J; Mao, Yang; Barington, Line; Pereira, Marina A; LoBello, Janine; Endo, Makoto; Fazli, Ladan; Soden, Jo; Wang, Chris K; Sander, Adam F; Dagil, Robert; Thrane, Susan; Holst, Peter J; Meng, Le; Favero, Francesco; Weiss, Glen J; Nielsen, Morten A; Freeth, Jim; Nielsen, Torsten O; Zaia, Joseph; Tran, Nhan L; Trent, Jeff; Babcook, John S; Theander, Thor G; Sorensen, Poul H; Daugaard, Mads

    2015-10-12

    Plasmodium falciparum engineer infected erythrocytes to present the malarial protein, VAR2CSA, which binds a distinct type chondroitin sulfate (CS) exclusively expressed in the placenta. Here, we show that the same CS modification is present on a high proportion of malignant cells and that it can be specifically targeted by recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2). In tumors, placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The rVAR2 protein localizes to tumors in vivo and rVAR2 fused to diphtheria toxin or conjugated to hemiasterlin compounds strongly inhibits in vivo tumor cell growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate how an evolutionarily refined parasite-derived protein can be exploited to target a common, but complex, malignancy-associated glycosaminoglycan modification.

  2. Targeting protein–protein interactions by rational design: mimicry of protein surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Steven; Hamilton, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions play key roles in a range of biological processes, and are therefore important targets for the design of novel therapeutics. Unlike in the design of enzyme active site inhibitors, the disruption of protein–protein interactions is far more challenging, due to such factors as the large interfacial areas involved and the relatively flat and featureless topologies of these surfaces. Nevertheless, in spite of such challenges, there has been considerable progress in recent years. In this review, we discuss this progress in the context of mimicry of protein surfaces: targeting protein–protein interactions by rational design. PMID:16849232

  3. Detection of peptides, proteins, and drugs that selectively interact with protein targets.

    PubMed

    Serebriiskii, Ilya G; Mitina, Olga; Pugacheva, Elena N; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta; Kotova, Elena; Toby, Garabet G; Khazak, Vladimir; Kaelin, William G; Chernoff, Jonathan; Golemis, Erica A

    2002-11-01

    Genome sequencing has been completed for multiple organisms, and pilot proteomic analyses reported for yeast and higher eukaryotes. This work has emphasized the facts that proteins are frequently engaged in multiple interactions, and that governance of protein interaction specificity is a primary means of regulating biological systems. In particular, the ability to deconvolute complex protein interaction networks to identify which interactions govern specific signaling pathways requires the generation of biological tools that allow the distinction of critical from noncritical interactions. We report the application of an enhanced Dual Bait two-hybrid system to allow detection and manipulation of highly specific protein-protein interactions. We summarize the use of this system to detect proteins and peptides that target well-defined specific motifs in larger protein structures, to facilitate rapid identification of specific interactors from a pool of putative interacting proteins obtained in a library screen, and to score specific drug-mediated disruption of protein-protein interaction.

  4. Targeted Mutagenesis and Combinatorial Library Screening Enables Control of Protein Orientation on Surfaces and Increased Activity of Adsorbed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Teran, Carlos A; Carlin, Kevin B; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-30

    While nonspecific adsorption is widely used for immobilizing proteins on solid surfaces, the random nature of protein adsorption may reduce the activity of immobilized proteins due to occlusion of the active site. We hypothesized that the orientation a protein assumes on a given surface can be controlled by systematically introducing mutations into a region distant from its active site, thereby retaining activity of the immobilized protein. To test this hypothesis, we generated a combinatorial protein library by randomizing six targeted residues in a binding protein derived from highly stable, nonimmunoglobulin Sso7d scaffold; mutations were targeted in a region that is distant from the binding site. This library was screened to isolate binders that retain binding to its cognate target (chicken immunoglobulin Y, cIgY) as well as exhibit adsorption on unmodified silica at pH 7.4 and high ionic strength conditions. A single mutant, Sso7d-2B5, was selected for further characterization. Sso7d-2B5 retained binding to cIgY with an apparent dissociation constant similar to that of the parent protein; both mutant and parent proteins saturated the surface of silica with similar densities. Strikingly, however, silica beads coated with Sso7d-2B5 could achieve up to 7-fold higher capture of cIgY than beads coated with the parent protein. These results strongly suggest that mutations introduced in Sso7d-2B5 alter its orientation relative to the parent protein, when adsorbed on silica surfaces. Our approach also provides a generalizable strategy for introducing mutations in proteins so as to improve their activity upon immobilization, and has direct relevance to development of protein-based biosensors and biocatalysts.

  5. How proteins search for their targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao

    2008-10-01

    It is known since the early days of molecular biology that proteins locate their specific targets on DNA up to two orders-of-magnitude faster than the Smoluchowski three-dimensional (3D) diffusion rate. An accepted explanation of this fact is that proteins are nonspecifically adsorbed on DNA, and sliding along DNA provides for the faster one-dimensional (1D) search. We explicitly addressed the role of DNA conformation and the dispersion of nonspecific adsorption energies. We identified a wealth of new different scaling regimes and found that the maximum on the rate-versus-ionic strength curve is asymmetric. We also studied the other facilitating mechanism termed intersegment transfer where proteins which have two DNA binding sites can transfer from one DNA segment to another without dissociation to water. We proposed a scaling theory which combines the effects of protein 3D diffusion, 1D sliding, intersegment transfer and DNA motion. A direct application of our work on target search problem is the kinetics of viral self-assembly. We show that due to the 1D sliding of capsid proteins on the unassembled chain of single-stranded RNA, the self-assembly is more than ten times faster than the case involving only three-dimensional diffusion. We further extended our theory to the macroscopic diffusion coefficient of proteins in a semi-dilute solution of DNA pieces and the effective conductivity of a composite made of well conducting nanowires suspended in some poor conducting medium.

  6. ApicoAMP: the first computational model for identifying apicoplast-targeted transmembrane proteins in Apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Cilingir, Gokcen; Lau, Audrey O T; Broschat, Shira L

    2013-12-01

    Computational identification of apicoplast-targeted proteins is important in drug target determination for diseases such as malaria. While there are established methods for identifying proteins with a bipartite signal in multiple species of Apicomplexa, not all apicoplast-targeted proteins possess this bipartite signature. The publication of recent experimental findings of apicoplast membrane proteins, called transmembrane proteins, that do not possess a bipartite signal has made it feasible to devise a machine learning approach for identifying this new class of apicoplast-targeted proteins computationally. In this work, we develop a method for predicting apicoplast-targeted transmembrane proteins for multiple species of Apicomplexa, whereby several classifiers trained on different feature sets and based on different algorithms are evaluated and combined in an ensemble classification model to obtain the best expected performance. The feature sets considered are the hydrophobicity and composition characteristics of amino acids over transmembrane domains, the existence of short sequence motifs over cytosolically disposed regions, and Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with given proteins. Our model, ApicoAMP, is an ensemble classification model that combines decisions of classifiers following the majority vote principle. ApicoAMP is trained on a set of proteins from 11 apicomplexan species and achieves 91% overall expected accuracy. ApicoAMP is the first computational model capable of identifying apicoplast-targeted transmembrane proteins in Apicomplexa. The ApicoAMP prediction software is available at http://code.google.com/p/apicoamp/ and http://bcb.eecs.wsu.edu. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary conservation of a microbody targeting signal that targets proteins to peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, and glycosomes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, glycosomes, and hydrogenosomes have each been classified as microbodies, i.e., subcellular organelles with an electron-dense matrix that is bound by a single membrane. We investigated whether these organelles might share a common evolutionary origin by asking if targeting signals used for translocation of proteins into these microbodies are related. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) consisting of the COOH-terminal tripeptide serine-lysine- leucine-COOH has been identified in a number of peroxisomal proteins (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, N. Hosken, J. Wilkinson, and S. Subramani. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1657-1664). Antibodies raised to a peptide ending in this sequence (SKL-COOH) recognize a number of peroxisomal proteins. Immunocryoelectron microscopy experiments using this anti-SKL antibody revealed the presence of proteins containing the PTS within glyoxysomes of cells from Pichia pastoris, germinating castor bean seeds, and Neurospora crassa, as well as within the glycosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. Western blot analysis of purified organelle fractions revealed the presence of many proteins containing this PTS in both glyoxysomes and glycosomes. These results indicate that at least one of the signals, and therefore the mechanism, for protein translocation into peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, and glycosomes has been conserved, lending support to a common evolutionary origin for these microbodies. Hydrogenosomes, the fourth type of microbody, did not contain proteins that cross-reacted with the anti-PTS antibody, suggesting that this organelle is unrelated to microbodies. PMID:1831458

  8. Protein-Protein Interactions as New Targets for Ion Channel Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Ali, Syed; Laezza, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are key molecular elements that provide the basis of signaling in virtually all cellular processes. The precision and specificity of these molecular interactions have ignited a strong interest in pursuing PPI surfaces as new targets for drug discovery, especially against ion channels in the central nervous system (CNS) where selectivity and specificity are vital for developing drugs with limited side effects. Ion channels are large transmembrane domain proteins assembled with multiple regulatory proteins binding to the intracellular portion of channels. These macromolecular complexes are difficult to isolate, purify and reconstitute, posing a significant barrier in targeting these PPI for drug discovery purposes. Here, we will provide a short overview of salient features of PPI and discuss successful studies focusing on protein-channel interactions that could inspire new drug discovery campaigns targeting ion channel complexes. PMID:25485305

  9. Wavelet-based technique for target segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1995-07-01

    Segmentation of targets embedded in clutter obtained by IR imaging sensors is one of the challenging problems in automatic target recognition (ATR). In this paper a new texture-based segmentation technique is presented that uses the statistics of 2D wavelet decomposition components of the lcoal sections of the image. A measure of statistical similarity is then used to segment the image and separate the target from the background. This technique is applied on a set of real sequential IR imagery and has shown to produce a high degree of segmentation accuracy across varying ranges.

  10. Human immune cell targeting of protein nanoparticles - caveospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Joshua J.; Yuen, Daniel; Rae, James; Johnston, Angus P. R.; Parton, Robert G.; Kent, Stephen J.; de Rose, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to transform vaccine and drug delivery through protection of payloads from both metabolism and off-target effects, while facilitating specific delivery of cargo to immune cells. However, evaluation of immune cell nanoparticle targeting is conventionally restricted to monocultured cell line models. We generated human caveolin-1 nanoparticles, termed caveospheres, which were efficiently functionalized with monoclonal antibodies. Using this platform, we investigated CD4+ T cell and CD20+ B cell targeting within physiological mixtures of primary human blood immune cells using flow cytometry, imaging flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Antibody-functionalization enhanced caveosphere binding to targeted immune cells (6.6 to 43.9-fold) within mixed populations and in the presence of protein-containing fluids. Moreover, targeting caveospheres to CCR5 enabled caveosphere internalization by non-phagocytic CD4+ T cells--an important therapeutic target for HIV treatment. This efficient and flexible system of immune cell-targeted caveosphere nanoparticles holds promise for the development of advanced immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

  11. Chemotherapy targeting by DNA capture in viral protein particles

    PubMed Central

    Agadjanian, Hasmik; Chu, David; Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Rentsendorj, Altan; Song, Lei; Valluripalli, Vinod; Lubow, Jay; Ma, Jun; Sharifi, Behrooz; Farkas, Daniel L; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study tests the hypothesis that DNA intercalation and electrophilic interactions can be exploited to noncovalently assemble doxorubicin in a viral protein nanoparticle designed to target and penetrate tumor cells through ligand-directed delivery. We further test whether this new paradigm of doxorubicin targeting shows therapeutic efficacy and safety in vitro and in vivo. Materials & methods We tested serum stability, tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo using biochemical, microscopy and cytotoxicity assays. Results Self-assembly formed approximately 10-nm diameter serum-stable nanoparticles that can target and ablate HER2+ tumors at >10× lower dose compared with untargeted doxorubicin, while sparing the heart after intravenous delivery. The targeted nanoparticle tested here allows doxorubicin potency to remain unaltered during assembly, transport and release into target cells, while avoiding peripheral tissue damage and enabling lower, and thus safer, drug dose for tumor killing. Conclusion This nanoparticle may be an improved alternative to chemical conjugates and signal-blocking antibodies for tumor-targeted treatment. PMID:22385197

  12. Parkinson's disease proteins: Novel mitochondrial targets for cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Uma A.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Ong, Sang-Ging; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets for protecting the heart against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are required to attenuate cardiomyocyte death, preserve myocardial function, and prevent the onset of heart failure. In this regard, a specific group of mitochondrial proteins, which have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide novel therapeutic targets for cardioprotection. In dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, these PD proteins, which include Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, and α-synuclein, play essential roles in preventing cell death—through maintaining normal mitochondrial function, protecting against oxidative stress, mediating mitophagy, and preventing apoptosis. These rare familial forms of PD may therefore provide important insights into the pathophysiology underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of PD. Interestingly, these PD proteins are also present in the heart, but their role in myocardial health and disease is not clear. In this article, we review the role of these PD proteins in the heart and explore their potential as novel mitochondrial targets for cardioprotection. PMID:26481155

  13. Urea transporter proteins as targets for small-molecule diuretics.

    PubMed

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-02-01

    Conventional diuretics such as furosemide and thiazides target salt transporters in kidney tubules, but urea transporters (UTs) have emerged as alternative targets. UTs are a family of transmembrane channels expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, in particular the kidney. UT knockout mice and humans with UT mutations exhibit reduced maximal urinary osmolality, demonstrating that UTs are necessary for the concentration of urine. Small-molecule screening has identified potent and selective inhibitors of UT-A, the UT protein expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, and UT-B, the UT protein expressed in vasa recta endothelial cells. Data from UT knockout mice and from rodents administered UT inhibitors support the diuretic action of UT inhibition. The kidney-specific expression of UT-A1, together with high selectivity of the small-molecule inhibitors, means that off-target effects of such small-molecule drugs should be minimal. This Review summarizes the structure, expression and function of UTs, and looks at the evidence supporting the validity of UTs as targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics with a unique mechanism of action. UT-targeted inhibitors may be useful alone or in combination with conventional diuretics for therapy of various oedemas and hyponatraemias, potentially including those refractory to treatment with current diuretics.

  14. Plasmodesmal Targeting and Accumulation of TMV Movement Protein.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathryn M; Chapman, Sean; Roberts, Alison G

    2007-05-01

    The interaction between tobacco mosaic virus and its host plant cells has been intensively studied as a model for macromolecular trafficking. The observation that GFP-labelled TMV movement protein localises to microtubules led to the suggestion that microtubules are required for the cell to cell movement of the virus. In a recent paper we have demonstrated that the targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin and ER networks, which supports previous evidence from our laboratory that showed that disruption of microtubules did not prevent cell to cell movement of TMV virus, and that a mutated movement protein, which did not localise to micro-tubules, showed enhanced viral movement. In this addendum we speculate where the TMV movement protein accumulates within plasmodesmata, and the relationship of this accumulation to the cell to cell movement of the virus.

  15. Early targeting events during membrane protein biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Eitan

    2011-03-01

    All living cells have co-translational pathways for targeting membrane proteins. Co-translation pathways for secretory proteins also exist but mostly in eukaryotes. Unlike secretory proteins, the biosynthetic pathway of most membrane proteins is conserved through evolution and these proteins are usually synthesized by membrane-bound ribosomes. Translation on the membrane requires that both the ribosomes and the mRNAs be properly localized. Theoretically, this can be achieved by several means. (i) The current view is that the targeting of cytosolic mRNA-ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) to the membrane is initiated by information in the emerging hydrophobic nascent polypeptides. (ii) The alternative model suggests that ribosomes may be targeted to the membrane also constitutively, whereas the appropriate mRNAs may be carried on small ribosomal subunits or targeted by other cellular factors to the membrane-bound ribosomes. Importantly, the available experimental data do not rule out the possibility that cells may also utilize both pathways in parallel. In any case, it is well documented that a major player in the targeting pathway is the signal recognition particle (SRP) system composed of the SRP and its receptor (SR). Although the functional core of the SRP system is evolutionarily conserved, its composition and biological practice come with different flavors in various organisms. This review is dedicated mainly to the Escherichia (E.) coli SRP, where the biochemical and structural properties of components of the SRP system have been relatively characterized, yielding essential information about various aspects of the pathway. In addition, several cellular interactions of the SRP and its receptor have been described in E. coli, providing insights into their spatial function. Collectively, these in vitro studies have led to the current view of the targeting pathway [see (i) above]. Interestingly, however, in vivo studies of the role of the SRP and its receptor

  16. GABARAPL1 antibodies: target one protein, get one free!

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Jaclyn Nicole; Chakrama, Fatima Zahra; Seguin-Py, Stéphanie; Fraichard, Annick; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Jouvenot, Michèle; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël

    2011-11-01

    Atg8 is a yeast protein involved in the autophagic process and in particular in the elongation of autophagosomes. In mammals, several orthologs have been identified and are classed into two subfamilies: the LC3 subfamily and the GABARAP subfamily, referred to simply as the LC3 or GABARAP families. GABARAPL1 (GABARAP-like protein 1), one of the proteins belonging to the GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) family, is highly expressed in the central nervous system and implicated in processes such as receptor and vesicle transport as well as autophagy. The proteins that make up the GABARAP family demonstrate conservation of their amino acid sequences and protein structures. In humans, GABARAPL1 shares 86% identity with GABARAP and 61% with GABARAPL2 (GATE-16). The identification of the individual proteins is thus very limited when working in vivo due to a lack of unique peptide sequences from which specific antibodies can be developed. Actually, and to our knowledge, there are no available antibodies on the market that are entirely specific to GABARAPL1 and the same may be true of the anti-GABARAP antibodies. In this study, we sought to examine the specificity of three antibodies targeted against different peptide sequences within GABARAPL1: CHEM-CENT (an antibody raised against a short peptide sequence within the center of the protein), PTG-NTER (an antibody raised against the N-terminus of the protein) and PTG-FL (an antibody raised against the full-length protein). The results described in this article demonstrate the importance of testing antibody specificity under the conditions for which it will be used experimentally, a caution that should be taken when studying the expression of the GABARAP family proteins.

  17. Similar pathogen targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and homo sapiens protein networks.

    PubMed

    Shakarian, Paulo; Wickiser, J Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    We study the behavior of pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities. Specifically, we preform [Formula: see text]-shell decomposition analysis on these networks - which groups the proteins into various "shells" based on network structure. We observe that shells with a higher average degree are more highly targeted (with a power-law relationship) and that highly targeted nodes lie in shells closer to the inner-core of the network. Additionally, we also note that the inner core of the network is significantly under-targeted. We show that these core proteins may have a role in intra-cellular communication and hypothesize that they are less attacked to ensure survival of the host. This may explain why certain high-degree proteins are not significantly attacked.

  18. Rapid detection of proteins in transgenic crops without protein reference standards by targeted proteomic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schacherer, Lindsey J; Xie, Weiping; Owens, Michaela A; Alarcon, Clara; Hu, Tiger X

    2016-09-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is increasingly used for protein detection for transgenic crops research. Currently this is achieved with protein reference standards which may take a significant time or efforts to obtain and there is a need for rapid protein detection without protein reference standards. A sensitive and specific method was developed to detect target proteins in transgenic maize leaf crude extract at concentrations as low as ∼30 ng mg(-1) dry leaf without the need of reference standards or any sample enrichment. A hybrid Q-TRAP mass spectrometer was used to monitor all potential tryptic peptides of the target proteins in both transgenic and non-transgenic samples. The multiple reaction monitoring-initiated detection and sequencing (MIDAS) approach was used for initial peptide/protein identification via Mascot database search. Further confirmation was achieved by direct comparison between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. Definitive confirmation was provided by running the same experiments of synthetic peptides or protein standards, if available. A targeted proteomic mass spectrometry method using MIDAS approach is an ideal methodology for detection of new proteins in early stages of transgenic crop research and development when neither protein reference standards nor antibodies are available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Conformational stability as a design target to control protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Joseph A; O'Brien, Christopher J; Tiller, Kathryn; Tamargo, Erin; Robinson, Anne Skaja; Roberts, Christopher J; Fernandez, Erik J

    2014-05-01

    Non-native protein aggregation is a prevalent problem occurring in many biotechnological manufacturing processes and can compromise the biological activity of the target molecule or induce an undesired immune response. Additionally, some non-native aggregation mechanisms lead to amyloid fibril formation, which can be associated with debilitating diseases. For natively folded proteins, partial or complete unfolding is often required to populate aggregation-prone conformational states, and therefore one proposed strategy to mitigate aggregation is to increase the free energy for unfolding (ΔGunf) prior to aggregation. A computational design approach was tested using human γD crystallin (γD-crys) as a model multi-domain protein. Two mutational strategies were tested for their ability to reduce/increase aggregation rates by increasing/decreasing ΔGunf: stabilizing the less stable domain and stabilizing the domain-domain interface. The computational protein design algorithm, RosettaDesign, was implemented to identify point variants. The results showed that although the predicted free energies were only weakly correlated with the experimental ΔGunf values, increased/decreased aggregation rates for γD-crys correlated reasonably well with decreases/increases in experimental ΔGunf, illustrating improved conformational stability as a possible design target to mitigate aggregation. However, the results also illustrate that conformational stability is not the sole design factor controlling aggregation rates of natively folded proteins.

  20. Targeting protein kinase A in cancer therapy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Sapio, Luigi; Di Maiolo, Francesca; Illiano, Michela; Esposito, Antonietta; Chiosi, Emilio; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Protein Kinase A (PKA) is a well known member of the serine-threonin protein kinase superfamily. PKA, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, is a multi-unit protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors through its activation upon cAMP binding. The widespread expression of PKA subunit genes, and the myriad of mechanisms by which cAMP is regulated within a cell suggest that PKA signaling is one of extreme importance to cellular function. It is involved in the control of a wide variety of cellular processes from metabolism to ion channel activation, cell growth and differentiation, gene expression and apoptosis. Importantly, since it has been implicated in the initiation and progression of many tumors, PKA has been proposed as a novel biomarker for cancer detection, and as a potential molecular target for cancer therapy. Here, we highlight some features of cAMP/PKA signaling that are relevant to cancer biology and present an update on targeting PKA in cancer therapy. PMID:26417307

  1. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Kim, Y; Kwon, H J

    2016-05-04

    Covering: up to February 2016Identification of the target proteins of natural products is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of action to develop natural products for use as molecular probes and potential therapeutic drugs. Affinity chromatography of immobilized natural products has been conventionally used to identify target proteins, and has yielded good results. However, this method has limitations, in that labeling or tagging for immobilization and affinity purification often result in reduced or altered activity of the natural product. New strategies have recently been developed and applied to identify the target proteins of natural products and synthetic small molecules without chemical modification of the natural product. These direct and indirect methods for target identification of label-free natural products include drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), thermal proteome profiling (TPP), and bioinformatics-based analysis of connectivity. This review focuses on and reports case studies of the latest advances in target protein identification methods for label-free natural products. The integration of newly developed technologies will provide new insights and highlight the value of natural products for use as biological probes and new drug candidates.

  2. A logical sequence search for S100B target proteins.

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, K. A.; Shaw, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The EF-hand calcium-binding protein S100B has been shown to interact in vitro in a calcium-sensitive manner with many substrates. These potential S100B target proteins have been screened for the preservation of a previously identified consensus sequence across species. The results were compared to known structural and in vitro properties of the proteins to rationalize choices for potential binding partners. Our approach uncovered four oligomeric proteins tubulin (alpha and beta), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), desmin, and vimentin that have conserved regions matching the consensus sequence. In the type III intermediate filament proteins (GFAP, vimentin, and desmin), this region corresponds to a portion of a coiled-coil (helix 2A), the structural element responsible for their assembly. In tubulin, the sequence matches correspond to regions of alpha and beta tubulin found at the alpha beta tubulin interface. In both cases, these consensus sequence matches provide a logical explanation for in vitro observations that S100B is able to inhibit oligomerization of these proteins. PMID:11106180

  3. Retinal proteins modified by 4-hydroxynonenal: identification of molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Kapphahn, Rebecca J; Giwa, Babatomiwa M; Berg, Kristin M; Roehrich, Heidi; Feng, Xiao; Olsen, Timothy W; Ferrington, Deborah A

    2006-07-01

    The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is a product of lipid peroxidation that can covalently modify and inactivate proteins. Previously, we reported increased HNE modification of select retinal proteins resolved by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis in aged Fisher 344 x Brown Norway rats (Louie, J.L., Kapphahn, R.J., Ferrington, D.A., 2002. Proteasome function and protein oxidation in the aged retina. Exp. Eye Res. 75, 271-284). In the current study, quantitative assessment of HNE molar content using slot blot immunoassays showed HNE content is increased 30% in aged rat retina. In contrast, there was no age-related difference in HNE content in individual spots resolved by 2D gel electrophoresis suggesting the increased modification is likely on membrane proteins that are missing on 2D gels. The HNE-immunoreactive proteins resolved by 2D gel electrophoresis were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These proteins are involved in metabolism, chaperone function, and fatty acid transport. Proteins that were frequently modified and had the highest molar content of HNE included triosephosphate isomerase, alpha enolase, heat shock cognate 70 and betaB2 crystallin. Immunochemical detection of HNE adducts on retinal sections showed greater immune reaction in ganglion cells, photoreceptor inner segment, and the inner plexiform layer. Identification of HNE modified proteins in two alternative model systems, human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture (ARPE19) and human donor eyes, indicated that triosephosphate isomerase and alpha enolase are generally modified. These results identify a common subset of proteins that contain HNE adducts and suggest that select retinal proteins are molecular targets for HNE modification.

  4. Comparative modeling: the state of the art and protein drug target structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyun; Tang, Grace W; Capriotti, Emidio

    2011-07-01

    The goal of computational protein structure prediction is to provide three-dimensional (3D) structures with resolution comparable to experimental results. Comparative modeling, which predicts the 3D structure of a protein based on its sequence similarity to homologous structures, is the most accurate computational method for structure prediction. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made on comparative modeling methods. Using the large number of protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (~65,000), automatic prediction pipelines are generating a tremendous number of models (~1.9 million) for sequences whose structures have not been experimentally determined. Accurate models are suitable for a wide range of applications, such as prediction of protein binding sites, prediction of the effect of protein mutations, and structure-guided virtual screening. In particular, comparative modeling has enabled structure-based drug design against protein targets with unknown structures. In this review, we describe the theoretical basis of comparative modeling, the available automatic methods and databases, and the algorithms to evaluate the accuracy of predicted structures. Finally, we discuss relevant applications in the prediction of important drug target proteins, focusing on the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and protein kinase families.

  5. DELIVERY OF siRNA INTO BREAST CANCER CELLS VIA PHAGE FUSION PROTEIN-TARGETED LIPOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Deepa; Musacchio, Tiziana; Fagbohun, Olusegun A.; Gillespie, James W.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Bird, R. Curtis; Bookbinder, Lonnie; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Petrenko, Valery A.

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of siRNAs as potential anticancer therapeutics can be increased by their targeted delivery into cancer cells via tumor-specific ligands. Phage display offers an unique approach to identify highly specific and selective ligands that can deliver nanocarriers to the site of disease. In this study, we proved a novel approach for intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through their encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. The targeted siRNA liposomes were obtained by a fusion of two parental liposomes containing spontaneously inserted siRNA and fusion phage proteins. The presence of pVIII coat protein fused to a MCF-7 cell-targeting peptide DMPGTVLP in the liposomes was confirmed by Western blotting. The novel phage-targeted siRNA-nanopharmaceuticals demonstrate significant down-regulation of PRDM14 gene expression and PRDM14 protein synthesis in the target MCF- 7 cells. This approach offers the potential for development of new anticancer siRNA-based targeted nanomedicines. PMID:21050894

  6. Interaction of calcineurin with substrates and targeting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiming; Rao, Anjana; Hogan, Patrick G.

    2011-01-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium-activated protein phosphatase with a major role in calcium signaling in diverse cells and organs, and importance in clinical practice as the target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506. Cell biological studies have focused mainlyy on the role of calcineurin in transcriptional signaling. Calcium entry in response to extracellular stimuli results in calcineurin activation and signal transmission from the cytosol into the nucleus through dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT. This initiates a cascade of transcriptional events involved in physiological and developmental processes. Molecular analyses of the calcineurin/NFAT interaction have been extended recently to encompass the interaction of calcineurin with other substrates, targeting proteins and regulators of calcineurin activity. These studies have increased our understanding of how this essential calcium-activated enzyme orchestrates intracellular events in cooperation with other signaling pathways, and suggested a link between altered calcineurin signaling and the developmental anomalies of Down syndrome. PMID:21115349

  7. Protein targets for carbonylation by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in rat liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Ngyuen, Vien; Rauniyar, Navin; Ughy, Bettina; Prokai, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Protein carbonylation has been associated with various pathophysiological processes. A representative reactive carbonyl species (RCS), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), has been implicated specifically as a causative factor for the initiation and/or progression of various diseases. To date, however, little is known about the proteins and their modification sites susceptible to “carbonyl stress” by this RCS, especially in the liver. Using chemoprecipitation based on a solid phase hydrazine chemistry coupled with LC-MS/MS bottom-up approach and database searching, we identified several protein-HNE adducts in isolated rat liver mitochondria upon HNE exposure. The identification of selected major protein targets, such as the ATP synthase β-subunit, was further confirmed by immunoblotting and a gel-based approach in combination with LC–MS/MS. A network was also created based on the identified protein targets that showed that the main protein interactions were associated with cell death, tumor morphology and drug metabolism, implicating the toxic nature of HNE in the liver mitoproteome. The functional consequence of carbonylation was illustrated by its detrimental impact on the activity of ATP synthase, a representative major mitochondrial protein target for HNE modifications. PMID:21801862

  8. Targeted genome editing by lentiviral protein transduction of zinc-finger and TAL-effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-04-24

    Future therapeutic use of engineered site-directed nucleases, like zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), relies on safe and effective means of delivering nucleases to cells. In this study, we adapt lentiviral vectors as carriers of designer nuclease proteins, providing efficient targeted gene disruption in vector-treated cell lines and primary cells. By co-packaging pairs of ZFN proteins with donor RNA in 'all-in-one' lentiviral particles, we co-deliver ZFN proteins and the donor template for homology-directed repair leading to targeted DNA insertion and gene correction. Comparative studies of ZFN activity in a predetermined target locus and a known nearby off-target locus demonstrate reduced off-target activity after ZFN protein transduction relative to conventional delivery approaches. Additionally, TALEN proteins are added to the repertoire of custom-designed nucleases that can be delivered by protein transduction. Altogether, our findings generate a new platform for genome engineering based on efficient and potentially safer delivery of programmable nucleases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01911.001.

  9. Targeting Protein Translation in Organelles of the Apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Christopher D; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Kennedy, Kit; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Ralph, Stuart A

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotics inhibiting protein translation have long been used to treat and prevent infections by apicomplexan parasites. These compounds kill parasites by inhibiting organellar translation, and most act specifically against the apicoplast, a relict plastid in apicomplexans. Drug resistance in Plasmodium and other apicomplexans dictates a need for development of novel targets. Some apicoplast inhibitors have a delayed onset of action, so they cannot replace fast-acting drugs, although they still fulfil important roles in treating and preventing infections. The plethora of bacterial-like actors in the translation machinery of parasite mitochondria and plastids presents validated targets with strong potential for selectivity. Here we discuss existing drugs that inhibit organellar translation, and explore targets that may be further exploited in antiparasitic drug design. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [G-protein-coupled receptors targeting: the allosteric approach].

    PubMed

    Sebag, Julien A; Pantel, Jacques

    2012-10-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are a major family of drug targets. Essentially all drugs targeting these receptors on the market compete with the endogenous ligand (agonists or antagonists) for binding the receptor. Recently, non-competitive compounds binding to distinct sites from the cognate ligand were documented in various classes of these receptors. These compounds, called allosteric modulators, generally endowed of a better selectivity are able to modulate specifically the endogenous signaling of the receptor. To better understand the promising potential of this class of GPCRs targeting compounds, this review highlights the properties of allosteric modulators, the strategies used to identify them and the challenges associated with the development of these compounds.

  11. Proteins with complex architecture as potential targets for drug design: a case study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Bálint; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Simon, István

    2011-07-01

    Lengthy co-evolution of Homo sapiens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis, resulted in a dramatically successful pathogen species that presents considerable challenge for modern medicine. The continuous and ever increasing appearance of multi-drug resistant mycobacteria necessitates the identification of novel drug targets and drugs with new mechanisms of action. However, further insights are needed to establish automated protocols for target selection based on the available complete genome sequences. In the present study, we perform complete proteome level comparisons between M. tuberculosis, mycobacteria, other prokaryotes and available eukaryotes based on protein domains, local sequence similarities and protein disorder. We show that the enrichment of certain domains in the genome can indicate an important function specific to M. tuberculosis. We identified two families, termed pkn and PE/PPE that stand out in this respect. The common property of these two protein families is a complex domain organization that combines species-specific regions, commonly occurring domains and disordered segments. Besides highlighting promising novel drug target candidates in M. tuberculosis, the presented analysis can also be viewed as a general protocol to identify proteins involved in species-specific functions in a given organism. We conclude that target selection protocols should be extended to include proteins with complex domain architectures instead of focusing on sequentially unique and essential proteins only.

  12. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    functional proteins can be delivered intracellularly in vitro using nanoparticles and used to target key signaling proteins and regulate cell signaling pathways. The same concept of naturally occurring protein-protein interactions can also be implemented to selectively bring intracellular protein targets in close proximity to proteasomal degradation machinery in cells and effect their depletion from the cellular compartments. This approach will be able to not only target entire pool of proteins to ubiquitination-mediated degradation, but also to specific sub-pools of posttranslationally modified proteins in the cell, provided peptides having distinct binding affinities are identified for posttranslational modifications. This system can then be tested for intracellular protein delivery using nanoparticle carriers to identify roles of different posttranslational modifications on the protein's activity. In future work, we propose to develop a cellular detection system, based on GFP complementation, which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of different protein delivery carriers to internalize proteins into the cell cytosol. We envision the application of nanoscale materials as intracellular protein delivery vehicles to target diverse cell signaling pathways at the posttranslational level, and subsequent metabolic manipulation, which may have interesting therapeutic properties and can potentially target stem cell fate.

  13. Lipid droplet subset targeting of the Drosophila protein CG2254/dmLdsdh1.

    PubMed

    Thul, Peter J; Tschapalda, Kirsten; Kolkhof, Petra; Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Oberer, Monika; Beller, Mathias

    2017-08-03

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are the principal organelles of lipid storage. They consist of a hydrophobic core of storage lipids, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with proteins attached. While some of these proteins are essential to regulate cellular and organismic lipid metabolism, key questions concerning LD protein function, such as their targeting to LDs, are still unanswered. Intriguingly, some proteins are restricted to LD subsets by an as yet unknown mechanism. This finding makes LD targeting even more complex.Here, we characterize the Drosophila protein CG2254 which targets LD subsets in cultured cells and different larval Drosophila tissues, where the prevalence of LD subsets appears highly dynamic. We find that an amphipathic amino acid stretch mediates CG2254 LD localization. Additionally, we identified a juxtaposed sequence stretch limiting CG2254 localization to LD subsets. This sequence is sufficient to restrict a chimeric protein - consisting of the subset targeting sequence introduced to an otherwise pan LD localized protein sequence - to LD subsets. Based on its subcellular localization and annotated function, we suggest to rename CG2254 to Lipid droplet subset dehydrogenase 1 (Ldsdh1). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Aromatic Functionality of Target Proteins Influences Monomer Selection for Creating Artificial Antibodies on Plasmonic Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Luan, Jingyi; Kharasch, Evan D; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Morrissey, Jeremiah J

    2017-01-11

    Natural antibodies used as biorecognition elements suffer from numerous shortcomings, such as limited chemical and environmental stability and cost. Artificial antibodies based on molecular imprinting are an attractive alternative to natural antibodies. We investigated the role of aromatic interactions in target recognition capabilities of artificial antibodies. Three proteins with different aromatic amino acid content were employed as model targets. Artificial antibodies were formed on nanostructures using combinations of silane monomers of varying aromatic functionality. We employed refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures as a transduction platform for monitoring various steps in the imprinting process and to quantify the target recognition capabilities of the artificial antibodies. The sensitivity of the artificial antibodies with aromatic interactions exhibited a protein-dependent enhancement. Selectivity and sensitivity enhancement due to the presence of aromatic groups in imprinted polymer matrix was found to be higher for target proteins with higher aromatic amino acid content. Our results indicate that tailoring the monomer composition based on the amino acid content of the target protein can improve the sensitivity of plasmonic biosensors based on artificial antibodies without affecting the selectivity.

  15. Analysis of microRNA-target interactions by a target structure based hybridization model.

    PubMed

    Long, Dang; Chan, Chi Yu; Ding, Ye

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that repress protein synthesis by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in multicellular eukaryotes. The mechanism by which animal miRNAs specifically recognize their targets is not well understood. We recently developed a model for modeling the interaction between a miRNA and a target as a two-step hybridization reaction: nucleation at an accessible target site, followed by hybrid elongation to disrupt local target secondary structure and form the complete miRNA-target duplex. Nucleation potential and hybridization energy are two key energetic characteristics of the model. In this model, the role of target secondary structure on the efficacy of repression by miRNAs is considered, by employing the Sfold program to address the likelihood of a population of structures that co-exist in dynamic equilibrium for a specific mRNA molecule. This model can accurately account for the sensitivity to repression by let-7 of both published and rationally designed mutant forms of the Caenorhabditis elegans lin-41 3' UTR, and for the behavior of many other experimentally-tested miRNA-target interactions in C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. The model is particularly effective in accounting for certain false positive predictions obtained by other methods. In this study, we employed this model to analyze a set of miRNA-target interactions that were experimentally tested in mammalian models. These include targets for both mammalian miRNAs and viral miRNAs, and a viral target of a human miRNA. We found that our model can well account for both positive interactions and negative interactions. The model provides a unique explanation for the lack of function of a conserved seed site in the 3' UTR of the viral target, and predicts a strong interaction that cannot be predicted by conservation-based methods. Thus, the findings from this analysis and the previous analysis suggest that target structural accessibility is generally important

  16. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting Protein Kinases to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  18. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Aaron; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Rocklin, Gabriel J; Hicks, Derrick R; Vergara, Renan; Murapa, Patience; Bernard, Steffen M; Zhang, Lu; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Yao, Guorui; Bahl, Christopher D; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Goreshnik, Inna; Fuller, James T; Koday, Merika T; Jenkins, Cody M; Colvin, Tom; Carter, Lauren; Bohn, Alan; Bryan, Cassie M; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Stewart, Lance; Dong, Min; Huang, Xuhui; Jin, Rongsheng; Wilson, Ian A; Fuller, Deborah H; Baker, David

    2017-10-05

    De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37-43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing.

  19. Targeting of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Colbran, Roger J

    2004-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has diverse roles in virtually all cell types and it is regulated by a plethora of mechanisms. Local changes in Ca2+ concentration drive calmodulin binding and CaMKII activation. Activity is controlled further by autophosphorylation at multiple sites, which can generate an autonomously active form of the kinase (Thr286) or can block Ca2+/calmodulin binding (Thr305/306). The regulated actions of protein phosphatases at these sites also modulate downstream signalling from CaMKII. In addition, CaMKII targeting to specific subcellular microdomains appears to be necessary to account for the known signalling specificity, and targeting is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and autophosphorylation. The present review focuses on recent studies revealing the diversity of CaMKII interactions with proteins localized to neuronal dendrites. Interactions with various subunits of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor have attracted the most attention, but binding of CaMKII to cytoskeletal and several other regulatory proteins has also been reported. Recent reports describing the molecular basis of each interaction and their potential role in the normal regulation of synaptic transmission and in pathological situations are discussed. These studies have revealed fundamental regulatory mechanisms that are probably important for controlling CaMKII functions in many cell types. PMID:14653781

  20. A small RNA targets pokeweed antiviral protein transcript.

    PubMed

    Klenov, Alexander; Neller, Kira C M; Burns, Lydia A; Krivdova, Gabriela; Hudak, Katalin A

    2016-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of plant defense proteins with N-glycosidase activity (EC 3.2.2.22). Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a Type I RIP isolated from the pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, thought to confer broad-spectrum virus resistance in this plant. Through a combination of standard molecular techniques and RNA sequencing analysis, we report here that a small RNA binds and cleaves the open reading frame of PAP mRNA. Additionally, sRNA targeting of PAP is dependent on jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone important for defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. Levels of small RNA increased with JA treatment, as did levels of PAP mRNA and protein, suggesting that the small RNA functions to moderate the expression of PAP in response to this hormone. The association between JA and PAP expression, mediated by sRNA299, situates PAP within a signaling pathway initiated by biotic stress. The consensus sequence of sRNA299 was obtained through bioinformatic analysis of pokeweed small RNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first account of a sRNA targeting a RIP gene.

  1. Nuclear and nucleolar targeting of human ribosomal protein S6.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C; Lipsius, E; Kruppa, J

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric proteins were constructed to define the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of human ribosomal protein S6. The complete cDNA sequence, different cDNA fragments and oligonucleotides of the human ribosomal proteins S6, respectively, were joined to the 5' end of the entire LacZ gene of Escherichia coli by using recombinant techniques. The hybrid genes were transfected into L cells, transiently expressed, and the intracellular location of the fusion proteins was determined by their beta-galactosidase activity. Three NLSs were identified in the C-terminal half of the S6 protein. Deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that a single NLS is sufficient for targeting the corresponding S6-beta-galactosidase chimera into the nucleus. Removal of all three putative NLSs completely blocked the nuclear import of the resulting S6-beta-galactosidase fusion protein, which instead became evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Chimeras containing deletion mutants of S6 with at least one single NLS or unmodified S6 accumulated in the nucleolus. Analysis of several constructs reveals the existence of a specific domain that is essential but not sufficient for nucleolar accumulation of S6. Images PMID:8590812

  2. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-12-28

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  3. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-12-01

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  4. Protein sorting, targeting and trafficking in photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Pearring, Jillian N.; Salinas, Raquel Y.; Baker, Sheila A.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.

    2013-01-01

    Vision is the most fundamental of our senses initiated when photons are absorbed by the rod and cone photoreceptor neurons of the retina. At the distal end of each photoreceptor resides a light-sensing organelle, called the outer segment, which is a modified primary cilium highly enriched with proteins involved in visual signal transduction. At the proximal end, each photoreceptor has a synaptic terminal, which connects this cell to the downstream neurons for further processing of the visual information. Understanding the mechanisms involved in creating and maintaining functional compartmentalization of photoreceptor cells remains among the most fascinating topics in ocular cell biology. This review will discuss how photoreceptor compartmentalization is supported by protein sorting, targeting and trafficking, with an emphasis on the best-studied cases of outer segment-resident proteins. PMID:23562855

  5. Deep-Learning-Based Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhimin; Niu, Shaoyu; Sha, Haozhi; Yang, Ruihan; Yun, Yonghuan; Lu, Hongmei

    2017-04-07

    Identifying interactions between known drugs and targets is a major challenge in drug repositioning. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction (DTI) can speed up the expensive and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most potent DTIs. In silico prediction of DTI can also provide insights about the potential drug-drug interaction and promote the exploration of drug side effects. Traditionally, the performance of DTI prediction depends heavily on the descriptors used to represent the drugs and the target proteins. In this paper, to accurately predict new DTIs between approved drugs and targets without separating the targets into different classes, we developed a deep-learning-based algorithmic framework named DeepDTIs. It first abstracts representations from raw input descriptors using unsupervised pretraining and then applies known label pairs of interaction to build a classification model. Compared with other methods, it is found that DeepDTIs reaches or outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. The DeepDTIs can be further used to predict whether a new drug targets to some existing targets or whether a new target interacts with some existing drugs.

  6. The Protein Micro-Crystallography Beamlines for Targeted Protein Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    In order to collect proper diffraction data from outstanding micro-crystals, a brand-new data collection system should be designed to provide high signal-to noise ratio in diffraction images. SPring-8 and KEK-PF are currently developing two micro-beam beamlines for Targeted Proteins Research Program by MEXT of Japan. The program aims to reveal the structure and function of proteins that are difficult to solve but have great importance in both academic research and industrial application. At SPring-8, a new 1-micron beam beamline for protein micro-crystallography, RIKEN Targeted Proteins Beamline (BL32XU), is developed. At KEK-PF a new low energy micro-beam beamline, BL-1A, is dedicated for SAD micro-crystallography. The two beamlines will start operation in the end of 2010. The present status of the research and development for protein micro-crystallography will be presented.

  7. Biopolymer based nanosystem for doxorubicin targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Csikós, Zsuzsanna; Kerekes, Krisztina; Fazekas, Erika; Kun, Sándor; Borbély, János

    2017-01-01

    This study describes formation of an actively and passively targeted, water-soluble drug delivery system (DDS) which contains doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprises two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers: poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) and chitosan (CH). Self-assembly of these biopolymers in aqueous medium results stable nanoparticles (NPs) with a hydrodynamic size of 80-150 nm and slightly negative surface charge. Folic acid (FA) was used as targeting agent bonded to the polyanion (PA) and also to the surface of the NPs. The NP’s physical stability, active targeting effect, cellular toxicity, release profile and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy were investigated. It was found that the targeted, self-assembled nanoparticles are stable at 4°C for several months, cause better in vitro toxicity effect on folate receptor (FR) positive cell lines than the doxorubicin or the non-targeted nanosystem and based on its release profile it is expected, that the nanosystem will remain stable during the circulation in the body. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles can deliver greater tumor growth inhibition than the free drug molecules and the liposomal compound, with less general toxicity. It was observed that the overall survival is the main benefit of the biopolymer based drug delivery system. PMID:28401023

  8. Twelve ways to confirm targets of activity-based probes in plants.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-08-01

    Activity-based probes are powerful tools to interrogate the functional proteome. Their covalent and often irreversible labeling of proteins facilitates the purification, identification and quantification of labeled proteins. However, the detection of labeled proteins often requires a confirmation, especially when unexpected proteins are identified, or to unravel fluorescent activity profiles. Here, we review twelve approaches towards target confirmation, grouped in approaches by direct target detection, target expression or target depletion. We discuss their proper use and limitations and illustrate these approaches with examples from plant science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatic protein kinase B (Akt)-target of rapamycin (TOR)-signalling pathways and intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are not significantly affected by feeding plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lansard, Marine; Panserat, Stéphane; Seiliez, Iban; Polakof, Sergio; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Geurden, Inge; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Corraze, Geneviève; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of partial or total replacement of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) by a mixture of plant protein (PP) and a mixture of vegetable oils (VO) on the hepatic insulin-nutrient-signalling pathway and intermediary metabolism-related gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Triplicate groups of fish were fed four practical diets containing graded levels of replacement of FM and FO by PP and VO for 12 weeks: diet 0/0 (100 % FM, 100 % FO); diet 50/50 (50 % FM and 50 % PP, 50 % FO and 50 % VO); diet 50/100 (50 % FM and 50 % PP, 100 % VO); diet 100/100 (100 % PP, 100 % VO). Samplings were performed on trout starved for 5 d then refed with their allocated diet. In contrast to partial substitution (diet 50/50), total substitution of FM and FO (diet 100/100) led to significantly lower growth compared with diet 0/0. The insulin-nutrient-signalling pathway (protein kinase B (Akt), target of rapamycin (TOR), S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6) was characterised in trout liver and found to be activated by refeeding. However, changes in diet compositions did not differentially affect the Akt-TOR-signalling pathway. Moreover, expression of genes encoding fructose-1,6-biphosphatase, mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 were not affected by refeeding or by dietary changes. Refeeding down- and up-regulated the expression of gluconeogenic glucose-6-phosphatase isoform 1 and lipogenic fatty acid synthase genes, respectively. Expression of both genes was also increased with partial replacement of FM and total replacement of FO (diet 50/100). These findings indicate that plant-based diets barely affect glucose and lipid metabolism in trout.

  10. Development of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeted protein cages.

    PubMed

    Toita, Riki; Murata, Masaharu; Tabata, Shigekazu; Abe, Kana; Narahara, Sayoko; Piao, Jing Shu; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Hashizume, Makoto

    2012-07-18

    We described herein a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell-targeted protein cage for which the HCC-binding peptide termed SP94 was modified at the surface of a naturally occurred heat shock protein (Hsp) cage. Six types of HCC-targeted Hsp cages were chemically synthesized using two types of heterobifunctional linker (SM(PEG)(n)) with different lengths and two types of SP94 peptide, which contained a unique Cys residue at the N- or C-terminus of the peptide. These Hsp cages were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analyses, sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. Fluorescence microscopic observations revealed that all the engineered protein cages bind selectively to HCC cells but not to the other cell lines tested (including normal liver cell). Moreover, the number of SP94 peptides on Hsp cages, conjugation site of SP94 peptide, and linker length between a Hsp cage and a SP94 peptide had important effects upon the binding of engineered Hsp cages to HCC cells. An engineered Hsp cage conjugated to the N-terminus of SP94 peptide via a longer linker molecule and containing high SP94 peptide levels showed greater binding toward HCC cells. Surprisingly, through optimization of these three factors, up to 10-fold greater affinity toward HCC cells was achieved. These results are critically important not only for the development of HCC cell-targeting devices using SP94 peptide, but also to create other cell-targeting materials that utilize other peptide ligands.

  11. Target validation and drug discovery using genomic and protein-protein interaction technologies.

    PubMed

    Pillutla, Renuka C; Fisher, Paul B; Blume, Arthur J; Goldstein, Neil I

    2002-08-01

    After the successful completion of the human genome project, mapping of the human proteome has become the next important challenge facing the biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Identification of the 'right' target(s) is now a critical part of the process because of the cost of drug discovery. Compounding this situation is the fact that the pharmaceutical industry faces a further challenge of being able to sustain current and historical growth rates. Hence, the discovery of new drug targets is important for developing new drug leads that can become preclinical drug candidates. Proteomics is the next phase of the effort whereby the human genome can be understood. However, mapping the human proteome presents a daunting challenge. Proteomics involves several essential components with the most significant being the discovery and description of all protein-protein interactions. Once this compendium is available, a secondary and equally important initiative will be to decipher proteins that are differentially expressed in any given disease condition. At this point, the critical focus will be to select the most relevant proteins, understand their partner interactions and then further winnow them to the point where they are relevant pharmaceutical target candidates. This paradigm can be compared to finding the relevant 'needle in the proteome haystack'. This review describes the use of genomic and protein-protein interaction technologies to identify and validate these 'needles' as the first step in the drug discovery process.

  12. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  13. Cell-free expression of G-protein coupled receptors: new pipelines for challenging targets.

    PubMed

    Rues, Ralf-Bernhardt; Orbán, Erika; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Based on their eminent importance for medical applications, G-protein coupled receptors are currently amongst the most frequently membrane protein targets analyzed by cell-free expression. The cell-free expression approach removes most bottlenecks known from conventional cell-based protein production pipelines and ensures fast access to a selected receptor target. In addition, receptors can be synthesized in presence of a large variety of artificial solubilization environments comprising detergents, lipids, nanodiscs and other amphiphilic compounds. The currently accumulated data based on a variety of analyzed receptors already opens promising perspectives for applications of cell-free synthesized samples in functional characterization and drug screening. Structural evaluation still suffers from high conformational dynamics causing sample instability and might be addressed in future by molecular engineering or immuno-stabilization approaches.

  14. Molecular pincers – new antibody-based homogenous protein sensors

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Ewa; Dummit, Benjamin; Chang, Yie-Hwa; Heyduk, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a new homogenous antibody-based protein sensor design (molecular pincers) that allows rapid and sensitive detection of a specific protein in solution. In the presence of the target protein these sensors produce fluorescence signal derived from target-dependent annealing of short complementary fluorochrome-labeled oligonucleotides attached to a pair of target-specific antibodies via nanometer-scale flexible linkers. The sensors allow near-instantaneous detection of the target with sensitivity and specificity approaching ELISA but requiring no sample manipulation other then the addition of the sample to the sensor mix. We used cardiac troponin I and C-reactive protein as the targets to validate these desirable properties of the sensors. Due to the availability of antibodies to thousands of interesting targets and the straightforward design blueprint of the sensors we expect their wide-ranging applications in research and medical diagnosis, especially when simplicity, high throughput, and short detection time are essential. PMID:18491925

  15. Targeting RNA–Protein Interactions within the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    RNA–protein interactions are vital throughout the HIV-1 life cycle for the successful production of infectious virus particles. One such essential RNA–protein interaction occurs between the full-length genomic viral RNA and the major structural protein of the virus. The initial interaction is between the Gag polyprotein and the viral RNA packaging signal (psi or Ψ), a highly conserved RNA structural element within the 5′-UTR of the HIV-1 genome, which has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target. Here, we report the application of a target-based assay to identify small molecules, which modulate the interaction between Gag and Ψ. We then demonstrate that one such molecule exhibits potent inhibitory activity in a viral replication assay. The mode of binding of the lead molecules to the RNA target was characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24358934

  16. Control of Collagen Production in Mouse Chondrocytes by Using a Combination of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Small Interfering RNA Targeting Col1a1 for Hydrogel-Based Tissue-Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Pasdeloup, Marielle; Malbouyres, Marilyne; Galéra, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Because articular cartilage does not self-repair, tissue-engineering strategies should be considered to regenerate this tissue. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is already used for treatment of focal damage of articular cartilage. Unfortunately, this technique includes a step of cell amplification, which results in dedifferentiation of chondrocytes, with expression of type I collagen, a protein characteristic of fibrotic tissues. Therefore, the risk of producing a fibrocartilage exists. The aim of this study was to propose a new strategy for authorizing the recovery of the differentiated status of the chondrocytes after their amplification on plastic. Because the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 are cytokines both proposed as stimulants for cartilage repair, we undertook a detailed comparative analysis of their biological effects on chondrocytes. As a cellular model, we used mouse chondrocytes after their expansion on plastic and we tested the capability of BMP-2 or TGF-β1 to drive their redifferentiation, with special attention given to the nature of the proteins synthesized by the cells. To prevent any fibrotic character of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix, we silenced type I collagen by transfecting small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the chondrocytes, before their exposure to BMP-2 or TGF-β1. Our results showed that addition of siRNA targeting the mRNA encoded by the Col1a1 gene (Col1a1 siRNA) and BMP-2 represents the most efficient combination to control the production of cartilage-characteristic collagen proteins. To go one step further toward scaffold-based cartilage engineering, Col1a1 siRNA-transfected chondrocytes were encapsulated in agarose hydrogel and cultured in vitro for 1 week. The analysis of the chondrocyte–agarose constructs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western-blotting, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques demonstrated that the BMP-2/Col1a1 si

  17. A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Stefano; Hoogeveen, André T; Liang, Ping; Stanciu, Cornel; van der Spek, Peter; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2007-01-01

    Background Human myelogenous leukemia characterized by either the non random t(8; 21)(q22; q22) or t(16; 21)(q24; q22) chromosome translocations differ for both their biological and clinical features. Some of these features could be consequent to differential epigenetic transcriptional deregulation at AML1 targets imposed by AML1-MTG8 and AML1-MTG16, the fusion proteins deriving from the two translocations. Preliminary findings showing that these fusion proteins lead to transcriptional downregulation of AML1 targets, marked by repressive chromatin changes, would support this hypothesis. Here we show that combining conventional global gene expression arrays with the power of bioinformatic genomic survey of AML1-consensus sequences is an effective strategy to identify AML1 targets whose transcription is epigenetically downregulated by the leukemia-associated AML1-MTG16 protein. Results We interrogated mouse gene expression microarrays with probes generated either from 32D cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying AML1-MTG16 and unable of granulocyte differentiation and proliferation in response to the granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or from 32D cells infected with the cognate empty vector. From the analysis of differential gene expression alone (using as criteria a p value < 0.01 and an absolute fold change > 3), we were unable to conclude which of the 37 genes downregulated by AML1-MTG16 were, or not, direct AML1 targets. However, when we applied a bioinformatic approach to search for AML1-consensus sequences in the 10 Kb around the gene transcription start sites, we closed on 17 potential direct AML1 targets. By focusing on the most significantly downregulated genes, we found that both the AML1-consensus and the transcription start site chromatin regions were significantly marked by aberrant repressive histone tail changes. Further, the promoter of one of these genes, containing a CpG island, was aberrantly methylated. Conclusion This study

  18. Leucine-rich-repeat-containing variable lymphocyte receptors as modules to target plant-expressed proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Velásquez, André C.; Nomura, Kinya; Cooper, Max D.; ...

    2017-04-19

    The ability to target and manipulate protein-based cellular processes would accelerate plant research; yet, the technology to specifically and selectively target plant-expressed proteins is still in its infancy. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ubiquitously present protein domains involved in mediating protein–protein interactions. LRRs confer the binding specificity to the highly diverse variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) antibodies (including VLRA, VLRB and VLRC types) that jawless vertebrates make as the functional equivalents of jawed vertebrate immunoglobulin-based antibodies. Here, VLRBs targeting an effector protein from a plant pathogen, HopM1, were developed by immunizing lampreys and using yeast surface display to select for high-affinity VLRBs.more » HopM1-specific VLRBs (VLRM1) were expressed in planta in the cytosol, the trans-Golgi network, and the apoplast. Expression of VLRM1 was higher when the protein localized to an oxidizing environment that would favor disulfide bridge formation (when VLRM1 was not localized to the cytoplasm), as disulfide bonds are necessary for proper VLR folding. VLRM1 specifically interacted in planta with HopM1 but not with an unrelated bacterial effector protein while HopM1 failed to interact with a non-specific VLRB. Later, VLRs may be used as flexible modules to bind proteins or carbohydrates of interest in planta, with broad possibilities for their use by binding directly to their targets and inhibiting their action, or by creating chimeric proteins with new specificities in which endogenous LRR domains are replaced by those present in VLRs.« less

  19. Hetero-oligomeric tagging diminishes non-specific aggregation of target proteins fused with Anthozoa fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bulina, Maria E; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Staroverov, Dmitry B; Chudakov, Dmitry M; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2003-01-01

    The tendency for tetramerization is the main disadvantage in the green fluorescent protein homologues from Anthozoa species. We report a universal method called hetero-oligomeric tagging, which diminishes troublesome consequences of tetramerization of Anthozoa-derived fluorescent proteins (FP) in intracellular protein labelling. This approach is based on the co-expression of the FP-tagged protein of interest together with an excess of free non-fluorescent FP mutant. The resulting FP heterotetramers contain only a single target polypeptide and, therefore, can be considered pseudo-monomeric. Feasibility of the method has been demonstrated with a red FP fused with cytoplasmic beta-actin or tubulin-binding protein Tau34. In addition, heterotetramers appeared to be a unique model for biophysical characterization of Anthozoa FPs in pseudo-monomeric state. PMID:12472468

  20. Targeting proteins to liquid-ordered domains in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sanchez, Mari Angelica A; Wang, Julia; Bunker, Bruce C; Voigt, James A; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2011-02-15

    We demonstrate the construction of novel protein-lipid assemblies through the design of a lipid-like molecule, DPIDA, endowed with tail-driven affinity for specific lipid membrane phases and head-driven affinity for specific proteins. In studies performed on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with varying mole fractions of dipalymitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and diphytanoylphosphatidyl choline (DPhPC), DPIDA selectively partitioned into the more ordered phases, either solid or liquid-ordered (L(o)) depending on membrane composition. Fluorescence imaging established the phase behavior of the resulting quaternary lipid system. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy confirmed the fluidity of the L(o) phase containing DPIDA. In the presence of CuCl(2), the iminodiacetic acid (IDA) headgroup of DPIDA forms the Cu(II)-IDA complex that exhibits a high affinity for histidine residues. His-tagged proteins were bound specifically to domains enriched in DPIDA, demonstrating the capacity to target protein binding selectively to both solid and L(o) phases. Steric pressure from the crowding of surface-bound proteins transformed the domains into tubules with persistence lengths that depended on the phase state of the lipid domains.

  1. Brainstorming: weighted voting prediction of inhibitors for protein targets.

    PubMed

    Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2011-09-01

    The "Brainstorming" approach presented in this paper is a weighted voting method that can improve the quality of predictions generated by several machine learning (ML) methods. First, an ensemble of heterogeneous ML algorithms is trained on available experimental data, then all solutions are gathered and a consensus is built between them. The final prediction is performed using a voting procedure, whereby the vote of each method is weighted according to a quality coefficient calculated using multivariable linear regression (MLR). The MLR optimization procedure is very fast, therefore no additional computational cost is introduced by using this jury approach. Here, brainstorming is applied to selecting actives from large collections of compounds relating to five diverse biological targets of medicinal interest, namely HIV-reverse transcriptase, cyclooxygenase-2, dihydrofolate reductase, estrogen receptor, and thrombin. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) database was used for selecting known inhibitors for these protein targets, and experimental data was then used to train a set of machine learning methods. The benchmark dataset (available at http://bio.icm.edu.pl/∼darman/chemoinfo/benchmark.tar.gz ) can be used for further testing of various clustering and machine learning methods when predicting the biological activity of compounds. Depending on the protein target, the overall recall value is raised by at least 20% in comparison to any single machine learning method (including ensemble methods like random forest) and unweighted simple majority voting procedures.

  2. Small structural differences of targeted anti-tumor toxins result in strong variation of protein expression.

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Thakur, Mayank; Weise, Christoph; Dernedde, Jens; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Targeted anti-tumor toxins consist of a toxic functional moiety that is chemically linked or recombinantly fused to a cell-directing ligand. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), especially type I RIPs such as saporin or dianthin, are commonly used as toxin components. Although expression of type I RIP-based fusion proteins is well reported, the achievement of higher protein yields in heterologous expression systems through innovative strategies is of major interest. In the present study, the targeted toxins (his)saporin-EGF (SE) and (his)dianthin-EGF (DE) were expressed as fusion proteins under identical expression conditions. However, the total amount of DE was nearly two-times higher than SE. The identity of the heterologously expressed targeted toxins was confirmed by mass spectrometric studies. Their biological specific activity, monitored in real time, was almost equal. Sequence alignment shows 84% identity and a structural comparison revealed five major differences, two of which affect the secondary structure resulting in a loop (SE) to β-strand (DE) conversion and one introduces a gap in SE (after position 57). In conclusion, these structural variations resulted in different protein expression levels while codon usage and toxicity to bacteria were excluded as a cause. Minor structural differences identified in this study may be considered responsible for the protection of DE from bacterial proteases and therefore may serve as a lead to modify certain domains in type I RIP-based targeted toxins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Melanosomal proteins as melanoma-specific immune targets.

    PubMed

    Sakai, C; Kawakami, Y; Law, L W; Furumura, M; Hearing, V J

    1997-04-01

    Pigmentation of our skin, hair and eyes is essential for photoprotection, embryological development, detoxification and protective/cosmetic coloration. A number of proteins important to the production of melanin within melanosomes have now been identified including enzymatic and structural proteins encoded at the murine albino, brown, pinkeyed-dilution, MART1, slaty and silver loci. Interestingly, many of those melanosomal proteins (including epitopes derived from tyrosinase, TRP1/gp75, silver/gp100 and MART1/melan-A) function in vivo as targets of humoral and cellular autoimmune responses directed specifically against normal or transformed melanocytes. These findings have provided new impetus to research on immune responses to melanoma and, perhaps more importantly, examining why they are insufficient to provide protection against tumour growth and what type of immune therapy can be designed to correct that. The melanosome must now be considered beyond its function in pigmentation, and assumes the role of a valuable source for specific immune targets for malignant melanoma.

  4. Liver Protein Targets of Hepatotoxic 4-Bromophenol Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Yakov M.; Hajovsky, Heather; Liu, Ke; Williams, Todd D.; Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Staudinger, Jeffrey L.; Hanzlik, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of bromobenzene (BB) is directly related to the covalent binding of both initially formed epoxide and secondary quinone metabolites to at least 45 different liver proteins. 4-Bromophenol (4BP) is a significant BB metabolite and a precursor to reactive quinone metabolites, yet when administered exogenously it has negligible hepatotoxicity compared to BB. The protein adducts of 4BP were thus labeled as non-toxic (Monks, T. J.; Hinson, J. A.; Gillette, J. R. (1982) Life Sci. 30, 841–848). To help identify which BB-derived adducts might be related to its cytotoxicity, we sought to identify the supposedly non-toxic adducts of 4BP and eliminate them from the BB target protein list. Administration of [14C]-4BP to phenobarbital-induced rats resulted in covalent binding of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.42 nmol-eq 4BP/mg protein in the mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions, respectively. These values may be compared to published values of 3–6 nmol/mg protein from a comparable dose of [14C]-BB. After subcellular fractionation and 2D electrophoresis, 47 radioactive spots on 2D gels of the mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions were excised, digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Twenty nine of these spots contained apparently single proteins, of which 14 were non-redundant. Nine of the 14 are known BB targets. Incubating freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes with 4BP (0.1–0.5 mM) produced time- and concentration-dependent increases in lactate dehydrogenase release and changes in cellular morphology. LC-MS/MS analysis of the cell culture medium revealed rapid and extensive sulfation and glucuronidation of 4BP as well as formation of a quinone-derived glutathione conjugate. Studies with 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC), (−)-borneol or D-(+)-galactosamine (DGN) showed that inhibiting the glucuronidation/sulfation of 4BP increased the formation of a GSH-bromoquinone adduct, increased covalent binding of 4BP to hepatocyte proteins and potentiated its cytotoxicity

  5. Diolein Based Nanostructures as Targeted Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Antonella; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Marasco, Daniela; Ringhieri, Paola; Boffa, Cinzia; Bardini, Paola; Aime, Silvia; Morelli, Giancarlo

    2016-05-01

    Diolein based non-targeted theranostic nanoparticles (DO-NPs) containing 10%wt of the amphiphilic Gadolinium complex (C18)2DTPA(Gd), and targeted NPs, obtained by introducing growing amounts (3% wt, 6% wt or 10% wt) of (C18)2-Peg3000- FA in the sample composition, have been studied for their in vitro and in vivo properties. Cellular binding was studied by lCP-MS analysis of the Gadolinium content and by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) assays. The best formulation in terms of selectivity towards IGROV-1 cells with respect to non-targeted DO-NPs, was that containing 3% (C18)2Peg3000- FA (P < 0.01). Cytotoxic studies and confocal microscopy analysis of IGROV-1 cells indicate high selective properties of the targeted doxorubicin (DOX) loaded NPs. Nanoparticles described here represent the first example in which a targeted carrier characterized by a stable foamy mesophase, provided by the Diolein component, combine the therapeutic effect due to the anticancer drug doxorubicin, with the imaging properties provided by paramagnetic gadolinium complexes for MRI. As evidenced by T(1w), and T(2w) MRI images and by the in vivo antitumor effect in IGROV-1 tumor-bearing mice, DO-NP3-FA/DOX provides very high therapeutic efficacy with a tumor growth regression of 80% and 50% higher as compared to the mice treated with saline solution and with Doxil, respectively.

  6. Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses

    PubMed Central

    Javier, RT

    2012-01-01

    Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. PMID:19029943

  7. A homogeneous fluorometric assay platform based on novel synthetic proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Vardar-Schara, Goenuel; Krab, Ivo M.; Yi, Guohua; Su, Wei Wen . E-mail: wsu@hawaii.edu

    2007-09-14

    Novel synthetic recombinant sensor proteins have been created to detect analytes in solution, in a rapid single-step 'mix and read' noncompetitive homogeneous assay process, based on modulating the Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) property of the sensor proteins upon binding to their targets. The sensor proteins comprise a protein scaffold that incorporates a specific target-capturing element, sandwiched by genetic fusion between two molecules that form a FRET pair. The utility of the sensor proteins was demonstrated via three examples, for detecting an anti-biotin Fab antibody, a His-tagged recombinant protein, and an anti-FLAG peptide antibody, respectively, all done directly in solution. The diversity of sensor-target interactions that we have demonstrated in this study points to a potentially universal applicability of the biosensing concept. The possibilities for integrating a variety of target-capturing elements with a common sensor scaffold predict a broad range of practical applications.

  8. Model-based target and background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  9. Protein characterization of intracellular target-sorted, formalin-fixed cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Sadick, Jessica S.; Boutin, Molly E.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Darling, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity is inherent in most human tissues, making the investigation of specific cell types challenging. Here, we describe a novel, fixation/intracellular target-based sorting and protein extraction method to provide accurate protein characterization for cell subpopulations. Validation and feasibility tests were conducted using homogeneous, neural cell lines and heterogeneous, rat brain cells, respectively. Intracellular proteins of interest were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Reproducible protein extraction from fresh and fixed samples required lysis buffer with high concentrations of Tris-HCl and sodium dodecyl sulfate as well as exposure to high heat. No deterioration in protein amount or quality was observed for fixed, sorted samples. For the feasibility experiment, a primary rat subpopulation of neuronal cells was selected for based on high, intracellular β-III tubulin signal. These cells showed distinct protein expression differences from the unsorted population for specific (phosphorylated tau) and non-specific (total tau) protein targets. Our approach allows for determining more accurate protein profiles directly from cell types of interest and provides a platform technology in which any cell subpopulation can be biochemically investigated. PMID:27666089

  10. Protein characterization of intracellular target-sorted, formalin-fixed cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Jessica S; Boutin, Molly E; Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Darling, Eric M

    2016-09-26

    Cellular heterogeneity is inherent in most human tissues, making the investigation of specific cell types challenging. Here, we describe a novel, fixation/intracellular target-based sorting and protein extraction method to provide accurate protein characterization for cell subpopulations. Validation and feasibility tests were conducted using homogeneous, neural cell lines and heterogeneous, rat brain cells, respectively. Intracellular proteins of interest were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Reproducible protein extraction from fresh and fixed samples required lysis buffer with high concentrations of Tris-HCl and sodium dodecyl sulfate as well as exposure to high heat. No deterioration in protein amount or quality was observed for fixed, sorted samples. For the feasibility experiment, a primary rat subpopulation of neuronal cells was selected for based on high, intracellular β-III tubulin signal. These cells showed distinct protein expression differences from the unsorted population for specific (phosphorylated tau) and non-specific (total tau) protein targets. Our approach allows for determining more accurate protein profiles directly from cell types of interest and provides a platform technology in which any cell subpopulation can be biochemically investigated.

  11. Next generation protein based Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E; Khan, M Nadeem; Xu, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    All currently available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines have limitations due to their capsular serotype composition. Both the 23-valent Spn polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and 7, 10, or 13-valent Spn conjugate vaccines (PCV-7, 10, -13) are serotype-based vaccines and therefore they elicit only serotype-specific immunity. Emergence of replacement Spn strains expressing other serotypes has consistently occurred following introduction of capsular serotype based Spn vaccines. Furthermore, capsular polysaccharide vaccines are less effective in protection against non-bacteremic pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) than against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These shortcomings of capsular polysaccharide-based Spn vaccines have created high interest in development of non-serotype specific protein-based vaccines that could be effective in preventing both IPD and non-IPD infections. This review discusses the progress to date on development of Spn protein vaccine candidates that are highly conserved by all Spn strains, are highly conserved, exhibit maximal antigenicity and minimal reactogenicity to replace or complement the current capsule-based vaccines. Key to development of a protein based Spn vaccine is an understanding of Spn pathogenesis. Based on pathogenesis, a protein-based Spn vaccine should include one or more ingredients that reduce NP colonization below a pathogenic inoculum. Elimination of all Spn colonization may not be achievable or even advisable. The level of expression of a target protein antigen during pathogenesis is another key to the success of protein based vaccines.. As with virtually all currently licensed vaccines, production of a serum antibody response in response to protein based vaccines is anticipated to provide protection from Spn infections. A significant advantage that protein vaccine formulations can offer over capsule based vaccination is their potential benefits associated with natural priming and boosting to all strains of

  12. Next generation protein based Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E; Khan, M Nadeem; Xu, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    All currently available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines have limitations due to their capsular serotype composition. Both the 23-valent Spn polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and 7, 10, or 13-valent Spn conjugate vaccines (PCV-7, 10, -13) are serotype-based vaccines and therefore they elicit only serotype-specific immunity. Emergence of replacement Spn strains expressing other serotypes has consistently occurred following introduction of capsular serotype based Spn vaccines. Furthermore, capsular polysaccharide vaccines are less effective in protection against non-bacteremic pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) than against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These shortcomings of capsular polysaccharide-based Spn vaccines have created high interest in development of non-serotype specific protein-based vaccines that could be effective in preventing both IPD and non-IPD infections. This review discusses the progress to date on development of Spn protein vaccine candidates that are highly conserved by all Spn strains, are highly conserved, exhibit maximal antigenicity and minimal reactogenicity to replace or complement the current capsule-based vaccines. Key to development of a protein based Spn vaccine is an understanding of Spn pathogenesis. Based on pathogenesis, a protein-based Spn vaccine should include one or more ingredients that reduce NP colonization below a pathogenic inoculum. Elimination of all Spn colonization may not be achievable or even advisable. The level of expression of a target protein antigen during pathogenesis is another key to the success of protein based vaccines.. As with virtually all currently licensed vaccines, production of a serum antibody response in response to protein based vaccines is anticipated to provide protection from Spn infections. A significant advantage that protein vaccine formulations can offer over capsule based vaccination is their potential benefits associated with natural priming and boosting to all strains of

  13. Protein knockouts in living eukaryotes using deGradFP and green fluorescent protein fusion targets.

    PubMed

    Caussinus, Emmanuel; Kanca, Oguz; Affolter, Markus

    2013-09-24

    This unit describes deGradFP (degrade Green Fluorescent Protein), an easy-to-implement protein knockout method applicable in any eukaryotic genetic system. Depleting a protein in order to study its function in a living organism is usually achieved at the gene level (genetic mutations) or at the RNA level (RNA interference and morpholinos). However, any system that acts upstream of the proteic level depends on the turnover rate of the existing target protein, which can be extremely slow. In contrast, deGradFP is a fast method that directly depletes GFP fusion proteins. In particular, deGradFP is able to counteract maternal effects in embryos and causes early and fast onset loss-of-function phenotypes of maternally contributed proteins.

  14. Optimal Length of Conformational Transition Region in Protein Search for Targets on DNA.

    PubMed

    Kochugaeva, Maria P; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2017-09-07

    The starting point of many fundamental biological processes is associated with protein molecules finding and recognizing specific sites on DNA. However, despite a large number of experimental and theoretical studies on protein search for targets on DNA, many molecular aspects of underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Experiments show that proteins bound to DNA can switch between slow recognition and fast search conformations. However, from a theoretical point of view, such conformational transitions should slow down the protein search for specific sites on DNA, in contrast to available experimental observations. In addition, experiments indicate that the nucleotide composition near the target site is more symmetrically homogeneous, leading to stronger effective interactions between proteins and DNA at these locations. However, as has been shown theoretically, this should also make the search less efficient, which is not observed. We propose a possible resolution of these problems by suggesting that conformational transitions occur only within a segment around the target where stronger interactions between proteins and DNA are observed. Two theoretical methods, based on continuum and discrete-state stochastic calculations, are developed, allowing us to obtain a comprehensive dynamic description for the protein search process in this system. The existence of an optimal length of the conformational transition zone with the shortest mean search time is predicted.

  15. Protein Structure Network-based Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongjie; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Although structure-based drug design (SBDD) has become an indispensable tool in drug discovery for a long time, it continues to pose major challenges to date. With the advancement of "omics" techniques, systems biology has enriched SBDD into a new era, called polypharmacology, in which multi-targets drug or drug combination is designed to fight complex diseases. As a preliminary tool in systems biology, protein structure networks (PSNs) treat a protein as a set of residues linked by edges corresponding to the intramolecular interactions existing in folded structures between the residues. The PSN offers a computationally efficient tool to study the structure and function of proteins, and thus may facilitate structurebased drug design. Herein, we provide an overview of recent advances in PSNs, from predicting functionally important residues, to charactering protein-protein interactions and allosteric communication paths. Furthermore, we discuss potential pharmacological applications of PSN concepts and tools, and highlight the application to two families of drug targets, GPCRs and Hsp90. Although the application of PSNs as a framework for computer-aided drug discovery has been limited to date, we put forward the potential utility value in the near future and propose the PSNs could also serve as a new tool for polypharmacology research.

  16. Erythrocyte G Protein as a Novel Target for Malarial Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean C; Harrison, Travis; Hamm, Heidi E; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi

    2006-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Methods and Findings We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte “ghosts” loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in β-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein–coupled β-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other β2-antagonists. β-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. Conclusions Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials. PMID:17194200

  17. Influence of Translation Initiation on Organellar Protein Targeting in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Sally A. Mackenzie

    2011-04-18

    A primary focus of the Mackenzie laboratory is the elucidation of processes and machinery for mitochondrial genome maintenance and transmission in higher plants. We have found that numerous organellar DNA maintenance components in plants appear to be dual targeted to mitochondria and plastids. Of particular interest was the observation that some twin (tandemly arrayed) dual targeting presequences appeared to utilize non-AUG alternative translation initiation, allowing for multiple translation starts at a single gene. Two aspects of this phenomenon were of particular interest: (1) Alternative translation initiation might provide a mechanism to regulate protein targeting temporally and spatially, a possibility that had not been demonstrated previously, and (2) alternative translation initiation might occur in genes involved in nuclear-controlled mitochondrial genome recombination, thought to be exclusively mitochondrial in their function. During the course of this research, we pursued three aims, with an emphasis on two specific genes of interest: POLgamma2, an organellar DNA polymerase, and MSH1, a MutS homolog thought to participate in mitochondrial, but not plastid, genome recombination surveillance. Our aims were to (1) Identify additional genes within Arabidopsis and other genomes that employ non-AUG alternative translation initiation, (2) Locate sequences upstream to the annotated AUG that confer alternative non-AUG translation initiation activity, and (3) Identify cis and trans factors that influence start site selection in genes with non-AUG starts. Toward these ends, we have shown that non-AUG initiation occurs in a number of genes, likely influencing targeting behavior of the protein. We have also shown that start site selection is strongly influenced by Kozak consensus sequence environment, indicating that alternative translation initiation in plants occurs by relaxation of ribosome scanning.

  18. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  19. Protein transport in chloroplasts - targeting to the intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jürgen; Bölter, Bettina

    2007-10-01

    The import of proteins destined for the intermembrane space of chloroplasts has not been investigated in detail up to now. By investigating energy requirements and time courses, as well as performing competition experiments, we show that the two intermembrane space components Tic22 and MGD1 (E.C. 2.4.1.46) both engage the Toc machinery for crossing the outer envelope, whereas their pathways diverge thereafter. Although MGD1 appears to at least partly cross the inner envelope, Tic22 very likely reaches its mature form in the intermembrane space without involving stromal components. Thus, different pathways for intermembrane space targeting probably exist in chloroplasts.

  20. A Pathogenic Nematode Targets Recognition Proteins to Avoid Insect Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Mónica Martinez; Montiel, Rafael; Simões, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Steinernemacarpocapsae is a nematode pathogenic in a wide variety of insect species. The great pathogenicity of this nematode has been ascribed to its ability to overcome the host immune response; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this process. The analysis of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library in the nematode during the infective phase was performed and a highly abundant contig homologous to serine protease inhibitors was identified. In this work, we show that this contig is part of a 641-bp cDNA that encodes a BPTI-Kunitz family inhibitor (Sc-KU-4), which is up-regulated in the parasite during invasion and installation. Recombinant Sc-KU-4 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase activities in a dose-dependent manner by a competitive mechanism with Ki values of 1.8 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Sc-KU-4 also inhibited trypsin and thrombin activities to a lesser extent. Studies of the mode of action of Sc-KU-4 and its effects on insect defenses suggest that although Sc-KU-4 did not inhibit the activation of hemocytes or the formation of clotting fibers, it did inhibit hemocyte aggregation and the entrapment of foreign particles by fibers. Moreover, Sc-KU-4 avoided encapsulation and the deposition of clotting materials, which usually occurs in response to foreign particles. We show by protein-protein interaction that Sc-KU-4 targets recognition proteins of insect immune system such as masquerade-like and serine protease-like homologs. The interaction of Sc-KU-4 with these proteins explains the ability of the nematode to overcome host reactions and its large pathogenic spectrum, once these immune proteins are well conserved in insects. The discovery of this inhibitor targeting insect recognition proteins opens new avenues for the development of S. carpocapsae as a biological control agent and provides a new tool to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24098715

  1. Protein-Protein Interactions of Viroporins in Coronaviruses and Paramyxoviruses: New Targets for Antivirals?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jaume; Surya, Wahyu; Li, Yan; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are members of a rapidly growing family of channel-forming small polypeptides found in viruses. The present review will be focused on recent structural and protein-protein interaction information involving two viroporins found in enveloped viruses that target the respiratory tract; (i) the envelope protein in coronaviruses and (ii) the small hydrophobic protein in paramyxoviruses. Deletion of these two viroporins leads to viral attenuation in vivo, whereas data from cell culture shows involvement in the regulation of stress and inflammation. The channel activity and structure of some representative members of these viroporins have been recently characterized in some detail. In addition, searches for protein-protein interactions using yeast-two hybrid techniques have shed light on possible functional roles for their exposed cytoplasmic domains. A deeper analysis of these interactions should not only provide a more complete overview of the multiple functions of these viroporins, but also suggest novel strategies that target protein-protein interactions as much needed antivirals. These should complement current efforts to block viroporin channel activity. PMID:26053927

  2. Target identification in Fusobacterium nucleatum by subtractive genomics approach and enrichment analysis of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Thotakura, Pragna Lakshmi; Tiwary, Basant Kumar; Krishna, Ramadas

    2016-05-12

    Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention. Hence, we aimed to predict drug target proteins in F. nucleatum, through subtractive genomics approach and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions (HP-PPIs). We also carried out enrichment analysis of host interacting partners to hypothesize the possible mechanisms involved in CRC progression due to F. nucleatum. In subtractive genomics approach, the essential, virulence and resistance related proteins were retrieved from RefSeq proteome of F. nucleatum by searching against Database of Essential Genes (DEG), Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation (ARG-ANNOT) tool respectively. A subsequent hierarchical screening to identify non-human homologous, metabolic pathway-independent/pathway-specific and druggable proteins resulted in eight pathway-independent and 27 pathway-specific druggable targets. Co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with host induces proinflammatory gene expression thereby potentiates tumorigenesis. Hence, proteins from IBDsite, a database for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research and those involved in colorectal adenocarcinoma as interpreted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were retrieved to predict drug targets based on HP-PPIs with F. nucleatum proteome. Prediction of HP-PPIs exhibited 186 interactions contributed by 103 host and 76 bacterial proteins. Bacterial interacting partners were accounted as putative targets. And enrichment analysis of host interacting partners showed statistically

  3. Evaluation of the novel algorithm of flexible ligand docking with moveable target-protein atoms.

    PubMed

    Sulimov, Alexey V; Zheltkov, Dmitry A; Oferkin, Igor V; Kutov, Danil C; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Tyrtyshnikov, Eugene E; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2017-01-01

    We present the novel docking algorithm based on the Tensor Train decomposition and the TT-Cross global optimization. The algorithm is applied to the docking problem with flexible ligand and moveable protein atoms. The energy of the protein-ligand complex is calculated in the frame of the MMFF94 force field in vacuum. The grid of precalculated energy potentials of probe ligand atoms in the field of the target protein atoms is not used. The energy of the protein-ligand complex for any given configuration is computed directly with the MMFF94 force field without any fitting parameters. The conformation space of the system coordinates is formed by translations and rotations of the ligand as a whole, by the ligand torsions and also by Cartesian coordinates of the selected target protein atoms. Mobility of protein and ligand atoms is taken into account in the docking process simultaneously and equally. The algorithm is realized in the novel parallel docking SOL-P program and results of its performance for a set of 30 protein-ligand complexes are presented. Dependence of the docking positioning accuracy is investigated as a function of parameters of the docking algorithm and the number of protein moveable atoms. It is shown that mobility of the protein atoms improves docking positioning accuracy. The SOL-P program is able to perform docking of a flexible ligand into the active site of the target protein with several dozens of protein moveable atoms: the native crystallized ligand pose is correctly found as the global energy minimum in the search space with 157 dimensions using 4700 CPU ∗ h at the Lomonosov supercomputer.

  4. The effects of intersegmental transfers on target location by proteins.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, Michael; Kafri, Yariv

    2009-01-19

    We study a model of protein searching for a target, using facilitated diffusion, on a DNA molecule confined in a finite volume. The model includes three distinct pathways for facilitated diffusion: (a) sliding--in which the protein diffuses along the contour of the DNA, (b) jumping--where the protein travels between two sites along the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion and finally (c) intersegmental transfer--which allows the protein to move from one site to another by transiently binding both at the same time. The typical search time is calculated using scaling arguments which are verified numerically. Our results suggest that the inclusion of intersegmental transfer (i) decreases the search time considerably, (ii) makes the search time much more robust to variations in the parameters of the model and (iii) that the optimal search time occurs in a regime very different than that found for models which ignore intersegmental transfers. The behavior we find is rich and shows surprising dependences, for example on the DNA length.

  5. Protein-based tumor molecular imaging probes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Xie, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging discipline which plays critical roles in diagnosis and therapeutics. It visualizes and quantifies markers that are aberrantly expressed during the disease origin and development. Protein molecules remain to be one major class of imaging probes, and the option has been widely diversified due to the recent advances in protein engineering techniques. Antibodies are part of the immunosystem which interact with target antigens with high specificity and affinity. They have long been investigated as imaging probes and were coupled with imaging motifs such as radioisotopes for that purpose. However, the relatively large size of antibodies leads to a half-life that is too long for common imaging purposes. Besides, it may also cause a poor tissue penetration rate and thus compromise some medical applications. It is under this context that various engineered protein probes, essentially antibody fragments, protein scaffolds, and natural ligands have been developed. Compared to intact antibodies, they possess more compact size, shorter clearance time, and better tumor penetration. One major challenge of using protein probes in molecular imaging is the affected biological activity resulted from random labeling. Site-specific modification, however, allows conjugation happening in a stoichiometric fashion with little perturbation of protein activity. The present review will discuss protein-based probes with focus on their application and related site-specific conjugation strategies in tumor imaging. PMID:20232092

  6. Drug-target interaction prediction from PSSM based evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Khakabimamaghani, Sahand; Kavousi, Kaveh; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The labor-intensive and expensive experimental process of drug-target interaction prediction has motivated many researchers to focus on in silico prediction, which leads to the helpful information in supporting the experimental interaction data. Therefore, they have proposed several computational approaches for discovering new drug-target interactions. Several learning-based methods have been increasingly developed which can be categorized into two main groups: similarity-based and feature-based. In this paper, we firstly use the bi-gram features extracted from the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) of proteins in predicting drug-target interactions. Our results demonstrate the high-confidence prediction ability of the Bigram-PSSM model in terms of several performance indicators specifically for enzymes and ion channels. Moreover, we investigate the impact of negative selection strategy on the performance of the prediction, which is not widely taken into account in the other relevant studies. This is important, as the number of non-interacting drug-target pairs are usually extremely large in comparison with the number of interacting ones in existing drug-target interaction data. An interesting observation is that different levels of performance reduction have been attained for four datasets when we change the sampling method from the random sampling to the balanced sampling.

  7. Essential protein identification based on essential protein-protein interaction prediction by Integrated Edge Weights.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuexu; Wang, Yan; Pang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Huiyan; Liang, Yanchun; Blanzieri, Enrico

    2015-07-15

    Essential proteins play a crucial role in cellular survival and development process. Experimentally, essential proteins are identified by gene knockouts or RNA interference, which are expensive and often fatal to the target organisms. Regarding this, an alternative yet important approach to essential protein identification is through computational prediction. Existing computational methods predict essential proteins based on their relative densities in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Degree, betweenness, and other appropriate criteria are often used to measure the relative density. However, no matter what criterion is used, a protein is actually ordered by the attributes of this protein per se. In this research, we presented a novel computational method, Integrated Edge Weights (IEW), to first rank protein-protein interactions by integrating their edge weights, and then identified sub PPI networks consisting of those highly-ranked edges, and finally regarded the nodes in these sub networks as essential proteins. We evaluated IEW on three model organisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The experimental results showed that IEW achieved better performance than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision-recall and Jackknife measures. We had also demonstrated that IEW is a robust and effective method, which can retrieve biologically significant modules by its highly-ranked protein-protein interactions for S. cerevisiae, E. coli, and C. elegans. We believe that, with sufficient data provided, IEW can be used to any other organisms' essential protein identification. A website about IEW can be accessed from http://digbio.missouri.edu/IEW/index.html.

  8. Proteomic analysis reveals CCT is a target of Fragile X mental retardation protein regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Monzo, Kate; Dowd, Susan R; Minden, Jonathan S; Sisson, John C

    2010-04-15

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that is required for the translational regulation of specific target mRNAs. Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans. Understanding the basis for FXS has been limited because few in vivo targets of FMRP have been identified and mechanisms for how FMRP regulates physiological targets are unclear. We have previously demonstrated that Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP) is required in early embryos for cleavage furrow formation. In an effort to identify new targets of dFMRP-dependent regulation and new effectors of cleavage furrow formation, we used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are misexpressed in dfmr1 mutant embryos. Of the 28 proteins identified, we have identified three subunits of the Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex as new direct targets of dFMRP-dependent regulation. Furthermore, we found that the septin Peanut, a known effector of cleavage, is a likely conserved substrate of fly CCT and is mislocalized in both cct and in dfmr1 mutant embryos. Based on these results we propose that dFMRP-dependent regulation of CCT subunits is required for cleavage furrow formation and that at least one of its substrates is affected in dfmr1- embryos suggesting that dFMRP-dependent regulation of CCT contributes to the cleavage furrow formation phenotype.

  9. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. PMID:26216991

  10. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-11

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions.

  11. Heat Shock Protein 70s as Potential Molecular Targets for Colon Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer D; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Targeted drugs modulate selective pathways activated or repressed only in cancer cells, resulting in a higher response to chemotherapy with less severe side effects. The use of a selected member of the heat shock protein 70 family (HSP70) as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) will be the focus of this review. We generated two main questions for this study: 1) What are the current and potential future molecular therapies in CRC? 2) Can selective members of the HSP70 family advance drug design and drug discovery for treatment of CRC patients? We discuss related articles based on their significance and translational contributions to the existing literature. The first part of this review discusses molecularly targeted agents that are currently used successfully in the clinic for the treatment of patients with CRC and highlights several novel targeted agents that are being investigated in ongoing trials. The second part of this review focuses on the unique tumorigenic functions of heat shock proteins, particularly mortalin-2, an essential heat shock protein for mitochondrial biogenesis in normal cells and a dominant oncoprotein in colon cancer cells. Basic and clinical studies have justified mortalin-2 as a potential molecular target, and its inhibition could dramatically improve patients' responses to standard chemotherapies. Further understanding of the contributions of HSP70 family members to CRC at the molecular level, combined with translation of new concepts into effective targeted therapies, are anticipated to improve clinical outcomes and increase the therapeutic synergy with combination treatment with cytotoxic agents.

  12. Targeting Protein Homeostasis in Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mhoriam; Machado, Pedro M.; Miller, Adrian; Spicer, Charlotte; Herbelin, Laura; He, Jianghua; Noel, Janelle; Wang, Yunxia; McVey, April L.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Gallagher, Philip; Statland, Jeffrey; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kalmar, Bernadett; Brady, Stefen; Sethi, Huma; Samandouras, George; Parton, Matt; Holton, Janice L.; Weston, Anne; Collinson, Lucy; Taylor, J. Paul; Schiavo, Giampietro; Hanna, Michael G.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Greensmith, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the commonest severe myopathy in patients over age 50. Previous therapeutic trials have targeted the inflammatory features of sIBM, but all have failed. Since protein dyshomeostasis may also play a role in sIBM, we tested the effects of targeting this feature of the disease. Using rat myoblast cultures, we found that up-regulation of the heat shock response with Arimoclomol reduced key pathological markers of sIBM in vitro. Furthermore, in mutant valosin-containing protein VCP mice, which develop an inclusion body myopathy (IBM), treatment with Arimoclomol ameliorated disease pathology and improved muscle function. We therefore evaluated the safety and tolerability of Arimoclomol in an investigator-lead, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept patient trial and gathered exploratory efficacy data which showed that Arimoclomol was safe and well tolerated. Although Arimoclomol improved some IBM-like pathology in vitro and in vivo in the mutant VCP mouse, we did not see statistically significant evidence of efficacy in this proof of concept patient trial. PMID:27009270

  13. RNA stabilizing proteins as molecular targets in cardiovascular pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sahana Suresh; Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Jeyabal, Prince; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    The stability of mRNA has emerged as a key step in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and function. RNA stabilizing proteins (RSPs) contain several RNA recognition motifs, and selectively bind to Adenylate- and uridylate- Rich Elements in the 3′ untranslated region of several mRNAs leading to altered processing, stability and translation. These post-transcriptional gene regulations play a critical role in cellular homeostasis; therefore act as molecular switch between ‘normal cell’ and ‘disease state’. Many mRNA binding proteins have been discovered to date, which either stabilize (HuR/HuA, HuB, HuC, HuD) or destabilize (AUF1, Tristetraprolin, KSRP) the target transcripts. Although the function of RSPs has been widely studied in cancer biology, its role in cardiovascular pathologies is only beginning to evolve. The current review provides an overall understanding of the potential role of RSP, specifically HuR-mediated mRNA stability in myocardial infarction, hypertension and hypertrophy. Also, the effect of RSPs on various cellular processes including inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis, cell-death and proliferation and its relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiological processes is presented. We also discuss the potential clinical implications of RSPs as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25801788

  14. Arabidopsis flower development--of protein complexes, targets, and transport.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Ehlers, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past 25 years or more of research on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ identity, patterning, and development. While collections of floral homeotic mutants of Antirrhinum majus laid the foundation already at the beginning of the previous century, it was the genetic analysis of these mutants in A. majus and Arabidopsis thaliana that led to the development of the ABC model of floral organ identity more than 20 years ago. This intuitive model kick-started research focused on the genetic mechanisms regulating flower development, using mainly A. thaliana as a model plant. In recent years, interactions among floral homeotic proteins have been elucidated, and their direct and indirect target genes are known to a large extent. Here, we provide an overview over the advances in understanding the molecular mechanism orchestrating A. thaliana flower development. We focus on floral homeotic protein complexes, their target genes, evidence for their transport in floral primordia, and how these new results advance our view on the processes downstream of floral organ identity, such as organ boundary formation or floral organ patterning.

  15. G protein-coupled receptors as promising cancer targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; An, Su; Ward, Richard; Yang, Yang; Guo, Xiao-Xi; Li, Wei; Xu, Tian-Rui

    2016-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate an array of fundamental biological processes, such as growth, metabolism and homeostasis. Specifically, GPCRs are involved in cancer initiation and progression. However, compared with the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer, that of GPCRs have been largely ignored. Recent findings have implicated many GPCRs in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Moreover, GPCRs contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a microenvironment which is permissive for tumor formation and growth, including effects upon surrounding blood vessels, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Thus, GPCRs are considered to be among the most useful drug targets against many solid cancers. Development of selective ligands targeting GPCRs may provide novel and effective treatment strategies against cancer and some anticancer compounds are now in clinical trials. Here, we focus on tumor related GPCRs, such as G protein-coupled receptor 30, the lysophosphatidic acid receptor, angiotensin receptors 1 and 2, the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors and gastrin releasing peptide receptor. We also summarize their tissue distributions, activation and roles in tumorigenesis and discuss the potential use of GPCR agonists and antagonists in cancer therapy.

  16. Protein kinase Cη is targeted to lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Michitaka; Iio, Yuri; Saito, Naoaki; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of kinases that regulate numerous cellular functions. They are classified into three subfamilies, i.e., conventional PKCs, novel PKCs, and atypical PKCs, that have different domain structures. Generally, PKCs exist as a soluble protein in the cytosol in resting cells and they are recruited to target membranes upon stimulation. In the present study, we found that PKCη tagged with EGFP distributed in lipid droplets (LD) and induced a significant reduction in LD size. Two other novel PKCs, PKCδ and PKCε, also showed some concentration around LDs, but it was less distinct and less frequent than that of PKCη. Conventional and atypical PKCs (α, βII, γ, and ζ) did not show any preferential distribution around LDs. 1,2-Diacylglycerol, which can activate novel PKCs without an increase of Ca(2+) concentration, is the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol and exists in LDs. The present results suggest that PKCη modifies lipid metabolism by phosphorylating unidentified targets in LDs.

  17. Targeting BCL-2-like Proteins to Kill Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cory, Suzanne; Roberts, Andrew W; Colman, Peter M; Adams, Jerry M

    2016-08-01

    Mutations that impair apoptosis contribute to cancer development and reduce the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer therapies. These insights and understanding of how the B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 protein family governs apoptosis have galvanized the search for a new class of cancer drugs that target its pro-survival members by mimicking their natural antagonists, the BCL-2 homology (BH)3-only proteins. Successful initial clinical trials of the BH3 mimetic venetoclax/ABT-199, specific for BCL-2, have led to its recent licensing for refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to multiple ongoing trials for other malignancies. Moreover, preclinical studies herald the potential of emerging BH3 mimetics targeting other BCL-2 pro-survival members, particularly myeloid cell leukemia (MCL)-1, for multiple cancer types. Thus, BH3 mimetics seem destined to become powerful new weapons in the arsenal against cancer. This review sketches the discovery of the BCL-2 family and its impact on cancer development and therapy; describes how interactions of family members trigger apoptosis; outlines the development of BH3 mimetic drugs; and discusses their potential to advance cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein haptenation by amoxicillin: high resolution mass spectrometry analysis and identification of target proteins in serum.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adriana; Garzon, Davide; Abánades, Daniel R; de los Ríos, Vivian; Vistoli, Giulio; Torres, María J; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2012-12-21

    Allergy towards wide spectrum antibiotics such as amoxicillin (AX) is a major health problem. Protein haptenation by covalent conjugation of AX is considered a key process for the allergic response. However, the nature of the proteins involved has not been completely elucidated. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and is considered a major target for haptenation by drugs, including β-lactam antibiotics. Here we report a procedure for immunological detection of AX-protein adducts with antibodies recognizing the lateral chain of the AX molecule. With this approach we detected human serum proteins modified by AX in vitro and identified HSA, transferrin and immunoglobulins heavy and light chains as prominent AX-modified proteins. Since HSA was the major AX target, we characterized AX-HSA interaction using high resolution LTQ orbitrap MS. At 0.5mg/mL AX, we detected one main AX-HSA adduct involving residues Lys 190, 199 or 541, whereas higher AX concentrations elicited a more extensive modification. In molecular modeling studies Lys190 and Lys 199 were found the most reactive residues towards AX, with surrounding residues favoring adduct formation. These findings provide novel tools and insight for the study of protein haptenation and the mechanisms involved in AX-elicited allergic reactions.

  19. Small-Molecule Targeting of BET Proteins in Cancer.

    PubMed

    French, C A

    2016-01-01

    BET proteins have recently become recognized for their role in a broad range of cancers and are defined by the presence of two acetyl-histone reading bromodomains and an ET domain. This family of proteins includes BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT. BRD4 is the most-studied BET protein in cancer, and normally serves as an epigenetic reader that links active chromatin marks to transcriptional elongation through activation of RNA polymerase II. The role of BRD3 and BRD4 first became known in cancer as mutant oncoproteins fused to the p300-recruiting NUT protein in a rare aggressive subtype of squamous cell cancer known as NUT midline carcinoma (NMC). BET inhibitors are acetyl-histone mimetics that specifically bind BET bromodomains, competitively inhibiting its engagement with chromatin. The antineoplastic effects of BET inhibitors were first demonstrated in NMC and have since been shown to be effective at inhibiting the growth of many different cancers, particularly acute leukemia. BET inhibitors have also been instrumental as tool compounds that have demonstrated the key role of BRD4 in driving NMC and non-NMC cancer growth. Many clinical trials enrolling patients with hematologic and solid tumors are ongoing, with encouraging preliminary findings. BET proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 are expressed in nearly all cells of the body, so there are concerns of toxicity with BET inhibitors, as well as the development of resistance. Toxicity and resistance may be overcome by combining BET inhibitors with other targeted inhibitors, or through the use of novel BET inhibitor derivatives. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeting prion-like protein doppel selectively suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A.; Chung, Seung Woo; Choi, Jeong Uk; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-01

    Controlled and site-specific regulation of growth factor signaling remains a major challenge for current antiangiogenic therapies, as these antiangiogenic agents target normal vasculature as well tumor vasculature. In this article, we identified the prion-like protein doppel as a potential therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. We investigated the interactions between doppel and VEGFR2 and evaluated whether blocking the doppel/VEGFR2 axis suppresses the process of angiogenesis. We discovered that tumor endothelial cells (TECs), but not normal ECs, express doppel; tumors from patients and mouse xenografts expressed doppel in their vasculatures. Induced doppel overexpression in ECs enhanced vascularization, whereas doppel constitutively colocalized and complexed with VEGFR2 in TECs. Doppel inhibition depleted VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, subsequently inducing the internalization and degradation of VEGFR2 and thereby attenuating VEGFR2 signaling. We also synthesized an orally active glycosaminoglycan (LHbisD4) that specifically binds with doppel. We determined that LHbisD4 concentrates over the tumor site and that genetic loss of doppel in TECs decreases LHbisD4 binding and targeting both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, LHbisD4 eliminated VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, prevented VEGF binding in TECs, and suppressed tumor growth. Together, our results demonstrate that blocking doppel can control VEGF signaling in TECs and selectively inhibit tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26950422

  1. Comprehensive Peptidomimetic Libraries Targeting Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, Landon R.

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus Transient protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are essential components in cellular signaling pathways as well as important processes such as viral infection, replication, and immune suppression. The unknown or uncharacterized PPIs involved in such interaction networks often represent compelling therapeutic targets for drug discovery. To date, however, the main strategies for discovery of small molecule modulators of PPIs are typically limited to structurally characterized targets. Recent developments in molecular scaffolds that mimic the side chain display of peptide secondary structures have yielded effective designs, however, few screening libraries of such mimetics currently exist that can be used to interrogate PPI targets. We initiated a program to prepare a comprehensive small molecule library designed to mimic the three major recognition motifs that mediate PPIs (α-helix, β-turn, and β-strand). Three libraries built around templates designed to mimic each such secondary structure and substituted with all triplet combinations of groups representing the 20 natural amino acid side chains would contain a member capable of mimicking the key interaction residues of most targetable PPIs. We summarize herein the results of the design, synthesis, and validation of an 8,000 member α-helix mimetic library and a 4,200 member β-turn mimetic library. The screening of these libraries is expected not only to provide lead structures against α-helix or β-turn mediated protein–protein or peptide–receptor interactions even if the nature of the interaction is unknown, but also yield key insights into the recognition motif (α-helix or β-turn), and identify the key residues mediating the interaction. Consistent with this expectation, the screening of the libraries against p53/MDM2 and HIV-1 gp41 (α-helix mimetic library) or the opioid receptors (β-turn mimetic library) led to the discovery of library members expected to mimic the known endogenous

  2. Targeting protein–protein interactions in complexes organized by A kinase anchoring proteins

    PubMed Central

    Calejo, Ana I.; Taskén, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP – protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. PKA phosphorylation events are typically spatially restricted and temporally well controlled. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity toward particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. AKAPs also scaffold other signaling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signaling pathways. Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein–protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offers important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of individual signalosomes and their pathophysiological role. Furthermore, development of novel classes of small molecules involved in displacement of AKAP-bound signal molecules is now emerging. Here, we will focus on mechanisms for targeting PPI, disruptors that modulate downstream cAMP signaling and their role, especially in the heart. PMID:26441649

  3. TALE-PvuII fusion proteins--novel tools for gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity.

  4. Emerging targets in lipid-based therapy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Stephanie C.; Honn, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    The use of prostaglandins and NSAIDS in the clinic has proven that lipid mediators and their associated pathways make attractive therapeutic targets. When contemplating therapies involving lipid pathways, several basic agents come to mind. There are the enzymes and accessory proteins that lead to the metabolism of lipid substrates, provided through diet or through actions of lipases, the subsequent lipid products, and finally the lipid sensors or receptors. There is abundant evidence that molecules along this lipid continuum can serve as prognostic and diagnostic indicators and are in fact viable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, lipids themselves can be used as therapeutics. Despite this, the vernacular dialog pertaining to “biomarkers” does not routinely include mention of lipids, though this is rapidly changing. Collectively these agents are becoming more appreciated for their respective roles in diverse disease processes from cancer to preterm labor and are receiving their due appreciation after decades of ground work in the lipid field. By relating examples of disease processes that result from dysfunction along the lipid continuum, as well as examples of lipid therapies and emerging technologies, this review is meant to inspire further reading and discovery. PMID:23261527

  5. Image-based air target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glais, Thierry; Ayoun, Andre

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the main results obtained through a study on aircraft identification and attitude estimation conducted by Thomson TRT Defense for the French Ministry of Defense/Direction Generale de l'Armement/Direction des Constructions Aeronautiques. The purpose of this study was automatic assistance to aircraft identification. Indeed, modern fight airplanes are equipped with optronic systems capable of detecting and tracking enemy aircraft. In order to react quickly, the pilot must know at least the target type and possibly its identity. Recognition of the target type and attitude is obtained by matching the observed image with patterns belonging to a database. Two matching algorithms, which have been tested, are presented. The first one, based on the contour Fourier transform, needs the complete target silhouette extraction. The second one, belonging to the class of prediction and verification algorithms, compares the individual parts of the target to the database and is able to recognize the target, even when it is partially occluded or ill-segmented due to the lack of contrast between the target and its environment. An original feature of the algorithm stays in a validation process which increases the reliability of transmitted answers. In case of low confidence, no answer is provided. In addition, successive answers are consolidated. This strategy is interesting especially for image sequences where the tracked airplane achieves attitude evolution or even simply flies over various backgrounds. The main output of this study is the parametric analysis of various factors which influence performance such as contrast, background complexity, distance, attitude and type. The evaluation method, largely based on image synthesis (including image sequences), allows fine interpretation of statistical results. Misclassification errors occur when resolution is not sufficient or when complex backgrounds cause erroneous segmentation. Best results are obtained when the

  6. Sequence Heterogeneity Accelerates Protein Search for Targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Alexey; Kolomeisky, Anatoly

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry and heterogeneity of a genome. The work was supported by the Welch Foundation (Grant C-1559), by the NSF (Grant CHE-1360979), and by the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics sponsored by the NSF (Grant PHY-1427654).

  7. Protein kinase A signaling as an anti-aging target.

    PubMed

    Enns, Linda C; Ladiges, Warren

    2010-07-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a multi-unit protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein-coupled receptors through its activation by adenyl cyclase (AC)-mediated cAMP. The vital importance of PKA signaling to cellular function is reflected in the widespread expression of PKA subunit genes. As one of its many functions, PKA plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism and triglyceride storage. The PKA pathway has become of great interest to the study of aging, since mutations that cause a reduction in PKA signaling have been shown to extend lifespan in yeast, and to both delay the incidence and severity of age-related disease, and to promote leanness and longevity, in mice. There is increasing interest in the potential for the inhibition or redistribution of adiposity to attenuate aging, since obesity is associated with impaired function of most organ systems, and is a strong risk factor for shortened life span. Its association with coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis is leading to its accession as a major cause of global ill health. Therefore, gene signaling pathways such as PKA that promote adiposity are potential inhibitory targets for aging intervention. Since numerous plant compounds have been found that both prevent adipogenesis and inhibit PKA signaling, a focused investigation into their effects on biological systems and the corresponding molecular mechanisms would be of high relevance to the discovery of novel and non-toxic compounds that promote healthy aging.

  8. NACA as a potential cellular target of hepatitis B virus preS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xiao Zhong; Ding, Jian; Yu, Jie-Ping

    2005-06-01

    The mechanisms of the attachment and penetration of hepatitis B virus remain obscure. It has been demonstrated that the preS1 region is essential for viral assembly and infectivity, however, as its cellular receptor has still not been identified unequivocally, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen the cellular proteins that can interact with preS1 protein. The protein recovered from a human liver cDNA library was nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide. The interaction between preS1 and nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide was verified by mating experiment and coimmunoprecipitation of COS7 cell lysates expressing both proteins. Based on these results, we speculate that nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide is a functional target of hepatitis B virus preS1 protein in cells.

  9. An ensemble of specifically targeted proteins stabilizes cortical microtubules in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; He, Yudou; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Sullivan, William J.; Morrissette, Naomi S.; Murray, John M.; Hu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Although all microtubules within a single cell are polymerized from virtually identical subunits, different microtubule populations carry out specialized and diverse functions, including directional transport, force generation, and cellular morphogenesis. Functional differentiation requires specific targeting of associated proteins to subsets or even subregions of these polymers. The cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii, an important human parasite, contains at least five distinct tubulin-based structures. In this work, we define the differential localization of proteins along the cortical microtubules of T. gondii, established during daughter biogenesis and regulated by protein expression and exchange. These proteins distinguish cortical from mitotic spindle microtubules, even though the assembly of these subsets is contemporaneous during cell division. Finally, proteins associated with cortical microtubules collectively protect the stability of the polymers with a remarkable degree of functional redundancy. PMID:26680740

  10. 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions as therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andrew; Ottmann, Christian; Fournier, Alyson E

    2017-09-14

    14-3-3s are a family of ubiquitously expressed adaptor proteins that regulate hundreds of functionally diverse 'client proteins.' In humans, there are seven isoforms with conserved structure and function. 14-3-3s typically bind to client proteins at phosphorylated serine/threonine motifs via a linear binding groove. Binding can have a variety of effects on the stability, activity and/or localization of the client protein. 14-3-3s are generating significant interest as potential drug targets for their involvement in cellular homeostasis and disease. They are especially abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and are implicated in numerous CNS diseases, often through specific interactions with disease-relevant client proteins. Several tool compounds that can modulate 14-3-3 interactions with client proteins to elicit therapeutic effects have recently been described. Here we offer a perspective on the functions of 14-3-3s in neurons and the potential development of drugs to therapeutically target 14-3-3 PPIs for CNS diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein painting reveals solvent-excluded drug targets hidden within native protein–protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Luchini, Alessandra; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the contact regions between a protein and its binding partners is essential for creating therapies that block the interaction. Unfortunately, such contact regions are extremely difficult to characterize because they are hidden inside the binding interface. Here we introduce protein painting as a new tool that employs small molecules as molecular paints to tightly coat the surface of protein–protein complexes. The molecular paints, which block trypsin cleavage sites, are excluded from the binding interface. Following mass spectrometry, only peptides hidden in the interface emerge as positive hits, revealing the functional contact regions that are drug targets. We use protein painting to discover contact regions between the three-way interaction of IL1β ligand, the receptor IL1RI and the accessory protein IL1RAcP. We then use this information to create peptides and monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction and abolish IL1β cell signalling. The technology is broadly applicable to discover protein interaction drug targets. PMID:25048602

  12. Wavelet-based rotationally invariant target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franques, Victoria T.; Kerr, David A.

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for rotationally invariant object classification is proposed based directly on a discrete wavelet transformation. This form of feature extraction is equivalent to retaining information features while eliminating redundant features from images, which is a critical property when analyzing large, high dimensional images. Usually, researchers have resorted to a data pre-processing method to reduce the size of the feature space prior to classification. The proposed method employs statistical features extracted directly from the wavelet coefficients generated from a three-level subband decomposition system using a set of orthogonal and regular Quadrature Mirror Filters. This algorithm has two desirable properties: (1) It reduces the number of dimensions of the feature space necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; (2) Regardless of the target orientation, the algorithm can perform classification with low error rates. Furthermore, the filters used have performed well in the image compression regime, but they have not been applied to applications in target classification which will be demonstrated in this paper. The results of several classification experiments on variously oriented samples of the visible wavelength targets will be presented.

  13. TargetCrys: protein crystallization prediction by fusing multi-view features with two-layered SVM.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Han, Ke; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The accurate prediction of whether a protein will crystallize plays a crucial role in improving the success rate of protein crystallization projects. A common critical problem in the development of machine-learning-based protein crystallization predictors is how to effectively utilize protein features extracted from different views. In this study, we aimed to improve the efficiency of fusing multi-view protein features by proposing a new two-layered SVM (2L-SVM) which switches the feature-level fusion problem to a decision-level fusion problem: the SVMs in the 1st layer of the 2L-SVM are trained on each of the multi-view feature sets; then, the outputs of the 1st layer SVMs, which are the "intermediate" decisions made based on the respective feature sets, are further ensembled by a 2nd layer SVM. Based on the proposed 2L-SVM, we implemented a sequence-based protein crystallization predictor called TargetCrys. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed 2L-SVM for fusing multi-view features. We also compared TargetCrys with existing sequence-based protein crystallization predictors and demonstrated that the proposed TargetCrys outperformed most of the existing predictors and is competitive with the state-of-the-art predictors. The TargetCrys webserver and datasets used in this study are freely available for academic use at: http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetCrys .

  14. The evolution of regulators of G protein signalling proteins as drug targets - 20 years in the making: IUPHAR Review 21.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, B

    2017-03-01

    Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are celebrating the 20th anniversary of their discovery. The unveiling of this new family of negative regulators of G protein signalling in the mid-1990s solved a persistent conundrum in the G protein signalling field, in which the rate of deactivation of signalling cascades in vivo could not be replicated in exogenous systems. Since then, there has been tremendous advancement in the knowledge of RGS protein structure, function, regulation and their role as novel drug targets. RGS proteins play an important modulatory role through their GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity at active, GTP-bound Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. They also possess many non-canonical functions not related to G protein signalling. Here, an update on the status of RGS proteins as drug targets is provided, highlighting advances that have led to the inclusion of RGS proteins in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY database of drug targets.

  15. DSSylation, a novel protein modification targets proteins induced by oxidative stress, and facilitates their degradation in cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinghao; Chang, Fang-Mei; Huang, Jianjun; Junco, Jacob J; Maffi, Shivani K; Pridgen, Hannah I; Catano, Gabriel; Dang, Hong; Ding, Xiang; Yang, Fuquan; Kim, Dae Joon; Slaga, Thomas J; He, Rongqiao; Wei, Sung-Jen

    2014-02-01

    Timely removal of oxidatively damaged proteins is critical for cells exposed to oxidative stresses; however, cellular mechanism for clearing oxidized proteins is not clear. Our study reveals a novel type of protein modification that may play a role in targeting oxidized proteins and remove them. In this process, DSS1 (deleted in split hand/split foot 1), an evolutionally conserved small protein, is conjugated to proteins induced by oxidative stresses in vitro and in vivo, implying oxidized proteins are DSS1 clients. A subsequent ubiquitination targeting DSS1-protein adducts has been observed, suggesting the client proteins are degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The DSS1 attachment to its clients is evidenced to be an enzymatic process modulated by an unidentified ATPase. We name this novel protein modification as DSSylation, in which DSS1 plays as a modifier, whose attachment may render target proteins a signature leading to their subsequent ubiquitination, thereby recruits proteasome to degrade them.

  16. Detection of Peptides, Proteins, and Drugs That Selectively Interact With Protein Targets

    PubMed Central

    Serebriiskii, Ilya G.; Mitina, Olga; Pugacheva, Elena N.; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta; Kotova, Elena; Toby, Garabet G.; Khazak, Vladimir; Kaelin, William G.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Golemis, Erica A.

    2002-01-01

    Genome sequencing has been completed for multiple organisms, and pilot proteomic analyses reported for yeast and higher eukaryotes. This work has emphasized the facts that proteins are frequently engaged in multiple interactions, and that governance of protein interaction specificity is a primary means of regulating biological systems. In particular, the ability to deconvolute complex protein interaction networks to identify which interactions govern specific signaling pathways requires the generation of biological tools that allow the distinction of critical from noncritical interactions. We report the application of an enhanced Dual Bait two-hybrid system to allow detection and manipulation of highly specific protein–protein interactions. We summarize the use of this system to detect proteins and peptides that target well-defined specific motifs in larger protein structures, to facilitate rapid identification of specific interactors from a pool of putative interacting proteins obtained in a library screen, and to score specific drug-mediated disruption of protein–protein interaction. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org. The following individuals kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: A. Taliana, M. Russell, M. Berman, and R. Finley.] PMID:12421766

  17. Target-specific NMR detection of protein-ligand interactions with antibody-relayed (15)N-group selective STD.

    PubMed

    Hetényi, Anasztázia; Hegedűs, Zsófia; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Monostori, Éva; Kövér, Katalin E; Martinek, Tamás A

    2016-12-01

    Fragment-based drug design has been successfully applied to challenging targets where the detection of the weak protein-ligand interactions is a key element. (1)H saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for this work but it requires pure homogeneous proteins as targets. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-relayed (15)N-GS STD spectroscopy has been developed to resolve the problem of protein mixtures and impure proteins. A (15)N-labelled target-specific mAb is selectively irradiated and the saturation is relayed through the target to the ligand. Tests on the anti-Gal-1 mAb/Gal-1/lactose system showed that the approach is experimentally feasible in a reasonable time frame. This method allows detection and identification of binding molecules directly from a protein mixture in a multicomponent system.

  18. Liposome-protein corona in a physiological environment: challenges and opportunities for targeted delivery of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    Active targeting that exploits the (over)expression of surface receptors in target cells by ligand incorporation is a central concept in nanomedicine research. Despite unprecedented efforts, no targeted liposome-based therapeutics is commercially available for clinical practice. What is inhibiting the efficient translation of targeted liposome technology from bench to bedside? After introduction in the bloodstream, the lipid surface is immediately modified by the adsorption of a "protein corona" and preserving the surface functionality appears to be challenging. On the other hand, a long-standing corona with receptor-binding sites could associate with the target cell long enough to activate the cell's uptake machinery, triggering liposome endocytosis and intracellular cargo delivery. This opens the intriguing possibility to manipulate the corona composition by liposome design. This review will focus on the emerging field of liposome-protein corona research from basic, descriptive research to readily applicable knowledge and technologies for implementation in drug improvement and development. From the clinical editor: This review is addressing the liposome protein corona research concerning the potential gains in drug improvement and for drug development.

  19. Selection of DNA nanoparticles with preferential binding to aggregated protein target

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Laura E.; Sapre, Ajay A.; Plaut, Justin S.; De Maere, Elisabeth; Mortier, Charlotte; Nguyen, Valerie; Separa, Kevin; Vandenbogaerde, Sofie; Vandewalle, Laura; Esener, Sadik C.; Messmer, Bradley T.

    2016-01-01

    High affinity and specificity are considered essential for affinity reagents and molecularly-targeted therapeutics, such as monoclonal antibodies. However, life's own molecular and cellular machinery consists of lower affinity, highly multivalent interactions that are metastable, but easily reversible or displaceable. With this inspiration, we have developed a DNA-based reagent platform that uses massive avidity to achieve stable, but reversible specific recognition of polyvalent targets. We have previously selected these DNA reagents, termed DeNAno, against various cells and now we demonstrate that DeNAno specific for protein targets can also be selected. DeNAno were selected against streptavidin-, rituximab- and bevacizumab-coated beads. Binding was stable for weeks and unaffected by the presence of soluble target proteins, yet readily competed by natural or synthetic ligands of the target proteins. Thus DeNAno particles are a novel biomolecular recognition agent whose orthogonal use of avidity over affinity results in uniquely stable yet reversible binding interactions. PMID:26969734

  20. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Casanova, Isolda; Cedano, Juan; Corchero, José Luis; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing. Results Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusion Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. PMID:22923991

  1. Targeting the Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Santos, Thiago M A; Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Huynh, Valerie; Shaw, Jared T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2016-08-11

    Similar to its eukaryotic counterpart, the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for the structural and mechanical properties of bacterial cells. The essential protein FtsZ is a central player in the cytoskeletal family, forms a cytokinetic ring at mid-cell, and recruits the division machinery to orchestrate cell division. Cells depleted of or lacking functional FtsZ do not divide and grow into long filaments that eventually lyse. FtsZ has been studied extensively as a target for antibacterial development. In this Perspective, we review the structural and biochemical properties of FtsZ, its role in cell biochemistry and physiology, the different mechanisms of inhibiting FtsZ, small molecule antagonists (including some misconceptions about mechanisms of action), and their discovery strategies. This collective information will inform chemists on different aspects of FtsZ that can be (and have been) used to develop successful strategies for devising new families of cell division inhibitors.

  2. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  3. Protein kinases as targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    Canduri, Fernanda; Perez, Patrícia Cardoso; Caceres, Rafael A; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2007-03-01

    Parasitic protozoa infecting humans have a great impact on public health, especially in the developing countries. In many instances, the parasites have developed resistance against available chemotherapeutic agents, making the search for alternative drugs a priority. In line with the current interest in Protein Kinase (PK) inhibitors as potential drugs against a variety of diseases, the possibility that PKs may represent targets for novel anti-parasitic agents is being explored. Research into parasite PKs has benefited greatly from genome and EST sequencing projects, with the genomes from a few species fully sequenced (notably that from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum) and several more under way, the structural features that are important to design specific inhibitors against these PKs will be reviewed in the present work.

  4. Fhit is a physiological target of the protein kinase Src.

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Yuri; Garrison, Preston N; Palamarchuk, Alexey; Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami I; Huebner, Kay; Barnes, Larry D; Croce, Carlo M

    2004-03-16

    The FHIT gene is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated by genomic alterations at chromosomal region 3p14.2. In the last few years, a considerable amount of data describing inactivation of FHIT in a variety of human malignancies and demonstrating the tumor suppressor potential of Fhit have been reported. Despite the demonstration that FHIT functions as a tumor suppressor, the pathway through which Fhit induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of cancer cells is not known. Our data demonstrate that Fhit is a target of tyrosine phosphorylation by the Src protein kinase. We show that Src phosphorylates Y114 of Fhit in vitro and in vivo, providing insight into a biochemical pathway involved in Fhit signaling.

  5. Small molecule inhibitors targeting activator protein 1 (AP-1).

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-08-28

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases.

  6. Stabilization of methionine-rich protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: targeting of BZN protein into the peroxisome.

    PubMed

    Nicaud, J M; Raynal, A; Beyou, A; Merkamm, M; Ito, H; Labat, N

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a gene coding for the 12-kDa intermediate form of the 2s methionine-rich protein from Bertholletia excelsa seeds. This protein, expressed intracellularly in yeast, is characterised by a 20-min half-life. By adding 11 amino acids corresponding to the peroxisome-targeting sequence (PTSc) of luciferase, we have significantly increased its half-life. This stabilization allowed accumulation of the BZN protein into the peroxisome as judged by cell fractionation. Accumulation of the 12-kDa protein results in a significant increase of the total methionine content in yeast cells (30%) indicating that such a microorganism could represent a practicable protected shuttle for an animal-feed additive.

  7. Suppression of TLR signaling by targeting TIR domain-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Fekonja, Ota; Avbelj, Monika; Jerala, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize molecules specific to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Binding of agonists to the ectodomain of the receptor initiates TLR activation and is followed by the association of receptor cytosolic Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains with TIR domains of adapter proteins leading to the assembly of signaling cascade of protein kinases that ultimately trigger the activation of transcription factors and expression of genes involved in the immune response. Excessive activation of TIR-domain mediated signaling has been implicated in inflammatory diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colitis) as well as in the development of cancer. Targeting receptor-adapter interactions represents a potential strategy for the therapeutic TLR/IL-1R-specific inhibition due to the unique interacting domains involved. Peptide and protein-domain binding TLR inhibitors originating from the interacting surfaces of TIR-domain containing proteins can bind to the site on their target interacting protein thereby preventing the assembly of the functional signaling complex. Here we review protein-domain, peptide and peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting TIR-domain mediated interactions and their application demonstrated on in vitro and in vivo models. Recent structural data and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of TIR-domain mediated signaling enabled the development of peptide inhibitors from TIR domains of TLRs and adapters, MyD88 intermediary domain as well as improved protein inhibitors based on TIR domain dimerization, mimicking bacterial TIR-domain containing immunosuppressors (TCPs) which we discuss with challenges concerning the delivery and specificity of inhibitors targeting TLR adapters.

  8. Suppression of TLR Signaling by Targeting TIR domain-Containing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fekonja, Ota; Avbelj, Monika; Jerala, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize molecules specific to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Binding of agonists to the ectodomain of the receptor initiates TLR activation and is followed by the association of receptor cytosolic Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains with TIR domains of adapter proteins leading to the assembly of signaling cascade of protein kinases that ultimately trigger the activation of transcription factors and expression of genes involved in the immune response. Excessive activation of TIR-domain mediated signaling has been implicated in inflammatory diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colitis) as well as in the development of cancer. Targeting receptor-adapter interactions represents a potential strategy for the therapeutic TLR/IL-1R-specific inhibition due to the unique interacting domains involved. Peptide and protein-domain binding TLR inhibitors originating from the interacting surfaces of TIR-domain containing proteins can bind to the site on their target interacting protein thereby preventing the assembly of the functional signaling complex. Here we review protein-domain, peptide and peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting TIR-domain mediated interactions and their application demonstrated on in vitro and in vivo models. Recent structural data and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of TIR-domain mediated signaling enabled the development of peptide inhibitors from TIR domains of TLRs and adapters, MyD88 intermediary domain as well as improved protein inhibitors based on TIR domain dimerization, mimicking bacterial TIR-domain containing immunosuppressors (TCPs) which we discuss with challenges concerning the delivery and specificity of inhibitors targeting TLR adapters. PMID:23305364

  9. Nanobody-targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase complex degrades nuclear proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ju Shin, Yeong; Kyun Park, Seung; Jung Jung, Yoo; Na Kim, Ye; Sung Kim, Ki; Kyu Park, Ok; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Ho Jeon, Sung; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.; Kee, Yun; Joon Hwang, Byung

    2015-01-01

    Targeted protein degradation is a powerful tool in determining the function of specific proteins or protein complexes. We fused nanobodies to SPOP, an adaptor protein of the Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, resulting in rapid ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of specific nuclear proteins in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. This approach is easily modifiable, as substrate specificity is conferred by an antibody domain that can be adapted to target virtually any protein. PMID:26373678

  10. Neighborhood-based tobacco advertising targeting adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, S D; Nolden, M

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use remains a serious problem, and adolescents may be particularly receptive to the glamorous images tobacco companies use in advertisements. A relatively new form of neighborhood-based outdoor advertising, the illuminated bus-stop-shelter billboard, was studied to determine tobacco companies' use of this medium. We hypothesized that in 2 distinct San Francisco, California, neighborhoods, 1 predominantly white and the other mostly Latino, we would find a predominance of tobacco advertising on these billboards in both neighborhoods, that tobacco advertisements would be more prevalent in the minority Latino neighborhood, and that tobacco advertising would target adolescents in both neighborhoods. Each bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisement in the study areas from April 1992 to March 1993 was recorded. The type and frequency of products advertised and qualitative content of tobacco advertisements were analyzed. Adolescents' possible exposure to these advertisements was noted. Our main outcome measures were the percentage of tobacco advertising, possible adolescent exposure to this advertising, and themes of the tobacco advertisements. About 10% of all bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisements in each area promoted tobacco use. Possible exposures to these advertisements were greater in the Latino neighborhood because of a greater adolescent population. Qualitative analyses of tobacco advertisements suggested that adolescents are the primary targets. We urge physicians and educators to explicitly address this form of tobacco advertising, and we urge a ban on neighborhood-based tobacco advertising. PMID:7618311

  11. How conformational dynamics influences the protein search for targets on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochugaeva, Maria P.; Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2016-11-01

    Protein search and association to specific sequences on DNA is a starting point for all fundamental biological processes. It has been intensively studied in recent years by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods. However, many features of these complex biological phenomena are still not resolved at the molecular level. Experiments indicate that proteins can be bound non-specifically to DNA in multiple configurations. But the role of conformational fluctuations in the protein search dynamics remains not well understood. Here we develop a theoretical method to analyze how the conformational transitions affect the process of finding the specific targets on DNA. Our approach is based on discrete-state stochastic calculations that take into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes. This allows us to explicitly evaluate the protein search for the targets on DNA at different conditions. Our calculations suggest that conformational fluctuations might strongly affect the protein search dynamics. We explain how the shift in the conformational equilibrium influences the target search kinetics. Theoretical predictions are supported by Monte Carlo computer simulations.

  12. An optimized transit peptide for effective targeting of diverse foreign proteins into chloroplasts in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo-Ran; Zhu, Cheng-Hua; Yao, Zhen; Cui, Li-Li; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; He, Zheng-Hui; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Various chloroplast transit peptides (CTP) have been used to successfully target some foreign proteins into chloroplasts, but for other proteins these same CTPs have reduced localization efficiencies or fail completely. The underlying cause of the failures remains an open question, and more effective CTPs are needed. In this study, we initially observed that two E.coli enzymes, EcTSR and EcGCL, failed to be targeted into rice chloroplasts by the commonly-used rice rbcS transit peptide (rCTP) and were subsequently degraded. Further analyses revealed that the N-terminal unfolded region of cargo proteins is critical for their localization capability, and that a length of about 20 amino acids is required to attain the maximum localization efficiency. We considered that the unfolded region may alleviate the steric hindrance produced by the cargo protein, by functioning as a spacer to which cytosolic translocators can bind. Based on this inference, an optimized CTP, named RC2, was constructed. Analyses showed that RC2 can more effectively target diverse proteins, including EcTSR and EcGCL, into rice chloroplasts. Collectively, our results provide further insight into the mechanism of CTP-mediated chloroplastic localization, and more importantly, RC2 can be widely applied in future chloroplastic metabolic engineering, particularly for crop plants. PMID:28397859

  13. Identifying the singleplex and multiplex proteins based on transductive learning for protein subcellular localization prediction.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junzhe; Liu, Wenqi; He, Jianjun; Gu, Hong

    2013-07-01

    A new method is proposed to identify whether a query protein is singleplex or multiplex for improving the quality of protein subcellular localization prediction. Based on the transductive learning technique, this approach utilizes the information from the both query proteins and known proteins to estimate the subcellular location number of every query protein so that the singleplex and multiplex proteins can be recognized and distinguished. Each query protein is then dealt with by a targeted single-label or multi-label predictor to achieve a high-accuracy prediction result. We assess the performance of the proposed approach by applying it to three groups of protein sequences datasets. Simulation experiments show that the proposed approach can effectively identify the singleplex and multiplex proteins. Through a comparison, the reliably of this method for enhancing the power of predicting protein subcellular localization can also be verified.

  14. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacological Targeting of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Opportunities for Computer-Aided Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Miglianico, Marie; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Neumann, Dietbert

    2016-04-14

    As a central regulator of metabolism, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an established therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. Beyond the metabolic area, the number of medical fields that involve AMPK grows continuously, expanding the potential applications for AMPK modulators. Even though indirect AMPK activators are used in the clinics for their beneficial metabolic outcome, the few described direct agonists all failed to reach the market to date, which leaves options open for novel targeting methods. As AMPK is not actually a single molecule and has different roles depending on its isoform composition, the opportunity for isoform-specific targeting has notably come forward, but the currently available modulators fall short of expectations. In this review, we argue that with the amount of available structural and ligand data, computer-based drug design offers a number of opportunities to undertake novel and isoform-specific targeting of AMPK.

  16. Protein-protein interactions and human cellular cofactors as new targets for HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Tintori, Cristina; Brai, Annalaura; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Fazi, Roberta; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Two novel approaches for the development of new drugs against AIDS are summarized each leading to the achievement of important discoveries in anti-HIV therapy. Despite the success of HAART in reducing mortality, resistant strains continue to emerge in the clinic, underscoring the importance of developing next-generation drugs. Protein-protein interactions and human cellular cofactors represent the new targets of tomorrow in HIV research. The most relevant results obtained in the last few years by the two new strategies are described herein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Augmenting the Efficacy of Immunotoxins and Other Targeted Protein Toxins by Endosomal Escape Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The toxic moiety of almost all protein-based targeted toxins must enter the cytosol of the target cell to mediate its fatal effect. Although more than 500 targeted toxins have been investigated in the past decades, no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date. Missing efficacy can be attributed in many cases to insufficient endosomal escape and therefore subsequent lysosomal degradation of the endocytosed toxins. To overcome this drawback, many strategies have been described to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This comprises the use of lysosomotropic amines, carboxylic ionophores, calcium channel antagonists, various cell-penetrating peptides of viral, bacterial, plant, animal, human and synthetic origin, other organic molecules and light-induced techniques. Although the efficacy of the targeted toxins was typically augmented in cell culture hundred or thousand fold, in exceptional cases more than million fold, the combination of several substances harbors new problems including additional side effects, loss of target specificity, difficulties to determine the therapeutic window and cell type-dependent variations. This review critically scrutinizes the chances and challenges of endosomal escape enhancers and their potential role in future developments. PMID:27376327

  18. Target Identification by Chromatographic Co-elution: Monitoring of Drug-Protein Interactions without Immobilization or Chemical Derivatization*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Janet N. Y.; Vuckovic, Dajana; Sleno, Lekha; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Pogoutse, Oxana; Havugimana, Pierre; Hewel, Johannes A.; Bajaj, Navgeet; Wang, Yale; Musteata, Marcel F.; Nislow, Corey; Emili, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive molecules typically mediate their biological effects through direct physical association with one or more cellular proteins. The detection of drug-target interactions is therefore essential for the characterization of compound mechanism of action and off-target effects, but generic label-free approaches for detecting binding events in biological mixtures have remained elusive. Here, we report a method termed target identification by chromatographic co-elution (TICC) for routinely monitoring the interaction of drugs with cellular proteins under nearly physiological conditions in vitro based on simple liquid chromatographic separations of cell-free lysates. Correlative proteomic analysis of drug-bound protein fractions by shotgun sequencing is then performed to identify candidate target(s). The method is highly reproducible, does not require immobilization or derivatization of drug or protein, and is applicable to diverse natural products and synthetic compounds. The capability of TICC to detect known drug-protein target physical interactions (Kd range: micromolar to nanomolar) is demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively. We subsequently used TICC to uncover the sterol biosynthetic enzyme Erg6p as a novel putative anti-fungal target. Furthermore, TICC identified Asc1 and Dak1, a core 40 S ribosomal protein that represses gene expression, and dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in stress adaptation, respectively, as novel yeast targets of a dopamine receptor agonist. PMID:22357554

  19. The conformation of a nascent polypeptide inside the ribosome tunnel affects protein targeting and protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janine H.; Woolhead, Cheryl A.; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe insights into the function of the ribosome tunnel that were obtained through an analysis of an unusual 25 residue N-terminal motif (EspP1-25) associated with the signal peptide of the E. coli EspP protein. It was previously shown that EspP1-25 inhibits signal peptide recognition by the signal recognition particle (SRP), and we now show that fusion of EspP1-25 to a cytoplasmic protein causes it to aggregate. We obtained two lines of evidence that both of these effects are attributable to the conformation of EspP1-25 inside the ribosome tunnel. First, we found that mutations in EspP1-25 that abolished its effects on protein targeting and protein folding altered the crosslinking of short nascent chains to ribosomal components. Second, we found that a mutation in L22 that distorts the tunnel mimicked the effects of the EspP1-25 mutations on protein biogenesis. Our results provide evidence that the conformation of a polypeptide inside the ribosome tunnel can influence protein folding under physiological conditions and suggest that ribosomal mutations might increase the solubility of at least some aggregation-prone proteins produced in E. coli. PMID:20804452

  20. Identification of target proteins involved in cochlear otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Céline; Doherty, Joni K; Fayad, Jose N; Cordero, Ana; Linthicum, Fred H

    2015-06-01

    Investigation of differential protein expression will provide clues to pathophysiology in otosclerosis. Otosclerosis is a bone remodeling disorder limited to the endochondral layer of the otic capsule within the temporal bone. Some authors have suggested an inflammatory etiology for otosclerosis resulting from persistent measles virus infection involving the otic capsule. Despite numerous genetic studies, implication of candidate genes in the otosclerotic process remains elusive. We employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded temporal bone tissues for postmortem investigation of otosclerosis. Proteomic analysis was performed using human temporal bones from a patient with severe otosclerosis and a control temporal bone. Sections were dissected under microscopy to remove otosclerotic lesions and normal otic capsule for proteomic analysis. Tandem 2D chromatography mass spectrometry was employed. Data analysis and peptide matching to FASTA human databases was done using SEQUEST and proteome discoverer software. TGFβ1 was identified in otosclerosis but not in the normal control temporal bone specimen. Aside from TGFβ1, many proteins and predicted cDNA-encoded proteins were observed, with implications in cell death and/or proliferation pathways, suggesting a possible role in otosclerotic bone remodeling. Immunostaining using TGFβ1 monoclonal revealed marked staining of the spongiotic otosclerotic lesions. Mechanisms involved in cochlear extension of otosclerosis are still unclear, but the implication of TGFβ1 is supported by the present proteomic data and immunostaining results. The established role of TGFβ1 in the chondrogenesis process supports the theory of a reaction targeting the globulae interossei within the otic capsule.

  1. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Huggins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  2. Protein-protein interface-binding peptides inhibit the cancer therapy target human thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Daniela; Guaitoli, Giambattista; Tondi, Donatella; Luciani, Rosaria; Henrich, Stefan; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Ferrari, Stefania; Marverti, Gaetano; Guerrieri, Davide; Ligabue, Alessio; Frassineti, Chiara; Pozzi, Cecilia; Mangani, Stefano; Fessas, Dimitrios; Guerrini, Remo; Ponterini, Glauco; Wade, Rebecca C; Costi, M Paola

    2011-08-23

    Human thymidylate synthase is a homodimeric enzyme that plays a key role in DNA synthesis and is a target for several clinically important anticancer drugs that bind to its active site. We have designed peptides to specifically target its dimer interface. Here we show through X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, kinetic, and calorimetric evidence that the peptides do indeed bind at the interface of the dimeric protein and stabilize its di-inactive form. The "LR" peptide binds at a previously unknown binding site and shows a previously undescribed mechanism for the allosteric inhibition of a homodimeric enzyme. It inhibits the intracellular enzyme in ovarian cancer cells and reduces cellular growth at low micromolar concentrations in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells without causing protein overexpression. This peptide demonstrates the potential of allosteric inhibition of hTS for overcoming platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  3. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Huggins, David J

    2015-06-18

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs.

  4. Landscape phages and their fusion proteins targeted to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fagbohun, Olusegun A; Bedi, Deepa; Grabchenko, Natalia I; Deinnocentes, Patricia A; Bird, Richard C; Petrenko, Valery A

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the USA. The efficacy of existing anticancer therapeutics can be improved by targeting them through conjugation with ligands binding to cellular receptors. Recently, we developed a novel drug targeting strategy based on the use of pre-selected cancer-specific 'fusion pVIII proteins' (fpVIII), as targeting ligands. To study the efficiency of this approach in animal models, we developed a panel of breast cancer cell-binding phages as a source of targeted fpVIIIs. Two landscape phage peptide libraries (8-mer f8/8 and 9-mer f8/9) were screened to isolate 132 phage variants that recognize breast carcinoma cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 and internalize into the cells. When tested for their interaction with the breast cancer cells in comparison with liver cancer cells HepG2, human mammary cells MCF-10A cells and serum, 16 of the phage probes selectively interacted with the breast cancer cells whereas 32 bound both breast and liver cancer cells. The most prominent cancer-specific phage DMPGTVLP, demonstrating sub-nanomolar Kd in interaction with target cells, was used for affinity chromatography of cellular membrane molecules to reveal its potential binding receptor. The isolated protein was identified by direct sequencing as cellular surface nucleolin. This conclusion was confirmed by inhibition of the phage-cell interaction with nucleolin antibodies. Other prominent phage binders VPTDTDYS, VEEGGYIAA, and DWRGDSMDS demonstrate consensus motifs common to previously identified cancer-specific peptides. Isolated phage proteins exhibit inherent binding specificity towards cancer cells, demonstrating the functional activity of the selected fused peptides. The selected phages, their peptide inserts and intact fusion proteins can serve as promising ligands for the development of targeted nanomedicines and their study in model mice with xenograft of human cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1.

  5. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Lillard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the “nanometer” size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., “nanoparticles”, take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad© nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, for single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19186176

  6. AY-WB phytoplasma secretes a protein that targets plant cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaodong; Correa, Valdir R; Toruño, Tania Y; Ammar, El-Desouky; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2009-01-01

    The fully sequenced genome of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB; Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) was mined for the presence of genes encoding secreted proteins based on the presence of N-terminal signal peptides (SP). We identified 56 secreted AY-WB proteins (SAP). These SAP are candidate effector proteins potentially involved in interaction with plant and insect cell components. One of these SAP, SAP11, contains an N-terminal SP sequence and a eukaryotic bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transcripts for SAP11 were detected in AY-WB-infected plants. Yellow fluorescence protein (YFP)-tagged SAP11 accumulated in Nicotiana benthamiana cell nuclei, whereas the nuclear targeting of YFP-tagged SAP11 mutants with disrupted NLS was inhibited. The nuclear transport of YFP-SAP11 was also inhibited in N. benthamiana plants in which the expression of importin alpha was knocked down using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Furthermore, SAP11 was detected by immunocytology in nuclei of young sink tissues of China aster plants infected with AY-WB. In summary, this work shows that AY-WB phytoplasma produces a protein that targets the nuclei of plant host cells; this protein is a potential phytoplasma effector that may alter plant cell physiology.

  7. Acquisition, Conservation, and Loss of Dual-Targeted Proteins in Land Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Carrie, Chris; Law, Simon R.; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James

    2013-01-01

    The dual-targeting ability of a variety of proteins from Physcomitrella patens, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was tested to determine when dual targeting arose and to what extent it was conserved in land plants. Overall, the targeting ability of over 80 different proteins from rice and P. patens, representing 42 dual-targeted proteins in Arabidopsis, was tested. We found that dual targeting arose early in land plant evolution, as it was evident in many cases with P. patens proteins that were conserved in rice and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we found that the acquisition of dual-targeting ability is still occurring, evident in P. patens as well as rice and Arabidopsis. The loss of dual-targeting ability appears to be rare, but does occur. Ascorbate peroxidase represents such an example. After gene duplication in rice, individual genes encode proteins that are targeted to a single organelle. Although we found that dual targeting was generally conserved, the ability to detect dual-targeted proteins differed depending on the cell types used. Furthermore, it appears that small changes in the targeting signal can result in a loss (or gain) of dual-targeting ability. Overall, examination of the targeting signals within this study did not reveal any clear patterns that would predict dual-targeting ability. The acquisition of dual-targeting ability also appears to be coordinated between proteins. Mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly protein40, a protein involved in oxidative folding in mitochondria and peroxisomes, provides an example where acquisition of dual targeting is accompanied by the dual targeting of substrate proteins. PMID:23257241

  8. Acquisition, conservation, and loss of dual-targeted proteins in land plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Carrie, Chris; Law, Simon R; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James

    2013-02-01

    The dual-targeting ability of a variety of proteins from Physcomitrella patens, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was tested to determine when dual targeting arose and to what extent it was conserved in land plants. Overall, the targeting ability of over 80 different proteins from rice and P. patens, representing 42 dual-targeted proteins in Arabidopsis, was tested. We found that dual targeting arose early in land plant evolution, as it was evident in many cases with P. patens proteins that were conserved in rice and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we found that the acquisition of dual-targeting ability is still occurring, evident in P. patens as well as rice and Arabidopsis. The loss of dual-targeting ability appears to be rare, but does occur. Ascorbate peroxidase represents such an example. After gene duplication in rice, individual genes encode proteins that are targeted to a single organelle. Although we found that dual targeting was generally conserved, the ability to detect dual-targeted proteins differed depending on the cell types used. Furthermore, it appears that small changes in the targeting signal can result in a loss (or gain) of dual-targeting ability. Overall, examination of the targeting signals within this study did not reveal any clear patterns that would predict dual-targeting ability. The acquisition of dual-targeting ability also appears to be coordinated between proteins. Mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly protein40, a protein involved in oxidative folding in mitochondria and peroxisomes, provides an example where acquisition of dual targeting is accompanied by the dual targeting of substrate proteins.

  9. Characterization of a Serine Hydrolase Targeted by Acyl-protein Thioesterase Inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Louise E.; Rusch, Marion; Adibekian, Alexander; Bullen, Hayley E.; Graindorge, Arnault; Freymond, Céline; Rottmann, Matthias; Braun-Breton, Catherine; Baumeister, Stefan; Porfetye, Arthur T.; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Hedberg, Christian; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of β-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the β-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein. PMID:23913689

  10. Protein Structure Refinement of CASP Target Proteins Using GNEIMO Torsional Dynamics Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding challenge in using computational methods for protein structure prediction is the refinement of low-resolution structural models derived from comparative modeling methods into highly accurate atomistic models useful for detailed structural studies. Previously, we have developed and demonstrated the utility of the internal coordinate molecular dynamics (MD) technique, generalized Newton–Euler inverse mass operator (GNEIMO), for refinement of small proteins. Using GNEIMO, the high-frequency degrees of freedom are frozen and the protein is modeled as a collection of rigid clusters connected by torsional hinges. This physical model allows larger integration time steps and focuses the conformational search in the low frequency torsional degrees of freedom. Here, we have applied GNEIMO with temperature replica exchange to refine low-resolution protein models of 30 proteins taken from the continuous assessment of structure prediction (CASP) competition. We have shown that GNEIMO torsional MD method leads to refinement of up to 1.3 Å in the root-mean-square deviation in coordinates for 30 CASP target proteins without using any experimental data as restraints in performing the GNEIMO simulations. This is in contrast with the unconstrained all-atom Cartesian MD method performed under the same conditions, where refinement requires the use of restraints during the simulations. PMID:24397429

  11. Protein structure refinement of CASP target proteins using GNEIMO torsional dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Adrien B; Wagner, Jeffrey R; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2014-02-24

    A longstanding challenge in using computational methods for protein structure prediction is the refinement of low-resolution structural models derived from comparative modeling methods into highly accurate atomistic models useful for detailed structural studies. Previously, we have developed and demonstrated the utility of the internal coordinate molecular dynamics (MD) technique, generalized Newton-Euler inverse mass operator (GNEIMO), for refinement of small proteins. Using GNEIMO, the high-frequency degrees of freedom are frozen and the protein is modeled as a collection of rigid clusters connected by torsional hinges. This physical model allows larger integration time steps and focuses the conformational search in the low frequency torsional degrees of freedom. Here, we have applied GNEIMO with temperature replica exchange to refine low-resolution protein models of 30 proteins taken from the continuous assessment of structure prediction (CASP) competition. We have shown that GNEIMO torsional MD method leads to refinement of up to 1.3 Å in the root-mean-square deviation in coordinates for 30 CASP target proteins without using any experimental data as restraints in performing the GNEIMO simulations. This is in contrast with the unconstrained all-atom Cartesian MD method performed under the same conditions, where refinement requires the use of restraints during the simulations.

  12. Granzyme B-based cytolytic fusion protein targeting EpCAM specifically kills triple negative breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse tumor model.

    PubMed

    Amoury, Manal; Kolberg, Katharina; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Hristodorov, Dmitrij; Mladenov, Radoslav; Di Fiore, Stefano; Helfrich, Wijnand; Kiessling, Fabian; Fischer, Rainer; Pardo, Alessa; Thepen, Theophilus; Hussain, Ahmad F; Nachreiner, Thomas; Barth, Stefan

    2016-03-28

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with poor prognosis and high prevalence among young premenopausal women. Unlike in other breast cancer subtypes, no targeted therapy is currently available. Overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in 60% of TNBC tumors correlates with poorer prognosis and is associated with cancer stem cell phenotype. Thus, selective elimination of EpCAM(+) TNBC tumor cells is of clinical importance. Therefore, we constructed a fully human targeted cytolytic fusion protein, designated GbR201K-αEpCAM(scFv), in which an EpCAM-selective single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) is genetically fused to a granzyme B (Gb) mutant with reduced sensitivity to its natural inhibitor serpin B9. In vitro studies confirmed its specific binding, internalization and cytotoxicity toward a panel of EpCAM-expressing TNBC cells. Biodistribution kinetics and tumor-targeting efficacy using MDA-MB-468 cells in a human TNBC xenograft model in mice revealed selective accumulation of GbR201K-αEpCAM(scFv) in the tumors after i.v. injection. Moreover, treatment of tumor-bearing mice demonstrated a prominent inhibition of tumor growth of up to 50 % in this proof-of-concept study. Taken together, our results indicate that GbR201K-αEpCAM(scFv) is a promising novel targeted therapeutic for the treatment of TNBC.

  13. Affinity-based methods in drug-target discovery.

    PubMed

    Rylova, Gabriela; Ozdian, Tomas; Varanasi, Lakshman; Soural, Miroslav; Hlavac, Jan; Holub, Dusan; Dzubak, Petr; Hajduch, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Target discovery using the molecular approach, as opposed to the more traditional systems approach requires the study of the cellular or biological process underlying a condition or disease. The approaches that are employed by the "bench" scientist may be genetic, genomic or proteomic and each has its rightful place in the drug-target discovery process. Affinity-based proteomic techniques currently used in drug-discovery draw upon several disciplines, synthetic chemistry, cell-biology, biochemistry and mass spectrometry. An important component of such techniques is the probe that is specifically designed to pick out a protein or set of proteins from amongst the varied thousands in a cell lysate. A second component, that is just as important, is liquid-chromatography tandem massspectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS and the supporting theoretical framework has come of age and is the tool of choice for protein identification and quantification. These proteomic tools are critical to maintaining the drug-candidate supply, in the larger context of drug discovery.

  14. A Novel Assay Principle for Modulators of Protein-Protein Interactions and its Application to non-ATP-Competitive Ligands Targeting Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, S. Adrian; Kaler, Gregory; Cottam, Howard B.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Targeting sites that modulate protein-protein interactions represents an ongoing challenge for drug discovery. We have devised an assay principle, named Ligand-Regulated Competition (LiReC), in an effort to find non-ATP competitive small molecule regulators for type Iα cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA-Iα), a protein complex that is implicated in disease. Our assay based on the LiReC principle utilizes a competitive fluorescent peptide probe to assess the integrity of the PKA-Iα complex upon introduction of an allosteric ligand. The developed fluorescence polarization method screens for small molecules that specifically protect (antagonists) or conversely activate (agonists) this protein complex. In high throughput format, various cyclic nucleotide-derived agonists and antagonists are successfully detected with high precision. Furthermore, assay performance (Z’-factors above 0.7) far exceeds the minimum requirement for small molecule screening. To identify compounds that operate through novel modes of action, our method shields the ATP binding site and purposely excludes ATP-competitive ligands. These proof-of-principle experiments highlight the potential of the LiReC technique and suggest its application to other protein complexes, thereby providing a novel approach to identify and characterize modulators (small molecules, proteins, peptides, or nucleic acids) of protein-protein systems. PMID:17165815

  15. Chaperone proteins and brain tumors: Potential targets and possible therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Graner, Michael W.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2005-01-01

    Chaperone proteins are most notable for the proteo- and cyotoprotective capacities they afford during cellular stress. Under conditions of cellular normalcy, chaperones still play integral roles in the folding of nascent polypeptides into functional entities, in assisting in intracellular/intraorganellar transport, in assembly and maintenance of multi-subunit protein complexes, and in aiding and abetting the degradation of senescent proteins. Tumors frequently have relatively enhanced needs for chaperone number and activity because of the stresses of rapid proliferation, increased metabolism, and overall genetic instability. Thus, it may be possible to take advantage of this reliance that tumor cells have on chaperones by pharmacologic and biologic means. Certain chaperones are abundant in the brain, which implies important roles for them. While it is presumed that the requirements of brain tumors for chaperone proteins are similar to those of any other cell type, tumor or otherwise, very little inquiry has been directed at the possibility of using chaperone proteins as therapeutic targets or even as therapeutic agents against central nervous system malignancies. This review highlights some of the research on the functions of chaperone proteins, on what can be done to modify those functions, and on the physiological responses that tumors and organisms can have to chaperone-targeted or chaperone-based therapies. In particular, this review will also underscore areas of research where brain tumors have been part of the field, although in general those instances are few and far between. This relative dearth of research devoted to chaperone protein targets and therapeutics in brain tumors reveals much untrodden turf to explore for potential treatments of these dreadfully refractive diseases. PMID:16053701

  16. Specific transport of target molecules by motor proteins in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Mehmet C; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Morin, Fabrice O; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-03

    Direct transport powered by motor proteins can alleviate the challenges presented by miniaturization of microfluidic systems. There have been several recent attempts to build motor-protein-driven transport systems based on simple capturing or transport mechanisms. However, to achieve a multifunctional device for practical applications, a more complex sorting/transport system should be realized. Herein, the proof of concept of a sorting device employing selective capture of distinct target molecules and transport of the sorted molecules to different predefined directions is presented. By combining the bottom-up functionality of biological systems with the top-down handling capabilities of micro-electromechanical systems technology, highly selective molecular recognition and motor-protein-based transport is integrated in a microfluidic channel network.

  17. Arenavirus Z protein as an antiviral target: virus inactivation and protein oligomerization by zinc finger-reactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    García, Cybele C.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Topisirovic, Ivan; Borden, Katherine L. B.; Salvato, María S.; Damonte, Elsa B.

    2008-01-01

    Several disulfide-based and azoic compounds have shown antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses in virus yield-inhibition and inactivation assays, respectively. The most effective virucidal agent, the aromatic disulfide NSC20625, was able to inactivate two strains of the prototype arenavirus species Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Inactivated viral particles retained the biological functions of the virion envelope glycoproteins in virus binding and uptake, but were unable to perform viral RNA replication. Furthermore, in inactivated virions, the electrophoretic profile of the Z protein was altered when analysed under non-reducing conditions, whereas the patterns of the proteins NP and GP1 remained unaffected. Treatment of a recombinant LCMV Z protein with the virucidal agents induced unfolding and oligomerization of Z to high-molecular-mass aggregates, probably due to metal-ion ejection and the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues of the Z RING finger. NSC20625 also exhibited antiviral properties in LCMV-infected cells without affecting other cellular RING-motif proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukaemia protein PML. Altogether, the investigations described here illustrate the potential of the Z protein as a promising target for therapy and the prospects of the Z-reactive compounds to prevent arenavirus dissemination. PMID:16603524

  18. Arenavirus Z protein as an antiviral target: virus inactivation and protein oligomerization by zinc finger-reactive compounds.

    PubMed

    García, Cybele C; Djavani, Mahmoud; Topisirovic, Ivan; Borden, Katherine L B; Salvato, María S; Damonte, Elsa B

    2006-05-01

    Several disulfide-based and azoic compounds have shown antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses in virus yield-inhibition and inactivation assays, respectively. The most effective virucidal agent, the aromatic disulfide NSC20625, was able to inactivate two strains of the prototype arenavirus species Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Inactivated viral particles retained the biological functions of the virion envelope glycoproteins in virus binding and uptake, but were unable to perform viral RNA replication. Furthermore, in inactivated virions, the electrophoretic profile of the Z protein was altered when analysed under non-reducing conditions, whereas the patterns of the proteins NP and GP1 remained unaffected. Treatment of a recombinant LCMV Z protein with the virucidal agents induced unfolding and oligomerization of Z to high-molecular-mass aggregates, probably due to metal-ion ejection and the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues of the Z RING finger. NSC20625 also exhibited antiviral properties in LCMV-infected cells without affecting other cellular RING-motif proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukaemia protein PML. Altogether, the investigations described here illustrate the potential of the Z protein as a promising target for therapy and the prospects of the Z-reactive compounds to prevent arenavirus dissemination.

  19. Diffusion and retention are major determinants of protein targeting to the inner nuclear membrane

    PubMed Central

    Ungricht, Rosemarie; Klann, Michael; Horvath, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Newly synthesized membrane proteins are constantly sorted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to various membranous compartments. How proteins specifically enrich at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is not well understood. We have established a visual in vitro assay to measure kinetics and investigate requirements of protein targeting to the INM. Using human LBR, SUN2, and LAP2β as model substrates, we show that INM targeting is energy-dependent but distinct from import of soluble cargo. Accumulation of proteins at the INM relies on both a highly interconnected ER network, which is affected by energy depletion, and an efficient immobilization step at the INM. Nucleoporin depletions suggest that translocation through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is rate-limiting and restricted by the central NPC scaffold. Our experimental data combined with mathematical modeling support a diffusion-retention–based mechanism of INM targeting. We experimentally confirmed the sufficiency of diffusion and retention using an artificial reporter lacking natural sorting signals that recapitulates the energy dependence of the process in vivo. PMID:26056139

  20. Quantification of proteins in urine samples using targeted mass spectrometry methods.

    PubMed

    Khristenko, Nina; Domon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical proteomics studies are focused on the development of biomarkers to improve either diagnostics for early disease detection or the monitoring of the response to the treatment. Although, a wealth of biomarker candidates are available, their evaluation and validation in a true clinical setup remains challenging. In biomarkers evaluation studies, a panel of proteins of interest are systematically analyzed in a large cohort of samples. However, in spite of the latest progresses in mass spectrometry, the consistent detection of pertinent proteins in high complex biological samples is still a challenging task. Thus, targeted LC-MS/MS methods are better suited for the systematic analysis of biomarkers rather than shotgun approaches. This chapter describes the workflow used to perform targeted quantitative analyses of proteins in urinary samples. The peptides, as surrogates of the protein of interest, are commonly measured using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometers operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. More recently, the advances in targeted LC-MS/MS analysis based on parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) performed on a quadrupole-orbitrap instrument have allowed to increase the specificity and selectivity of the measurements.

  1. Targeting quantum dots to surface proteins in living cells with biotin ligase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Mark; Takao, Keizo; Hayashi, Yasunori; Ting, Alice Y.

    2005-05-01

    Escherichia coli biotin ligase site-specifically biotinylates a lysine side chain within a 15-amino acid acceptor peptide (AP) sequence. We show that mammalian cell surface proteins tagged with AP can be biotinylated by biotin ligase added to the medium, while endogenous proteins remain unmodified. The biotin group then serves as a handle for targeting streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (QDs). This labeling method helps to address the two major deficiencies of antibody-based labeling, which is currently the most common method for targeting QDs to cells: the size of the QD conjugate after antibody attachment and the instability of many antibody-antigen interactions. To demonstrate the versatility of our method, we targeted QDs to cell surface cyan fluorescent protein and epidermal growth factor receptor in HeLa cells and to -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors in neurons. Labeling requires only 2 min, is extremely specific for the AP-tagged protein, and is highly sensitive. We performed time-lapse imaging of single QDs bound to AMPA receptors in neurons, and we compared the trafficking of different AMPA receptor subunits by using two-color pulse-chase labeling. BirA | labeling | streptavidin | glutamate receptor | single molecule

  2. Targeting heat-shock protein 90 with ganetespib for molecularly targeted therapy of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Lu, J; Hua, Y; Zhang, P; Liang, Z; Ruan, L; Lian, C; Shi, H; Chen, K; Tu, Z

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) has become an attractive therapeutic target in treating cancers, because of its abnormally high expression in cancers. Several successful cases of HSP90 inhibitors capable of inhibiting GC inspired us to try ganetespib, a clinically promising and actively investigated second-generation HSP90 inhibitor in GC treatment. In our study, we show that ganetespib markedly reduced the growth of MGC-803 and also significantly inhibited the growth of SGC-7901 and MKN-28 in a dose-dependent manner. It induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in all three cell lines, together with the related markers affected significantly. Mechanistically, ganetespib caused pronounced decrease of expression of classic HSP90 client proteins. Specifically, it greatly affected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascades by markedly decreasing the levels of total EGFR and EGFR on cell membranes. EGFR knockdown also induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis accompanied with a decrease of several EGFR downstream proteins. These results strongly support that EGFR signaling greatly contributes to the ganetespib inhibitory effects. Besides, we found that the responses of GC cell lines to ganetespib correlated well with their EGFR expression levels: MGC-803, as well as AGS and BGC-803, with higher EGFR expression responded to ganetespib better, whereas SGC-7901 and MKN-28 with lower EGFR levels were much less sensitive to ganetespib. Although SGC-7901 and MKN-28 were not very sensitive to ganetespib, ganetespib worked synergistically with radiation and cisplatin in killing them. Importantly, ganetespib significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin. Results of hematoxylin/eosin staining, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling) assays, and immunohistochemistry staining of phosphorylated cyclin

  3. HomPPI: a class of sequence homology based protein-protein interface prediction methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although homology-based methods are among the most widely used methods for predicting the structure and function of proteins, the question as to whether interface sequence conservation can be effectively exploited in predicting protein-protein interfaces has been a subject of debate. Results We studied more than 300,000 pair-wise alignments of protein sequences from structurally characterized protein complexes, including both obligate and transient complexes. We identified sequence similarity criteria required for accurate homology-based inference of interface residues in a query protein sequence. Based on these analyses, we developed HomPPI, a class of sequence homology-based methods for predicting protein-protein interface residues. We present two variants of HomPPI: (i) NPS-HomPPI (Non partner-specific HomPPI), which can be used to predict interface residues of a query protein in the absence of knowledge of the interaction partner; and (ii) PS-HomPPI (Partner-specific HomPPI), which can be used to predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target protein. Our experiments on a benchmark dataset of obligate homodimeric complexes show that NPS-HomPPI can reliably predict protein-protein interface residues in a given protein, with an average correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.76, sensitivity of 0.83, and specificity of 0.78, when sequence homologs of the query protein can be reliably identified. NPS-HomPPI also reliably predicts the interface residues of intrinsically disordered proteins. Our experiments suggest that NPS-HomPPI is competitive with several state-of-the-art interface prediction servers including those that exploit the structure of the query proteins. The partner-specific classifier, PS-HomPPI can, on a large dataset of transient complexes, predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target, with a CC of 0.65, sensitivity of 0.69, and specificity of 0.70, when homologs of both the query and the

  4. HomPPI: a class of sequence homology based protein-protein interface prediction methods.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li C; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2011-06-17

    Although homology-based methods are among the most widely used methods for predicting the structure and function of proteins, the question as to whether interface sequence conservation can be effectively exploited in predicting protein-protein interfaces has been a subject of debate. We studied more than 300,000 pair-wise alignments of protein sequences from structurally characterized protein complexes, including both obligate and transient complexes. We identified sequence similarity criteria required for accurate homology-based inference of interface residues in a query protein sequence.Based on these analyses, we developed HomPPI, a class of sequence homology-based methods for predicting protein-protein interface residues. We present two variants of HomPPI: (i) NPS-HomPPI (Non partner-specific HomPPI), which can be used to predict interface residues of a query protein in the absence of knowledge of the interaction partner; and (ii) PS-HomPPI (Partner-specific HomPPI), which can be used to predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target protein.Our experiments on a benchmark dataset of obligate homodimeric complexes show that NPS-HomPPI can reliably predict protein-protein interface residues in a given protein, with an average correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.76, sensitivity of 0.83, and specificity of 0.78, when sequence homologs of the query protein can be reliably identified. NPS-HomPPI also reliably predicts the interface residues of intrinsically disordered proteins. Our experiments suggest that NPS-HomPPI is competitive with several state-of-the-art interface prediction servers including those that exploit the structure of the query proteins. The partner-specific classifier, PS-HomPPI can, on a large dataset of transient complexes, predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target, with a CC of 0.65, sensitivity of 0.69, and specificity of 0.70, when homologs of both the query and the target can be reliably

  5. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-21

    Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities. Specifically, we preform k-shell decomposition analysis on...significantly attacked. Citation: Shakarian P, Wickiser JK (2012) Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

  6. Split-Inteins for Simultaneous, site-specific conjugation of Quantum Dots to multiple protein targets In vivo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteins labelled with Quantum Dots (QDs) can be imaged over long periods of time with ultrahigh spatial and temporal resolution, yielding important information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins within live cells or in vivo. However one of the major problems regarding the use of QDs for biological imaging is the difficulty of targeting QDs onto proteins. We have recently developed a DnaE split intein-based method to conjugate Quantum Dots (QDs) to the C-terminus of target proteins in vivo. In this study, we expand this approach to achieve site-specific conjugation of QDs to two or more proteins simultaneously with spectrally distinguishable QDs for multiparameter imaging of cellular functions. Results Using the DnaE split intein we target QDs to the C-terminus of paxillin and show that paxillin-QD conjugates become localized at focal adhesions allowing imaging of the formation and dissolution of these complexes. We go on to utilize a different split intein, namely Ssp DnaB mini-intein, to demonstrate N-terminal protein tagging with QDs. Combination of these two intein systems allowed us to simultaneously target two distinct proteins with spectrally distinguishable QDs, in vivo, without any cross talk between the two intein systems. Conclusions Multiple target labeling is a unique feature of the intein based methodology which sets it apart from existing tagging methodologies in that, given the large number of characterized split inteins, the number of individual targets that can be simultaneously tagged is only limited by the number of QDs that can be spectrally distinguished within the cell. Therefore, the intein-mediated approach for simultaneous, in vivo, site-specific (N- and C-terminus) conjugation of Quantum Dots to multiple protein targets opens up new possibilities for bioimaging applications and offers an effective system to target QDs and other nanostructures to intracellular compartments as well as specific molecular complexes. PMID

  7. G protein-coupled receptors: novel targets for drug discovery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to a superfamily of cell surface signalling proteins that have a pivotal role in many physiological functions and in multiple diseases, including the development of cancer and cancer metastasis. Current drugs that target GPCRs - many of which have excellent therapeutic benefits - are directed towards only a few GPCR members. Therefore, huge efforts are currently underway to develop new GPCR-based drugs, particularly for cancer. We review recent findings that present unexpected opportunities to interfere with major tumorigenic signals by manipulating GPCR-mediated pathways. We also discuss current data regarding novel GPCR targets that may provide promising opportunities for drug discovery in cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Size controlled protein nanoemulsions for active targeting of folate receptor positive cells.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Nogueira, Eugénia; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Abreu, Ana S; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Guebitz, Georg; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Preto, Ana; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization with a tri-block copolymer (Poloxamer 407), which presents a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (PPO) and two identical lateral hydrophilic chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG). We observed a linear correlation between tri-block copolymer concentration and size - the use of 5mg/mL of Poloxamer 407 yields nanoemulsions smaller than 100nm. Molecular dynamics and fluorescent tagging of the tri-block copolymer highlight their mechanistic role on the size of emulsions. This novel method enables the fabrication of highly stable albumin emulsions in the nano-size range, highly desirable for controlled drug delivery. Folic Acid (FA)-tagged protein nanoemulsions were shown to promote specific folate receptor (FR)-mediated targeting in FR positive cells. The novel strategy presented here enables the construction of size controlled, functionalized protein-based nanoemulsions with excellent characteristics for active targeting in cancer therapy.

  9. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mayorca-Guiliani, Alejandro; Erler, Janine T

    2013-11-25

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular makeup of the individual disease and will probably require other agents to act on both the LOX enzymes and their associated network.

  10. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Mayorca-Guiliani, Alejandro; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular makeup of the individual disease and will probably require other agents to act on both the LOX enzymes and their associated network. PMID:24348049

  11. Topological robustness analysis of protein interaction networks reveals key targets for overcoming chemotherapy resistance in glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Hátylas; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Biological networks display high robustness against random failures but are vulnerable to targeted attacks on central nodes. Thus, network topology analysis represents a powerful tool for investigating network susceptibility against targeted node removal. Here, we built protein interaction networks associated with chemoresistance to temozolomide, an alkylating agent used in glioma therapy, and analyzed their modular structure and robustness against intentional attack. These networks showed functional modules related to DNA repair, immunity, apoptosis, cell stress, proliferation and migration. Subsequently, network vulnerability was assessed by means of centrality-based attacks based on the removal of node fractions in descending orders of degree, betweenness, or the product of degree and betweenness. This analysis revealed that removing nodes with high degree and high betweenness was more effective in altering networks’ robustness parameters, suggesting that their corresponding proteins may be particularly relevant to target temozolomide resistance. In silico data was used for validation and confirmed that central nodes are more relevant for altering proliferation rates in temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines and for predicting survival in glioma patients. Altogether, these results demonstrate how the analysis of network vulnerability to topological attack facilitates target prioritization for overcoming cancer chemoresistance.

  12. Topological robustness analysis of protein interaction networks reveals key targets for overcoming chemotherapy resistance in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Hátylas; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Biological networks display high robustness against random failures but are vulnerable to targeted attacks on central nodes. Thus, network topology analysis represents a powerful tool for investigating network susceptibility against targeted node removal. Here, we built protein interaction networks associated with chemoresistance to temozolomide, an alkylating agent used in glioma therapy, and analyzed their modular structure and robustness against intentional attack. These networks showed functional modules related to DNA repair, immunity, apoptosis, cell stress, proliferation and migration. Subsequently, network vulnerability was assessed by means of centrality-based attacks based on the removal of node fractions in descending orders of degree, betweenness, or the product of degree and betweenness. This analysis revealed that removing nodes with high degree and high betweenness was more effective in altering networks’ robustness parameters, suggesting that their corresponding proteins may be particularly relevant to target temozolomide resistance. In silico data was used for validation and confirmed that central nodes are more relevant for altering proliferation rates in temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines and for predicting survival in glioma patients. Altogether, these results demonstrate how the analysis of network vulnerability to topological attack facilitates target prioritization for overcoming cancer chemoresistance. PMID:26582089

  13. Ferritin nanocage with intrinsically disordered proteins and affibody: A platform for tumor targeting with extended pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Soyoun; Nam, Gi-Hoon; Kih, Minwoo; Hong, Yeonsun; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yang, Yoosoo; Byun, Youngro; Kim, In-San

    2017-08-15

    Ferritin nanocages are of particular interest as a novel platform for drug and vaccine delivery, diagnosis, biomineralization scaffold and more, due to their perfect and complex symmetry, ideal physical properties, high biocompatibility, low toxicity profiles as well as easy manipulation by genetic or chemical strategies. However, a short half-life is still a hurdle for the translation of ferritin-based nanomedicines into the clinic. Here, we developed a series of rationally designed long circulating ferritin nanocages (LCFNs) with 'Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDP)' as a stealth layer for extending the half-life of ferritin nanocages. Through predictions with 3D modelling, the LCFNs were designed, generated and their pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, clearance rate, mean residence time, and more, were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis. LCFNs have a tenfold increased half-life and overall improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to wild-type ferritin nanocages (wtFN), corresponding to the low binding against bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and endothelial cells. Subsequently, a tumor targeting moiety, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting affibody peptide, was fused to LCFNs for evaluating their potential as a theragnostic platform. The tumor targeting-LCFNs successfully accumulated to the tumor tissue, by efficient targeting via active and passive properties, and also the shielding effect of IDP in vivo. This strategy can be applied to other protein-based nanocages for further progressing their use in the field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Topological robustness analysis of protein interaction networks reveals key targets for overcoming chemotherapy resistance in glioma.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Hátylas; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-19

    Biological networks display high robustness against random failures but are vulnerable to targeted attacks on central nodes. Thus, network topology analysis represents a powerful tool for investigating network susceptibility against targeted node removal. Here, we built protein interaction networks associated with chemoresistance to temozolomide, an alkylating agent used in glioma therapy, and analyzed their modular structure and robustness against intentional attack. These networks showed functional modules related to DNA repair, immunity, apoptosis, cell stress, proliferation and migration. Subsequently, network vulnerability was assessed by means of centrality-based attacks based on the removal of node fractions in descending orders of degree, betweenness, or the product of degree and betweenness. This analysis revealed that removing nodes with high degree and high betweenness was more effective in altering networks' robustness parameters, suggesting that their corresponding proteins may be particularly relevant to target temozolomide resistance. In silico data was used for validation and confirmed that central nodes are more relevant for altering proliferation rates in temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines and for predicting survival in glioma patients. Altogether, these results demonstrate how the analysis of network vulnerability to topological attack facilitates target prioritization for overcoming cancer chemoresistance.

  15. A systematic prediction of drug-target interactions using molecular fingerprints and protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-An; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing

    2016-11-21

    Drug-Target Interactions (DTI) play a crucial role in discovering new drug candidates and finding new proteins to target for drug development. Although the number of detected DTI obtained by high-throughput techniques has been increasing, the number of known DTI is still limited. On the other hand, the experimental methods for detecting the interactions among drugs and proteins are costly and inefficient. Therefore, computational approaches for predicting DTI are drawing increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we report a novel computational model for predicting the DTI using extremely randomized trees model and protein amino acids information. More specifically, the protein sequence is represented as a Pseudo Substitution Matrix Representation (Pseudo-SMR) descriptor in which the influence of biological evolutionary information is retained. For the representation of drug molecules, a novel fingerprint feature vector is utilized to describe its substructure information. Then the DTI pair is characterized by concatenating the two vector spaces of protein sequence and drug substructure. Finally, the proposed method is explored for predicting the DTI on four benchmark datasets: Enzyme, Ion Channel, GPCRs and Nuclear Receptor. The experimental results demonstrate that this method achieves promising prediction accuracies of 89.85%, 87.87%, 82.99% and 81.67%, respectively. For further evaluation, we compared the performance of Extremely Randomized Trees model with that of the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine classifier. And we also compared the proposed model with existing computational models, and confirmed 15 potential drug-target interactions by looking for existing databases. The experiment results show that the proposed method is feasible and promising for predicting drug-target interactions for new drug candidate screening based on sizeable features.

  16. Targeting HIV-1 Envelope Proteins Using a Fragment Discovery All-Atom Computational Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michael H

    2017-04-01

    HIV viral envelope proteins are targets for small inhibitor molecules aimed at disrupting the cellular entry process. Potential peptide-class inhibitor molecules (rDNA drugs) have been previously identified, with mixed results, through biomimicry and phage display experimental methods. Here we describe a new approach based on computational fragment discovery. The method has the potential to not only optimize peptide binding affinity but also to rapidly produce alternative inhibitors against mutated strains. A comprehensive, all-atom implicit solvent method is used to bombard the C-heptad repeat unit of HIV-1 target envelope protein GP41 with single D-amino acid residues as they exist in their native state. A nascent peptide computational search process then identifies potential favorable sequences of attached ligands based on four peptide bond criteria. Finally, dynamic simulations of nascent peptides attached to host targets help refine potential peptide inhibitors for experimental HIV-1 challenge assays and testing. Initial testing of the method was done using 64,000 total ligands of D-amino acid residues at a total computational time of 0.05 microseconds per ligand, which resulted in several thousand attached ligands. Peptide bond criteria search employing three of the four bond constraints with a tolerance of 20 percent, resulted in four potential peptide inhibitors of 5 to 6 residues in length. Only one of the four peptides demonstrated IC50 values and partial viral inhibition based on cell challenge assays using CEM-SS host cells. That peptide inhibitor also computationally demonstrated long-time attachment and stability to a helical groove in its C-heptad target. This initial testing of peptide fragment discovery against HIV-1 has helped us refine the protocols and identify key areas of improvement. Our methods demonstrate the potential to design efficient peptide inhibitors to viral target proteins based on an all-atom dynamic simulation and using a ligand

  17. Landscape phages and their fusion proteins targeted to breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagbohun, Olusegun A.; Bedi, Deepa; Grabchenko, Natalia I.; Deinnocentes, Patricia A.; Bird, Richard C.; Petrenko, Valery A.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the USA. The efficacy of existing anticancer therapeutics can be improved by targeting them through conjugation with ligands binding to cellular receptors. Recently, we developed a novel drug targeting strategy based on the use of pre-selected cancer-specific ‘fusion pVIII proteins’ (fpVIII), as targeting ligands. To study the efficiency of this approach in animal models, we developed a panel of breast cancer cell-binding phages as a source of targeted fpVIIIs. Two landscape phage peptide libraries (8-mer f8/8 and 9-mer f8/9) were screened to isolate 132 phage variants that recognize breast carcinoma cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 and internalize into the cells. When tested for their interaction with the breast cancer cells in comparison with liver cancer cells HepG2, human mammary cells MCF-10A cells and serum, 16 of the phage probes selectively interacted with the breast cancer cells whereas 32 bound both breast and liver cancer cells. The most prominent cancer-specific phage DMPGTVLP, demonstrating sub-nanomolar Kd in interaction with target cells, was used for affinity chromatography of cellular membrane molecules to reveal its potential binding receptor. The isolated protein was identified by direct sequencing as cellular surface nucleolin. This conclusion was confirmed by inhibition of the phage–cell interaction with nucleolin antibodies. Other prominent phage binders VPTDTDYS, VEEGGYIAA, and DWRGDSMDS demonstrate consensus motifs common to previously identified cancer-specific peptides. Isolated phage proteins exhibit inherent binding specificity towards cancer cells, demonstrating the functional activity of the selected fused peptides. The selected phages, their peptide inserts and intact fusion proteins can serve as promising ligands for the development of targeted nanomedicines and their study in model mice with xenograft of human cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1. PMID:22490956

  18. Multiple selection filters ensure accurate tail-anchored membrane protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meera; Okreglak, Voytek; Chio, Un Seng; Cho, Hyunju; Walter, Peter; Shan, Shu-ou

    2016-01-01

    Accurate protein localization is crucial to generate and maintain organization in all cells. Achieving accuracy is challenging, as the molecular signals that dictate a protein’s cellular destination are often promiscuous. A salient example is the targeting of an essential class of tail-anchored (TA) proteins, whose sole defining feature is a transmembrane domain near their C-terminus. Here we show that the Guided Entry of Tail-anchored protein (GET) pathway selects TA proteins destined to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) utilizing distinct molecular steps, including differential binding by the co-chaperone Sgt2 and kinetic proofreading after ATP hydrolysis by the targeting factor Get3. Further, the different steps select for distinct physicochemical features of the TA substrate. The use of multiple selection filters may be general to protein biogenesis pathways that must distinguish correct and incorrect substrates based on minor differences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21301.001 PMID:27925580

  19. Moonlighting Proteins and Protein–Protein Interactions as Neurotherapeutic Targets in the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Field

    PubMed Central

    Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Palkovits, Miklós; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Ciruela, Francisco; Agnati, Luigi F

    2014-01-01

    There is serious interest in understanding the dynamics of the receptor–receptor and receptor–protein interactions in space and time and their integration in GPCR heteroreceptor complexes of the CNS. Moonlighting proteins are special multifunctional proteins because they perform multiple autonomous, often unrelated, functions without partitioning into different