Science.gov

Sample records for baseline characterization measurements

  1. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  2. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  3. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  4. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas T...Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...The work involved temporarily capturing 9 beluga whales during September 1-13, 2012. Hearing abilities were measured for 7 restrained animals using

  5. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  6. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  7. Cognitive performance baseline measurement and eye movement performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirre, Erik S.; Chase, Bradley; Tsai, Yi-Fang

    2005-05-01

    Personnel are often required to perform multiple simultaneous tasks at the limits of their cognitive capacity. In research surrounding cognitive performance resources for tasks during stress and high cognitive workload, one area of deficiency is measurement of individual differences. To determine the amount of attentional demand a stressor places on a subject, one must first know that all subjects are performing at the same level with the same amount of available capacity in the control condition. By equating the baselines of performance across all subjects ("baselining") we can control for differing amounts of performance capacity or attentional resources in each individual. For example, a given level of task performance without a time restriction may be equated across subjects to account for attentional resources. Training to a fixed level of proficiency with time limits might obliterate individual differences in mental resources. Eye movement parameters may serve as a real-time measure of attentional demand. In implementing a baselining technique to control for individual differences, eye movement behaviors will be associated with the true cognitive demands of task loading or other stressors. Using eye movement data as a proxy for attentional state, it may be possible to "close the loop" on the human-machine system, providing a means by which the system can adapt to the attentional state of the human operator. In our presentation, eye movement data will be shown with and without the benefit of the baselining technique. Experimental results will be discussed within the context of this theoretical framework.

  8. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  9. Brain atrophy associated with baseline and longitudinal measures of cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, V.A.; Chao, L.L.; Studholme, C.; Yaffe, K.; Miller, B.L.; Madison, C.; Buckley, S.T.; Mungas, D.; Schuff, N.; Weiner, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal was to identify patterns of brain atrophy associated with cognitive impairment and future cognitive decline in non-demented elders. Seventy-one participants were studied with structural MRI and neuropsychological testing at baseline and 1 year follow-up. Deformation-based morphometry was used to examine the relationship between regional baseline brain tissue volume with baseline and longitudinal measures of delayed verbal memory, semantic memory, and executive function. Smaller right hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes at baseline were associated with worse delayed verbal memory performance at baseline while smaller left ERC volume was associated with greater longitudinal decline. Smaller left superior temporal cortex at baseline was associated with worse semantic memory at baseline, while smaller left temporal white and gray matter volumes were associated with greater semantic memory decline. Increased CSF and smaller frontal lobe volumes were associated with impaired executive function at baseline and greater longitudinal executive decline. These findings suggest that baseline volumes of prefrontal and temporal regions may underlie continuing cognitive decline due to aging, pathology, or both in non-demented elderly individuals. PMID:19446370

  10. GPS Measurements of the Baseline Between Quincy and Platform Harvest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G., Jr.; Dinardo, S.; Vigue, Y.; Jefferson, D.; Lichten, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of TOPEX altimeter verification, the Global Positioning System has been used to measure the baseline between the verification site at oil platform Harvest and a GPS antenna collocated with the satellite laser ranging site at Quincy, California.

  11. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  12. Measuring ocean coherence time with dual-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) interferometer, measurements of the ocean coherence time at L and C band can be made at high spatial resolution. Fundamental to this measurement is the ability to image the ocean interferometrically at two different time-lags, or baselines. By modifying the operating procedure of the existing two antenna interferometer, a technique was developed make these measurements. L band coherence times are measured and presented.

  13. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE PAGES

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  14. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  15. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  16. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  17. Baseline and premining geochemical characterization of mined sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    A rational goal for environmental restoration of new, active, or inactive mine sites would be ‘natural background’ or the environmental conditions that existed before any mining activities or other related anthropogenic activities. In a strictly technical sense, there is no such thing as natural background (or entirely non-anthropogenic) existing today because there is no part of the planet earth that has not had at least some chemical disturbance from anthropogenic activities. Hence, the terms ‘baseline’ and ‘pre-mining’ are preferred to describe these conditions. Baseline conditions are those that existed at the time of the characterization which could be pre-mining, during mining, or post-mining. Protocols for geochemically characterizing pre-mining conditions are not well-documented for sites already mined but there are two approaches that seem most direct and least ambiguous. One is characterization of analog sites along with judicious application of geochemical modeling. The other is reactive-transport modeling (based on careful synoptic sampling with tracer-injection) and subtracting inputs from known mining and mineral processing. Several examples of acidic drainage are described from around the world documenting the range of water compositions produced from pyrite oxidation in the absence of mining. These analog sites provide insight to the processes forming mineralized waters in areas untouched by mining. Natural analog water-chemistry data is compared with the higher metal concentrations, metal fluxes, and weathering rates found in mined areas in the few places where comparisons are possible. The differences are generally 1–3 orders of magnitude higher for acid mine drainage.

  18. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  19. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  20. Characterization of Long Baseline Calibrators at 2.3 GHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    determine their suitability as phase calibrators for long baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary...baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary metrics to classify these 31 southern sources into five...southern radio sources and determine their suitability as calibrators for southern VLBI experiments, especially those using MeerKAT and the SKA when

  1. Baseline Suppression of Vehicle Portal Monitor Gamma Count Profiles: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopresti, Charles A.; Weier, Dennis R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Schweppe, John E.

    2006-06-15

    Radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems based upon polyvinyl toluene scintillator (PVT) gamma ray detectors have been deployed to detect illicit trafficking in radioactive materials at border crossings. This report sets forth a characterization of the baseline suppression effect in gross-count gamma ray profiles due to shadow shielding by vehicles entering radiation portal monitors. Shadow shielding is of interest because it reduces the alarm sensitivity of portal monitors. This observational study investigated three types of PVT based commercial RPM systems currently deployed at selected ports of entry in terms of spatial effects relative to detector panel orientation - driver versus passenger side, top versus bottom, and narrow lanes versus wide lanes - as observed for a large number of vehicles. Each portal site appears to have a distinctive baseline suppression signature, based on percent maximum suppression relative to measured background. Results suggest that alarm algorithms based on gross-counts may be further refined through attention to individual site characteristics. In addition, longer vehicle transit times were often correlated with stronger baseline suppression, suggesting that baseline suppression studies should take into account duration (length) of transit. (PIET-43741-TM-333-NIM)

  2. California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS): Ozonesonde Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Chiao, S.; Spitze, J.; Cauley, S.; Clark, J.; Roberts, M.

    2016-12-01

    Because the EPA recently lowered the ambient air quality standard for the 8-hr average of ozone (O3) to70 ppbv, California must continue to achieve significant reductions in ozone precursor emissions and prepare for new State Implementation Plans (SIP) to demonstrate how ground-level ambient ozone will be reduced below the new health-based standard. Prior studies suggest that background levels of ozone traveling across the Pacific Ocean can significantly influence surface ozone throughout California, particularly during the spring. Evidence has been presented indicating that background levels of ozone continue to increase in the western United States over the recent few decades, implying more ozone exceedances in the future. To better understand the contributions of the external natural and anthropogenic pollution sources as well as atmospheric processes for surface ozone concentrations in California during the spring and summer months, the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) has been established. One major goal of CABOTS is to implement near daily ozonesonde measurements along the California Coast to quantify background ozone aloft before entering the State during high ozone season. CABOTS has been ongoing from May through August of 2016 launching ozonesondes from Bodega Bay and Half Moon Bay, California. The temporal progression of ozonesonde measurements and subsequent analysis of the data will be discussed with a focus on the contribution of background ozone to surface ozone sites inland as well as likely origins of layers aloft. Comparisons of current ozonesondes versus prior ozonesonde studies of California will also be performed. A few selected cases of high ozone layers moving onshore from different sources will be discussed as well.

  3. The 'Geographic Emission Benchmark' model: a baseline approach to measuring emissions associated with deforestation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oh Seok; Newell, Joshua P

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new land-change model, the Geographic Emission Benchmark (GEB), as an approach to quantify land-cover changes associated with deforestation and forest degradation. The GEB is designed to determine 'baseline' activity data for reference levels. Unlike other models that forecast business-as-usual future deforestation, the GEB internally (1) characterizes 'forest' and 'deforestation' with minimal processing and ground-truthing and (2) identifies 'deforestation hotspots' using open-source spatial methods to estimate regional rates of deforestation. The GEB also characterizes forest degradation and identifies leakage belts. This paper compares the accuracy of GEB with GEOMOD, a popular land-change model used in the UN-REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) Program. Using a case study of the Chinese tropics for comparison, GEB's projection is more accurate than GEOMOD's, as measured by Figure of Merit. Thus, the GEB produces baseline activity data that are moderately accurate for the setting of reference levels.

  4. Environmental baseline characterization of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dadiani, J.; Meyer, L.L.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive environmental baseline characterization of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) has been conducted since 1978 and is essentially complete, except for some long-term trend measurements that are continuing until September of 1983. The data from this study can be used in a site-specific environmental impact statement for NOSR development. The baseline study includes geology, vegetation, wildlife, aquatic resources, air quality, meteorology, cultural resources (historic, archaeological, fossil, wilderness, recreation, visual) and socioeconomics. Local subcontractors with specific expertise in the oil shale region provided assistance in field studies. Prior to starting the field work, a detailed baseline monitoring plan was prepared and coordinated with several local, state, and federal agencies for review and comment. Most recommendations made by the agencies could be incorporated into the program. There were no environmental characteristics found that would obviously preclude development on the NOSR; however, there were some findings for which mitigating measures may need to be implemented, depending upon the magnitude of development. These areas include big game migration patterns, threatened and endangered species of vegetation and fish, archaeological sites, and maintenance of air quality.

  5. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline.

    PubMed

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness.

  6. Sustained Attention Performance during Sleep Deprivation Associates with Instability in Behavior and Physiologic Measures at Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lau, Pauline; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Puvanendran, Kathiravelu; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify baseline behavioral and physiologic markers that associate with individual differences in sustained attention during sleep deprivation. Design: In a retrospective study, ocular, electrocardiogram, and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures were compared in subjects who were characterized as resilient (n = 15) or vulnerable (n = 15) to the effects of total sleep deprivation on sustained attention. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Participants: Healthy volunteers aged 22-32 years from the general population. Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for at least 26 hours under constant environmental conditions. Every 2 hours, sustained attention was assessed using a 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Measurements and Results: During baseline sleep and recovery sleep, EEG slow wave activity was similar in resilient versus vulnerable subjects, suggesting that individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss were not related to differences in homeostatic sleep regulation. Rather, irrespective of time elapsed since wake, subjects who were vulnerable to sleep deprivation exhibited slower and more variable PVT response times, lower and more variable heart rate, and higher and more variable EEG spectral power in the theta frequency band (6.0-7.5 Hz). Conclusions: Performance decrements in sustained attention during sleep deprivation associate with instability in behavioral and physiologic measures at baseline. Small individual differences in sustained attention that are present at baseline are amplified during prolonged wakefulness, thus contributing to large between-subjects differences in performance and sleepiness. Citation: Chua EC; Yeo SC; Lee IT; Tan LC; Lau P; Cai S; Zhang X; Puvanendran K; Gooley JJ. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation associates with instability in behavior and physiologic measures at baseline. SLEEP 2014;37(1):27-39. PMID:24470693

  7. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  8. First epoch measurements by Mark III VLBI of the San Andreas Fault experiment baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    The 883-km-long San Andreas Fault Experiment (SAFE) baseline between Quincy in northern California and Monument Peak in southern California spans the San Andreas Fault in a way designed to measure motion between the North American and the Pacific Plates. This baseline and a closely related baseline have been measured with the satellite laser ranging techniques (SLR) for over 10 years. The baseline was measured with the very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique to confirm or reject the results already obtained from SLR.

  9. Baseline Measurement of Running Away among Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherup, Luanne R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Goh, Han-Leong; Borrero, John C.; Mayfield, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of various behavioral measures of running away with regard to (a) the differential utility of interval- versus event-based measures, (b) the differential utility of rate versus duration measures, (c) the utility of correcting for occurrence opportunity, and (d) the influence of unit of analysis (i.e.,…

  10. Heat flow characterization and baseline of sandstone using infra-red thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Y.; Padmanabhan, E.; Ano, A. B.; Ismail, W.

    2016-11-01

    Infra-red thermography was applied to sandstone to characterize and obtain a baseline or a reference thermal image for sandstone. The sample was imaged at room temperature and then heated and imaged again at different time intervals. The thermal images and the optical gradient obtained were analyzed, calibrated, and equated to actual-temperature measured geothermal gradient under controlled heat flux. Heat flow propagation is not consistent in the first time intervals (below 25 minutes). However, after that, the difference in temperature in the distal part and the proximal parts to the heat source almost remained constant. In general, the heat flow could fit to a linear model that is directly proportional to time. The results can be useful when applied to borehole thermal imaging, as well as in thermal conductivity and geothermal gradient determination.

  11. Relationships between functional capacity measures and baseline psychological measures in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Robert B; Fishbain, David A; Steele-Rosomoff, Renee; Rosomoff, Hubert L

    2003-12-01

    The extent to which baseline psychological measures, pain, and compensation status are related to admission and posttreatment functional capacity and employment outcome was investigated. Four pass/fail functional capacity tests based on the DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles) classification system and previously shown to be predictive of treatment outcome in chronic pain patients were analyzed in relation to baseline measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, and perceived stress. Statistical tests of all measures with employment level at admission to treatment, 1 month follow-up and at long-term follow-up were also performed. The results showed that pain level and/or compensation status were the primary predictors of functional capacity and employment status at follow-up. Admission functional capacity measures were also predictors of employment outcome. Depression scores at admission predicted some admission functional capacity results, however, psychological scores were not as significantly related to discharge functional capacity tests. One functional capacity test, the crouching test, was an independent predictor of short- and long-term employment outcome. Trait anxiety was the only psychological factor that was independently predictive of long-term employment outcome. In conclusion, these results suggest that psychological variables are related to measures of functional capacity measured at admission. However, psychological measures at admission are not good predictors of later functional capacity measures. Functional capacity measures are important predictors of follow-up employment outcome, but return to work cannot be predicted without taking pain into account.

  12. Using the Sediment Quality Triad to characterize baseline conditions in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA.

    PubMed

    McGee, Beth L; Pinkney, Alfred E; Velinsky, David J; Ashley, Jeffrey T F; Fisher, Daniel J; Ferrington, Leonard C; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2009-09-01

    The Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) consists of complementary measures of sediment chemistry, benthic community structure, and sediment toxicity. We applied the SQT at 20 stations in the tidal portion of the Anacostia River from Bladensburg, MD to Washington, DC to establish a baseline of conditions to evaluate the effects of management actions. Sediment toxicity was assessed using 10-day survival and growth tests with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca and the midge, Chironomus dilutus. Triplicate grabs were taken at each station for benthic community analysis and the Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was used to interpret the data. Only one station, #92, exhibited toxicity related to sediment contamination. Sediments from this station significantly inhibited growth of both test species, had the highest concentrations of contaminants, and had a degraded benthic community, indicated by a B-IBI of less than 3. Additional sediment from this station was tested and sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures tentatively characterized organic compounds as the cause of toxicity. Overall, forty percent of the stations were classified as degraded by the B-IBI. However, qualitative and quantitative comparisons with sediment quality benchmarks indicated no clear relationship between benthic community health and contaminant concentrations. This study provides a baseline for assessing the effectiveness of management actions in the Anacostia River.

  13. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  14. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  15. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Nagle, Elyse R; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P; Kuhn, Jens H; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5) of all compared methods.

  16. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  17. Multiple-baseline design in instructional research: pitfalls of measurement and procedural advantages.

    PubMed

    Cuvo, A J

    1979-11-01

    The multiple-baseline design has utility for evaluating the instructional programs used with mentally retarded persons; however, there are several pitfalls of measurement that may be encountered in using this design. Subjects' performance may be inadvertently altered by (a) repeated testing during baseline, (b) a procedural contrast between training and testing, and (c) inaccurate generalization during testing. Procedures to mitigate the effects of these problems were recommended. The pitfalls may arise in part because of the direct interpersonal nature of measuring the dependent variable in instructional research. Also, the pitfalls are not inherent in the multiple-baseline design per se but are issues of measurement that may occur in other designs as well. Finally, the advantage of using the multiple-baseline design to study covariation of responding was highlighted.

  18. Measurement of the solar gravitational deflection of radio waves using geodetic very-long-baseline interferometry data, 1979-1999.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S S; Davis, J L; Lebach, D E; Gregory, J S

    2004-03-26

    We used very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) to measure the deflection by the Sun of radio waves emanating from distant compact radio sources. This bending is characterized in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism by gamma, which is unity in general relativity. Using a large geodetic VLBI data set, we obtained gamma=0.9998(3)+/-0.0004(5) (estimated standard error). We found no systematic biases from our analysis of subgroups of data.

  19. Data Report on the Newest Batch of PCEA Graphite for the VHTR Baseline Graphite Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher; Cottle, David Lynn; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This report details a comparison of mechanical and physical properties from the first billet of extruded PCEA nuclear-grade graphite from the newest batch of PCEA procured from GrafTech. Testing has largely been completed on three of the billets from the original batch of PCEA, with data distributions for those billets exhibiting a much wider range of values when compared to the distributions of properties from other grades. A higher propensity for extremely low values or specimens that broke while machining or handling was also characteristic of the billets from the first batch, owing to unusually large fissures or disparate flaws in the billets in an as-manufactured state. Coordination with GrafTech prior to placing the order for a second batch of PCEA included discussions on these large disparate flaws and how to prevent them during the manufacturing process. This report provides a comparison of the observed data distributions from properties measured in the first billet from the new batch of PCEA with those observed in the original batch, in order that an evaluation of tighter control of the manufacturing process and the outcome of these controls on final properties can be ascertained. Additionally, this billet of PCEA is the first billet to formally include measurements from two alternate test techniques that will become part of the Baseline Graphite Characterization database – the three-point bend test on sub-sized cylinders and the Brazilian disc splitting tensile strength test. As the program moves forward, property distributions from these two tests will be based on specimen geometries that match specimen geometries being used in the irradiated Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program. This will allow a more thorough evaluation of both the utility of the test and expected variability in properties when using those approaches on the constrained geometries of specimens irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor as part of the AGC experiment.

  20. Baseline impedance measured during high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry reliably discriminates GERD patients.

    PubMed

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Vela, M F; Crowell, M D; Katzka, D A

    2017-05-01

    Baseline impedance measured with ambulatory impedance pH monitoring (MII-pH) and a mucosal impedance catheter detects gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, these tools are limited by cost or patient tolerance. We investigated whether baseline impedance measured during high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) distinguishes GERD patients from controls. Consecutive patients with clinical HRIM and MII-pH testing were identified. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was defined by esophageal pH <4 for ≥5% of both the supine and total study time, whereas controls had an esophageal pH <4 for ≤3% of the study performed off PPI. Baseline impedance was measured over 15 seconds during the landmark period of HRIM and over three 10 minute intervals during the overnight period of MII-pH. Among 29 GERD patients and 26 controls, GERD patients had a mean esophageal acid exposure time of 22.7% compared to 1.2% in controls (P<.0001). Mean baseline impedance during HRIM was lower in GERD (1061 Ω) than controls (2814 Ω) (P<.0001). Baseline mucosal impedance measured during HRIM and MII-pH correlated (r=0.59, P<.0001). High-resolution esophageal manometry baseline impedance had high diagnostic accuracy for GERD, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.931 on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A HRIM baseline impedance threshold of 1582 Ω had a sensitivity of 86.2% and specificity of 88.5% for GERD, with a positive predictive value of 89.3% and negative predictive value of 85.2%. Baseline impedance measured during HRIM can reliably discriminate GERD patients with at least moderate esophageal acid exposure from controls. This diagnostic tool may represent an accurate, cost-effective, and less invasive test for GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The SIMEX approach to measurement error correction in meta-analysis with baseline risk as covariate.

    PubMed

    Guolo, A

    2014-05-30

    This paper investigates the use of SIMEX, a simulation-based measurement error correction technique, for meta-analysis of studies involving the baseline risk of subjects in the control group as explanatory variable. The approach accounts for the measurement error affecting the information about either the outcome in the treatment group or the baseline risk available from each study, while requiring no assumption about the distribution of the true unobserved baseline risk. This robustness property, together with the feasibility of computation, makes SIMEX very attractive. The approach is suggested as an alternative to the usual likelihood analysis, which can provide misleading inferential results when the commonly assumed normal distribution for the baseline risk is violated. The performance of SIMEX is compared to the likelihood method and to the moment-based correction through an extensive simulation study and the analysis of two datasets from the medical literature.

  2. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    PubMed

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  4. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    PubMed Central

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  5. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  6. Mobile very long baseline interferometry and Global Positioning System measurement of vertical crustal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Davidson, John M.; Gardner, Elaine C.

    1986-01-01

    Mobile Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic measurements have many error sources in common. Calibration of the effects of water vapor on signal transmission through the atmosphere, however, remains the primary limitation to the accuracy of vertical crustal motion measurements made by either technique. The two primary methods of water vapor calibration currently in use for mobile VLBI baseline measurements were evaluated: radiometric measurements of the sky brightness near the 22 GHz emission line of free water molecules and surface meteorological measurements used as input to an atmospheric model. Based upon a limited set of 9 baselines, it is shown that calibrating VLBI data with water vapor radiometer measurements provides a significantly better fit to the theoretical decay model than calibrating the same data with surface meteorological measurements. The effect of estimating a systematic error in the surface meteorological calibration is shown to improve the consistency of the vertical baseline components obtained by the two calibration methods. A detailed error model for the vertical baseline components obtained indicates current mobile VLBI technology should allow accuracies of order 3 cm with WVR calibration and 10 cm when surface meteorological calibration is used.

  7. Mobile very long baseline interferometry and Global Positioning System measurement of vertical crustal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Davidson, John M.; Gardner, Elaine C.

    1986-01-01

    Mobile Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic measurements have many error sources in common. Calibration of the effects of water vapor on signal transmission through the atmosphere, however, remains the primary limitation to the accuracy of vertical crustal motion measurements made by either technique. The two primary methods of water vapor calibration currently in use for mobile VLBI baseline measurements were evaluated: radiometric measurements of the sky brightness near the 22 GHz emission line of free water molecules and surface meteorological measurements used as input to an atmospheric model. Based upon a limited set of 9 baselines, it is shown that calibrating VLBI data with water vapor radiometer measurements provides a significantly better fit to the theoretical decay model than calibrating the same data with surface meteorological measurements. The effect of estimating a systematic error in the surface meteorological calibration is shown to improve the consistency of the vertical baseline components obtained by the two calibration methods. A detailed error model for the vertical baseline components obtained indicates current mobile VLBI technology should allow accuracies of order 3 cm with WVR calibration and 10 cm when surface meteorological calibration is used.

  8. Updated neutron spectrum characterization of SNL baseline reactor environments. Volume 1, Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    The neutron spectrum characteristics of the primary reactor environments are defined for use by facility customers and to provide an audit trail in support of current quality assurance initiatives. The neutron and gamma environments in the four primary customer environments at SPR-III and ACRR facilities are characterized in detail. Enough detail is provided on other frequently-used environments to support the definition of the 3-MeV and 1-MeV(Si) fluence provided on the Radiation Metrology Laboratory dosimetry reports.

  9. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  10. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  12. Forest Structure Characterization Using JPL's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  13. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  14. Forest Structure Characterization Using JPL's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  15. Stack Characterization in CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin Baseline C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Di Giacinto, Andrea; Bouffard, Jerome; Féménias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and it carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. The current CryoSat IPF (Instrument Processing Facility), Baseline B, was released in operation in February 2012. After more than 2 years of development, the release in operations of the Baseline C is expected in the first half of 2015. It is worth recalling here that the CryoSat SAR/SARin IPF1 generates 20Hz waveforms in correspondence of an approximately equally spaced set of ground locations on the Earth surface, i.e. surface samples, and that a surface sample gathers a collection of single-look echoes coming from the processed bursts during the time of visibility. Thus, for a given surface sample, the stack can be defined as the collection of all the single-look echoes pointing to the current surface sample, after applying all the necessary range corrections. The L1B product contains the power average of all the single-look echoes in the stack: the multi-looked L1B waveform. This reduces the data volume, while removing some information contained in the single looks, useful for characterizing the surface and modelling the L1B waveform. To recover such information, a set of parameters has been added to the L1B product: the stack characterization or beam behaviour parameters. The stack characterization, already included in previous Baselines, has been reviewed and expanded in Baseline C. This poster describes all the stack characterization parameters, detailing what they represent and how they have been computed. In details, such parameters can be summarized in: - Stack

  16. Analysis of baseline, average, and longitudinally measured blood pressure data using linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ahmed; Beyene, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article compares baseline, average, and longitudinal data analysis methods for identifying genetic variants in genome-wide association study using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data. We apply methods that include (a) linear mixed models with baseline measures, (b) random intercept linear mixed models with mean measures outcome, and (c) random intercept linear mixed models with longitudinal measurements. In the linear mixed models, covariates are included as fixed effects, whereas relatedness among individuals is incorporated as the variance-covariance structure of the random effect for the individuals. The overall strategy of applying linear mixed models decorrelate the data is based on Aulchenko et al.'s GRAMMAR. By analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which are used separately as outcomes, we compare the 3 methods in identifying a known genetic variant that is associated with blood pressure from chromosome 3 and simulated phenotype data. We also analyze the real phenotype data to illustrate the methods. We conclude that the linear mixed model with longitudinal measurements of diastolic blood pressure is the most accurate at identifying the known single-nucleotide polymorphism among the methods, but linear mixed models with baseline measures perform best with systolic blood pressure as the outcome.

  17. Exploring deep sea habitats for baseline characterization using NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, L.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kennedy, B. R.; Lobecker, E.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the only US federal ship dedicated to ocean exploration, systematically explored previously unknown deep sea ecosystems in the Caribbean and remote regions in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. Initial characterization of these areas is essential in order to establish a baseline against which to assess potential future changes due to climate and anthropogenic change. In the Caribbean, over 37,500 sq km of previously unmapped seafloor were mapped with a high resolution multibeam revealing rugged canyons along shelf breaks, intricate incised channels, and complex tectonic features. 12 ROV dives, in the 300-6,000 m depth range, visually explored seamounts, escarpments, submarine canyons, and the water column revealing diverse ecosystems and habitats. Discoveries include large assemblages of deep sea corals, range extensions, and observations of several rare and potentially new organisms - including a seastar that had not been documented since its holotype specimen. In the Pacific, over 50,000 sq km of seafloor were mapped in high-resolution, revealing long linear ridge and tectonic fracture zone features, both peaked and flat-topped seamounts, and numerous features that appear to be volcanic in origin. To better understand ecosystem dynamics in depths greater than 2,000 m, the deepest ever ROV surveys and sampling were conducted in remote Pacific island marine sanctuaries and monuments. Novel observations include range extensions and exploration of dense deep sea coral and sponge habitat. Baseline habitat characterization was also conducted on seamounts within the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ), an area with the highest expected concentration of deep-sea minerals in the Pacific. The Hawaiian operations marked the first ever ROV sampling effort conducted onboard Okeanos, and several geological and biological samples are now available at museums and sample repositories in addition to all digital data available through the National

  18. Performance analysis of 3-D shape measurement algorithm with a short baseline projector-camera system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianyang; Li, Youfu

    A number of works for 3-D shape measurement based on structured light have been well-studied in the last decades. A common way to model the system is to use the binocular stereovision-like model. In this model, the projector is treated as a camera, thus making a projector-camera-based system unified with a well-established traditional binocular stereovision system. After calibrating the projector and camera, a 3-D shape information is obtained by conventional triangulation. However, in such a stereovision-like system, the short baseline problem exists and limits the measurement accuracy. Hence, in this work, we present a new projecting-imaging model based on fringe projection profilometry (FPP). In this model, we first derive a rigorous mathematical relationship that exists between the height of an object's surface, the phase difference distribution map, and the parameters of the setup. Based on this model, we then study the problem of how the uncertainty of relevant parameters, particularly the baseline's length, affects the 3-D shape measurement accuracy using our proposed model. We provide an extensive uncertainty analysis on the proposed model through partial derivative analysis, relative error analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Moreover, the Monte Carlo simulation experiment is also conducted which shows that the measurement performance of the projector-camera system has a short baseline.

  19. Classifying Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation Using Baseline Measures of Psychomotor Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C.P.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Design: Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1–2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Setting: Two academic sleep laboratories. Participants: Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. Measurements and Results: In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Conclusions: Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline following sleep deprivation. Citation: Patanaik A, Kwoh CK, Chua EC, Gooley JJ, Chee MW. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance. SLEEP 2015;38(5):723–734. PMID:25325482

  20. Baseline suppression problems for high precision measurements using optical beam profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P.; Gassner, D.; Glenn, J.; Minty, M.; Zimmer, C.

    2011-03-28

    The use of fluorescent screens (e.g. YAG screens) and Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) screens for beam profile monitors provides a simple and widely used way to obtain detailed two dimensional intensity maps. What makes this possible is the availability of relatively inexpensive CCD cameras. For high precision measurements many possible error contributions need to be considered that have to do with properties of the fluorescent screens and of the CCDs. Saturation effects, reflections within and outside the screen, non-linearities, radiation damage, etc are often mentioned. Here we concentrate on an error source less commonly described, namely erroneous baseline subtraction, which is particularly important when fitting projected images. We show computer simulations as well as measurement results having remarkable sensitivity of the fitted profile widths to even partial suppression of the profile baseline data, which often arises from large pixel-to-pixel variations at low intensity levels. Such inadvertent baseline data suppression is very easy to miss as it is usually not obvious when inspecting projected profiles. In this report we illustrate this effect and discuss possible algorithms to automate the detection of this problem as well as some possible corrective measures.

  1. Very-long-baseline-interferometry measurements of planetary orbiters at Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Folkner, William M.; Iijima, Byron A.; Hildebrand, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    The first attempts to use radio interferometric techniques to measure the positions of planetary orbiters were made in 1980 with the Viking Mars orbiter and again in 1993 using the Pioneer Venus orbiter. The angular accuracy of these early measurements was on the order of 200 nrad. This work describes more recent very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements made in 1989 of the Soviet Martian orbiter, Phobos 2, and several measurements made since September of 1990 of the Magellan spacecraft orbiting Venus. Both the Phobos and Magellan measurements recorded data with the Mark 3 VLBI systems located at antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The much wider bandwidth of this recording system and the availability of ionospheric calibrations should allow angular accuracy approaching 5 nrad to be achieved with these measurements.

  2. Sport and Team Differences on Baseline Measures of Sport-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Context: With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. Objective: To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. Main Outcome Measure(s): The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Results: Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp2 = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P < .001) and softball/baseball (P = .03). When sex and height were considered as possible sources of variation in BESS and CRI team or sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp2 = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp2 = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and

  3. Increasing active travel: aims, methods and baseline measures of a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Keall, Michael; Witten, Karen; Abrahamse, Wokje; Woodward, Alistair; Muggeridge, Dylan; Beetham, Jean; Grams, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Policy advisers are seeking robust evidence on the effectiveness of measures, such as promoting walking and cycling, that potentially offer multiple benefits, including enhanced health through physical activity, alongside reductions in energy use, traffic congestion and carbon emissions. This paper outlines the 'ACTIVE' study, designed to test whether the Model Communities Programme in two New Zealand cities is increasing walking and cycling. The intervention consists of the introduction of cycle and walkway infrastructure, along with measures to encourage active travel. This paper focuses on the rationale for our chosen study design and methods. The study design is multi-level and quasi-experimental, with two intervention and two control cities. Baseline measures were taken in 2011 and follow-up measures in 2012 and 2013. Our face-to-face surveys measured walking and cycling, but also awareness, attitudes and habits. We measured explanatory and confounding factors for mode choice, including socio-demographic and well-being variables. Data collected from the same households on either two or three occasions will be analysed using multi-level models that take account of clustering at the household and individual levels. A cost-benefit analysis will also be undertaken, using our estimates of carbon savings from mode shifts. The matching of the intervention and control cities was quite close in terms of socio-demographic variables, including ethnicity, and baseline levels of walking and cycling. This multidisciplinary study provides a strong design for evaluating an intervention to increase walking and cycling in a developed country with relatively low baseline levels of active travel. Its strengths include the use of data from control cities as well as intervention cities, an extended evaluation period with a reasonable response rate from a random community survey and the availability of instrumental variables for sensitivity analyses.

  4. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Raj; Kayser, Boris; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-09-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass ~1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. These results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterile state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, but in order that its highly anticipated results on CP violation in the lepton sector may be correctly interpreted.

  5. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    DOE PAGES

    Gandhi, Raj; Kayser, Boris; Masud, Mehedi; ...

    2015-09-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass ~1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. These results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterilemore » state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, but in order that its highly anticipated results on CP violation in the lepton sector may be correctly interpreted.« less

  6. Microvascular oxygen tension and flow measurements in rodent cerebral cortex during baseline conditions and functional activation

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Sakadžić, Sava; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Gorczynska, Iwona; Wu, Weicheng; Fujimoto, James G; Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Measuring cerebral oxygen delivery and metabolism microscopically is important for interpreting macroscopic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and identifying pathological changes associated with stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and brain injury. Here, we present simultaneous, microscopic measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cortical microvessels of anesthetized rats under baseline conditions and during somatosensory stimulation. Using a custom-built imaging system, we measured CBF with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and vascular pO2 with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy. Cerebral blood flow and pO2 measurements displayed heterogeneity over distances irresolvable with fMRI and positron emission tomography. Baseline measurements indicate O2 extraction from pial arterioles and homogeneity of ascending venule pO2 despite large variation in microvessel flows. Oxygen extraction is linearly related to flow in ascending venules, suggesting that flow in ascending venules closely matches oxygen demand of the drained territory. Oxygen partial pressure and relative CBF transients during somatosensory stimulation further indicate arteriolar O2 extraction and suggest that arterioles contribute to the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent response. Understanding O2 supply on a microscopic level will yield better insight into brain function and the underlying mechanisms of various neuropathologies. PMID:21179069

  7. Sport and team differences on baseline measures of sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P < .001) and softball/baseball (P = .03). When sex and height were considered as possible sources of variation in BESS and CRI team or sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in

  8. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance.

    PubMed

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C P; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1-2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Two academic sleep laboratories. Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline

  9. A novel variable baseline visibility detection system and its measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Jiang, Li-hui; Xiong, Xing-long; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, JianQuan

    2017-07-01

    As an important meteorological observation instrument, the visibility meter can ensure the safety of traffic operation. However, due to the optical system contamination as well as sample error, the accuracy and stability of the equipment are difficult to meet the requirement in the low-visibility environment. To settle this matter, a novel measurement equipment was designed based upon multiple baseline, which essentially acts as an atmospheric transmission meter with movable optical receiver, applying weighted least square method to process signal. Theoretical analysis and experiments in real atmosphere environment support this technique.

  10. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference Δm2≅0.9eV2. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability Pee as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for Δm2≅1.9eV2. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of Pee as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV2 to several eV2 (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  11. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-15

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 0.9 eV{sup 2}. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 1.9 eV{sup 2}. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV{sup 2} to several eV{sup 2} (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  12. Comparison of Tone Mode Measurements for a Forward Swept and Baseline Rotor Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2003-01-01

    A forward swept fan, designated the Quite High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The design objective of the QHSF was a 6 dB reduction in Effective Perceived Noise Level relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The design noise reduction was to be a result of lower levels of multiple pure tone noise due to the forward swept rotor, and lower rotor/stator interaction tone noise from a leaned stator. Although the design 6 dB reduction was observed in far-field measurements, the induct mode measurements revealed the reasons for goals. All of the noise reduction was from the blade passing tone and its harmonics and most of this was unexpectedly from rotor/strut interaction modes. The reason for large differences in rotor/strut noise sources could not be determined with certainty. The reductions in the multiple pure tone noise for the forward swept rotor were not observed. this reduction were not the ones related to the design

  13. Baseline Optimization for the Measurement of CP Violation, Mass Hierarchy, and $\\theta_{23}$ Octant in a Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, M.; Bishai, M.; Cherdack, D.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Lundberg, B.; Paolone, V.; Qian, X.; Rameika, R.; Whitehead, L.; Wilson, R. J.; Worcester, E.; Zeller, G.

    2015-03-19

    Next-generation long-baseline electron neutrino appearance experiments will seek to discover CP violation, determine the mass hierarchy and resolve the θ23 octant. In light of the recent precision measurements of θ13, we consider the sensitivity of these measurements in a study to determine the optimal baseline, including practical considerations regarding beam and detector performance. We conclude that a detector at a baseline of at least 1000 km in a wide-band muon neutrino beam is the optimal configuration.

  14. Reliability and validity of the beats above baseline index: a new measure of task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Pine, Z M; Colbran, E; Corpolongo, R

    1994-05-01

    The Beats Above Baseline Index (BABI) is mathematically based on the integral of effort (estimated by instantaneous heart rate increase) across the time interval for task completion. This is equivalent to the number of heart beats occurring during a task minus the number of beats that would have occurred during the same time interval at the baseline rate. We assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the BABI using 19 normal subjects accomplishing a stair-climbing task. Subjects completed the task under normal conditions (N), with a knee immobilizer and cane (CANE), and using crutches (CRUTCH). Reliability of the BABI was high within (ICC 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.92) and between sessions (ICC 0.91, 95% CI 0.77-0.97). Individual BABI values for all 19 subjects conformed to the underlying construct, namely N < CANE < CRUTCH. In contrast, two commonly used alternative measures, namely maximum change in heart rate and time for task completion, showed inferior concordance to the construct.

  15. Lost ecosystem services as a measure of oil spill damages: a conceptual analysis of the importance of baselines.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chris J; Cheong, So-Min

    2013-10-15

    The assessment and quantification of damages resulting from marine oil spills is typically coordinated by NOAA, and has historically utilized Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) to estimate damages. Resource economists and others have called for the damage assessment process to instead estimate injuries through the valuation of lost ecosystem services. Our conceptual analysis explores ecosystem service valuation from the perspective of "baselines," which are a fundamental component of both primary and compensatory restoration activities. In practice, baselines have been defined in ecological terms, with minimal consideration of the socioeconomic side of ecosystem service provision. We argue that, for the purposes of scaling compensatory restoration, it is more appropriate to characterize baselines in value terms, thereby integrating non-market valuation approaches from the onset of the damage assessment process. Benefits and challenges of this approach are discussed, along with guidelines for practitioners to identify circumstances in which socioeconomic variables are likely to be important for baseline characterization.

  16. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  17. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  18. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  19. Mild cognitive impairment: baseline and longitudinal structural MR imaging measures improve predictive prognosis.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Holland, Dominic; Hagler, Donald J; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Brewer, James B; Dale, Anders M

    2011-06-01

    To assess whether single-time-point and longitudinal volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measures provide predictive prognostic information in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study was conducted with institutional review board approval and in compliance with HIPAA regulations. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants or the participants' legal guardians. Cross-validated discriminant analyses of MR imaging measures were performed to differentiate 164 Alzheimer disease (AD) cases from 203 healthy control cases. Separate analyses were performed by using data from MR images obtained at one time point or by combining single-time-point measures with 1-year change measures. Resulting discriminant functions were applied to 317 MCI cases to derive individual patient risk scores. Risk of conversion to AD was estimated as a continuous function of risk score percentile. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were computed for risk score quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) for the conversion to AD were computed between the highest and lowest quartile scores. Individualized risk estimates from baseline MR examinations indicated that the 1-year risk of conversion to AD ranged from 3% to 40% (average group risk, 17%; OR, 7.2 for highest vs lowest score quartiles). Including measures of 1-year change in global and regional volumes significantly improved risk estimates (P = 001), with the risk of conversion to AD in the subsequent year ranging from 3% to 69% (average group risk, 27%; OR, 12.0 for highest vs lowest score quartiles). Relative to the risk of conversion to AD conferred by the clinical diagnosis of MCI alone, MR imaging measures yield substantially more informative patient-specific risk estimates. Such predictive prognostic information will be critical if disease-modifying therapies become available. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11101975/-/DC1. RSNA, 2011

  20. Direct measurement of sub-surface mass change using the variable-baseline gravity gradient method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Güntner, Andreas; Abe, Maiko; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse gravity data provide a direct, non-destructive method to monitor mass changes at scales from cm to km. But, the effectively infinite spatial sensitivity of gravity measurements can make it difficult to isolate the signal of interest. The variable-baseline gravity gradient method, based on the difference of measurements between two gravimeters, is an alternative to the conventional approach of individually modeling all sources of mass and elevation change. This approach can improve the signal-to-noise ratio for many applications by removing the contributions of Earth tides, loading, and other signals that have the same effect on both gravimeters. At the same time, this approach can focus the support volume within a relatively small user-defined region of the subsurface. The method is demonstrated using paired superconducting gravimeters to make for the first time a large-scale, non-invasive measurement of infiltration wetting front velocity and change in water content above the wetting front.

  1. Glycemic outcome not predicted by baseline psychological measures in a diabetes management program.

    PubMed

    Graco, Marnie; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Barker, Anna; Lawlor, Vicki; Wong, Rita; Fourlanos, Spiros

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Health Diabetes Hospital Admission Risk Program is a chronic disease management program that aims to improve the glycemic management of patients with diabetes. The aim of this project was to determine if there was any relationship between psychological characteristics and glycemic outcome in a diabetes management program. A prospective study of patients attending the diabetes management program investigated validated measures of cognition, stage of change, locus of control, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The study investigated 86 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 59 years, 49% female). Glycemic control (HbA1c) was measured at baseline and after 12 months in the program. Glycemic control was poor on admission to the service with a mean HbA1c of 8.9%. The measures of cognition, self-efficacy, locus of control, mental health, and quality of life were not associated with improvements in HbA1c. Those participants with shorter duration of disease and more contacts with the service were significantly more likely to experience improvements in HbA1c. Psychometric data were not predictive of glycemic outcome. Rather, in this chronic disease management program, glycemia improved more in patients who were seen earlier in their disease course and managed more intensively, regardless of their psychometric status.

  2. The accurate measurement of fear memory in Pavlovian conditioning: Resolving the baseline issue.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nathan S; Cushman, Jesse D; Fanselow, Michael S

    2010-07-15

    Fear conditioning has become an indispensable behavioral task in an increasingly vast array of research disciplines. Yet one unresolved issue is how conditional fear to an explicit cue interacts with and is potentially confounded by fear prior to tone presentation, referred to as baseline fear. After tone-shock pairings, we experimentally manipulated baseline fear by presenting unpaired shocks in the testing chamber and then analyzed the accuracy of common methods for reporting tone fear. Our findings indicate that baseline fear and tone fear tend to interact, where freezing to the tone increases as baseline fear increases. However, the form of interaction is not linear across all conditions and none of the commonly used reporting methods were consistently able to eliminate the confounding effects of baseline fear. We propose a methodological solution in which baseline fear is reduced to very low levels by first extinguishing fear to the training context and then pre-exposing to the testing context.

  3. Characterization of secondary ignition sources in unattended compartments and full-scale baseline test. [aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of five fuel loads burned within a metal lavatory were identified. In 15 of the tests the lavatory door remained closed for the 30-minute test period while in 15 additional tests the door was opened after the fire had developed. Upon completion of these tests the most severe source was selected for use in the baseline test. In the baseline test, the lavatory and adjacent panels, all of which were constructed of contemporary materials, were tested for a period of 1 hour. Thermal, environmental, and biological data were obtained for all fuel loads, door conditions, and the baseline test. All tests were conducted in a cabin fire simulator with separate ventilation of the cabin and lavatory representative of an inflight condition. The baseline test established that by using the most severe fuel source: (1) the exposed animal subject survived without complications; (2) no toxic levels of gas within the cabin were detected; (3) a propagating fire did not develop in adjacent structures; (4) the lavatory containing the fire remained structurally intact; (5) decomposition of portions of the lavatory did occur; and (6) cabin visibility would have presented a problem after 5 minutes.

  4. Active MHD Spectroscopy measurements in the low torque ITER Baseline Scenario in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, F.; Hanson, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A.; Solomon, W.

    2016-10-01

    The first measurements of active MHD spectroscopy in ITER Baseline Scenario plasmas (q 95 = 3 , betaN = 1.9 , T = 0 - 1 nm) in DIII-D show the approach to an instability at low torque, where most of the discharges are terminated by a disrupting m = 2 / n = 1 tearing instability. The amplitude of the response increases rapidly as rotation slows, and the phase measurements show an abrupt change by 20 - 25 ∘ in the same rotation range, which has been shown to be typical of crossing an ideal stability limit. This technique could represent a potential warning system for impending disruptions. Modelling with the MARS-K code shows that the inclusion of drift kinetic effects and collisionality is crucial to obtain quantitative agreement in the amplitude results at moderate to high rotation, while resistivity is necessary to observe a partial increase in the plasma response at low rotation. However the code does not quantitatively predict the rise in amplitude and change in phase at lowest rotation - investigation of the potential causes of this discrepancy will be described. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54761 and DE-FC02.

  5. Hair as a Meaningful Measure of Baseline Cortisol Levels over Time in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit EG

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  6. Error Baseline Rates of Five Sequencing Strategies Used for RNA Virus Population Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-31

    viral evolution , including the emergence of resistance to medical 21 countermeasures. To explore the sources of error in the determination of the...pressure on evolution of 36 viral genotypes and phenotypes, optimizing vaccine design, and identifying virus genome 37 mutations that may lead to...preparation and 94 pre-processing steps for analysis of intra-host RNA virus evolution . We determined baseline 95 error rates by analyzing an

  7. The ‘Geographic Emission Benchmark’ model: a baseline approach to measuring emissions associated with deforestation and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Seok; Newell, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new land-change model, the Geographic Emission Benchmark (GEB), as an approach to quantify land-cover changes associated with deforestation and forest degradation. The GEB is designed to determine ‘baseline’ activity data for reference levels. Unlike other models that forecast business-as-usual future deforestation, the GEB internally (1) characterizes ‘forest’ and ‘deforestation’ with minimal processing and ground-truthing and (2) identifies ‘deforestation hotspots’ using open-source spatial methods to estimate regional rates of deforestation. The GEB also characterizes forest degradation and identifies leakage belts. This paper compares the accuracy of GEB with GEOMOD, a popular land-change model used in the UN-REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) Program. Using a case study of the Chinese tropics for comparison, GEB’s projection is more accurate than GEOMOD’s, as measured by Figure of Merit. Thus, the GEB produces baseline activity data that are moderately accurate for the setting of reference levels. PMID:26539243

  8. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  9. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  10. Is Measured Hearing Aid Benefit Affected by Seeing Baseline Outcome Questionnaire Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, ShienPei; Cates, Megan; Saunders, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether hearing aid outcome measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI) for the Elderly/Adults (Newman, Weinstein, Jacobson, & Hug, 1990; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982) is differentially affected by informed vs. blind administration of the postfitting questionnaire. Method Participants completed the HHI at their hearing aid evaluation and again at their hearing aid follow-up visit. At follow-up, half received a clean HHI form (blind administration), whereas the remainder responded on their original form (informed administration) and could thus base their follow-up responses on those they gave at the hearing aid evaluation. Results The data show that for the population examined here, informed administration of the follow-up HHI did not yield a different outcome to blind administration of the follow-up HHI. This was not influenced by past hearing aid use, age of the participant, or the duration of time between baseline questionnaire completion and follow-up completion. Conclusion These data suggest that completion of follow-up questionnaires in either informed or blind format will have little impact on HHI responses, most likely because of the many other factors that combined to influence hearing aid outcome. PMID:21940983

  11. Baseline MNREAD Measures for Normally Sighted Subjects From Childhood to Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Calabrèse, Aurélie; Cheong, Allen M. Y.; Cheung, Sing-Hang; He, Yingchen; Kwon, MiYoung; Mansfield, J. Stephen; Subramanian, Ahalya; Yu, Deyue; Legge, Gordon E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The continuous-text reading-acuity test MNREAD is designed to measure the reading performance of people with normal and low vision. This test is used to estimate maximum reading speed (MRS), critical print size (CPS), reading acuity (RA), and the reading accessibility index (ACC). Here we report the age dependence of these measures for normally sighted individuals, providing baseline data for MNREAD testing. Methods We analyzed MNREAD data from 645 normally sighted participants ranging in age from 8 to 81 years. The data were collected in several studies conducted by different testers and at different sites in our research program, enabling evaluation of robustness of the test. Results Maximum reading speed and reading accessibility index showed a trilinear dependence on age: first increasing from 8 to 16 years (MRS: 140–200 words per minute [wpm]; ACC: 0.7–1.0); then stabilizing in the range of 16 to 40 years (MRS: 200 ± 25 wpm; ACC: 1.0 ± 0.14); and decreasing to 175 wpm and 0.88 by 81 years. Critical print size was constant from 8 to 23 years (0.08 logMAR), increased slowly until 68 years (0.21 logMAR), and then more rapidly until 81 years (0.34 logMAR). logMAR reading acuity improved from −0.1 at 8 years to −0.18 at 16 years, then gradually worsened to −0.05 at 81 years. Conclusions We found a weak dependence of the MNREAD parameters on age in normal vision. In broad terms, MNREAD performance exhibits differences between three age groups: children 8 to 16 years, young adults 16 to 40 years, and middle-aged to older adults >40 years. PMID:27442222

  12. Baseline PSA measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter; Christensen, Jane; Christiansen, Michael; Carlsson, Sigrid; Lilja, Hans; Friis, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Aim Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer. Methods and material Case-control study nested within the Danish ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort of 27,179 men aged 50–64 at enrolment. PSA measured in serum collected at cohort entry in 1993–1997 was used to evaluate prostate cancer risk diagnosed up to 14 years after. We identified 911 prostate cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry through 31 December 2007 1:1 age-matched with cancer-free controls. Aggressive cancer was defined as ≥T3 or Gleason score ≥7 or N1 or M1. Statistical analyses were based on conditional logistic regression with age as underlying time axis. Results Total PSA and free-to-total PSA ratio at baseline were strongly associated with prostate cancer risk up to 14 years later. PSA was grouped in quintiles and free-to-total PSA ratio divided in three risk groups. The incidence rate ratio for prostate cancer was 150 (95% confidence interval, 72–310) among men with a total PSA in the highest quartile (>5.1 ng/ml) compared to the lowest (<0.80 ng/ml). The risk of aggressive cancer was highly elevated in men with a PSA level in the highest quintile. The results indicate that one-time measurement of PSA could be used in an individualized screening strategy, sparing a large proportion of men from further PSA-based screening. PMID:23684783

  13. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  14. Spectrum Resolving Power of Hearing: Measurements, Baselines, and Influence of Maskers

    PubMed Central

    Supin, Alexander Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency resolving power in the auditory system are reviewed. Majority of classical methods are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate). Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP). To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers. PMID:26557320

  15. Spectrum Resolving Power of Hearing: Measurements, Baselines, and Influence of Maskers.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency resolving power in the auditory system are reviewed. Majority of classical methods are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate). Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP). To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers.

  16. Utility of baseline impedance level measurement in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ban-Suk; Park, Seon-Young; Lee, Du-Hyun; Cho, Eun-Ae; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) and pH monitoring is used for detecting reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. However, the clinical significance of baseline impedance levels (BILs) has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate whether BILs are related to various reflux events or acid-related parameters and to determine whether BILs during specific intervals could be substituted for 24-h BILs. One-hundred forty-two patients GER symptoms underwent 24-h pH/impedance monitoring. We measured pH [(5 cm above the low esophageal sphincter (LES)] and BILs from three sites (3, 5, and 15 cm above the LES). Eighty-one subjects (57.0%) were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 53 (37.3%) had acid reflux and 28 (19.7%) had nonacid reflux. The 24-h BILs at distal sites were lower in the "reflux" group than in the "no reflux" group (p < 0.001) and lower in the "acid reflux" group than in the "nonacid reflux" group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in 24-h BILs at the proximal site among the "no reflux", "acid reflux", and "nonacid reflux" groups. The interclass correlation coefficient value of 24-h BILs with daytime 6-h BILs was 0.916 (95% CI 0.882-0.940) and that with nighttime 6-h BILs was 0.909 (95% CI 0.871-0.935). BILs are related to GER, especially acid reflux. Location and duration of assessment for BILs needs to be standardized. Six-hour BILs could be substitutes for 24-h BILs. During analysis of MII-pH, more attention should be paid to BILs in the lower esophagus.

  17. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (p<0.0001), sleep disturbance (p=0.035), depression (p=0.005), anxiety (p=0.011), psychological stress (p=0.005), negative affect scores (p=0.0004), and worse quality of life (p≤0.021). No difference in pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  18. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  19. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  20. Implications of very long baseline interferometry measurements on North American intra-plate crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry experiments over the last 1-3/4 years between Owens Valley, CA and Haystack, MA Radio Observatories suggest an upper limit of east-west crustal deformation between the two sites of about 1 cm/yr. In view of the fact that the baseline between the two sites traverses most of the major geological provinces of the United States, this low rate of crustal deformation has direct relevance to intra-plate crustal tectonics. The most active region traversed by this baseline is the Basin and Range province, which was estimated by various researchers to be expanding in an east-west direction at rates of .3 to 1.5 cm/yr. The Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountain system also appear to be expanding, but at a somewhat lower rate, while east of the Rocky Mountains, the predominant stress appears to be compressional, nearly horizontal, and east to northeast trending.

  1. Geodetic and Astrometric Measurements with Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations for the estimation of geodetic and astrometric parameters is discussed. Analytic models for the dependence of delay and delay rate on these parameters are developed and used for parameter estimation by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented from approximately 15,000 delay and delay-rate observations, obtained in a series of nineteen VLBI experiments involving a total of five stations on two continents. The closure of baseline triangles is investigated and found to be consistent with the scatter of the various baseline-component results. Estimates are made of the wobble of the earth's pole and of the irregularities in the earth's rotation rate. Estimates are also made of the precession constant and of the vertical Love number, for which a value of 0.55 + or - 0.05 was obtained.

  2. Transcontinental baselines and the rotation of the earth measured by radio interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Robertson, D. S.; Knight, C. A.; Counselman, C. C., III; Rogers, A. E. E.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Lippincott, S.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.; Niell, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Nine separate very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, carried out in 1972 and 1973 with radio telescopes 3900 kilometers apart, yielded values for the baseline length with an rms deviation about the mean of less than 20 centimeters. The corresponding fractional spread is about five parts in 100,000,000. Changes in universal time and in polar motion were also determined accurately from these data. The rms scatter of these results with respect to those based on optical methods was 2.9 msec and 1.3 m, respectively. Solid-earth tides were apparently detected, but no useful estimate of their amplitude was extracted.

  3. Transcontinental baselines and the rotation of the Earth measured by radio interferometry.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, I I; Robertson, D S; Knight, C A; Counselman, C C; Rogers, A E; Hinteregger, H F; Lippincott, S; Whitney, A R; Clark, T A; Niell, A E; Spitzmesser, D J

    1974-12-06

    Nine separate very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments, carried out in 1972 and 1973 with radio telescopes 3900 kilometers apart, yielded values for the baseline length with a root-mean-square deviation about the mean of less than 20 centitneters. The corresponding fractional spread is about five parts in 10(8). Changes in universal time and in polar motion were also detertnined accurately from these data; the root-mean-square scatter of these results with respect to those based on optical methods were 2.9 milliseconds and 1.3 meters, respectively. Solid-earth tides were apparently detected, but no useful estimate of their amplituide was extracted.

  4. Absolute versus Relative Difference Measures of Priming: Which Is Appropriate when Baseline Scores Change with Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kristina; McKone, Elinor; Slee, Judith

    2006-01-01

    It is often of theoretical interest to know if implicit memory (repetition priming) develops across childhood under a given circumstance. Methodologically, however, it is difficult to determine whether development is present when baseline performance for unstudied items improves with age. Calculation of priming in absolute…

  5. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  6. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of a Baseline System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a baseline system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements for aircraft engine on-line diagnostics is developed. This system is composed of a linear on-board engine model (LOBEM) and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The LOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of the discrepancy. Through this approach, the baseline system achieves the following objectives: (1) anomaly detection, (2) component fault detection, and (3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the baseline system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components.

  7. Integration of multiple-baseline color stereo vision with focus and defocus analysis for 3D shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ta; Subbarao, Murali

    1998-12-01

    A 3D vision system named SVIS is developed for 3D shape measurement that integrates three methods: (i) multiple- baseline, multiple-resolution Stereo Image Analysis (SIA) that uses colore image data, (ii) Image Defocus Analysis (IDA), and (iii) Image Focus Analysis (IFA). IDA and IFA are less accurate than stereo but they do not suffer from the correspondence problem associated with stereo. A rough 3D shape is first obtained using IDA and then IFA is used to obtain an improved estimate. The result is then used in SIA to solve the correspondence problem and obtain an accurate measurement of 3D shape. SIA is implemented using color images recorded at multiple-baselines. Color images provide more information than monochrome images for stereo matching. Therefore matching errors are reduced and accuracy of 3D shape is improved. Further improvements are obtained through multiple-baseline stereo analysis. First short baseline images are analyzed to obtain an initial estimate of 3D shape. In this step, stereo matching errors are low and computation is fast since a shorter baseline result in lower disparities. The initial estimate of 3D shape is used to match longer baseline stereo images. This yields more accurate estimation of 3D shape. The stereo matching step is implemented using a multiple-resolution matching approach to reduce computation. First lower resolution images are matched and the result are used in matching higher resolution images. This paper presented the algorithms and the experimental result of 3D shape measurements on SVIS for several objects. These results suggest a practical vision system for 3D shape measurement.

  8. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  9. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  10. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  11. Applied antineutrino measurements: synergies between short-baseline physics and reactor safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    The experimental neutrino community has put forth an incredible effort into designing a multitude of detection systems to meet the needs of the short-baseline neutrino program. There is significant overlap between the requirements for these detectors, and those of a detector designed for reactor monitoring through antineutrinos. Here we describe how such technology improvements provide opportunities to probe fissile isotope and fission daughter distributions, and their potential use for reactor physics and safeguards applications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  13. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in seawater of the northern Arabian Gulf - Baseline measurements.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Behbehani, Montaha; Aba, A; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi

    2017-09-09

    This study focuses on creating baseline for (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (210)Pb, (210)Po and (40)K concentrations in the northern Arabian Gulf. The respective concentration ranges were 0.047-0.050, 0.00186-0.00198, 0.054-0.057, 0.00085-0.00092, 0.00051-0.00062 and 18.6-19.1Bql(-1). These results suggest that the levels are generally comparable to other marine waters in the northern hemisphere. There were no hot spots observed from oil and gas industry. These data will serve as a baseline to gauge possible future inputs of TENORMs in the northern Gulf. A positive and linear correlation was observed between (238,234)U, (40)K isotopes and seawater salinity. The results also suggest significant fractionation between (210)Po and (210)Pb, attributed to rapid removal of (210)Po by biota compared to (210)Pb. The mean residence time for (210)Po in the study area was 371days. The (234)U/(238)U and (238)U/(235)U activity ratios in seawater samples vary between 1.14-1.15, and 0.038-0.040. The (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratio is similar to the expected composition of seawater (1.148±0.002) and 0.0462. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. O3, SO2, NO2, and UVB measurements in Beijing and Baseline Station of northwestern part of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Song; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Xiachun

    1994-01-01

    A MKII Brewer ozone spectrometer was used in Beijing from Oct. 1990 to June 1991 to measure O3, SO2 and UVB radiation. And since Nov. 1991 a new MKIV Brewer spectrometer, which can take the measurements of O3, SO2, NO2 and UVB radiation, has been set up in Beijing. The MKII Brewer spectrometer was moved to Qinghai baseline station which is on the Qinghai-tibetean plateau in the northwestern part of China. Both the data in Beijing and Qinghai baseline station has been analyzed and some results will be shown here along with the ozone profiles botained through the Umkehr program given by AES of Canada for the Brewer ozone spectrometer.

  15. Hot Exozodiacal Dust Disks, their Detection and Variability, as Measured with Long-Baseline Optical Interferometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas Jon

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared long-baseline optical interferometry has provided the first unambiguous resolved detections of hot dust around main sequence stars (Absil et al. 2006). This showed that an unexpectedly dense population of (sub)micrometer dust grains close exists to their sublimation temperature of approximately 1400K. A later survey (Absil et al. 2013) revealed that these "hot exozodiacal disks" are relatively common around spectral type A-K stars. Current models of circumstellar debris disks suggest that in the inner region, within 1 AU, of the disk the timescale for complete removal of submicron dust is on the order of a few years (Wyatt 2008). The presence of dust close to the star is surprising because most cold debris belts detected are collisionally dominated. Mutual collisions grind the dust down to the size where radiation pressure pushes the dust out before Poynting-Robertson drag has a chance to pull the dust inward. Competing models exist to explain the persistence of this dust; some of which suggest that dust production is a punctuated and chaotic process fueled by asteroid collisions and comet infall that would show variability on timescales of a few years.High precision long-baseline interferometry observations in the K-band with the FLUOR (Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination) beam combiner at the CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) Array provided the data for these exozodiacal dust detections. This original instrument has undergone upgrades as part of JouFLU (Jouvence of FLUOR) project. The new instrument has been used to expand the original survey and to re-observe stars from the previous exozodiacal disk survey to search for predicted variations in the detected disks. We have found evidence that for some systems the amount of circumstellar flux from these previously detected exozodiacal disks, or exozodis, has varied greatly. The flux from some exozodis has increased, others decreased, and for a few the amount has remained

  16. Measuring rapid ocean tidal earth orientation variations with very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.; Gross, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Ocean tidal effects on universal time and polar motion (UTPM) are investigated at four nearly diurnal (K(sub 1), P(sub 1), O(sub 1), and Q(sub 1)) and four nearly semidiurnal (K(sub 2), S(sub 2), M(sub 2), and N(sub 2)) frequencies by analyzing very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data extending from 1978 to 1992. We discuss limitations of comparisons between experiment and theory for the retograde nearly diurnal polar motion components due to their degeneracy with prograde components of the nutation model. Estimating amplitudes of contributions to the modeled VLBI observables at these eight frequencies produces a statistically highly significant improvement of 7 mm to the residuals of a fit to the observed delays. Use of such an improved UTPM model also reduces the 14-30 mm scatter of baseline lengths about a time-linear model of tectonic motion by 3-14 mm, also withhigh significance levels. A total of 28 UTPM ocean tidal amplitudes can be unambiguously estimated from the data, with resulting UTI and PM magnitudes as large as 21 micro secs and 270 microarc seconds and formal uncertainties of the order of 0.3 micro secs and 5 microarc secs for UTI and PM, respectively. Empirically determined UTPM amplitudes and phases are com1pared to values calculated theoretically by Gross from Seiler's global ocean tide model. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is larger by a factor of 3 for UTI amplitudes (9 micro secs) than for prograde PM amplitudes (42 microarc secs). The 14-year VLBI data span strongly attenuates the influence of mismodeled effects on estimated UTPM amplitudes and phases that are not coherent with the eight frequencies of interest. Magnitudes of coherent and quasi-coherent systematic errors are quantified by means of internal consistency tests. We conclude that coherent systematic effects are many times larger than the formal uncertainties and can be as large as 4 micro secs for UTI and 60 microarc secs for polar motion. On the basis of such

  17. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  18. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  19. Tectonic motion in the western United States inferred from very long baseline interferometry measurements, 1980-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Wallace, Karen S.; Davidson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Over six years of mobile very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) baseline measurements between 12 sites in the western U.S. were used to infer their velocities relative to the North American plate. These velocities were found to be generally consistent with those determined from geologic data and contemporaneous satellite laser ranging measurements in the same region. The discrepancy between the largest velocities determined from the VLBI measurements of 40-48 mm/yr and the relative plate velocity of 50-56 mm/yr predicted from plate motion models is found to be consistent with a broadened distribution of interseismic strain from cyclic activity on the San Andreas and subsidiary faults. The VLBI data are best explained by a cumulative rate of strike-slip motion near the plate boundary of approximately 48 mm/yr, although exclusion of competing values of 56 and 41 mm/yr is based upon very few data. The rates of offshore fault slip inferred from this study range from about 15 mm/yr in central California to negligible amounts in the San Francisco region. Finite element calculations of multiple fault strain distributions show good agreement with systematic variations in the distribution of shear strain along the San Andreas system, as revealed by previous geodetic measurements.

  20. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  1. A New Baseline for Chronic Fatigue: Why Measuring Flight Time Is the Wrong Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    and have to create ad-hoc programs at the squadron level, through the manipulation of the Operational Risk Management ( ORM ) process. The current...create ad-hoc programs at the squadron level, through the manipulation of the Operational Risk Management ( ORM ) process. The current measurement...Avoidance Scheduling Tool FDP – Flight Duty Period FTP – Flight Time Period ORM – Operational Risk Management PIC – Pilot In Command SAFTE – Sleep

  2. Measurement of USMC Logistics Processes: Creating a Baseline to Support Precision Logistics Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    unavailability of parts. ORDER AND SHIP TIMES FROM RETAIL SUPPLY We turn now to the supply of parts, beginning with measurement of the order and ship ( O &S...Point, according to archived supply data. Defining the Order and Ship Process from Retail Supply The retail O &S process begins with the identification...take more than two weeks for the entire O &S process, even though backorders are not at issue here. What is not clear from these results is what

  3. In vivo baseline measurements of hip joint range of motion in suspensory and nonsuspensory anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Ashley S

    2014-03-01

    Hominoids and atelines are known to use suspensory behaviors and are assumed to possess greater hip joint mobility than nonsuspensory monkeys, particularly for range of abduction. This assumption has greatly influenced how extant and fossil primate hip joint morphology has been interpreted, despite the fact that there are no data available on hip mobility in hominoids or Ateles. This study uses in vivo measurements to test the hypothesis that suspensory anthropoids have significantly greater ranges of hip joint mobility than nonsuspensory anthropoids. Passive hip joint mobility was measured on a large sample of anesthetized captive anthropoids (nonhuman hominids = 43, hylobatids = 6, cercopithecids = 43, Ateles = 6, and Cebus = 6). Angular and linear data were collected using goniometers and tape measures. Range of motion (ROM) data were analyzed for significant differences by locomotor group using ANOVA and phylogenetic regression. The data demonstrate that suspensory anthropoids are capable of significantly greater hip abduction and external rotation. Degree of flexion and internal rotation were not larger in the suspensory primates, indicating that suspension is not associated with a global increase in hip mobility. Future work should consider the role of external rotation in abduction ability, how the physical position of the distal limb segments are influenced by differences in ROM proximally, as well as focus on bony and soft tissue differences that enable or restrict abduction and external rotation at the anthropoid hip joint.

  4. Retrospective evaluation versus population norms for the measurement of baseline health status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient recall or the application of population norms are commonly used methods to estimate (unobservable) health status prior to acute-onset illness or injury; however, both measures are potentially subject to bias. This article reports tests of the validity of both approaches, and discusses the implications for reporting changes in health-related quality of life following acute-onset illness or injury. Methods Recalled pre-injury health status and health status at 5- and 12-months post-injury were collected from participants in a prospective cohort study of people injured in New Zealand. Reported post-injury health status was compared with recalled pre-injury status and New Zealand norms for two groups: those who reported having fully recovered, and those who had not. Results There was a small but statistically significant difference between pre- and post-injury health state valuations for people who had fully recovered, with recalled pre-injury health status being higher than reported post-injury health. Perceived health status for those who had fully recovered was significantly higher than the population norm. Conclusions Retrospective evaluation of health status is more appropriate than the application of population norms to estimate health status prior to acute-onset injury or illness, although there may be a small upward bias in such measurements. PMID:22698368

  5. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    PubMed

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  6. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA long baseline campaign of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Lucas, Robert; Broguière, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B.; Dent, William R. F.; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    In a radio interferometer, the geometrical antenna positions are determined from measurements of the observed delay to each antenna from observations across the sky of many point sources whose positions are known to high accuracy. The determination of accurate antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), with baseline lengths up to 15 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of October through November 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurements typically degrades as a function of antenna distance. Also, the scatter is more than three times worse in the vertical direction than in the local tangent plane, suggesting that a systematic effect is limiting the measurements. So far we have explored correcting the delay model for deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium in the measured air pressure and separating the partial pressure of water from the total pressure using water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. Correcting for these combined effects still does not provide a good match to the residual position errors in the vertical direction. One hypothesis is that the current model of water vapor may be too simple to fully remove the day-to-day variations in the wet delay. We describe possible new avenues of

  7. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki; Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Loinard, Laurent; and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  8. Establishing baseline data for an experimental appratus that measures heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Charles E.

    1993-05-01

    Mathematical correlations for predicting heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow are in their developmental infancy. Such heat transfer is commonly found in reciprocating machinery such as internal combustion engines, gas springs, and Stirling cycle engines. In order to understand and improve the thermodynamic performance of reciprocal engines, it is necessary that mathematical correlations be developed that accurately predict heat loss through the walls of the components within these systems. A heat transfer apparatus has been built that models the oscillating flow of a gas in a pipe as found in the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The apparatus is capable of measuring stream temperature and velocity at any point across the diameter of the pipe, the wall temperature, gas pressure, and gas to wall heat flux. This work addresses the collection of baseline heat transfer data for this apparatus under conditions of oscillating flow and pressure by (1) explaining the addition of a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure stream velocities, (2) investigating velocity profiles within the test section as the flow oscillates, and (3) recording and analyzing baseline heat transfer data. Results show a close correlation between the phase angle between the two compressors mounted at each end of the test section and the complex-valued Nusselt number that has been derived.

  9. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  10. Baseline inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements for diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in boys with delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Régis; Biette-Demeneix, Estelle; Bouvattier, Claire; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Gatelais, Frédérique; Dufresne, Sylvie; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Lahlou, Najiba

    2010-12-01

    The diagnosis of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in boys with delayed puberty is challenging, as may be the diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in boys with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Yet, the therapeutic choices for puberty induction depend on accurate diagnosis and may influence future fertility. The aim was to assess the utility of baseline inhibin B (INHB) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurements to discriminate HH from constitutional delay of puberty (CDP). Both hormones are produced by Sertoli cells upon FSH stimulation. Moreover, prepubertal AMH levels are high as a reflection of Sertoli cell integrity. We studied 82 boys aged 14 to 18 yr with pubertal delay: 16 had IHH, 15 congenital HH within CPHD, and 51 CDP, as confirmed by follow-up. Subjects were genital stage 1 (testis volume<3 ml; 9 IHH, 7 CPHD, and 23 CDP) or early stage 2 (testis volume, 3-6 ml; 7 IHH, 8 CPHD, and 28 CDP). Age and testis volume were similar in the three groups. Compared with CDP subjects, IHH and CPHD subjects had lower INHB, testosterone, FSH, and LH concentrations (P<0.05), whereas AMH concentration was lower only in IHH and CPHD subjects with genital stage 1, likely reflecting a smaller pool of Sertoli cells in profound HH. In IHH and CPHD boys with genital stage 1, sensitivity and specificity were 100% for INHB concentration of 35 pg/ml or less. In IHH and CPHD boys with genital stage 2, sensitivities were 86 and 80%, whereas specificities were 92% and 88%, respectively, for an INHB concentration of 65 pg/ml or less. The performance of testosterone, AMH, FSH, and LH measurements was lower. No combination or ratio of hormones performed better than INHB alone. Discrimination of HH from CDP with baseline INHB measurement was excellent in subjects with genital stage 1 and fair in subjects with genital stage 2.

  11. A novel DSSS based ToF measurement method for short baseline and its application in sound velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shen; Wang, Yueke; Qiao, Chunjie; Zhou, Chao

    2013-10-01

    The short baseline framework is commonly used in ultrasonic parameter measurement, and ToF (time of flight) of which is essential in sound velocimeter and other applications. Different from conventional steady-state and transient methods, this paper proposed a new method using DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) signal to extract the ToF. DSSS signal possesses excellent auto-correlation features, thus it does not need to adjust path-length or the acoustic frequency, nor avoid the impact of the multiple echoes. The DSSS signal and measurement system are modeled and the detailed theoretical process of ToF estimation is derived to demonstrate the measurement principles, and the principles of echoesresistance are analyzed. Measurement experiments are carried out using distilled water at ambient pressure with temperature ranging from 19°C to 30°C. The test results indicate that the relative precision of ToF is in bounds of 2 ppm and the bias of sound speed derived is within 0.06m/s compared to Del Grosso's equation.

  12. Orbital Angular Momentum Measurements for Turbulence Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Sun, W.; MacDonnell, D.; Weimer, C. S.; Hou, W.; Josset, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty in cloud-climate feedback is the primary source of uncertainty in climate sensitivity. Turbulence plays important role in cloud life cycle, but it has never been measured globally. Here we introduce an innovative turbulence characterization technique through orbital angular momentum (OAM) measurements. OAM is sensitive to turbulence. OAM is a new research area in optical communication community to increase bandwidth of free space communication. Turbulence is their problem since it causes changes in OAM and a lot of studies are carried out by that community. There are simple relations between turbulence intensity and OAM change for both weak and strong turbulence (Rodenburg et al., 2012). OAM can be measured using the photon sieve technique developed at NASA Langley Research center (MacDonnell 2016; Sun et al., 2016). This study will lead to a space-based OAM measurement concept for turbulence characterization, which will help improve cloud and climate modeling.

  13. Characterizing closure-phase measurements at IOTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, Sam; Traub, Wesley A.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John D.; Pedretti, Ettore; Schloerb, F. P.; Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Haguenauer, Pierre; Kern, Pierre Y.; Labeye, Pierre R.; Lacasse, Marc G.; Malbet, Fabien; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine

    2004-10-01

    We are working towards imaging the surfaces and circumstellar envelopes of Mira stars in the near-infrared, using the IOTA interferometer and the IONIC integrated-optics 3-beam combiner. In order to study atmospheric structures of these stars, we installed 3 narrow-band filters that subdivide H-band into 3 roughly equal-width sub-bands - a central one for continuum, and 2 adjacent ones to sample Mira star's (mostly water) absorption-bands. We present here our characterization of the IOTA 3-Telescope interferometer for closure-phase measurements with broad and narrow-band filters in the H atmospheric window. This includes characterizing the stability, chromaticity, and polarization effects of the present IOTA optics with the IONIC beam-combiner, and characterizing the accuracy of our closure phase measurements.

  14. Characterization and measurement of system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieder, R.; Rau, G.; Vowinkel, B.

    To characterize noise and stability of any measuring instrument, a method is offered, based on the principles of the 'Allan variance' used to characterize the stability of frequency standards. The Allan plot has been used to obtain precise information about the noise and drift behavior of all frontends and backends of the Cologne 3-meter millimeter and submillimeter radio telescope. The approach shows how the experimental setup will perform under varying conditions in terms of signal to noise ratio. The method, furthermore, is less complicated to interpret than calculations of the correlation function or the Fourier transform. The Allan plot has been used to test digital voltmeters and digital lock-in amplifiers.

  15. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. G.; Fung, K. W.; Tromberg, B. J.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH2O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH2O concentration, (2) CH20 emission rates from primary CH20 emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-spaoe. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH20 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppm for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20°C, 30% RH and 29°C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH2O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH2O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies.

  16. Baseline measurements of ethene in 2002: Implications for increased ethanol use and biomass burning on air quality and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    While it is well known that combustion of ethanol as a biofuel will lead to enhanced emissions of methane, ethene (ethylene), acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen (primarily NO) when compared to gasoline alone, especially during cold starts or if catalytic converters are not operating properly, the impacts of increases in atmospheric ethene levels from combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content has not received much attention. Ethene is a well known and potent plant growth hormone and exposure to agricultural crops and natural vegetation results in yield reductions especially when combined with higher levels of PAN and ozone also expected from the increased use of ethanol/gasoline blends. We report here some baseline measurements of ethene obtained in 2002 in the southwestern and south central United States. These data indicate that current ethene background levels are less than 1 ppb. Anticipated increases in fuel ethanol content of E30 or greater is expected to lead to higher atmospheric levels of ethene on regional scales due to its atmospheric lifetime of 1.5-3 days. These background measurements are discussed in light of the potential enhancement of ethene levels expected from the anticipated increases in ethanol use as a renewable biofuel.

  17. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  18. Robust measure for characterizing generalized synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Nenov, Valeriy

    2004-02-01

    Generalized synchronization between two coupled systems can be characterized by recently proposed interdependency measures calculated from two simultaneously observed time series from them. However, numerical tests have shown that these measures cannot consistently indicate the direction of the coupling for strongly coupled systems or in situations with a large phase space neighbor size. An interdependency measure is proposed here quantifying how close a conditional neighbor is to a true neighbor in terms of the degree of alignment of their principal axes. Numerical tests are carried out on time series generated from a coupled Hénon map and a Lorenz model driven by a Rossler model. Given that a driving system is more dependent on a response system, the results show that the direction of the coupling is consistently detected by using the proposed measure even in those unfavorable cases for the measures mentioned above.

  19. Characterization of site-specific GPS errors using a short-baseline network of braced monuments at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Emma M.; Davis, James L.; Elósegui, Pedro; Wernicke, Brian P.; Malikowski, Eric; Niemi, Nathan A.

    2009-11-01

    We use a short-baseline network of braced monuments to investigate site-specific GPS effects. The network has baseline lengths of ˜10, 100, and 1000 m. Baseline time series have root mean square (RMS) residuals, about a model for the seasonal cycle, of 0.05-0.24 mm for the horizontal components and 0.20-0.72 mm for the radial. Seasonal cycles occur, with amplitudes of 0.04-0.60 mm, even for the horizontal components and even for the shortest baselines. For many time series these lag seasonal cycles in local temperature measurements by 23-43 days. This could suggest that they are related to bedrock thermal expansion. Both shorter-period signals and seasonal cycles for shorter baselines to REP2, the one short-braced monument in our network, are correlated with temperature, with no lag time. Differences between REP2 and the other stations, which are deep-braced, should reflect processes occurring in the upper few meters of the ground. These correlations may be related to thermal expansion of these upper ground layers, and/or thermal expansion of the monuments themselves. Even over these short distances we see a systematic increase in RMS values with increasing baseline length. This, and the low RMS levels, suggests that site-specific effects are unlikely to be the limiting factor in the use of similar GPS sites for geophysical investigations.

  20. Baseline OCT measurements in the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial, part II: correlations and relationship to clinical features.

    PubMed

    Auinger, Peggy; Durbin, Mary; Feldon, Steven; Garvin, Mona; Kardon, Randy; Keltner, John; Kupersmith, Mark J; Sibony, Patrick; Plumb, Kim; Wang, Jui-Kai; Werner, John S

    2014-11-04

    The accepted method to evaluate and monitor papilledema, Frisén grading, uses an ordinal approach based on descriptive features. Part I showed that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a clinical trial setting provides reliable measurement of the effects of papilledema on the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retina, particularly if a 3-D segmentation method is used for analysis.(1) We evaluated how OCT parameters are interrelated and how they correlate with vision and other clinical features in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. A total of 126 subjects in the IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) OCT substudy had Cirrus SD-OCT optic disc and macula scans analyzed by using a 3-D segmentation algorithm to derive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, total retinal thickness (TRT), retinal ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness, and ONH volume. The SD-OCT parameter values were correlated with high- and low-contrast acuity, perimetric mean deviation, Frisén grading, and IIH features. At study entry, the average RNFL thickness, TRT, and ONH volume showed significant strong correlations (r ≥ 0.90) with each other. The same OCT parameters showed a strong (r > 0.76) correlation with Frisén grade and a mild (r > 0.24), but significant, correlation with lumbar puncture opening pressure. For all eyes at baseline, neither visual acuity (high or low contrast) nor mean deviation correlated with any OCT measure of swelling or GCL+IPL thickness. In newly diagnosed IIH, OCT demonstrated alterations of the peripapillary retina and ONH correlate with Frisén grading of papilledema. At presentation, OCT measures of papilledema, in patients with newly diagnosed IIH and mild vision loss, do not correlate with clinical features or visual dysfunction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.). Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part II: Correlations and Relationship to Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The accepted method to evaluate and monitor papilledema, Frisén grading, uses an ordinal approach based on descriptive features. Part I showed that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a clinical trial setting provides reliable measurement of the effects of papilledema on the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retina, particularly if a 3-D segmentation method is used for analysis.1 We evaluated how OCT parameters are interrelated and how they correlate with vision and other clinical features in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. Methods. A total of 126 subjects in the IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) OCT substudy had Cirrus SD-OCT optic disc and macula scans analyzed by using a 3-D segmentation algorithm to derive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, total retinal thickness (TRT), retinal ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness, and ONH volume. The SD-OCT parameter values were correlated with high- and low-contrast acuity, perimetric mean deviation, Frisén grading, and IIH features. Results. At study entry, the average RNFL thickness, TRT, and ONH volume showed significant strong correlations (r ≥ 0.90) with each other. The same OCT parameters showed a strong (r > 0.76) correlation with Frisén grade and a mild (r > 0.24), but significant, correlation with lumbar puncture opening pressure. For all eyes at baseline, neither visual acuity (high or low contrast) nor mean deviation correlated with any OCT measure of swelling or GCL+IPL thickness. Conclusions. In newly diagnosed IIH, OCT demonstrated alterations of the peripapillary retina and ONH correlate with Frisén grading of papilledema. At presentation, OCT measures of papilledema, in patients with newly diagnosed IIH and mild vision loss, do not correlate with clinical features or visual dysfunction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370513

  2. Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

  3. Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Heather A; Hermens, Joop L M; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2004-08-01

    Body residues of compounds with a narcotic mode of action that exceed critical levels result in baseline toxicity in organisms. Previous studies have shown that internal concentrations in organisms also can be estimated by way of passive sampling. In this experiment, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used as a tool to estimate the body residues, which were then compared to measured levels. Past application of SPME fibers in the assessment of toxicity risk of samples has focused on separate exposure of fibers and organisms, often necessitated by the amount of agitation needed in order to achieve steady state in the fibers within a convenient time period. Uptake kinetic studies have shown that in SPME fibers with thin coatings, equilibrium concentrations can be reached without agitation within the time frame of a toxicity test. In contrast to toxicity experiments to date, the SPME fibers in the current study were exposed concomitantly to the test water with the organisms, ensuring an exposure under the exact same conditions. Fibers and two aquatic invertebrate species were exposed to a mixture of four chlorobenzenes with a narcotic mode of action. The total body residue of these compounds in the organisms was determined, as was the acute toxicity resulting from the accumulation. The total body residues of both species were correlated to the total concentrations in SPME fibers. It was concluded that toxicity could be predicted based on total body residue (TBR) estimates from fiber concentrations.

  4. 21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2001-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda

  5. Characterization of electrowetting processes through force measurements.

    PubMed

    Crane, Nathan B; Mishra, Pradeep; Volinsky, Alex A

    2010-04-01

    A new method of characterizing electrowetting is presented. In this method, the electrowetting actuation forces are measured rather than the contact angle. The forces on the liquid are measured by trapping a droplet between a flat nanoindenter tip and the test substrate. When voltage is applied to electrodes in the substrate, lateral and normal forces are exerted on the tip and measured by the nanoindenter transducer. Proper selection of the tip geometry permits direct prediction of the resulting in-plane lateral forces using analytical formulas derived from the Young-Lippmann equation. Experimental results show good agreement with both analytical and numerical predictions. Numerical modeling using SURFACE EVOLVER shows that the lateral forces are relatively insensitive to most alignment errors and that the analytical model is most accurate when the flat tip is close to the substrate. Evaporation of the test liquid can introduce modest errors in long measurements, but compensation methods are presented. As the droplet undergoes almost no movement, the fluid dynamics have minimal impact on the measured forces and transient electrowetting events are readily detected. Experimental results show significant response at frequencies up to 40 Hz. This setup is useful in measuring electrowetting responses at high speeds and in measuring system degradation processes.

  6. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  7. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  8. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement in frozen whole blood depends on baseline values of fresh samples.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Luigi; Di Franco, Alessandra; Pazzagli, Mario; Luconi, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recently adopted as a diagnostic marker of type 2 diabetes. However, its usage is currently limited to fresh blood samples. To allow retrospective HbA1c measurement in blood banks developed in large epidemic studies, here, we contribute to validate HbA1c assessment in frozen versus fresh blood samples from a cohort of diabetic/nondiabetic adult subjects. HbA1c was measured by HPLC in 237 fresh whole blood samples and on the same samples after a 12-month storage and a further 6-month-refrozen storage. Mean HbA1c ± SD in fresh, frozen, and refrozen samples was 6.9 ± 1.2, 6.6 ± 1.1, and 6.4 ± 1.0% for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and 52 ± 13, 49 ± 12, and 46 ± 11 mmol/mol for the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference, respectively. A significant correlation was found between fresh/frozen and fresh/refrozen (R = 0.994 and 0.993, P < 0.001) samples. HbA1c relative error ratio (%RER) between frozen/refrozen and fresh samples significantly correlated with HbA1c and depended on fresh value range, increasing in the five HbA1c classes (<6.0, 6.0-6.5, 6.5-7, 7-8, ≥8%, corresponding to <42, 42-48, 48-53, 53-64, ≥64 mmol/mol, P < 0.001). In particular, the 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) HbA1c diagnostic cutoff of fresh samples identified two classes reflecting significant differences in %RER (2.8 ± 2.0 and 3.3 ± 1.7; P < 0.05) between frozen and fresh samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high correlation between data from fresh and frozen samples, with a very limited %RER between the two measurements, which increases with baseline HbA1c levels. Accordingly, when analyzing biobank frozen specimens for diagnostic purpose, the effect of the HbA1c range should be taken into account.

  9. Directional reflectance characterization facility and measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, B T; Haner, D A; Menzies, R T; Esproles, C; Brothers, A M

    1996-08-20

    A precision reflectance characterization facility, constructed specifically for the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance properties of Spectralon panels planned for use as in-flight calibrators on the NASA Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument is described. The incident linearly polarized radiation is provided at three laser wavelengths: 442, 632.8, and 859.9 nm. Each beam is collimated when incident on the Spectralon. The illuminated area of the panel is viewed with a silicon photodetector that revolves around the panel (360°) on a 30-cm boom extending from a common rotational axis. The reflected radiance detector signal is ratioed with the signal from a reference detector to minimize the effect of amplitude instabilities in the laser sources. This and other measures adopted to reduce noise have resulted in a bidirectional reflection function (BRF) calibration facility with a measurement precision with regard to a BRF measurement of ±0.002 at the 1ς confidence level. The Spectralon test piece panel is held in a computer-controlled three-axis rotational assembly capable of a full 360° rotation in the horizontal plane and 90° in the vertical. The angular positioning system has repeatability and resolution of 0.001°. Design details and an outline of the measurement methodology are presented.

  10. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  11. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state.

  12. Fuzzy similarity measures for ultrasound tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara, Salem M.; Badawi, Ahmed M.; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.

    1995-03-01

    Computerized ultrasound tissue characterization has become an objective means for diagnosis of diseases. It is difficult to differentiate diffuse liver diseases, namely cirrhotic and fatty liver from a normal one, by visual inspection from the ultrasound images. The visual criteria for differentiating diffused diseases is rather confusing and highly dependent upon the sonographer's experience. The need for computerized tissue characterization is thus justified to quantitatively assist the sonographer for accurate differentiation and to minimize the degree of risk from erroneous interpretation. In this paper we used the fuzzy similarity measure as an approximate reasoning technique to find the maximum degree of matching between an unknown case defined by a feature vector and a family of prototypes (knowledge base). The feature vector used for the matching process contains 8 quantitative parameters (textural, acoustical, and speckle parameters) extracted from the ultrasound image. The steps done to match an unknown case with the family of prototypes (cirr, fatty, normal) are: Choosing the membership functions for each parameter, then obtaining the fuzzification matrix for the unknown case and the family of prototypes, then by the linguistic evaluation of two fuzzy quantities we obtain the similarity matrix, then by a simple aggregation method and the fuzzy integrals we obtain the degree of similarity. Finally, we find that the similarity measure results are comparable to the neural network classification techniques and it can be used in medical diagnosis to determine the pathology of the liver and to monitor the extent of the disease.

  13. Nutritional characterization and measurement of dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Englyst, K N; Liu, S; Englyst, H N

    2007-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrate characterization should reflect relevant nutritional and functional attributes, and be measured as chemically identified components. A nutritional classification based on these principles is presented, with a main grouping into 'available carbohydrates', which are digested and absorbed in the small intestine providing carbohydrates for metabolism, and 'resistant carbohydrates', which resist digestion in the small intestine or are poorly absorbed/metabolized. For the available carbohydrates, the chemical division into the starch and total sugars categories does not adequately reflect the physiological or nutritional attributes of foods. Characterizing carbohydrate release from starchy foods provides insight into some of the inherent mechanisms responsible for the varied metabolic effects. Also, a pragmatic approach to product signposting consistent with guidelines to limit free (or added) sugars is proposed. The most prominent of the resistant carbohydrates are the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from plant cell walls, which are characteristic of the largely unrefined plant foods that provide the evidence base for the definition and measurement of dietary fibre as 'intrinsic plant cell-wall polysaccharides' as proposed in conjunction with this paper and endorsed by the scientific update. Indigestibility in the small intestine was not considered to be an adequate basis for the definition of dietary fibre, as there is insufficient evidence to establish public health policy by this approach and concerns have been raised about potential detrimental effects of high intakes of rapidly fermentable resistant carbohydrates. Functional ingredients such as resistant starch and resistant oligosaccharides should therefore be researched and managed separately from dietary fibre, using specific health or function claims where appropriate. This structured approach to the characterization of nutritionally relevant features of dietary carbohydrates provides the

  14. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  15. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine

    PubMed Central

    Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  16. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine.

    PubMed

    Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  17. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  18. Association of Baseline Urodynamic Measures of Urethral Function With Clinical, Demographic and Other Urodynamic Variables in Women Prior to Undergoing Midurethral Sling Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Toby C.; Huang, Liyuan; Kenton, Kim; Richter, Holly E.; Baker, Jan; Kraus, Stephen; Litman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Aims To explore how baseline demographic, clinical and urodynamic variables correlate with measures of urethral function in women planning midurethral sling surgery. Methods Women with predominant stress urinary incontinence (SUI) as part of the Trial of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS) were characterized preoperatively including: demographics, body mass index (BMI), responses to the Medical and Epidemiologic Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) questionnaires, pad weight (PW), incontinence duration, prior SUI surgery, prolapse, strength of pelvic contraction, Q-tip test, uroflow, cystometrogram and detrusor pressures at maximum flow (Pdet at Qmax). Multivariate regression analysis and modeling confirmed variables with significant correlations with maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), functional urethral length (FUL) and Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP). Results Five-hundred thirty nine women were included in the analysis. In multivariable analyses, PW (p=0.045) and age (p<0.0001) were negatively correlated with MUCP (as PW and age increased, MUCP decreased); BMI (p=0.02) and Pdet at Qmax (p<0.0001) were positively correlated with MUCP (as BMI and Pdet at Qmax increased, MUCP increased). Age (p=0.002) was negatively correlated with FUL; Qtip delta (p=0.006), POPQ stage (p=0.002) and strength of pelvic contraction (p=0.03) were positively correlated with FUL. Duration of incontinence (p=0.01) was negatively correlated with VLPP; Qtip delta (p=0.02), BMI (p=0.0005) and Pdet at Qmax (p=0.0005) were positively correlated with VLPP. Conclusions Age, BMI, Qtip delta and Pdet at Qmax were variables that correlated with two or more measures of urethral function. These correlations may help direct future research in female urethral function. PMID:22378483

  19. Characterization of spherical Si by photoluminescence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Takehiko; Liu, Zhengxin; Masuda, Atsushi; Kondo, Michio

    2007-05-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) with a size of ˜1mm diameter was fabricated by the dropping method for the applications of spherical Si solar cells. In this research work, we characterized spherical Si by means of photoluminescence (PL) measurement at 4 and 18K. The horn-type spherical Si crystals, formed under large undercooled conditions without a seeding technique, showed D-band luminescence originating from dislocations, whereas intrinsic PL bands of Si were not observed. In contrast, for the tear-type spherical Si crystals, formed under shadow undercooling by a seeding technique with Si powder, the boron (B) bound and Si intrinsic phonon-assisted PL bands were clearly observed both at 4 and 18K. Moreover, the intensity ratio of B bound exciton band to Si intrinsic phonon-assisted PL band showed good correlation to the minority carrier lifetime measured with microwave photoconductance decay method. These experimental results suggested that the crystallinity of the tear-type spherical Si is significantly improved by the seeding technique compared with the horn-type ones, which contain a large amount of B-related defects.

  20. Resin characterization by electro-acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Egbert; Mann, Christian

    2007-03-09

    The electro-acoustic effects, namely the ion vibration potential (IVP) and the colloidal vibration current (CVI), colloidal vibration potential (CVP) first described by P. Debye [P. Debye, J. Chem. Phys. 1 (1933) 13], are a result of charge separation of bound or free ions at different degrees by ultrasonic waves. Today commercial instruments are available to investigate liquid homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In the present paper the application of this technique for the characterization of salts, protein solutions and resins for biochromatography is shown and valuable information about resins can be derived in a short time. Various resins were investigated with the following results: (1) the CVI magnitude is dependent of several parameters (such as particle size distribution, volume fraction, density difference); (2) the CVI is influenced by the surface modification of the resins. Polymeric modifications decrease the value of CVI. The CVI is generally lower for high capacity resins; (3) the measurement of the electro-acoustic effects can be used to detect small changes in resins. The CVI is dependent of the amount of adsorbed protein in "native" and denatured state.

  1. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste

    Optical Long Baseline Interferometry provides unrivalled angular resolution on bright and compact astrophysical sources. The link between the observables (interferometric phase and contrast) and the image of the source is a Fourier transform expressed first by van Cittert and Zernike. Depending on the source size and the amount of information collected, the analysis of these Fourier components allows a measurement of the typical source size, a parametric modelling of its spatial structures, or a model-independent image reconstruction to be carried. In the past decades, optical long baseline interferometry provided fundamental measurements for astronomy (ex. Cepheids distances, surface-brightness relations) as well as iconic results such as the first images of stellar surfaces other than the Sun. Optical long baseline interferometers exist in the Northern and Southern hemisphere and are open to the astronomical community with modern level of support. We provide in this chapter an introduction to the fundamental principles of optical interferometry and introduce the currently available facilities.

  2. Baseline environmental characterization of Pike County Coal-Gasification Facility site. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1858

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Suter, G.W. II; Bailey, M.E.; Hosker, R.P.; Jordan, C.; Nappo, C.J.; Satterfield, L.C.; Snodgrass, H.F.

    1982-08-01

    Preoperational monitoring at the proposed site of the Pike County (Kentucky) Coal Gasification Facility consisted of two tasks: analysis of surface water quality and characterization of site meteorology. Analysis of surface water in Shelby Creek and a small tributary confirmed earlier reports of marginal water quality in the area. Values of alkalinity, ammonia, copper, zinc, and iron were outside recommended ranges. Meteorological studies showed that the complex terrain of the site could have a major effect on pollutant dispersion. The surface air, which is decoupled from regional air flow, usually extends to ridge height, approximately 300 m above the site. At night, the air is typically calm with frequent fog and ground-based or elevated inversions. During the day, frequent convective air flow interacts with the terrain, producing mechanical turbulence. Mechanical turbulence was verified by the helical pattern and irregular direction of experimental smoke releases. The potential for ground-level air pollution appears to be high. Plume impactions with the surrounding terrain could occur during daytime, causing damage to vegetation. Also, plume material that contacts the terrain may lose its bouyancy and sink to lower elevations or be carried down by drainage currents. Although the anticipated effective plume height (approximately 100 m) of the proposed facility is well below ridge height, the high frequency of weak winds may often allow the plume to extend above the ridge top. The combination of elevated inversions and fog (which cools the plume) suggests that at night the plume may often be contained within the site. Chemical interaction of plume materials with nighttime moisture could be an additional problem. These tentative results suggest that any pollutants released at this site should be carefully monitored.

  3. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  4. Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Springston, John P; Esposito, William A; Cleversey, Keith W

    2002-01-01

    Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the metropolitan New York region as part of an ongoing proactive indoor environmental quality (IEQ) program. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in "nonproblem" buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and gaseous parameters sampled for. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The data was then compared to various standards and/or guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. The results indicated that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000 ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10 ppm. However, for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3 mg/m3. Ultimately, these results can be used to compare both baseline and periodic readings collected in future studies, and to help determine if potential problems exist within a building.

  5. Correlation of the CME Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.; Gary, G. Allen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images, it is known qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions in which the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. In this paper, we present measurements from active-region vector magnetograms that begin to quantify the dependence of the CME productivity of an active region on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we obtain a measure of the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three different measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line; I(sub N), the net electric current arching from one polarity to the other; and alpha = muI(subN/phi), a flux-normalized measure of the field twist).

  6. Correlation of the CME Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.; Gary, G. Allen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images, it is known qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions in which the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. In this paper, we present measurements from active-region vector magnetograms that begin to quantify the dependence of the CME productivity of an active region on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we obtain a measure of the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three different measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line; I(sub N), the net electric current arching from one polarity to the other; and alpha = muI(subN/phi), a flux-normalized measure of the field twist).

  7. Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Liana G; Morra, Jonathan H; Green, Amity E; Hwang, Kristy S; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-05-15

    We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests--ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test-the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.

  8. Characterization of measurements in quantum communication. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, V. W. S.

    1975-01-01

    A characterization of quantum measurements by operator valued measures is presented. The generalized measurements include simultaneous approximate measurement of noncommuting observables. This characterization is suitable for solving problems in quantum communication. Two realizations of such measurements are discussed. The first is by adjoining an apparatus to the system under observation and performing a measurement corresponding to a self-adjoint operator in the tensor-product Hilbert space of the system and apparatus spaces. The second realization is by performing, on the system alone, sequential measurements that correspond to self-adjoint operators, basing the choice of each measurement on the outcomes of previous measurements. Simultaneous generalized measurements are found to be equivalent to a single finer grain generalized measurement, and hence it is sufficient to consider the set of single measurements. An alternative characterization of generalized measurement is proposed. It is shown to be equivalent to the characterization by operator-values measures, but it is potentially more suitable for the treatment of estimation problems. Finally, a study of the interaction between the information-carrying system and a measurement apparatus provides clues for the physical realizations of abstractly characterized quantum measurements.

  9. Characterization and measurement of polymer wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Aron, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical tools which characterize the polymer wear process are discussed. The devices discussed include: visual observation of polymer wear with SEM, the quantification with surface profilometry and ellipsometry, to study the chemistry with AES, XPS and SIMS, to establish interfacial polymer orientation and accordingly bonding with QUARTIR, polymer state with Raman spectroscopy and stresses that develop in polymer films using a X-ray double crystal camera technique.

  10. Characterization and measurement of polymer wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical tools which characterize the polymer wear process are discussed. The devices discussed include: visual observation of polymer wear with SEM, the quantification with surface profilometry and ellipsometry, to study the chemistry with AES, XPS and SIMS, to establish interfacial polymer orientation and accordingly bonding with QUARTIR, polymer state with Raman spectroscopy and stresses that develop in polymer films using a X-ray double crystal camera technique.

  11. Characterization and measurement of polymer wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Aron, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical tools which characterize the polymer wear process are discussed. The devices discussed include: visual observation of polymer wear with SEM, the quantification with surface profilometry and ellipsometry, to study the chemistry with AES, XPS and SIMS, to establish interfacial polymer orientation and accordingly bonding with QUARTIR, polymer state with Raman spectroscopy and stresses that develop in polymer films using a X-ray double crystal camera technique.

  12. Increasing the Accuracy in the Measurement of the Minor Isotopes of Uranium: Care in Selection of Reference Materials, Baselines and Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poths, J.; Koepf, A.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    The minor isotopes of uranium (U-233, U-234, U-236) are increasingly useful for tracing a variety of processes: movement of anthropogenic nuclides in the environment (ref 1), sources of uranium ores (ref 2), and nuclear material attribution (ref 3). We report on improved accuracy for U-234/238 and U-236/238 by supplementing total evaporation protocol TIMS measurement on Faraday detectors (ref 4)with multiplier measurement for the minor isotopes. Measurement of small signals on Faraday detectors alone is limited by noise floors of the amplifiers and accurate measurement of the baseline offsets. The combined detector approach improves the reproducibility to better than ±1% (relative) for the U-234/238 at natural abundance, and yields a detection limit for U-236/U-238 of <0.2 ppm. We have quantified contribution of different factors to the uncertainties associated with these peak jumping measurement on a single detector, with an aim of further improvement. The uncertainties in the certified values for U-234 and U-236 in the uranium standard NBS U005, if used for mass bias correction, dominates the uncertainty in their isotopic ratio measurements. Software limitations in baseline measurement drives the detection limit for the U-236/U-238 ratio. This is a topic for discussion with the instrument manufacturers. Finally, deviation from linearity of the response of the electron multiplier with count rate limits the accuracy and reproducibility of these minor isotope measurements. References: (1) P. Steier et al(2008) Nuc Inst Meth(B), 266, 2246-2250. (2) E. Keegan et al (2008) Appl Geochem 23, 765-777. (3) K. Mayer et al (1998) IAEA-CN-98/11, in Advances in Destructive and Non-destructive Analysis for Environmental Monitoring and Nuclear Forensics. (4) S. Richter and S. Goldberg(2003) Int J Mass Spectrom, 229, 181-197.

  13. In vivo baseline measurements of hip joint range of motion in suspensory and non-suspensory anthropoids

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ashley S.

    2014-01-01

    Hominoids and atelines are known to use suspensory behaviors and are assumed to possess greater hip joint mobility than non-suspensory monkeys, particularly for range of abduction. This assumption has greatly influenced how extant and fossil primate hip joint morphology has been interpreted, despite the fact that there are no data available on hip mobility in hominoids or Ateles. This study uses in vivo measurements to test the hypothesis that suspensory anthropoids have significantly greater ranges of hip joint mobility than non-suspensory anthropoids. Passive hip joint mobility was measured on a large sample of anesthetized captive anthropoids (non-human hominids=43, hylobatids=6, cercopithecids=43, Ateles=6, Cebus=6). Angular and linear data were collected using goniometers and tape measures. Range of motion data were analyzed for significant differences by locomotor group using ANOVA and phylogenetic regression. The data demonstrate that suspensory anthropoids are capable of significantly greater hip abduction and external rotation. Degree of flexion and internal rotation were not larger in the suspensory primates, indicating that suspension is not associated with a global increase in hip mobility. Future work should consider the role of external rotation in abduction ability, how the physical position of the distal limb segments are influenced by differences in range of motion proximally, as well as focus on bony and soft tissue differences that enable or restrict abduction and external rotation at the anthropoid hip joint. PMID:24288178

  14. The use of an immunization information system to establish baseline childhood immunization rates and measure contract objectives.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Stephanie L; Maerz, Thomas R; Hurie, Marjorie B; Gabor, Gerald W; Flynn, John M; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Measuring progress toward national immunization objectives at the local level, although difficult, is becoming more feasible owing to statewide immunization information systems. This article describes how a state immunization program expanded the scope of immunization service contracts with local health departments (LHDs) to address the immunization rates among children living within their jurisdictions using the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) to measure achievement of population-based objectives. By contract year (CY) 2008, 99 percent of Wisconsin LHDs selected population-based contract objectives. In late 2008, the Wisconsin Immunization Program assessed all children at 24 months of age for completeness of the 4:3:1:3:3:1 (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/poliovirus/measles-containing vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b/hepatitis B/varicella) series by county for each of four CYs, using the WIR. From CY 2005 to CY 2008, LHDs in 61 (86%) of the 71 counties demonstrated increased series completeness rates for the series, and the overall statewide series completeness increased from 58 percent to 64 percent. However, the increases we observed cannot be attributed solely to LHDs' acceptance of population-based objectives because controlling for other factors known to influence immunization coverage levels was outside the scope of this case study. We found the WIR to be a powerful tool that can measure immunization coverage among local populations independent of the immunization provider, assess improvement toward contract objectives, and target resources toward pockets of need.

  15. Hall coefficient measurement for nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Although Hall detectors are widely used for magnetic flux density measurements in numerous electromagnetic NDE applications, measurement of the Hall coefficient of metals and their alloys for NDE purposes has not been successfully attempted before. While other intrinsic electric properties, such as electric conductivity and, to a lesser degree, thermoelectric power, are widely used for NDE, Hall coefficient measurements have never been really considered mainly because the measurements are rather difficult to carry out, especially in high-conductivity materials. In contrast to electric conductivity, the Hall coefficient is influenced mainly by the concentration density of the free charge carriers, i.e., electrons in metals, and not so much by their mobility, therefore it could be a valuable addition to our NDE arsenal. We modified the alternating current potential drop (ACPD) method with square-electrode configuration by adding an external bias magnetic field modulation to measure the Hall coefficient. The presence of such a bias field violates the Reciprocity Theorem unless the sign of the magnetic field is switched between the two measurements, which can be exploited to measure the Hall coefficient in the presence of other variations that would otherwise hide it. This new experimental method was tested on paramagnetic alloys and yielded a ±4% reproducibility that probably could be further improved by additional development efforts. As a first step towards illustrating some of the potential applications of this new technique, we have done reversible applied stress measurements in Al 1100 plates and found the sensitivity of the technique to elastic strain surprisingly high.

  16. Baseline OCT measurements in the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial, part I: quality control, comparisons, and variability.

    PubMed

    Auinger, Peggy; Durbin, Mary; Feldon, Steven; Garvin, Mona; Kardon, Randy; Keltner, John; Kupersmith, Mark; Sibony, Patrick; Plumb, Kim; Wang, Jui-Kai; Werner, John S

    2014-11-04

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to investigate papilledema in single-site, mostly retrospective studies. We investigated whether spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), which provides thickness and volume measurements of the optic nerve head and retina, could reliably demonstrate structural changes due to papilledema in a prospective multisite clinical trial setting. At entry, 126 subjects in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) with mild visual field loss had optic disc and macular scans, using the Cirrus SD-OCT. Images were analyzed by using the proprietary commercial and custom 3D-segmentation algorithms to calculate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), total retinal thickness (TRT), optic nerve head volume (ONHV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. We evaluated variability, with interocular comparison and correlation between results for both methods. The average RNFL thickness > 95% of normal controls in 90% of eyes and the RNFL, TRT, ONH height, and ONHV showed strong (r > 0.8) correlations for interocular comparisons. Variability for repeated testing of OCT parameters was low for both methods and intraclass correlations > 0.9 except for the proprietary GCL thickness. The proprietary algorithm-derived RNFL, TRT, and GCL thickness measurements had failure rates of 10%, 16%, and 20% for all eyes respectively, which were uncommon with 3D-segmentation-derived measurements. Only 7% of eyes had GCL thinning that was less than fifth percentile of normal age-matched control eyes by both methods. Spectral-domain OCT provides reliable continuous variables and quantified assessment of structural alterations due to papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.). Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part I: Quality Control, Comparisons, and Variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to investigate papilledema in single-site, mostly retrospective studies. We investigated whether spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), which provides thickness and volume measurements of the optic nerve head and retina, could reliably demonstrate structural changes due to papilledema in a prospective multisite clinical trial setting. Methods. At entry, 126 subjects in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) with mild visual field loss had optic disc and macular scans, using the Cirrus SD-OCT. Images were analyzed by using the proprietary commercial and custom 3D-segmentation algorithms to calculate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), total retinal thickness (TRT), optic nerve head volume (ONHV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. We evaluated variability, with interocular comparison and correlation between results for both methods. Results. The average RNFL thickness > 95% of normal controls in 90% of eyes and the RNFL, TRT, ONH height, and ONHV showed strong (r > 0.8) correlations for interocular comparisons. Variability for repeated testing of OCT parameters was low for both methods and intraclass correlations > 0.9 except for the proprietary GCL thickness. The proprietary algorithm–derived RNFL, TRT, and GCL thickness measurements had failure rates of 10%, 16%, and 20% for all eyes respectively, which were uncommon with 3D-segmentation–derived measurements. Only 7% of eyes had GCL thinning that was less than fifth percentile of normal age-matched control eyes by both methods. Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT provides reliable continuous variables and quantified assessment of structural alterations due to papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370510

  18. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM): A Year 2000 Global Baseline for Measuring Topographic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    The SRTM DEM is the first near-global, high-resolution elevation model. The data were acquired in February 2000 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour and cover the Earth's land masses between 60N and 56S latitudes at about 30 meters spatial resolution. The data are a virtual global snapshot in that they were acquired in about 10 days by a single sensor. Absolute vertical accuracy was targeted at 16 meters. However, spatially broad temporal changes in topography have been detected and measured down to about one-meter precision by comparing the SRTM DEM to the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED). NED has similar spatial properties, but was independently derived, commonly years (or decades) earlier. Such changes already noted include those related to volcanic processes, alluvial fan deposition, subsidence related to oil extraction, and direct anthropogenic changes such as landfills and major road cuts and fills. Large tectonic changes in topography are likewise potentially evident in such comparisons. New and forthcoming satellites include capabilities to produce elevation models that can be used to detect and measure ongoing and future topographic change when compared to the SRTM DEM. For example, the ASTER instrument on the Terra satellite (launched in 1999) produces targeted DEMs, and SPOT-5 (launched in 2002) is expected to produce a global DEM over a five-year period. Both of these DEM sources (and the NED and others) use optical wavelength sensors which may "observe a different surface" than the SRTM radar, particularly in heavily vegetated areas, and this must be considered in making the comparisons. However, having a "before" data set is often the roadblock in measuring change, and SRTM has now provided the first detailed "before" DEM for most of Earth's land surface.

  19. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  20. A simple method to measure baseline occupancy of neostriatal dopamine D2 receptors by dopamine in vivo in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, N P; Kapur, S; Hussey, D; Lee, M; Christensen, B; C Psych; Papatheodorou, G; Zipursky, R B

    2001-08-01

    The effect of endogenous dopamine (DA) on measurement of neostriatal DA D(2) receptor binding potential (D(2)RBP) in vivo was evaluated with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [11C]raclopride by comparing the D(2)RBP before and after acute DA depletion. DA depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 4.5 g alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) given in 25 h. Six healthy subjects completed the protocol. The AMPT treatment increased D(2)RBP significantly from 3.11 +/- 0.25 to 3.68 +/- 0.23 and decreased plasma levels of the DA metabolite homovanillic acid by 71 +/- 11% and levels of the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol by 53 +/- 7%. Increase in D(2)RBP correlated with decrease in attentiveness and with increase in errors of commission from Conners' Continuous Performance Test. On AMPT, a significant decrease in subjective happiness scores was observed. The results imply that a noninvasive [11C]raclopride PET protocol coupled with relatively brief administration of a rather low total dose of AMPT resulted in measurable acute DA depletion that might provide estimates of synaptic neostriatal DA concentration.

  1. Measurement System Characterization in the Presence of Measurement Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    In the calibration of a measurement system, data are collected in order to estimate a mathematical model between one or more factors of interest and a response. Ordinary least squares is a method employed to estimate the regression coefficients in the model. The method assumes that the factors are known without error; yet, it is implicitly known that the factors contain some uncertainty. In the literature, this uncertainty is known as measurement error. The measurement error affects both the estimates of the model coefficients and the prediction, or residual, errors. There are some methods, such as orthogonal least squares, that are employed in situations where measurement errors exist, but these methods do not directly incorporate the magnitude of the measurement errors. This research proposes a new method, known as modified least squares, that combines the principles of least squares with knowledge about the measurement errors. This knowledge is expressed in terms of the variance ratio - the ratio of response error variance to measurement error variance.

  2. Characterizing Wake Turbulence with Staring Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastine, D.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Trabucchi, D.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Lidar measurements in the German offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus were performed to investigate the turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes. In particular, we compare measurements of the free flow in the surroundings of the wind turbines with measurements in the inner region of a wake flow behind one turbine. Our results indicate that wind turbines modulate the turbulent structures of the flow on a wide range of scales. For the data of the wake flow, the power spectrum as well as the multifractal intermittency coefficient reveal features of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thus, we conjecture that on scales of the rotor a new turbulent cascade is initiated, which determines the features of the turbulent wake flow quite independently from the more complex wind flow in the surroundings of the turbine.

  3. Orbital Debris Characterization via Laboratory Optical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Healther

    2011-01-01

    Optical observations of orbital debris offer insights that differ from radar measurements (specifically the size parameter,wavelength regime,and altitude range). For example, time-dependent photometric data yield lightcurves in multiple bandpasses that aid in material identification and possible periodic orientations. These data can also be used to help identify shapes and optical properties at multiple phase angles. Capitalizing on optical data products and applying them to generate a more complete understanding of orbital objects is a key objective of NASA's Optical Measurement Program, and the primary reason for the creation of the Optical Measurements Center(OMC). The OMC attempts to emulate space-based illumination conditions using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations.

  4. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  5. Measuring sin2θw in PV-DIS with the Baseline Spectrometers at JLab 12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Paul

    2007-07-18

    The couplings of leptons to quarks are fundamental parameters of the electroweak interaction. Within the framework of the Standard Model, these couplings can be related to sin2θw. Parity violation (PV) in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is proportional to these couplings and hence sensitive sin2θw. PV-DIS, first measured at SLAC in the mid-1970's, was used to establish the Standard Model. The high quality and intensity of the upgraded 11 GeV CEBAF beam at Jefferson Laboratory will make it an ideal tool for PV studies. In DIS the asymmetry from parity violation is large (APV ≈10-4 Q2), allowing precise measurements with modest beam-time. This talk will explore a PV-DIS measurement which can be made using the baseline spectrometers that will exist as part of the 12 GeV JLab upgrade.

  6. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  7. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT`s Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT`s ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release.

  8. Measuring the CP-violating phase by a long base-line neutrino experiment with Hyper-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Okamura, Naotoshi

    2003-02-01

    We study the sensitivity of a long-base-line (LBL) experiment with neutrino beams from the High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA), that delivers 1021 POT per year, and a proposed 1 Mt water Čerenkov detector, Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) 295 km away from the HIPA, to the CP phase (δMNS) of the three-flavor lepton mixing matrix. We examine a combination of the νμ narrow-band beam (NBB) at two different energies, =2, 3 GeV, and the ν¯μ NBB at =2 GeV. By allocating one year each for the two νμ beams and four years for the ν¯μ beam, we can efficiently measure the νμ→νe and ν¯μ→ν¯e transition probabilities, as well as the νμ and ν¯μ survival probabilities. CP violation in the lepton sector can be established at 4σ (3σ) level if the MSW large-mixing-angle scenario of the solar-neutrino deficit is realized, |δMNS| or |δMNS-180°|>30°, and if 4|Ue3|2(1-|Ue3|2)≡sin22θRCT>0.03 (0.01). The phase δMNS is more difficult to constrain by this experiment if there is little CP violation, δMNS∼0°or 180°, which can be distinguished at 1σ level if sin22θRCT≳0.01.

  9. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow baseline and suppressor nozzles. Volume 2: Forward speed effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A model scale flight effects test was conducted in the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to investigate the effect of aircraft forward speed on single flow jet noise characteristics. The models tested included a 15.24 cm baseline round convergent nozzle, a 20-lobe and annular nozzle with and without lined ejector shroud, and a 57-tube nozzle with a lined ejector shroud. Nozzle operating conditions covered jet velocities from 412 to 640 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. Wind tunnel speeds were varied from near zero to 91.5 m/s. Measurements were analyzed to (1) determine apparent jet noise source location including effects of ambient velocity; (2) verify a technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field; (3) determine flight effects in the near and far field for baseline and suppressor nozzles; and (4) establish the wind tunnel as a means of accurately defining flight effects for model nozzles and full scale engines.

  10. Establishing baseline data for an experimental appratus that measures heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow. M. S. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, C.E.

    1993-05-01

    Mathematical correlations for predicting heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow are in their developmental infancy. Such heat transfer is commonly found in reciprocating machinery such as internal combustion engines, gas springs, and Stirling cycle engines. In order to understand and improve the thermodynamic performance of reciprocal engines, it is necessary that mathematical correlations be developed that accurately predict heat loss through the walls of the components within these systems. A heat transfer apparatus has been built that models the oscillating flow of a gas in a pipe as found in the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The apparatus is capable of measuring stream temperature and velocity at any point across the diameter of the pipe, the wall temperature, gas pressure, and gas to wall heat flux. This work addresses the collection of baseline heat transfer data for this apparatus under conditions of oscillating flow and pressure by (1) explaining the addition of a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure stream velocities, (2) investigating velocity profiles within the test section as the flow oscillates, and (3) recording and analyzing baseline heat transfer data. Results show a close correlation between the phase angle between the two compressors mounted at each end of the test section and the complex-valued Nusselt number that has been derived.

  11. Cyclic Concentration Measurements for Characterizing Pulsating Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2013-07-07

    Slurry mixed in vessels via pulse jet mixers has a periodic, rather than steady, concentration profile. Measurements of local concentration taken at the center of the tank at a range of elevations within the mixed region were analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of how the periodic pulse jet mixing cycle affects the local concentration. Data were obtained at the critical suspension velocity, when all solids are suspended at the end of the pulse. The data at a range of solids loadings are analyzed to observe the effect of solids concentration during the suspension and settling portions of the mixing cycle.

  12. Optical measurement system for characterizing plastic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahleitner, R.; Niel, Kurt S.; Frank, S.

    2008-02-01

    Injection molded plastic parts are often influenced with the surface defect tiger stripes, which dramatically reduce the visual quality. Tiger stripes are known as alternating bands of bright and dull regions normally to the molded flow direction. This defect highly depends on the injection time and on the formation of the plastic compound. In the last years, the intensity of the tiger stripes defect was controlled visually. For quantifying the tiger strip defect a new, efficient, repeatable, reliable and nondestructive optical measurement system is proposed. To evaluate the dependency of the injection time, a number of five DIN-A5 plastic specimens are molded. Each of the five plates consists of the same material but they have different injection times. For the measurement, one specimen is put into the specimen holder, which is placed on the drawer of a closed cabinet. In this inside black painted cabinet a LED light source and a CCD Camera are mounted. The beams of the LED light are diffuse reflected on the surface of the specimen. To catch only parallel beams by the lens of the camera a large distance between specimen and camera is realized by two justified mirrors in the cabinet. The bright and dull regions of the tiger stripe defect have different diffuse reflection parameters. Thus in a picture of defined brightness the visibility of this defect is very good. To enhance the repeatability the failure of the camera noise and of the light oscillation is reduced by mends of averaging multiple images. Next, the surface structure is filtered out of the image and a representing number of horizontal grey-value lines are extracted. The so called tiger line signal is the difference between the grey line and a calculated polynomial function (degree of 6) and shows the surface defect of each line oscillating on the zero x-axis. For each tiger line signal the mean squared error is evaluated. To calculate a quantitative value of the whole surface, all line errors are

  13. Prediction of disease reactivation in asymptomatic hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients using baseline serum measurements of HBsAg and HBV-DNA.

    PubMed

    Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Lapalus, Martine; Laouénan, Cédric; Lada, Olivier; Netto-Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Boyer, Nathalie; Ripault, Marie Pierre; Carvalho-Filho, Roberto; Asselah, Tarik; Marcellin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Differentiating 'inactive carriers' (ICs) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from hepatitis B e antigen-negative (HBeAg[-]) patients in remission is challenging. We investigated whether serum-based monitoring of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV-DNA in asymptomatic HBeAg(-) patients could distinguish these groups. 129 HBeAg(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients (HBV genotypes A-E) with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at baseline were classified after 1 year of follow-up as either IC (HBV-DNA ≤2000 IU/mL) or 'active carrier' (AC, HBV-DNA >2000 IU/mL) if they exhibited normal ALT throughout, or classified as 'reactivation patient' (RP) if they exhibited marked, transient increases in ALT and HBV-DNA. There were 64%, 18%, and 19% patients in the IC, AC, and RP groups, respectively. Combined HBsAg and HBV-DNA cutoffs (>1000 IU/mL and >200 IU/mL, respectively) differentiated RPs with 92% sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of 96%. HBsAg sero-clearance was associated with baseline HBsAg <1000 IU/mL, annual decrease of ≥0.3 log IU/mL (NPV 95%: PPV 89%) and IFNL3 genotype CC. Applying combined HBsAg and HBV-DNA cutoffs to baseline measurements accurately differentiated RPs. These results suggest that HBsAg should be included in the monitoring of asymptomatic HBeAg(-) CHB patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. Sang; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Dombrowski, Mark; Prasad, Coorg

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of various detector responses are studied to understand the cause of various systematic biases and to minimize these undesirable effects in measurements of transient signals with large dynamic range. Signal-induced bias, gain variation, and the linearity of commonly used gated photomultipliers in the current integrating mode are quantitatively evaluated. Analysis of the results indicates that impurity ions inside the photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are the source of the signal induced bias and gain variation. Two different PMTs used in this study show significant differences in the magnitude and decay behavior of signal-induced bias. It was found that it can be minimized by using an external amplifier to reduce PMT gain, and by applying a low potential between the cathode and first dynode. The linearity of a PMT is also studied over a large dynamic range of input intensities employing a new technique which does not require an absolute calibration. The result of this study shows that the photomultiplier response is linear only for a limited input intensity range below a certain anode current.

  15. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center. This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data they acquire. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the techniques used to characterize data from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active LIDAR systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible through long-wave infrared remote sensing systems and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed include: 1) The use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations; 2) Additional sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States; 3) The need for a standardized technique to be adopted by CEOS and other organizations.

  16. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center. This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data they acquire. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the techniques used to characterize data from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active LIDAR systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible through long-wave infrared remote sensing systems and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed include: 1) The use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations; 2) Additional sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States; 3) The need for a standardized technique to be adopted by CEOS and other organizations.

  17. Measurements and Characterization: Cell and Module Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization -- Cell and Module Performance. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  18. Geodynamical Processes between Antarctica and India as revealed by very long baselines between the continents estimated from continuous and long-term GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, R.; Ec, M.; Akilan, A.

    2006-12-01

    To holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes in the south of Indian peninsula between India and Antarctica, two global networks have been chosen that geodetically connect the two continents, the IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) being the common station between the two networks. 8 years of data from 1997 to 2005 were used. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE to other chosen IGS stations in and around India including DGAR. Similarly in the other network, very long baselines have been estimated from Kerguelen to other stations in and around Antarctica again including DGAR. Since the baseline length between HYDE, India and MAITRI, Antarctica is more than 10,000 km, it is mandatory to form these two different networks to improve the accuracy of the baseline measurements by GPS. This is to circumvent the limitation in the estimation of maximum base line length by GPS is of 6,900 km only due to the availability of less number of double difference observables in the GPS data analysis. Our analysis and results show increase of baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and other common stations. By this global network analyses, the stations HYDE and MAITRI are geodetically tied through DGAR. With this geodetic tie up, having got the first geodetic signatures of the geodynamical processes between India and Antarctica, continuous monitoring and estimation would help enhancing the understanding the crustal deformation processes between these two continents despite many plates, micro plates and ridges in this study region.These estimations reveal clearly that the stations in the Australian plate are moving away from the Indian plate conforming to the recent Plate tectonic theory that India and Australia lie in two different plates with a diffuse boundary separating them. GPS derived velocity vectors for the Australian Plate also

  19. Assessment of What/For What? Teachers' and Head Teachers' Views on Using Well-Being and Involvement as a Screening Measure for Conducting Baseline Assessment on School Entry in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Sofia; Howe, Sally; Clausen, Sigrid Brogaard; Cottle, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Baseline assessment has recently been trialled as part of an accountability measure in English primary schools. The research presented in this colloquium examines the views of teachers related to using well-being and involvement indicators as a starting point for baseline assessment. The findings suggest that the focus on well-being was welcomed…

  20. Assessment of What/For What? Teachers' and Head Teachers' Views on Using Well-Being and Involvement as a Screening Measure for Conducting Baseline Assessment on School Entry in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Sofia; Howe, Sally; Clausen, Sigrid Brogaard; Cottle, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Baseline assessment has recently been trialled as part of an accountability measure in English primary schools. The research presented in this colloquium examines the views of teachers related to using well-being and involvement indicators as a starting point for baseline assessment. The findings suggest that the focus on well-being was welcomed…

  1. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly used for Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slawomir; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists with NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data that they require. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high-spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high-resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible-through-longwave infrared remote sensing systems, and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed inslude: 1) use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations, 2) other sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States,a nd 3) the need for a standardized technique to be adopted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and other organizations.

  2. The use of baseline measurements and geophysical models for the estimation of crustal deformations and the terrestrial reference system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Four possible estimators are investigated for the monitoring of crustal deformations from a combination of repeated baseline length measurements and adopted geophysical models, particularly an absolute motion plate model. The first estimator is an extension of the familiar free adjustment. The next two are Bayesian type estimators, one weak and one strong. Finally, a weighted constraint estimator is presented. The properties of these four estimators are outlined and their physical interpretations discussed. A series of simulations are performed to test the four estimators and to determine whether or not to incorporate a plate model for the monitoring of deformations. The application of these estimations to the maintenance of a new conventional terrestrial reference system is discussed.

  3. Vertical Distributions of Ozone above the San Joaquin Valley Measured by the NOAA TOPAZ lidar during the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Kirgis, G.; Senff, C. J.; Weickmann, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) was conducted in the late spring and summer of 2016 to investigate the influence of trans-boundary ozone (O3) on the surface concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, one of two "extreme" non-attainment areas remaining in the United States. As part of this study, the truck-based NOAA ESRL scanning ozone and aerosol lidar (TOPAZ) was deployed to the Visalia, CA Airport for two 3-week intensive operating periods: (May 29 - June 18) and (July 18-August 7). This site was selected to take advantage of the collocated radar wind profiler and RASS operated by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and the lidar measurements also overlapped with in situ sampling by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet (AJAX) and the UC Davis/Scientific Aviation Mooney aircraft. In addition, the lidar measurements coincided with daily ozonesonde launches at Bodega Bay and Half Moon Bay by San Jose State University. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the TOPAZ measurements, and discuss the impacts of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT), long-range transport from Asia, and regional transport from the Los Angeles Basin on the measurements.

  4. The application of multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry in three-dimensional imaging and measurement of dental casts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zan; Liu, Shan; Tan, Minmin; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore a new technique for reconstructing and measuring three-dimensional (3D) models of orthodontic plaster casts using multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry (MBDCRP) with a single-lens reflex camera. Study design Thirty sets of orthodontic plaster casts that do not exhibit severe horizontal overlap (>2 mm) between any two teeth were recorded by a single-lens reflex camera with 72 pictures taken in different directions. The 3D models of these casts were reconstructed and measured using the open source software MeshLab. These parameters, including mesio-distal crown diameter, arch width, and arch perimeter, were recorded six times on both the 3D digital models and on plaster casts by two examiners. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Bland–Altman method to measure agreement between the novel method and the traditional calliper method by calculating the differences between mean values. Results The average differences between the measurements of the photogrammetric 3D models and the plaster casts were 0.011–0.402mm. The mean differences between measurements obtained by the photogrammetric 3D models and the dental casts were not significant except for the lower arch perimeter (P>0.05), and all the differences were regarded as clinically acceptable (<0.5 mm). Conclusions Measurements obtained by MBDCRP are compared well with those obtained from plaster casts, indicating that MBDCRP is an alternate way to store and measure dental plaster casts without severe horizontal overlap between any two teeth. PMID:28640827

  5. Short electron beam bunch characterization through measurement of terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Michelle D. Shinn; Gwyn Williams

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the measurement of sub-picosecond relativistic electron beam bunch length by analyzing the spectra of the coherent terahertz pulses through Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with autocorrelation from a scanning polarization autocorrelator that measures the coherent optical transition radiation. The limitations of the different methods to such a characterization are discussed.

  6. Characterization of a system for measurements on soft ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, F.; Attivissimo, F.; Marracci, M.; Tellini, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of a system for measurements on soft ferrites through a volt-amperometric method. The accurate control of the driving input field is discussed as a critical aspect for the definition of the correct operating conditions on the magnetic sample. A custom-built transimpedance amplifier is characterized in terms of total harmonic distortion and signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of the primary current and shown as a valid configuration for the required purposes. As a main contribution, the uncertainty analyses of the major loop measurement and of the magnetic accommodation measurement of minor asymmetric loops are provided.

  7. Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip

    2017-02-01

    This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.

  8. Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip

    2017-06-01

    This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.

  9. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  10. Measurement of dielectron continuum in p + p at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV as a baseline study for chiral symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolnick, Sky Deva

    Dielectrons are a very important probe used for studying the properties of hot dense nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions. Since dielectrons are color neutral and produced during all stages of the collision, they provide access to an abundance of information not readily available from other sources. These include thermal sources, vector meson resonances, heavy charm and bottom decay, and Drell-Yan processes. Previous measurements of the dielectron continuum in PHENIX have indicated an unexpectedly large enhancement in Au+Au collisions in the low mass region (0.3 - 0.8GeV/c2), a possible signal of chiral symmetry restoration, but these measurements were limited by large systematic uncertainties primarily from a poor signal to background ratio. In 2009 the PHENIX experiment was upgraded with the addition of the Hadron Blind Detector which improves the background rejection by detecting partially reconstructed Dalitz decays and gamma conversion pairs. In this thesis, I will review the status of electromagnetic probes measured from the collision of heavy nuclei and present and compare the results obtained from 2009 data in p + p at 200 GeV using the HBD which will serve as a baseline for Au+Au results obtained in 2010.

  11. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs < 10 ng/g-pellet, DDTs < 6 ng/g-pellet, HCHs < 2 ng/g-pellet). However, the present samples were from tropical and subtropical areas. To establish global baseline, especially to understand the effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high

  12. FY 1992 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dippo, P.C

    1993-03-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/NREL goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility that Is capable of providing information on the full range of PV components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of Pv technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. The Measurements and Characterization Branch encompasses seven coordinated research groups, providing integrated research and development that covers all aspects of photovoltaic materials/devices characterization.

  13. FY 1992 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dippo, P.C

    1993-03-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/NREL goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility that Is capable of providing information on the full range of PV components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of Pv technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. The Measurements and Characterization Branch encompasses seven coordinated research groups, providing integrated research and development that covers all aspects of photovoltaic materials/devices characterization.

  14. Characterization and measurement of phase-locked loop performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Seyl, J.

    1982-01-01

    A set of performance measures and tests are presented which can be implemented at the 'black box' level for the characterization of such statistical aspects of phase-locked loop behavior as the acquisition and tracking threshold, phase error jitter, Doppler accuracy, etc. Also presented is an automatic measurement system, designated the Statistical Loop Analyzer, which has been developed in order to undertake these phase-locked device performance measurements.

  15. Technical note: determination of corn hardness in diverse corn germplasm using near-infrared reflectance baseline shift as a measure of grinding resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P C; Ngonyamo-Majee, D; Shaver, R D

    2010-04-01

    Vitreousness and Stenvert kernel hardness characteristics in corn germplasm have been related to in situ and in vivo starch digestibility in lactating dairy cows. Because of the tedious nature of determining vitreousness by manual dissection or conducting Stenvert hardness measurements, it is challenging to screen corn germplasm for animal performance potential. The resistance of corn to grinding is typically measured in a Stenvert mill and quantified by grinding time and column height. The baseline shift (BLS) of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, which is a normal artifact of grinding-induced particle size differentiation, was calculated and evaluated as an alternative measure of grinding resistance. Stenvert grind time, column height, BLS, and ruminal DM degradability (RDMD) of 31 diverse corn germplasm harvested in triplicate at 2 maturities were made. After grinding, total and 6 partial (100 nm) BLS were calculated [Sigma x(i)+x(j)..., where x(i)=log(10)(1/R) at the ith nanometer and R=reflectance] and compared with vitreousness, Stenvert grinding time, column height, or RDMD of corns using correlation and regression procedures. Total and all partial BLS were correlated with vitreousness, Stenvert measures, and RDMD. Relationships between BLS and vitreousness, Stenvert measures, or RDMD were stronger for partial BLS at shorter near-infrared wavelengths (1,080-1,180 nm) than at longer wavelengths (i.e., 2,280-2,380 nm) or total near-infrared BLS (1,000-2,498 nm). The partial BLS from 1,080 to 1,180 nm and vitreousness were better related to RDMD of corn germplasm than Stenvert grind time or column height.

  16. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  17. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: Inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGES

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Furthermore the results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  18. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.

  19. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3-0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.

  20. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  1. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  2. Measurement of baseline toxicity and QSAR analysis of 50 non-polar and 58 polar narcotic chemicals for the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Aruoja, Villem; Moosus, Maikki; Kahru, Anne; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Maran, Uko

    2014-02-01

    In this paper a set of homogenous experimental algal toxicity data was measured for 50 non-polar narcotic chemicals using the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in a closed test with a growth rate endpoint. Most of the tested compounds are high volume industrial chemicals that so far lacked published REACH-compliant algal growth inhibition values. The test protocol fulfilled the criteria set forth in the OECD guideline 201 and had the same sensitivity as the open test which allowed direct comparison of toxicity values. Baseline QSAR model for non-polar narcotic compounds was established and compared with previous analogous models. Multi-linear QSAR model was derived for the non-polar and 58 previously tested polar (anilines and phenols) narcotic compounds modulating hydrophobicity, molecular size, electronic and molecular stability effects coded in the molecular descriptors. Descriptors in the model were analyzed and applicability domain was assessed providing further guidelines for the in silico prediction purposes in decision support while performing risk assessment. QSAR models in the manuscript are available on-line through QsarDB repository for exploring and prediction services (http://hdl.handle.net/10967/106).

  3. Applications of digital holography to measurements and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu; Yu, Miao; Hsu, Dashsiung

    2011-09-01

    With recent advances in high-speed computer and video capture technology, holographic films used in classical holography can be replaced with charged-coupled devices (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to record and numerically reconstruct a hologram, which is now known as digital holography. Digital holography introduces something new to optical science. Wet chemical processing and other time-consuming procedures can be removed, so numerical recording and reconstruction can be realized in almost real time. It allows us to characterize the phase of a light field as well the intensity, and so the whole wave field can be measured and stored in a computer. Digital holography is expanding applications of holography and becoming a scientific and technological tool. Its use has now increased for measuring amplitude and the phase of object waves, displacement and three dimensional shape, particle distributions and motions, characterization of the refractive index and biological tissues, and vibration analysis, etc. Here, basic principles of digital holography for optical measurement and characterization are described. Taking into consideration the rapid advance in CCD and CMOS sensors as the background, the state-of-the-art applications of digital holography to optical measurement and characterization are presented.

  4. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  5. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique

  6. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY MEASURED PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE γ-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0218+4232

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yuanjie; Chen, Ding; Yang, Jun; Campbell, Robert M.; Janssen, Gemma; Stappers, Ben

    2014-02-20

    PSR J0218+4232 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a flux density ∼0.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz. It is very bright in the high-energy X-ray and γ-ray domains. We conducted an astrometric program using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz to measure its proper motion and parallax. A model-independent distance would also help constrain its γ-ray luminosity. We achieved a detection of signal-to-noise ratio S/N >37 for the weak pulsar in all five epochs. Using an extragalactic radio source lying 20 arcmin away from the pulsar, we estimate the pulsar's proper motion to be μ{sub α}cos δ = 5.35 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} and μ{sub δ} = –3.74 ± 0.12 mas yr{sup –1}, and a parallax of π = 0.16 ± 0.09 mas. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) proper motion has significantly improved upon the estimates from long-term pulsar timing observations. The VLBI parallax provides the first model-independent distance constraints: d=6.3{sub −2.3}{sup +8.0} kpc, with a corresponding 3σ lower-limit of d = 2.3 kpc. This is the first pulsar trigonometric parallax measurement based solely on EVN observations. Using the derived distance, we believe that PSR J0218+4232 is the most energetic γ-ray MSP known to date. The luminosity based on even our 3σ lower-limit distance is high enough to pose challenges to the conventional outer gap and slot gap models.

  7. Characterization of material deformation and failure responses from ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. B.

    Recent advances in ultrasonic techniques to characterize the structure of materials are presented. Observable parameters include the velocity, attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves and their variation with propagation direction and frequency. Applications are described in which information obtained from such measurements is used to characterize the deformation and failure responses of metals, metal-metal bonds, heavily deformed metal-metal composites and thick, filament-wound composites. In each case, unsolved mechanics problems whose solutions are needed to improve the application results are identified.

  8. Robust baseline subtraction for ultrasonic full wavefield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguri, K. Supreet; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Full wavefield analysis is used to study and characterize the interaction between waves and structural damage. Yet, as wavefields are measured and as damage evolves in a structure, environmental and operational variations can significantly affect wave propagation. Several approaches, including time-stretching and optimal baseline selection methods, can reduce variations, but these methods are often limited to specific effects, are ineffective for large environmental variations, or require an impractical number of prior baseline measurements. This paper presents a robust methodology for subtracting wavefields and isolating wave-damage interactions. The method is based on dictionary learning. It is robust to multiple types of environmental and operational variations and requires only one initial baseline. We learn the dictionary, which describes wave propagation for a particular wavefield, based on multiple frequencies of a baseline wavefield. We then use the dictionary and sparse regression to create new baselines for measurements with different environmental and operational conditions. The new baseline is then subtracted from the new wavefield to isolate damage wavefield.

  9. Determination the validity of the new developed Sport Experts® hand grip dynamometer, measuring continuity of force, and comparison with current Takei and Baseline® dynamometers.

    PubMed

    Güçlüöver, A; Kutlu, M; Ciğerci, A E; Esen, H T; Demirkan, E; Erdoğdu, M

    2015-11-01

    In this study the Sport Experts ™ brand of hand grip dynamometer, measuring the continuity of force with the new developed load cell technology, was compared with Takei and Baseline® dynamometers, the current in use. It was tried to determine the correlation between them. In a study with provides use of clinical, orthopedic and rehabilitative purposes in the athletes and patient populations, this developed dynamometer can provide useful data by observing the continuity of force. The sample of the study included 60 badminton players in 2010-2011; consisting of Turkish Junior National male players (N.=16, age: 16.8±1.5), Junior National female players (N.=14, age: 16.9±1.6), amateur level male players (N.=15, age: 16.3±0.8) and amateur level female players (N.=15, age: 16.1±0.6). ANOVA was used in the statistical methods in order to compare the hand grip strength made by different brands; Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship level between dynamometers. Furthermore, test-retest reliability analysis was completed the new developed expert dynamometer. There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of the dynamometers (P>0.05). Besides, a highly significant relationship (r=0.95 to 0.96) was found among all three dynamometers. However, the reliability coefficient was found (Chronbachs α: 0.989, ICC:0.97, r=0.97), (P<0.01) for the new developed expert dynamometer. Comparison between the dynamometers and the statistical results obtained from the correlation relationships shows interchangeability of dynamometers. As a result, our observation of force continuity (progression) of the athlete and patient populations is thought to be important.

  10. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    PubMed

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts.

  11. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    PubMed Central

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  12. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  13. COMMIT in 7-SEAS/BASELInE: Operation of and Observations from a Novel, Mobile Laboratory for Measuring In-Situ Properties of Aerosols and Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantina, Peter; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Loftus, Adrian M.; Kuo, Ferret; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Sayer, Andrew M.; Wang, Shen-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Hsu, N. Christina; Janjai, Serm; Chantara, Somporn; Nguyen, Anh X.

    2016-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols (particularly biomass-burning aerosols) have important implications for air quality and climate studies in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper describes the purpose, operation, and datasets collected from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) laboratory, a mobile platform designed to measure trace gases and optical/microphysical properties of naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosols. More importantly, the laboratory houses a specialized humidification system to characterize hygroscopic growth/enhancement, a behavior that affects aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions and is generally underrepresented in the current literature. A summary of the trace gas and optical/microphysical measurements is provided, along with additional detail and analysis of data collected from the hygroscopic system during the 2015 Seven South-East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) field campaign. The results suggest that data from the platform are reliable and will complement future studies of aerosols and air quality in SEA and other regions of interest.

  14. COMMIT in 7-SEAS/BASELInE: Operation of and Observations from a Novel, Mobile Laboratory for Measuring In-Situ Properties of Aerosols and Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantina, Peter; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Loftus, Adrian M.; Kuo, Ferret; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Sayer, Andrew M.; Wang, Shen-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Hsu, N. Christina; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols (particularly biomass-burning aerosols) have important implications for air quality and climate studies in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper describes the purpose, operation, and datasets collected from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) laboratory, a mobile platform designed to measure trace gases and optical/microphysical properties of naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosols. More importantly, the laboratory houses a specialized humidification system to characterize hygroscopic growth/enhancement, a behavior that affects aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions and is generally underrepresented in the current literature. A summary of the trace gas and optical/microphysical measurements is provided, along with additional detail and analysis of data collected from the hygroscopic system during the 2015 Seven South-East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) field campaign. The results suggest that data from the platform are reliable and will complement future studies of aerosols and air quality in SEA and other regions of interest.

  15. Biomechanical characterization of tissue-engineered cartilages by photoacoustic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Fujikawa, Kyosuke; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2003-07-01

    We have demonstrated a capability of biomechanical characterization by photoacoustic measurement using various concentraiton gelatins as tissue pahntom. We have also evaluated the viscoelasticity of the cartilages tissue-engineered under the different culture conditions. Structural tissues, such as cartilage, bone, tendon, and muscle require time-dependent mechanical responses (viscoelastic properties) to describe their mechanical behavior. However, non-invasive measurement of tissue viscoelastic has not been developed; such measurement is necessary for tissue engineering applications on weight-bearing tissues. As tissue viscoelasticity affects the propagation and attenuation of the stress waves generated in the tissue, their relaxation times which are defined as the time for the stress wave amplitude to decrease by a factor of 1/e, give the viscosity-elasticity ratio of the tissue. In this study, stress waves (photoacoustic waves) which were induced by 250-nm, 6-ns, light pulses from an OPO were detected by a piezoelectric transducer. The relaxation time of the photoacoustic wave was measured for various concentrations of gelatins which had been measured their viscoelastic properties by a conventional method. Consequently, the relaxation time corresponded to the known viscosity-elasticity ratio of the gelatins. For the tissue-engineered cartileges, photoacoustic measurements were performed under the different cultured conditions. The relaxation time of the cartilages closely correlated with the viscosity-elasticity ratio measured by a convetional method. Therefore, the photoacoustic measurement is one of the qualified candidates for a non-invasive viscoelastic measurement of tissue.

  16. Wind turbine wake characterization from temporally disjunct 3-D measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Wang, Hui; ...

    2016-11-10

    Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES) data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes tomore » probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. Lastly, we find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.« less

  17. Wind turbine wake characterization from temporally disjunct 3-D measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Wang, Hui; Pryor, S. C.; Churchfield, Matthew

    2016-11-10

    Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES) data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. Lastly, we find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  18. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Wang, Hui; Pryor, S. C.; Churchfield, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES) data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  19. Measurements and characterization in photovoltaics: Lessons learned for TPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1997-03-01

    The NREL measurements and characterization activities, with origins in the late 1970s, have evolved with and within the DOE Photovoltaics Program—specifically to support that effort. These centralized facilities, established for reasons of technical and economical advantages for the program, have included four major functions or approaches: (1) analytical measurement service; (2) standardized evaluations (performance through materials); (3) collaborative research; and, (4) measurement technique development. Each of these are described in terms of their importance and contributions to program and project support. The current facilities and activities are highlighted, and the growth and change of these support efforts are historically delineated. The evolution and contributions of these laboratories to photovoltaics provide some lessons and models for the emerging TPV program. The utility of centralized measurement and characterization functions for technology development is assessed in terms of methods of operation, prioritization and customer satisfaction, program unity and focus, response time, and proprietary data and materials. Specifics relating to materials and measurement standards, centralized data bases, client interactions, program directions, and expectations are cited in terms of both successes and deficiencies for these program-support efforts. The return on investment for estimated in terms of benefits to the program compared to alternative approaches.

  20. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  1. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  2. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  3. Mapping and characterization of land subsidence in Beijing Plain caused by groundwater pumping using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) InSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M. L.; Gong, H. L.; Chen, B. B.; Zhou, C. F.; Liu, K. S.; Shi, M.

    2015-11-01

    InSAR time series analysis is widely used for detection and monitoring of slow surface deformation. In this paper, 15 TerraSAR-X radar images acquired in stripmap mode between 2012 and 2013 are processed for land subsidence monitoring with the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach in Beijing Plain in China. Mapping results produced by SBAS show that the subsidence rates in the area of Beijing Plain range from -97.5 (subsidence) and to +23.8 mm yr-1 (uplift), relative to a presumably stable benchmark. The mapping result also reveals that there are the five subsidence centers formed by surface deformation spreading north to south east of the downtown. An uneven subsidence patten was detected near the Beijing Capital International Airpor, which may be related to loading of buildings and the aircraft.

  4. Geostatistic applied to seismic noise measurements for hydrothermal basin characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Trevisani, Sebastiano; Agostini, Laura; Galgaro, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We present a geo-statistical analysis applied to seismic noise measurements in the framework of a thermal basin characterization. The site test is located in the N-E part of Italy (Caldiero, Verona Province) where more than 100 passive single station seismic noise measurements were conducted. The final aim was the characterization of an important hydrothermal basin, which is exploited since the Roman Period. The huge amount of measurements offers high density cover, since the measurements point has average spacing of 100 m for a total area investigated of ca 100ha. The HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio) is a geophysical passive technique used to retrieve fundamental resonance frequency of the subsoil. The measurement consists in passive recording of seismic noise with 3 components broadband receivers. From the spectral analysis of the recorded data, we can retrieve the resonance frequency of soil and hence information about depth and mechanical properties of soil covers. Since HVSR is a punctual measurement, 2d map of the results are usually extracted with interpolation procedure, as common kriging or natural neighbor techniques. Despite this accurate statistical procedure are rarely adopted for HVSR analysis, limiting the real significance of the dataset. As a matter of fact, rigorous statistical approach of the spatial distribution is neglected in common HVSR geophysical prospecting. Here we present the use of advanced spatial-statistic technique (e.g. cross-validation, residual distribution etc.) applied to HVSR data. Our results show as critic data scrubbing, joined to rigorous statistical approach for data interpolation, are mandatory to assure meaningful structural interpretation of microtremor HVSR survey. The maps obtained are compared with boreholes data, reflection seismic prospecting, and geological information. The proposed procedure highlighted the potential of these quick passive measurements, if correctly treated from the statistical point

  5. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  6. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Oyama, T. E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  7. Characterizing blood cells by biophysical measurements in flow.

    PubMed

    Groner, W; Tycko, D

    1980-01-01

    One effect of automation in the hematology laboratory has been to introduce new characterizations of blood cells. Resistive pulse sensing (Coulter) and light scatter measurements in flow provide rapid and reproducible cell counts. They also provide information about red cell size, shape, and deformability. Thus, they have provided new characterization of these cells in terms of their biophysical properties. Leukocytes have been classified by optical scatter and absorption measurements in flow after being stained cytochemically. This provides rapid and precise WBC differential counts. However, here again, additional information about relative cell-enzyme content or activity is also accessible to provide a new characterization of the leukocytes. The ultimate range of utility of this expanding technology in the automated hematology laboratory of the future will, of course, depend upon establishing relations between the biophysical parameters and the functions of the cells. This, in turn, must depend upon the use of the technology by researchers and clinicians in studying cell function and the aberrations of these functions which define disease.

  8. Lidar Measurements for Desert Dust Characterization: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mona, L.; Liu, Z.; Mueller, D.; Omar, A.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Sugimoto, N.; Vaughan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We provide an overview of light detection and ranging (lidar) capability for describing and characterizing desert dust. This paper summarizes lidar techniques, observations, and fallouts of desert dust lidar measurements. The main objective is to provide the scientific community, including non-practitioners of lidar observations with a reference paper on dust lidar measurements. In particular, it will fill the current gap of communication between research-oriented lidar community and potential desert dust data users, such as air quality monitoring agencies and aviation advisory centers. The current capability of the different lidar techniques for the characterization of aerosol in general and desert dust in particular is presented. Technical aspects and required assumptions of these techniques are discussed, providing readers with the pros and cons of each technique. Information about desert dust collected up to date using lidar techniques is reviewed. Lidar techniques for aerosol characterization have a maturity level appropriate for addressing air quality and transportation issues, as demonstrated by some first results reported in this paper

  9. Baseline Total Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured with Fixed or Different Adaptive Thresholding Methods Equally Predicts Outcome in Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Hapdey, Sebastien; Chartier, Loic; Modzelewski, Romain; Casasnovas, Olivier; Itti, Emmanuel; Tilly, Herve; Vera, Pierre; Meignan, Michel A; Becker, Stéphanie

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in a large series of peripheral T cell lymphoma, as a model of diffuse disease, the prognostic value of baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) measured on (18)F-FDG PET/CT with adaptive thresholding methods with TMTV measured with a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold method. One hundred six patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma, staged with PET/CT, were enrolled from 5 Lymphoma Study Association centers. In this series, TMTV computed with the 41% SUVmax threshold is a strong predictor of outcome. On a dedicated workstation, we measured the TMTV with 4 adaptive thresholding methods based on characteristic image parameters: Daisne (Da) modified, based on signal-to-background ratio; Nestle (Ns), based on tumor and background intensities; Fit, including a 3-dimensional geometric model based on spatial resolution (Fit); and Black (Bl), based on mean SUVmax The TMTV values obtained with each adaptive method were compared with those obtained with the 41% SUVmax method. Their respective prognostic impacts on outcome prediction were compared using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The median value of TMTV41%, TMTVDa, TMTVNs, TMTVFit, and TMTVBl were, respectively, 231 cm(3) (range, 5-3,824), 175 cm(3) (range, 8-3,510), 198 cm(3) (range, 3-3,934), 175 cm(3) (range, 8-3,512), and 333 cm(3) (range, 3-5,113). The intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent, from 0.972 to 0.988, for TMTVDa, TMTVFit, and TMTVNs, and less good for TMTVBl (0.856). The mean differences obtained from the Bland-Altman plots were 48.5, 47.2, 19.5, and -253.3 cm(3), respectively. Except for Black, there was no significant difference within the methods between the ROC curves (P > 0.4) for progression-free survival and overall survival. Survival curves with the ROC optimal cutoff for each method separated the same groups of low-risk (volume ≤ cutoff) from high-risk patients (volume > cutoff), with

  10. MUSIC-characterization of small scatterers for normal measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Hanke, Martin

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the reconstruction of the positions of a collection of small metallic objects buried beneath the ground from measurements of the vertical component of scattered fields corresponding to vertically polarized dipole excitations on a horizontal two-dimensional measurement device above the surface of the ground. A MUSIC reconstruction method for this problem has recently been proposed by Iakovleva et al (2007 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55 2598). In this paper, we give a rigorous theoretical justification of this method. To that end we prove a characterization of the positions of the scatterers in terms of the measurement data, applying an asymptotic analysis of the scattered fields. We present numerical results to illustrate our theoretical findings.

  11. Color gamut assessment standard: construction, characterization and interlaboratory measurement comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, John M.; Kelley, Edward F.; Boynton, Paul A.; Brown, Steven W.; Wall, Christine F.; Campbell, Colin

    2003-07-01

    In earlier papers, NIST proposed a standard illumination source and optical filter targets with which to assess the state-of-the-art of display measurement. The Display Measurement Assessment Transfer Standard (DMATS) was designed to present the display metrologist with a rectangular array of targets such as color filters, polarizers, and grilles, back-lighted by uniform illumination, to be measured using methods and instruments typically used in display performance measurement. A "round robin" interlaboratory measurement exercise using the "standard" artifact suite would enable a first order assessment of display measurement reproducibility, i.e., measurement variability within the electronic display community. The rectangular array design of the DMATS was anticipated to present stray light and color contamination challenges to facilitate identification of error sources deriving from measurement protocols, laboratory environment, and equipment. However, complications in dealing with heating problems threatened to delay the planned laboratory intercomparison. The Gamut Assessment Standard (GAS) was thus designed as an interim solution to enable the NIST scientists and participating measurement laboratories to begin collecting data. The GAS consists of a 150 mm diameter integrating sphere standard illumination source with a stray light elimination tube (SLET) mounted at the exit port. A dual six-position filter wheel is mounted at the SLET exit port. One wheel holds a series of neutral density filters and a second interchangeable wheel holds various color filters. This paper describes the design and construction of the GAS, its initial performance characterization by NIST, and comparison measurements made at NPL. Possible design changes suggested by the results of the preliminary intercomparison are discussed, as are plans for future interlaboratory comparisons and potential use of the GAS as a transfer standard for laboratory self-certification.

  12. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnane, L.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2016-07-01

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ˜500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.

  13. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization.

    PubMed

    Adnane, L; Gokirmak, A; Silva, H

    2016-07-01

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ∼500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.

  14. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Adnane, L.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2016-07-15

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ∼500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant “up,” zero, and “down” magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.

  15. Bayesian flaw characterization from eddy current measurements with grain noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Aldrin, John C.; Shell, Eric; Oneida, Erin

    2017-02-01

    The Bayesian approach to inference from measurement data has the potential to provide highly reliable characterizations of flaw geometry by quantifying the confidence in the estimate results. The accuracy of these confidence estimates depends on the accuracy of the model for the measurement error. Eddy current measurements of electrically anisotropic metals, such as titanium, exhibit a phenomenon called grain noise in which the measurement error is spatially correlated even with no flaw present. We show that the most commonly used statistical model for the measurement error, which fails to account for this correlation, results in overconfidence in the flaw geometry estimates from eddy current data, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the Bayesian approach. We then describe a method of modeling the grain noise as a Gaussian process (GP) using spectral mixture kernels, a type of non-parametric model for the covariance kernel of a GP This provides a broadly applicable, data-driven way of modeling correlation in measurement error. Our results show that incorporation of this noise model results in a more reliable estimate of the flaw and better agreement with the available validation data.

  16. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  17. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  18. Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films

    SciTech Connect

    Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V; Xu, H; Nikroo, A

    2008-02-11

    Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  19. Correlation Measurements with {sup 252}Cf to Characterize Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.K.

    2000-01-04

    Measurements using {sup 252}Cf as a timed source of neutrons and gammas have in recent years undergone significant maturation. These methods use {sup 252}Cf as an observable source of spontaneous fission neutrons and gammas in conjunction with one or more neutron- and/or gamma-sensitive detectors to measure the time-distribution of correlated detector counts following (a) an observed {sup 252}Cf-fission event and/or (b) a counting event in another detector. Detection of {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission is frequently achieved via use of a small ionization chamber in which the {sup 252}Cf is contained--in this case the timing of source emission events is random. However, one application subsequently described uses a neutron-absorbent ''shutter'' to modulate {sup 252}Cf emissions to produce a neutron source with deterministic timing. Other applications, frequently termed noise-analysis measurements, transform the time-distributions to the frequency domain. Collectively, these correlation methods use {sup 252}Cf to ''excite'' the fissile material and the response of the material is measured by an array of detectors and analyzed using standard time-correlation and/or frequency-analysis techniques. In recent years numerous advances have been made in the application of these methods to in-situ, or field measurements directed at characterizing various configurations of fissile material in operational facilities.

  20. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jing-Jy

    1995-12-31

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses.

  1. Facial skin color measurement based on camera colorimetric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boquan; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Fan, Xin; Li, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The objective measurement of facial skin color and its variance is of great significance as much information can be obtained from it. In this paper, we developed a new skin color measurement procedure which includes following parts: first, a new skin tone color checker made of pantone Skin Tone Color Checker was designed for camera colorimetric characterization; second, the chromaticity of light source was estimated via a new scene illumination estimation method considering several previous algorithms; third, chromatic adaption was used to convert the input facial image into output facial image which appears taken under canonical light; finally the validity and accuracy of our method was verified by comparing the results obtained by our procedure with these by spectrophotometer.

  2. Secondary electron measurement and XPS characterization of NEG coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. K. Sinha, Atul K. Gupta, Nidhi Nuwad, J. Jagannath, Gadkari, S. C. Singh, M. R. Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-24

    Ternary alloy coatings of IVB and VB materials provide many of benefits over traditional material surfaces such as creation of extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption coefficient. XHV (pressure < 10{sup −10} mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material in as it is form, high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc.. Low secondary electron yield leads to very low multi-pacting utilizes to increase beam life time. In this paper preparation of the coatings and a study of secondary electron yield measurement after heating at different temperatures has been shown also results of their surface characterization based on shift in binding energy has been produced using the surface techniques XPS. Stoichiometry of the film was measured by Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX)

  3. Spectral characterization of dielectric materials using terahertz measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jeffrey M.

    The performance of modern high frequency components and electronic systems are often limited by the properties of the materials from which they are made. Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new, high performance dielectrics for use in high frequency systems. The development of these materials requires novel broadband characterization, instrumentation, and extraction techniques, from which models can be formulated. For this project several types of dielectric sheets were characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies using quasi-optical (free-space) techniques. These measurement systems included a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, scalar), a Time Domain Spectrometer (TDS, vector), a Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA), and a THz Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Using these instruments the THz spectral characteristics of dielectric samples were obtained. Polarization based anisotropy was observed in many of the materials measured using vector systems. The TDS was the most informative and flexible instrument for dielectric characterization at THz frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive study to be performed. Anisotropy effects within materials that do not come into play at microwave frequencies (e.g. ~10 GHz) were found, in many cases, to increase measured losses at THz frequencies by up to an order of magnitude. The frequency dependent properties obtained during the course of this study included loss tangent, permittivity (index of refraction), and dielectric constant. The results were largely consistent between all the different systems and correlated closely to manufacturer specifications over a wide frequency range (325 GHz-1.5 THz). Anisotropic behavior was observed for some of the materials. Non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) techniques were used throughout. A precision test fixture was developed to accomplish these measurements. Time delay, insertion loss, and S-parameters were

  4. FFTF reactor-characterization program: gamma-ray measurements and shield characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, W.L.; Moore, F.S. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    A series of experiments is to be made during the acceptance test program of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to measure the gamma ray characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) and to establish the performance characteristics of the reactor shield. These measurements are a part of the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program (RCP). Detailed plans have been developed for these experiments. During the initial phase of the Characteristics Program, which will be carried out in the In-Reactor Thimble (IRT), both active and passive measurement methods will be employed to obtain as much information concerning the gamma ray environment as is practical. More limited active gamma ray measurements also will be made in the Vibration Open Test Assembly (VOTA).

  5. Characterizing GEO Titan Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while a third Transtage fragmented in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in Low Earth Orbit. In order to better assess what may be causing these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO recently acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article that was previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that the test article was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to JSC to continue material analysis and historical documentation of the Titan Transtage. The Transtage will be a subject of forensic analysis using spectral measurements to compare with telescopic data; as well, a scale model will be created to use in the Optical Measurement Center for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including a BRDF. The following presentation will provide a review of the Titan Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment.

  6. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (< 5-30m AGL). 2D photographs captured by the standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect

  7. Advanced materials characterization based on full field deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, A. Paige

    Accurate stress-strain constitutive properties are essential for understanding the complex deformation and failure mechanisms for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber- and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer--matrix composites play a critical role in advanced structural designs. The large number of different methods and specimen types currently required to generate three-dimensional allowables for structural design slows down the material characterization. Also, some of the material constitutive properties are never measured due to the prohibitive cost of the specimens needed. This work shows that simple short-beam shear (SBS) specimens are well-suited for measurement of multiple constitutive properties for composite materials and that can enable a major shift toward accurate material characterization. The material characterization is based on the digital image correlation (DIC) full-field deformation measurement. The full-field-deformation measurement enables additional flexibility for assessment of stress--strain relations, compared to the conventional strain gages. Complex strain distributions, including strong gradients, can be captured. Such flexibility enables simpler test-specimen design and reduces the number of different specimen types required for assessment of stress--strain constitutive behavior. Two key elements show advantage of using DIC in the SBS tests. First, tensile, compressive, and shear stress--strain relations are measured in a single experiment. Second, a counter-intuitive feasibility of closed-form stress and modulus models, normally applicable to long beams, is demonstrated for short-beam specimens. The modulus and stress--strain data are presented for glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy material systems. The applicability of the developed method to static, fatigue, and impact load rates is also demonstrated. In a practical method to determine stress-strain constitutive relations, the stress

  8. Characterization of Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Infrared Measurements From HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) revealed the infrared signature of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), for the first time, HALOE PMC observations at eight wavelengths (2.45 - 10 microns) show remarkable agreement with model PMC spectra based on ice particle extinction, and thus provide the first confirmation that water ice is the primary component of PMCs. Because PMCs respond to changes in temperature and water vapor, they are considered an indicator of global climate change. We propose to further the understanding of PMCs using a decade of infrared measurements form HALOE. This effort will characterize PMC spectral properties, extinction profiles, and size distributions. Using this information, HALOE measurements will be used to make simultaneous retrievals of H2O, O3, and temperature, in the presence of PMCs. The simultaneous retrievals of particle properties, H2O, O3, and temperature will be used with HALOE NO data to provide a significant step forward in the knowledge of PMC characteristics and formation conditions. We will challenge fundamental theories of PMC formation, and investigate changes in PMC properties and related conditions over the length of the HALOE measurement record. HALOE has been operating without flaw since it was launched on October 11, 1991. Consequently, ten southern and ten northern PMC seasons have been observed thus far, providing a wealth of data for the study of PMCs and related parameters.

  9. Characterization of Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Infrared Measurements from HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) revealed the infrared signature of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), for the first time, HALOE PMC observations at eight wavelengths (2.45 - 10 microns) show remarkable agreement with model PMC spectra based on ice particle extinction, and thus provide the first confirmation that water ice is the primary component of PMCs. Because PMCs respond to changes in temperature and water vapor, they are considered an indicator of global climate change. We propose to further the understanding of PMCs using a decade of infrared measurements form HALOE. This effort will characterize PMC spectral properties, extinction profiles, and size distributions. Using this information, HALOE measurements will be used to make simultaneous retrievals of H2O3, and temperature, in the presence of PMCs. The simultaneous retrievals of particle properties, H2O3, and temperature will be used with HALOE NO data to provide a significant step forward in the knowledge of PMC characteristics and formation conditions. We will challenge fundamental theories of PMC formation, and investigate changes in PMC properties and related conditions over the length of the HALOE measurement record. HALOE has been operating without flaw since it was launched on October 11, 1991. Consequently, ten southern and ten northern PMC seasons have been observed thus far, providing a wealth of data for the study of PMC and related parameters.

  10. Baseline tests of the battronic Minivan electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An electric passenger vehicle was tested to develop data characterizing the state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. The test measured vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability and limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability and battery charge efficiency. The data obtained are to serve as a baseline to compare improvements in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and to assist in establishing performance standards.

  11. Measuring Health System Strengthening: Application of the Balanced Scorecard Approach to Rank the Baseline Performance of Three Rural Districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff −0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery

  12. Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF): a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists.

    PubMed

    Dong, Minghao; Li, Jun; Shi, Xinfa; Gao, Shudan; Fu, Shijun; Liu, Zongquan; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Shi, Guangming; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e., connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) as the metric of brain activity and a novel expertise model, i.e., acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA) were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI) (corrected for multiple comparisons). Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons). We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data.

  13. Spectroscopic measurements and characterization of soft tissue phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Ipus, Erick

    2013-02-01

    Tissue phantoms are important tools to calibrate and validate light propagation effects, measurements and diagnostic test in real biological soft tissue. We produce low cost phantoms using standard commercial jelly, distillated water, glycerol and a 20% lipid emulsion (Oliclinomel N7-1000 ®) was used in place of the usual Intralipid®. In a previous work we designed a protocol to elaborate high purity phantoms which can be used over months. We produced three different types of phantoms regarding the lipid emulsion - glycerol - gelatin - water composition: Pure gelatin phantoms, lipid in glycerol, and lipid in gelatin phantoms were produced and different concentrations of the lipid emulsion were used to study optical propagation properties of diffusive mixtures. Besides, 1.09 μm poly latex spheres in distilled water were used to produce reference phantoms. In order to use all the phantom sides, the phantoms were produced in disposable spectrometer cuvettes, designed for fluorescence studies. Measurements were performed using an OceanOptics 4000 channels spectrophotometer and integrating spheres. For the scattering measurements a homemade goniometer with a high resolution angular scale was used and the scattering detector was a linear array of optical fibers, with an angular collimator, connected to the spectrophotometer. White LED was used as light source, and the 6328.8 nm HeNe Laser was used for calibration. In this work we present characterization measurements for gelatin and microspheres phantoms using spectral reflectance, diffuse and direct spectral transmittance, and angle scattering measurements. The results of these measurements and their comparison are presented.

  14. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  15. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  16. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  17. Baseline measurement of the noise generated by a short-to-medium range jet transport flying standard ILS approaches and level flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of baseline noise flight tests are presented. Data are given for a point 1.85 kilometers (1.0 nautical mile) from the runway threshold, and experimental results of level flyover noise at altitudes of 122 meters (400 feet) and 610 meters (2,000 feet) are also shown for several different power levels. The experimental data are compared with data from other sources and reasonable agreement is noted. A description of the test technique, instrumentation, and data analysis methods is included.

  18. West Virginia baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, V. P.; Baer, C.; Graham, A.; Hall, T.; Rankin, D.; Sweet, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    Baseline information on West Virginia is provided. The topics covered are terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, geology and climatology, socioeconomics, and a legal analysis of institutional accountability. The hydrology, water quality, endangered species, and clean streams of five river basins are described.

  19. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  20. Liver iron concentration measurements by MRI in chronically transfused children with sickle cell anemia: baseline results from the TWiTCH trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C; Pressel, Sara; Rogers, Zora R; Odame, Isaac; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Lee, Margaret T; Owen, William C; Cohen, Alan R; St Pierre, Timothy; Heeney, Matthew M; Schultz, William H; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2015-09-01

    Noninvasive, quantitative, and accurate assessment of liver iron concentration (LIC) by MRI is useful for patients receiving transfusions, but R2 and R2* MRI techniques have not been systematically compared in sickle cell anemia (SCA). We report baseline LIC results from the TWiTCH trial, which compares hydroxyurea with blood transfusion treatment for primary stroke prophylaxis assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in pediatric SCA patients. Liver R2 was collected and processed using a FDA-approved commercial process (FerriScan®), while liver R2* quality control and processing were performed by a Core Laboratory blinded to clinical site and patient data. Baseline LIC studies using both MRI techniques were available for 120 participants. LICR2* and LICR2 results were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.93). A proportional bias of LIC(R2*)/LIC(R2), decreasing with average LIC, was observed. Systematic differences between LICR2* and LICR2 were also observed by MRI manufacturer. Importantly, LICR2* and LICR2 estimates had broad 95% limits of agreement with respect to each other. We recommend LICR2 and LICR2* not be used interchangeably in SCA patients to follow individual patient trends in iron burden. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterization of Thermal Parameters for Improving Pyranometer and Pyrgeometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Ji, Qiang; Rapshun, David; Shu, Peter K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of thermopile, pyranometers (solar, e.g., 0.3-3.0 micrometers) and pyrgeometers (terrestrial, e.g., 4-50 micrometers) have become instruments commonly used for measuring the broadband hemispherical irradiances at the surface in a long-term, monitoring mode for decades. These commercially available radiometers have been manufactured in several countries such as from the United States, Asia, and Europe, and are generally reliable and economical. These worldwide distributions of surface measurements become even more important in the era of Earth remote sensing in studying climate change. However, recent studies from field campaigns have pointed out that erroneous factors (e.g., temperature gradients between the filter dome and detector, emissivity of the thermopile) are responsible for the unacceptable level of uncertainty (e.g., 20 W m(exp -2)). Using a newly developed instrument of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWTP), we have characterized the brightness temperature fields of pyranometers and pyrgeometers under various sky conditions. The QWIP is based on the superlattice (GaAs/AlGaAs) technology and has a noise equivalent temperature (NEAT) less than 0.1 K. The quality of pyranometer and pyrgeometer measure- ments can be improved largely by applying proper knowledge of the thermal parameters affecting the operation of the thermopile systems. Data correction procedure and algorithm will be presented and discussed.

  2. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  3. Characterizing the kinetics of suspended cylindrical particles by polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ran; Ou, Xueheng; Ma, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Polarization has promising potential to retrieve the information of the steady samples, such as tissues. However, for the fast changing sample such as the suspended algae in the water, the kinetics of the particles also influence the scattered polarization. The present paper will show our recent results to extract the information about the kinetics of the suspended cylindrical particles by polarization measurements. The sample is the aqueous suspension of the glass fibers stirred by a magnetic stirrer. We measure the scattered polarization of the fibers by use of a simultaneous polarization measurement system and obtain the time series of two orthogonal polarization components. By use of correlation analysis, we obtain the time parameters from the auto-correlation functions of the polarization components, and observe the changes with the stirring speeds. Results show that these time parameters indicate the immigration of the fibers. After discussion, we find that they may further characterize the kinetics, including the translation and rotation, of the glass fibers in the fluid field.

  4. High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

  5. Biophysical characterization of DNA binding from single molecule force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that uses the mechanical properties of DNA to explore DNA interactions. Here we describe how DNA stretching experiments quantitatively characterize the DNA binding of small molecules and proteins. Small molecules exhibit diverse DNA binding modes, including binding into the major and minor grooves and intercalation between base pairs of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Histones bind and package dsDNA, while other nuclear proteins such as high mobility group proteins bind to the backbone and bend dsDNA. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins slide along dsDNA to locate and stabilize ssDNA during replication. Other proteins exhibit binding to both dsDNA and ssDNA. Nucleic acid chaperone proteins can switch rapidly between dsDNA and ssDNA binding modes, while DNA polymerases bind both forms of DNA with high affinity at distinct binding sites at the replication fork. Single molecule force measurements quantitatively characterize these DNA binding mechanisms, elucidating small molecule interactions and protein function. PMID:20576476

  6. Biophysical characterization of DNA binding from single molecule force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2010-09-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that uses the mechanical properties of DNA to explore DNA interactions. Here we describe how DNA stretching experiments quantitatively characterize the DNA binding of small molecules and proteins. Small molecules exhibit diverse DNA binding modes, including binding into the major and minor grooves and intercalation between base pairs of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Histones bind and package dsDNA, while other nuclear proteins such as high mobility group proteins bind to the backbone and bend dsDNA. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins slide along dsDNA to locate and stabilize ssDNA during replication. Other proteins exhibit binding to both dsDNA and ssDNA. Nucleic acid chaperone proteins can switch rapidly between dsDNA and ssDNA binding modes, while DNA polymerases bind both forms of DNA with high affinity at distinct binding sites at the replication fork. Single molecule force measurements quantitatively characterize these DNA binding mechanisms, elucidating small molecule interactions and protein function.

  7. Characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles-part 2: nonsize measurements.

    PubMed

    Baalousha, Mohammed; Ju-Nam, Yon; Cole, Paula A; Hriljac, Joseph A; Jones, Ian P; Tyler, Charles R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F; Jepson, Mark A; Lead, Jamie R

    2012-05-01

    Part 1 (see companion paper) of the present study discussed the application of a multimethod approach in characterizing the size of cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs). However, other properties less routinely investigated, such as shape and morphology, structure, chemical composition, and surface properties, are likely to play an important role in determining the behavior, reactivity, and potential toxicity of these NPs. The present study describes the measurement of the aforementioned physicochemical properties of NPs (applied also to nanomaterials [NMs]) compared with micrometer particles (MPs). The authors use a wide range of techniques, including high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrophoresis, and compare these techniques, their advantages, and their limitations, along with recommendations about how best to approach NM characterization, using an application to commercial cerium oxide NPs and MPs. Results show that both cerium oxide NPs and MPs are formed of single polyhedron or truncated polyhedron crystals. Cerium oxide NPs contain a mixture of Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) cations, whereas the MPs contain mainly Ce(4+) , which is potentially important in understanding the toxicity of cerium oxide NPs. The isoelectric point of cerium oxide NPs was approximately pH 8, which explains their propensity to aggregate in aqueous media (see companion paper).

  8. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  9. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors.

    PubMed

    Nording, F; Weber, S; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  10. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nording, F.; Weber, S.; Ludwig, F.; Schilling, M.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  11. Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William; Boore, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A number of predictive relationships derived from regression analysis of strong-motion data are available for horizontal peak acceleration, velocity, and response spectral values. Theoretical prediction of ground motion calls for stochastic source models because source heterogeneities control the amplitude of ground motion at most, if not all, frequencies of engineering interest. Theoretical methods have been developed for estimation of ground-motion parameters and simulation of ground-motion time series. These methods are particularly helpful for regions such, as eastern North America where strong-motion data are sparse. The authors survey the field, first reviewing developments in ground-motion measurement and data processing. The authors then consider the choice of parameters for characterizing strong ground motion and describe the wave-types involved in strong ground motion and the factors affecting ground-motion amplitudes. They conclude by describing methods for predicting ground motion.

  12. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, Donat

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. Analysing unstable rock slopes by means of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods as for example geotechnical displacement measurements. A systematic measurement campaign has been initiated recently in Switzerland in order to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. First results are presented in this contribution. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. During each measurement a reference station was installed on a stable part close to the instability. The total number of stations used varies from 16 down to 2, depending on the site scope and resource availability. Instable rock slopes show a highly directional ground motion which is significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies which are identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. The eigenfrequencies and predominant directions have been estimated by frequency dependent polarization analysis. Site-to-reference spectral ratios have been calculated as well in order to estimate the relative amplification of ground motion at unstable parts. The retrieved results were compared with independent in-situ observations and other available data. The directions of maximum amplification are in most cases perpendicular to open cracks mapped on the surface and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. The interpretation of the observed wave field is done through numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex

  13. Characterizing pulmonary blood flow distribution measured using arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A Cortney; Prisk, G Kim; Levin, David L; Hopkins, Susan R; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-12-01

    The arterial spin labeling (ASL) method provides images in which, ideally, the signal intensity of each image voxel is proportional to the local perfusion. For studies of pulmonary perfusion, the relative dispersion (RD, standard deviation/mean) of the ASL signal across a lung section is used as a reliable measure of flow heterogeneity. However, the RD of the ASL signals within the lung may systematically differ from the true RD of perfusion because the ASL image also includes signals from larger vessels, which can reflect the blood volume rather than blood flow if the vessels are filled with tagged blood during the imaging time. Theoretical studies suggest that the pulmonary vasculature exhibits a lognormal distribution for blood flow and thus an appropriate measure of heterogeneity is the geometric standard deviation (GSD). To test whether the ASL signal exhibits a lognormal distribution for pulmonary blood flow, determine whether larger vessels play an important role in the distribution, and extract physiologically relevant measures of heterogeneity from the ASL signal, we quantified the ASL signal before and after an intervention (head-down tilt) in six subjects. The distribution of ASL signal was better characterized by a lognormal distribution than a normal distribution, reducing the mean squared error by 72% (p < 0.005). Head-down tilt significantly reduced the lognormal scale parameter (p = 0.01) but not the shape parameter or GSD. The RD increased post-tilt and remained significantly elevated (by 17%, p < 0.05). Test case results and mathematical simulations suggest that RD is more sensitive than the GSD to ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels, a probable explanation of the change in RD without a statistically significant change in GSD. This suggests that the GSD is a useful measure of pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity with the advantage of being less affected by the ASL signal from tagged blood in larger vessels.

  14. Measurement and Characterization of Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Tamul, Karen; Bradford, Jolene

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cell biology, playing a critical regulatory role in virtually every organ system. It has been particularly well characterized in the immune system, with roles ranging from immature immune cell development and selection to down-regulation of the mature immune response. Apoptosis is also the primary mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. Flow cytometry has been the method of choice for analyzing apoptosis in suspension cells for more than 25 years. Numerous assays have been devised to measure both the earliest and latest steps in the apoptotic process, from the earliest signal-transduction events to the late morphological changes in cell shape and granularity, proteolysis, and chromatin condensation. These assays are particularly powerful when combined into multicolor assays determining several apoptotic characteristics simultaneously. The multiparametric nature of flow cytometry makes this technology particularly suited to measuring apoptosis. In this unit, we will describe the four main techniques for analyzing caspase activity in apoptotic cells, combined with annexin V and cell permeability analysis. These relatively simple multiparametric assays are powerful techniques for assessing cell death. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Surface characterization of hemodialysis membranes based on streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Werner, C; Jacobasch, H J; Reichelt, G

    1995-01-01

    Hemodialysis membranes made from cellulose (CUPROPHAN, HEMOPHAN) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) were characterized using the streaming potential technique to determine the zeta potential at their interfaces against well-defined aqueous solutions of varied pH and potassium chloride concentrations. Streaming potential measurements enable distinction between different membrane materials. In addition to parameters of the electrochemical double layer at membrane interfaces, thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different solved species were evaluated. For that aim a description of double layer formation as suggested by Börner and Jacobasch (in: Electrokinetic Phenomena, p. 231. Institut für Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (1989)) was applied which is based on the generally accepted model of the electrochemical double layer according to Stern (Z. Elektrochemie 30, 508 (1924)) and Grahame (Chem. Rev. 41, 441 (1947)). The membranes investigated show different surface acidic/basic and polar/nonpolar behavior. Furthermore, alterations of membrane interfaces through adsorption processes of components of biologically relevant solutions were shown to be detectable by streaming potential measurements.

  16. Combining Remote Sensing with in situ Measurements for Riverine Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M. L.; Simeonov, J.; Dobson, D. W.; Zarske, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Holland, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    At the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we are employing a wide variety of novel remote sensing techniques combined with traditional in situ sampling to characterize riverine hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Surface currents were estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) using imagery from visible to infrared bands, from both fixed and airborne platforms. Terrestrial LIDAR has been used for subaerial mapping from a fixed platform. Additionally, LIDAR has been combined with hydrographic surveying (multibeam) in mobile scanning mode using a small boat. Hydrographic surveying (side scan) has also been performed using underwater autonomous vehicles. Surface drifters have been deployed in combination with a remotely operated, floating acoustic Doppler current profiler. Other fixed platform, in situ sensors, such as pencil beam and sector scanning sonars, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and water level sensors have been deployed. We will present an overview of a variety of measurements from different rivers around the world focusing on validation examples of remotely sensed quantities with more traditional in situ measurements. Finally, we will discuss long-term goals to use remotely sensed data within an integrated environmental modeling framework.

  17. Chemical reactivity measurements: potential for characterization of respiratory chemical allergens.

    PubMed

    Lalko, Jon F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Gerberick, G Frank; Sarlo, Katherine; Api, Anne Marie

    2011-03-01

    Allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract resulting from exposure to low molecular weight chemicals remain important issues for consumer product development and occupational/environmental health. Widespread opportunities for exposure to chemical allergens require that there are available effective methods for hazard identification and risk assessment. In the search for new tools for hazard identification/characterization there has been interest in developing alternative methods that will reduce, refine or replace the need for animals. One approach that shows promise is based on the measurement of the peptide reactivity of chemicals; the potential to form stable associations with protein/peptide being a key requirement for the induction of sensitization. Recent investigations using these systems have focused primarily on skin sensitizing chemicals. However, there is interest in the possibility of exploiting these same experimental approaches to distinguish between different forms of chemical allergens - as individual materials are primarily associated with one or the other form of sensitization in humans. These investigations may also provide insight into why chemical sensitizers can differ in the form of allergic disease they will preferentially induce. These opportunities are surveyed here against a background of the immunobiology of allergic sensitization and current state-of-the-art approaches to measurement of peptide/protein reactivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of fracture aperture field heterogeneity by electrical resistance measurement.

    PubMed

    Boschan, A; Ippolito, I; Chertcoff, R; Hulin, J P; Auradou, H

    2011-04-01

    We use electrical resistance measurements to characterize the aperture field in a rough fracture. This is done by performing displacement experiments using two miscible fluids of different electrical resistivity and monitoring the time variation of the overall fracture resistance. Two fractures have been used: their complementary rough walls are identical but have different relative shear displacements which create "channel" or "barrier" structures in the aperture field, respectively parallel or perpendicular to the mean flow velocity U(→). In the "channel" geometry, the resistance displays an initial linear variation followed by a tail part which reflects the velocity contrast between slow and fast flow channels. In the "barrier" geometry, a change in the slope between two linear zones suggests the existence of domains of different characteristic aperture along the fracture. These variations are well reproduced analytically and numerically using simple flow models. For each geometry, we present then a data inversion procedure that allows one to extract the key features of the heterogeneity from the resistance measurement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  20. Characterization of Permeable Zones by the Measurement of Borehole Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tung-Lin; Chuang, Po-Yu; Lee, Tsai-Ping; Chia, Yeeping

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface temperature distribution has become an important issue in hydrogeologic studies. The major heat transfer mechanisms in porous medium are conduction and convection. Temperature profile in geological formations with different thermal conductivity would be controlled primarily by heat conduction. The temperature change related to water flows is caused by heat convection. Consequently, temperature profiles are affected by a variety of factors, such as surface temperature change, well diameter, groundwater level change, and water flows inside the borehole. In this study, we use temperature probe as a well logging device to investigate the borehole conditions. There is the depth correction for the time lag problem resulting from the equilibration time of the sensors during the logging process. Then the field measurement was conducted in a 60-m deep well in a gravelly aquifer to characterize the temperature profile of screened zone. In the shallow depth, the change of temperature is primarily influenced by seasonal variation and daily fluctuation. Below the depth of 30-m, the change of temperature was subject to geothermal gradient. However, the slope of temperature profiles changed at approximately 42-m deep, the top of well screen, and it indicated the effects of heat convection in the aquifer. In addition, the measured temperature in the borehole may not represent the actual temperature of aquifer. The measured temperature in the screened section changed continuously in response to pumping, but stabilized an hour data when 2 to 3 times of the borehole water volume is extracted. This phenomenon is related to the temperature mixing with the upper borehole water and aquifer permeability. On the other hand, if the aquifer permeability is high enough, it may influence the temperature profile in borehole through the high flow velocity. The test results indicated that, in order to obtain the actual temperature or chemical constituents, we have to pump 2 to 3 times

  1. Therapeutic magnetic microcarriers characterization by measuring magnetophoretic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Ibacache, Guillermo

    Micro/nano robots are considered a promising approach to conduct minimally invasive interventions. We have proposed to embed magnetic nanoparticles in therapeutic or diagnostic agents in order to magnetically control them. A modified clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner is used to provide the driving force that allows these magnetically embedded microcarriers to navigate the vascular human network. By using specific Magnetic Resonance (MR) gradient sequences this method has been validated in previous research works. Magnetophoresis is the term used to describe the fact that a magnetic particle changes its trajectory under the influence of a magnetic force while being carried by a fluid flow. This movement depends on the particle's magnetic characteristics, the particle's geometric shape, the fluid flow's attributes and other factors. In our proposed method, magnetic microcarriers can be produced in several different ways, and so their response will differ to the same magnetic force and fluid flow conditions. The outcome of the therapeutic treatment using our method depends on the adequate selection of the therapeutic and/or diagnosis agents to be used. The selected therapeutic and/or diagnosis magnetic microcarrier also influences the selection of the MR gradient sequence that best fit for a given treatment. This master's thesis presents the design of a device intended to assess the magnetophoretic properties of magnetic therapeutic microcarriers and/or diagnostic agents. Such characterization is essential for determining the optimal sequences of magnetic gradients to deflect their trajectory through relatively complex vascular networks in order to reach a pre-defined target. A microfluidic device was fabricated to validate the design. Magnetophoretic velocities are measured and a simple tracking method is proposed. The preliminary experimental results indicate that, despite some limitations, the proposed technique has the potential to be appropriate

  2. Characterization, monitoring and imaging of biochar by geoelectrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Esser, Odilia; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Zimmermann, Egon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Linden, Andreas; Huisman, Johan A.; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a pyrolysis product or a by-product of fuel production from biological materials, mostly from energy plants, plant remains, or manure. Its addition to soil is discussed as a means of carbon sequestration and enhanced soil fertility, among several other beneficial effects. However, detrimental effects of biochar in soil are also discussed. The content of harmful substances, the influence of the material on microorganisms, and the modification of various soil properties may be critical. Although biochar has been intensively investigated in recent years, there is still a lack of knowledge due to the variability of soil and biochar properties, and the wide variety of experimental conditions used in these investigations. The properties of biochar strongly vary depending on the feed material and the production process. Therefore, it is of great interest to have methods which allow the characterization and long-term in-situ monitoring of biochar properties at different scales ranging from small laboratory columns to field sites. In this study, measurements on the complex electrical conductivity have been performed by spectral induced polarization (SIP). The method has been found to be a valuable tool for distinguishing different types of biochar and for monitoring the release of ions from biochar. SIP uses sinusoidal alternative current in the frequency range between 1 mHz and 45 kHz and provides information on the ohmic conductivity and on the electrical polarization of soil materials with added biochars. Whereas the release of ions leads to an increase of the ohmic conductivity, information on the chemical structure of biochars can be obtained from the polarization. Five types of biochar have been investigated in this study. The magnitude and the frequency dependence of the polarization can be used to distinguish the different types of biochar. Biochars with a larger degree of carbonization showed higher electronic conductivity and yielded higher polarization

  3. Dilution and the elusive baseline.

    PubMed

    Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C

    2012-04-17

    Knowledge of baseline conditions is critical for evaluating quantitatively the effect of human activities on environmental conditions, such as the impact of acid deposition. Efforts to restore ecosystems to prior, "pristine" condition require restoration targets, often based on some presumed or unknown baseline condition. Here, we show that rapid and relentless dilution of surface water chemistry is occurring in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, following decades of acid deposition. Extrapolating measured linear trends using a unique data set of up to 47 years, suggest that both precipitation and streamwater chemistry (r(2) >0.84 since 1985) in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) will approximate demineralized water within one to three decades. Because such dilute chemistry is unrealistic for surface waters, theoretical baseline compositions have been calculated for precipitation and streamwater: electrical conductivity of 3 and 5 μS/cm, base cation concentrations of 7 and 39 μeq/liter, acid-neutralizing capacity values of <1 and 14 μeq/liter, respectively; and pH 5.5 for both. Significantly large and rapid dilution of surface waters to values even more dilute than proposed for Pre-Industrial Revolution (PIR) conditions has important ecological, biogeochemical and water resource management implications, such as for the success of early reproductive stages of aquatic organisms.

  4. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  5. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0

  6. MODIS on-orbit spatial characterization results using ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Qu, John J.; Che, Nianzeng; Wang, Lingli

    2006-08-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS), as part of NASA's Earth Observe System (EOS) mission, is widely utilized in diversified scientific research areas. Both Terra and Aqua MODIS observe the earth in sun-synchronous orbit at three nadir spatial resolutions. MODIS has thirty-six bands that are located in four Focal Plane Assembles (FPAs) by wavelength: Visible (VIS), Near-Infrared (NIR), Short-and Middle-wavelength IR (SMIR), and Long wavelength IR (LWIR). MODIS Band-to-Band Registration (BBR) was measured pre-launch at the instrument vendor. Mis-registration exists between bands and FPAs. The spatial characterization could change in storage, at launch, and years on-orbit. In this study, a special ground scene with unique features has been selected as our study area to calculate the spatial registration in both along-scan and along-track for bands 2 - 7 relative to band 1. The results from the earth scene targets have been compared with on-board calibrator, the Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA), with good agreement. The measured differences between the SRCA and our ground scene approach are less than 20m on average for VIS/NIR bands both along-scan and along-track. The differences for SMIR bands are 20m along-scan and 0.1 - 0.18 km for along track. The SMIR FPA crosstalk could be a contributor to the difference. For Aqua MODIS instruments, the spatial deviation is very small between the bands located on the same FPA or between VIS and NIR FPAs but is relatively large between warm (VIS and NIR) and cold (SMIR and LWIR) FPAs. The spatial deviation for MODIS/Terra can be ignorable but not for MODIS/Aqua. The results from this study show that the spatial deviation of Aqua MODIS may impact on the science data when multi-band data from both warm and cold FPAs is combined.

  7. Electromagnetic characterization of the CFRPs anisotropic conductivity: modeling and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menana, H.; Féliachi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the conductivity tensor of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) thin plate. We propose a contactless method based on the eddy current non destructive testing technique. The used eddy current sensor consists of a ferrite torus on which a winding is wound. The torus is of a rectangular section and contains a thin air-gap in which the thin CFRP plate is inserted. We developed analytical relations giving the longitudinal and transversal conductivities of the CFRP plate as functions of the impedances variations of the eddy current sensor, corresponding to the orientations of the carbon fibers parallel and transverse to the direction of the torus width which is much greater than its thickness. The analytical relations are developed by inverting interpolation functions of curves giving the variations of the sensor impedances as functions of the longitudinal and transversal conductivities of the CFRP plate. These curves are obtained by a numerical model based on a simplified integro-differential formulation in terms of the electric vector potential in the CFRP plate, coupled to the magnetic circuit equations in the ferrite torus. The modeling results are supported by measurements.

  8. Characterizing files in the modern Gnutella network: a measurement study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shanyu; Stutzbach, Daniel; Rejaie, Reza

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has witnessed an explosive increase in the popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file-sharing applications during the past few years. As these applications become more popular, it becomes increasingly important to characterize their behavior in order to improve their performance and quantify their impact on the network. In this paper, we present a measurement study on characteristics of available files in the modern Gnutella system. We developed a new methodology to capture accurate "snapshots" of available files in a large scale P2P system. This methodology was implemented in a parallel crawler that captures the entire overlay topology of the system where each peer in the overlay is annotated with its available files. We have captured tens of snapshots of the Gnutella system and conducted three types of analysis on available files: (i) Static analysis, (ii) Topological analysis and (iii) Dynamic analysis. Our results reveal several interesting properties of available files in Gnutella that can be leveraged to improve the design and evaluations of P2P file-sharing applications.

  9. Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  11. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  12. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    We derive spatially resolved stellar kinematics for a sample of 84 out of 104 observed local (0.02 < z < 0.09) galaxies hosting type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), based on long-slit spectra obtained at the 10 m W. M. Keck-1 Telescope. In addition to providing central stellar velocity dispersions, we measure major axis rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles using three separate wavelength regions, including the prominent Ca H and K, Mg Ib, and Ca II NIR stellar features. In this paper, we compare kinematic measurements of stellar velocity dispersion obtained for different apertures, wavelength regions, and signal-to-noise ratios, and provide recipes to cross-calibrate the measurements reducing systematic effects to the level of a few percent. We also provide simple recipes based on readily observable quantities such as global colors and Ca H and K equivalent width that will allow observers of high-redshift AGN hosts to increase the probability of obtaining reliable stellar kinematic measurements from unresolved spectra in the region surrounding the Ca H and K lines. In subsequent papers in this series, we will combine this unprecedented spectroscopic data set with surface photometry and black hole mass measurements to study in detail the scaling relations between host galaxy properties and black hole mass.

  13. Correlation of the Coronal Mass Ejection Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images show qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions where the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. We present measurements from active region vector magnetograms that start to quantify the dependence of an active region's CME productivity on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we measured the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three separate measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line: I(sub N), the net electric current connecting one polarity to the other; and alpha = (mu)I(sub N)/phi), a flux normalized measure of the field twist). From these measurements and the observed CME productivity of the active regions, we find that: (1) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are statistically correlated with the active region flux content and with each other; (2) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are significantly correlated with CME productivity. The flux content correlates with CME productivity, but at a lower statistically significant confidence level (less than 95%); (3) The net current is less closely correlated with CME productivity than alpha and the correlation of CME productivity with flux content is even weaker. If these differences in correlation strength, and a significant correlation of alpha with flux content, persist to larger active regions, this would imply that the size of active regions does not affect CME productivity except through global nonpotentiality; and (4) For each of the four global magnetic quantities, the correlation with CME productivity is stronger for a two-day time window for the CME production than for windows half as wide or twice as wide. This plausibly is a

  14. Correlation of the Coronal Mass Ejection Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images show qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions where the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. We present measurements from active region vector magnetograms that start to quantify the dependence of an active region's CME productivity on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we measured the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three separate measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line: I(sub N), the net electric current connecting one polarity to the other; and alpha = (mu)I(sub N)/phi), a flux normalized measure of the field twist). From these measurements and the observed CME productivity of the active regions, we find that: (1) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are statistically correlated with the active region flux content and with each other; (2) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are significantly correlated with CME productivity. The flux content correlates with CME productivity, but at a lower statistically significant confidence level (less than 95%); (3) The net current is less closely correlated with CME productivity than alpha and the correlation of CME productivity with flux content is even weaker. If these differences in correlation strength, and a significant correlation of alpha with flux content, persist to larger active regions, this would imply that the size of active regions does not affect CME productivity except through global nonpotentiality; and (4) For each of the four global magnetic quantities, the correlation with CME productivity is stronger for a two-day time window for the CME production than for windows half as wide or twice as wide. This plausibly is a

  15. Measurement uncertainty associated with chromatic confocal profilometry for 3D surface texture characterization of natural human enamel.

    PubMed

    Mullan, F; Bartlett, D; Austin, R S

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the measurement performance of a chromatic confocal profilometer for quantification of surface texture of natural human enamel in vitro. Contributions to the measurement uncertainty from all potential sources of measurement error using a chromatic confocal profilometer and surface metrology software were quantified using a series of surface metrology calibration artifacts and pre-worn enamel samples. The 3D surface texture analysis protocol was optimized across 0.04mm(2) of natural and unpolished enamel undergoing dietary acid erosion (pH 3.2, titratable acidity 41.3mmolOH/L). Flatness deviations due to the x, y stage mechanical movement were the major contribution to the measurement uncertainty; with maximum Sz flatness errors of 0.49μm. Whereas measurement noise; non-linearity's in x, y, z and enamel sample dimensional instability contributed minimal errors. The measurement errors were propagated into an uncertainty budget following a Type B uncertainty evaluation in order to calculate the Standard Combined Uncertainty (uc), which was ±0.28μm. Statistically significant increases in the median (IQR) roughness (Sa) of the polished samples occurred after 15 (+0.17 (0.13)μm), 30 (+0.12 (0.09)μm) and 45 (+0.18 (0.15)μm) min of erosion (P<0.001 vs. baseline). In contrast, natural unpolished enamel samples revealed a statistically significant decrease in Sa roughness of -0.14 (0.34) μm only after 45min erosion (P<0.05s vs. baseline). The main contribution to measurement uncertainty using chromatic confocal profilometry was from flatness deviations however by optimizing measurement protocols the profilometer successfully characterized surface texture changes in enamel from erosive wear in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring the Detection Efficiency of the Kepler Pipeline: The First Results from a Simulated Transit Experiment Spanning the Full Observation Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie Leigh; Clarke, Bruce; Burke, Christopher; Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Twicken, Joseph; smith, jeffrey; Batalha, Natalie; haas, michael; thompson, susan

    2015-08-01

    As the full Kepler dataset is analysed and made available, the Kepler project has published a series of planet candidate lists. In order for both the project and the community to determine the true planet occurrence rates from these candidate lists, we need to measure the detection efficiency of the Kepler pipeline from which the candidates are produced, that is, the rate at which planets are missed in the analysis. We present here the preliminary results from the first empirical measurement of the detection efficiency of the pipeline on the full seventeen quarters of data, extending our previous measurements using one and four quarters of data. For the first time, we are also able to use the identical data products and pipeline versions as those used to generate the Q1-Q17 planet candidate catalogue, and as a consequence, the measured detection efficiency can be used directly in the inference of the planet occurrence rates. In particular, we examine the impact of the large rate of false positives in the Kepler planet candidate lists at periods of 200-400 days, due to temperature-dependent electronic artifacts in the Kepler CCDs, on the detection of real planets at those periods, which are critical to habitable zone occurrence rate calculations.

  17. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  18. Standardizing and personalizing the treat to target (T2T) approach for rheumatoid arthritis using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): baseline findings on patient-centered treatment priorities.

    PubMed

    Bacalao, Emily J; Greene, George J; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Eisenstein, Amy; Muftic, Azra; Mandelin, Arthur M; Cella, David; Ruderman, Eric M

    2017-08-01

    A treat to target (T2T) approach to management has become the standard of care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While consensus T2T recommendations call for patient involvement in the treatment process, the targets commonly used to drive therapeutic decisions involve limited patient input. A pilot study was developed to explore whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) could add value to the T2T approach by providing a way to bring patient goals into the process. We report here the baseline data from this study. RA patients from an academic rheumatology practice were recruited to participate in this 1-year study. Patients were asked to complete PROMIS computer-assisted testing at quarterly visits during the year. At baseline, they were asked to identify the PROMIS domain (Pain Interference, Fatigue, Depression, Physical Function, and Social Function) that felt most important to their quality of life. They were then asked to select five representative items from this domain, to be followed through the year. Complete baseline data was available for 119 patients. Most selected Physical Function (39%) or Pain Interference (37%) as their highest priority PROMIS domain. Sixty percent ranked Depression as their lowest priority domain. Younger patients more frequently prioritized Social Function, while older patients more frequently prioritized Fatigue. The incorporation of PROMIS questionnaires into routine clinic visits is a feasible mechanism for incorporating patient preferences into a T2T approach to managing RA.

  19. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  20. Compound-Specific δ15N Amino Acid Measurements in Littoral Mussels in the California Upwelling Ecosystem: A New Approach to Generating Baseline δ15N Isoscapes for Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    We explored δ15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk δ15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼7‰ to ∼12‰, R2 = 0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ15N values of phenylalanine (δ15NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline δ15N values. We hypothesize δ15NPhe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ15NPhe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ15N values. We propose that δ15NPhe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives. PMID:24887109

  1. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    We explored δ(15)N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15)N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk δ(15)N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15)N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2) = 0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15)N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15)N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15)N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with (15)N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15)N values of phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15)N values. We hypothesize δ(15)N(Phe) values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15)N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15)N(Phe) values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15)N values. We propose that δ(15)N(Phe) isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15)N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  2. Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [¹⁸F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Habeck, Christian; Risacher, Shannon; Lee, Grace J; Glymour, M Maria; Mormino, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; DeCarli, Charles; Saykin, Andrew J; Crane, Paul K

    2012-12-01

    Differences in brain metabolism as measured by FDG-PET in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been consistently observed, with a characteristic parietotemporal hypometabolic pattern. However, exploration of brain metabolic correlates of more nuanced measures of cognitive function has been rare, particularly in larger samples. We analyzed the relationship between resting brain metabolism and memory and executive functioning within diagnostic group on a voxel-wise basis in 86 people with AD, 185 people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 86 healthy controls (HC) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We found positive associations within AD and MCI but not in HC. For MCI and AD, impaired executive functioning was associated with reduced parietotemporal metabolism, suggesting a pattern consistent with known AD-related hypometabolism. These associations suggest that decreased metabolic activity in the parietal and temporal lobes may underlie the executive function deficits in AD and MCI. For memory, hypometabolism in similar regions of the parietal and temporal lobes were significantly associated with reduced performance in the MCI group. However, for the AD group, memory performance was significantly associated with metabolism in frontal and orbitofrontal areas, suggesting the possibility of compensatory metabolic activity in these areas. Overall, the associations between brain metabolism and cognition in this study suggest the importance of parietal and temporal lobar regions in memory and executive function in the early stages of disease and an increased importance of frontal regions for memory with increasing impairment.

  3. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  4. Characterization and measurement of hybrid gas journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Tom Marquis

    This thesis concentrates on the study of hybrid gas journal bearings (bearings with externally pressurized mass addition). It differs from most work in that it goes back to "basics" to explore the hydrodynamic phenomena in the bearing gap. The thesis compares geometrically identical bearings with 2 configurations of external pressurization, porous liners where mass-addition compensation is varied by varying the liner's permeability, and bushings with 2 rows of 6 feedholes where the mass-addition compensation is varied by the feedhole diameter. Experimentally, prototype bearings with mass-addition compensation that spans 2 orders of magnitude with differing clearances are built and their aerostatic properties and mass addition characteristics are thoroughly tested. The fundamental equations for compressible, laminar, Poiseuille flow are used to suggest how the mass flow "compensation" should be mathematically modeled. This is back-checked against the experimental mass flow measurements and is used to determine a mass-addition compensation parameter (called Kmeas) for each prototype bushing. In so doing, the methodology of modeling and measuring the mass addition in a hybrid gas bearing is re-examined and an innovative, practical, and simple method is found that makes it possible to make an "apples-to-apples" comparison between different configurations of external pressurization. This mass addition model is used in conjunction with the Reynolds equation to perform theory-based numerical analysis of virtual hybrid gas journal bearings (CFD experiments). The first CFD experiments performed use virtual bearings modeled to be identical to the experimental prototypes and replicate the experimental work. The results are compared and the CFD model is validated. The ontological significance of appropriate dimensionless similitude parameters is re-examined and a, previously lacking, complete set of similitude factors is found for hybrid bearings. A new practical method is

  5. Auxiliary measures to assess factors related to food insecurity: Preliminary testing and baseline characteristics of newly designed hunger-coping scales.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Courtney; Smith, Teresa M; Calloway, Eric E; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Bertmann, Farryl M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary testing of new scales to assess hunger-coping behaviors in a very low-income population. Very low-income adults (≥ 19 years), caregivers to at least one child (n = 306) completed a survey in a community setting (e.g., libraries). The survey included novel items assessing hunger-coping behaviors (e.g., trade-offs to purchase food, strategies to stretch and obtain food), food insecurity status, and physiological hunger. Internal consistency of hunger-coping scales, one-way ANOVAs, post-hoc analyses, Spearman's correlations among variables. Respondents were 75% female, 51% African American, 34% White, and 15% Hispanic, and 73% earned <$20,000/year. Four scales emerged: hunger-coping trade-offs, financial coping strategies, rationing coping strategies, and physiological adult hunger symptoms. All scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α/KR-20 = 0.70-0.90). Predictive, construct, and content validity were demonstrated by correlations between hunger-coping scales and food insecurity (FI), measured with the USDA 6-item HFSSM (rs = 0.42-0.68, ps < 0.001). Higher levels of hunger-coping trade-offs (F(2,297) = 42.54, p < 0.001), financial coping strategies (F(2,287) = 70.77, p < 0.001), and rationing coping strategies (F(2,284) = 69.19, p < 0.001), corresponded with increasing levels of FI. These preliminary results support use of newly developed hunger-coping scales in a very low-income population and can compliment traditional food security measures to inform hunger prevention policy and programming.

  6. Airborne Measurements of Ozone and Other Trace Gases Captured by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) during the 2016 California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, M. E.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Ryoo, J. M.; Langford, A. O.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Senff, C. J.; Kirgis, G.; Chiao, S.; Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In October 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency lowered the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (O3) from 75 ppbv to 70 ppbv. However, meeting the stricter air standards is a challenge for certain areas of California, like the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), where O3 levels are typically high due to topography, meteorology, and local emissions. Another factor potentially contributing to increased surface O3 is the trans-Pacific transport of O3 from Asia. The extent of which O3stems from local emissions or is transported across the Pacific, however, is unclear. The California Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS), a joint effort between the California Air Resource Board, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and San Jose State University, was conducted during the spring and summer of 2016 in an attempt to answer this question. Nearly 10 science flights were carried out by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) between June and August 2016, based out of the NASA Ames Research Center. A summary of airborne O3, CO2, CH4, H2O, formaldehyde (HCHO), and 3D wind measurements will be presented. AJAX flights connect the fixed-location measurements at Visalia (TOPAZ ozone lidar) and Bodega Bay (ozonesondes), while exploring the spatial heterogeneity of O3 concentrations across California and at various offshore locations. Preliminary analyses of these flights will investigate connections between offshore O3 and Central Valley O3. Vertical profiles, time series, and tracer-tracer correlations will be employed to identify the sources of O3 during these flights.

  7. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  8. Baseline experiments in teleoperator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III; Mixon, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to establish baseline human teleoperator interface data and to assess the influence of some of the interface parameters on human performance in teleoperation. As baseline data, the results will be used to assess future interface improvements resulting from this research in basic teleoperator human factors. In addition, the data have been used to validate LaRC's basic teleoperator hardware setup and to compare initial teleoperator study results. Four subjects controlled a modified industrial manipulator to perform a simple task involving both high and low precision. Two different schemes for controlling the manipulator were studied along with both direct and indirect viewing of the task. Performance of the task was measured as the length of time required to complete the task along with the number of errors made in the process. Analyses of variance were computed to determine the significance of the influences of each of the independent variables. Comparisons were also made between the LaRC data and data taken earlier by Grumman Aerospace Corp. at their facilities.

  9. Process Development and Integration Lab (PDIL) + Measurements and Characterization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.

    2008-04-01

    The Process Development and Integration Lab (PDIL) Vision is to integrate deposition, characterization, and processing by being flexible and robust; having a standardized transfer interface; and controlled sample ambient between tools. The benefits are: (1) answers to previously inaccessible research questions; (2) control and characterization of critical surfaces (interfaces) and how their impact on subsequent layers; (3) assess process-related source chemistry, surface chemistry and kinetics, and bulk reconstruction; (4) grow layers and alter interfaces using controlled processes and transfer ambients (without exposure to air); (5) develop new techniques, methodologies, device structures, materials, and tools (growth, processing, and analytical); and (6) improved collaborations with university and industry researchers.

  10. A Novel Method for Measurement and Characterization of Soil Macroporosity

    Treesearch

    Christopher Barton; Tasos Karathanasis

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative macropore characterizations were performed in large zero-tension soil lysimeters of a Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) and a Loradale silt loam (fine, silty, mixed, mesic Typic Axgiudoll) soil in an effort to assess potential colloid transport. Steel pipe sections (50 cm diameter X 100 cm length) were hydraulically driven into the soil...

  11. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle-contrast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development. Currently, FPDs are present in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surface which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider images shown in these types of displays to have more vivid colours compared with matte-screen displays. However, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections on the glossy screens. These reflections can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface of FPDs. In this work, we present a method to characterize the front surface of FPDs using laser speckle patterns. We characterized three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23" with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 laptop of 15.4" with glossy screen, and a Papyre electronic book reader. The results show great differences in speckle contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs which have different types of front surfaces.

  12. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-10-08

    In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8-61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2-86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4-24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r(2)=0·88) and the MDG index (r(2)=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r(2)=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0-10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7-13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1-8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for

  13. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  14. FEL beam characterization from measurements of the Wigner distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Bernd; Flöter, Bernhard; Mey, Tobias; Juranic, Pavle; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Mann, Klaus; Tiedtke, Kai

    2011-10-01

    The Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY has been characterized by a quantitative determination of the Wigner distribution function. The setup, comprising an ellipsodial mirror and a moveable extreme UV sensitive CCD detector, enables the mapping of two-dimensional phase spaces corresponding to the horizontal and vertical coordinate axes, respectively. For separable beams this yields the entire Wigner distribution, offering comprehensive information about spatial coherence properties, wavefront, beam profiles, as well as beam propagation parameters.

  15. Characterizing the uncertainty in holddown post load measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. A.; Townsend, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand unexpectedly erratic load measurements in the launch-pad supports for the space shuttle, the sensitivities of the load cells in the supports were analyzed using simple probabilistic techniques. NASA engineers use the loads in the shuttle's supports to calculate critical stresses in the shuttle vehicle just before lift-off. The support loads are measured with 'load cells' which are actually structural components of the mobile launch platform which have been instrumented with strain gauges. Although these load cells adequately measure vertical loads, the horizontal load measurements have been erratic. The load measurements were simulated in this study using Monte Carlo simulation procedures. The simulation studies showed that the support loads are sensitive to small deviations in strain and calibration. In their current configuration, the load cells will not measure loads with sufficient accuracy to reliably calculate stresses in the shuttle vehicle. A simplified model of the holddown post (HDP) load measurement system was used to study the effect on load measurement accuracy for several factors, including load point deviations, gauge heights, and HDP geometry.

  16. Measurement and Characterization of Nuclear Material at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2009-07-01

    A measurement plan and preliminary Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the investigation of well-defined mixed-oxide fuel pins. Measurement analysis including pulse-height distributions and time-dependent cross-correlation functions will be performed separately for neutrons and gamma rays. The utilization of Monte Carlo particle transport codes, specifically MCNP-PoliMi, is discussed in conjunction with the anticipated measurements. Four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors with an accurate pulse timing and digital, offline, optimized pulse-shape discrimination method will be used to prove the dependency of pulse-height distributions, cross-correlation functions, and material multiplicities upon fuel pin composition, fuel pin quantity, and detector geometry. The objective of the measurements and simulations is to identify novel methods for describing mixed-oxide fuel samples by relating measured quantities to fuel characteristics such as criticality, mass quantity, and material composition. This research has applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation.

  17. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eugen; Wong, Ka Kan; Müller, Michael; Hu, Hao; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Kohlstädt, Markus; Würfel, Uli; Mastroianni, Simone; Mathiazhagan, Gayathri; Hinsch, Andreas; Gujar, Tanaji P.; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe "hysteretic" behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  18. PSF and MTF Measurement Methods for Thick CCD Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Kotov, I.; Frank, J.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Lawrence, D.M.

    2010-06-30

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al. and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include {sup 55}Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/number close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  19. A geometrical characterization of commutative positive operator valued measures

    SciTech Connect

    Beneduci, Roberto

    2006-06-15

    We show that a POV measure F on the Borel {sigma}-algebra of the reals B(R) is commutative if and only if there exists a PV measure E on B(R) and, for every {lambda} in the spectrum of E, a probability measure {gamma}{sub ({center_dot})}({lambda}) on B(R) such that the effect F({delta}) coincides with {gamma}{sub {delta}}(A), where A is the self-adjoint operator associated to E. The relevance of this result to the theory of the sharp reconstruction is analyzed.

  20. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    activity and a concurrent increase in human-produced noise. This work examines the hearing sensivitiy and variability of wild beluga whales in an effort...increasing the sample size and consequent knowledge of how this protected species naturally detects and utilizes sound . 1a) Identify a standard beluga ...in wild and presumably healthy beluga whales , using consistent AEP methods. A primary emphasis here was placed on assessing the frequency and

  1. Baseline Noise Measurements at Vandenberg AFB, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    00 0 a a0 0 0000,200 , c’c 00 000 Ut0 00000 ccc cco-. 4~84 *~~~ ittta www V ww w"wMMVM*~ P.f O 8 4a a . a . . M a a * *. ’W -0wW a n 0 oe atat %"n@ Wa...an.n o ~ e a ~ .o~n~ a e a ao @n mn’" aP O w0 oo cn rmam aW" 4* rk o . ~ 0 r’o n-’’oI~ . 4 0 , , s. n ’’ D W b *40 mm f. 4nW tWA m mw4.M - 4 0"~*E O...v v w w i .4 0 W W intA in in inin ’fn Wp r4E r .@%O w in 00 .J so al ~ . f E ~ e of E q@0 o O ami n @ m a 0 %G i NM 66 ;:. *0.fi0 K rK ~ r.U m .@in m

  2. Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability μ. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, μ does not appear in the quasi-static expression for σ. Hence, σ may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then μ may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once σ is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such

  3. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the identification and characterization of traumatic solid organ lesions in children: a retrospective comparison with baseline US and CE-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Guendalina; Sessa, Barbara; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-11-01

    CEUS was better than that of US, as sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 100, 100, 100, 100, and 100 % for CEUS and 38.8, 100, 100, 12.8, and 44 % for US. In some patients CEUS identified also prognostic factors as parenchymal active bleeding in 8 cases, partial devascularization in 1 case; no cases of vascular bleeding, no cases of urinoma. MDCT confirmed all parenchymal lesions. Parenchymal active bleeding was identified in 16 cases, vascular bleeding in 2 cases, urinoma in 2 cases, partial devascularization in 1 case. CEUS is more sensitive and accurate than baseline US and almost as sensitive as CT in the identification and characterization of solid organs lesions in blunt abdominal trauma. CT is more sensitive and accurate than CEUS in identifying prognostic indicators, as active bleeding and urinoma. CEUS should be considered as a useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  4. Characterization of Interdependency Between Intracranial Pressure and Heart Variability Signals: A Causal Spectral Measure and a Generalized Synchronization Measure

    PubMed Central

    Nenov, Valeriy; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    Causal coherence and generalized synchronization (GS) index were extracted from beat-to-beat mean intracranial pressure (ICP) and intervals between consecutive normal sinus heart beats (RR interval) that were recorded from 12 patients undergoing normal pressure hydrocephalus diagnosis. Data were organized into two groups including an ICP B-Wave group and a baseline control group. Maximal classic coherence (CC) between ICP and RR interval within [0.04, 0.15] Hz was found to be significantly greater than zero for both B-Wave and control groups with B-Wave CC greater than that of the baseline group. Causal coherence analysis further revealed that feedforward coherence due to RR interval’s effect on ICP always exists for both B-Wave and baseline ICP state and no significant difference exists between two groups. On the other hand, feedback coherence from ICP to RR interval was enhanced during the occurrence of B-Wave. This finding regarding the enhanced directional, from ICP to RR interval, coupling between ICP and RR interval was also confirmed by a modified GS measure. PMID:17694861

  5. Characterization of Measurement Error Sources in Doppler Global Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Doppler global velocimetry uses the absorption characteristics of iodine vapor to provide instantaneous three-component measurements of flow velocity within a plane defined by a laser light sheet. Although the technology is straightforward, its utilization as a flow diagnostics tool requires hardening of the optical system and careful attention to detail during data acquisition and processing if routine use in wind tunnel applications is to be achieved. A development program that reaches these goals is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted on each technology element to determine methods that increase measurement accuracy and repeatability. Enhancements resulting from these investigations included methods to ensure iodine vapor calibration stability, single frequency operation of the laser and image alignment to sub-pixel accuracies. Methods were also developed to improve system calibration, and eliminate spatial variations of optical frequency in the laser output, spatial variations in optical transmissivity and perspective and optical distortions in the data images. Each of these enhancements is described and experimental examples given to illustrate the improved measurement performance obtained by the enhancement. The culmination of this investigation was the measured velocity profile of a rotating wheel resulting in a 1.75% error in the mean with a standard deviation of 0.5 m/s. Comparing measurements of a jet flow with corresponding Pitot measurements validated the use of these methods for flow field applications.

  6. Atmospheric Effects Detection By Short Baseline Processing In RADARSTAT Time Series Over Manaus City, Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Fernanda Ledo G.; Nico, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of RADARSAT- 1 and RADARSAT-2 times series acquired from 2006 to 2010 aiming to recognize the presence of atmospheric artefacts in the interferometric phase. The dataset was interferometrically processed using a short-baseline strategy, i.e. all interferometric pairs characterized by the shortest temporal baselines were identified. In this dataset the temporal baseline corresponds to the shortest temporal baseline of 24 days which can be achieved using the Radarsat mission. Interferometric phase was compared to estimates of the atmospheric artefacts obtained from the available measurements of the atmospheric parameters (air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitations) over the studied area provided by the Brazilian Aeronautic Center of Meteorology.

  7. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  8. In vivo characterization of ischemic small intestine using bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Strand-Amundsen, R J; Tronstad, C; Kalvøy, H; Gundersen, Y; Krohn, C D; Aasen, A O; Holhjem, L; Reims, H M; Martinsen, Ø G; Høgetveit, J O; Ruud, T E; Tønnessen, T I

    2016-02-01

    The standard clinical method for the assessment of viability in ischemic small intestine is still visual inspection and palpation. This method is non-specific and unreliable, and requires a high level of clinical experience. Consequently, viable tissue might be removed, or irreversibly damaged tissue might be left in the body, which may both slow down patient recovery. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to measure changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The physical changes in the tissue at the cellular and structural levels after the onset of ischemia lead to time-variant changes in the electrical properties. We aimed to investigate the use of bioimpedance measurement to assess if the tissue is ischemic, and to assess the ischemic time duration. Measurements were performed on pigs (n = 7) using a novel two-electrode setup, with a Solartron 1260/1294 impedance gain-phase analyser. After induction of anaesthesia, an ischemic model with warm, full mesenteric arterial and venous occlusion on 30 cm of the jejunum was implemented. Electrodes were placed on the serosal surface of the ischemic jejunum, applying a constant voltage, and measuring the resulting electrical admittance. As a control, measurements were done on a fully perfused part of the jejunum in the same porcine model. The changes in tan δ (dielectric parameter), measured within a 6 h period of warm, full mesenteric occlusion ischemia in seven pigs, correlates with the onset and duration of ischemia. Tan δ measured in the ischemic part of the jejunum differed significantly from the control tissue, allowing us to determine if the tissue was ischemic or not (P < 0.0001, F = (1,75.13) 188.19). We also found that we could use tan δ to predict ischemic duration. This opens up the possibility of real-time monitoring and assessment of the presence and duration of small intestinal ischemia.

  9. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans C

    2010-02-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (P<0.001) and positively correlated with baseline total cholesterol level (P=0.005), but no significant correlations were found with constitutive or facultative skin pigmentation. In addition, we paired a dark-skinned group with a fair-skinned group according to baseline 25(OH)D levels and found no differences in 25(OH)D increase after identical UVB exposure.

  10. Characterizing dielectric tensors of anisotropic materials from a single measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paula Kay

    Ellipsometry techniques look at changes in polarization states to measure optical properties of thin film materials. A beam reflected from a substrate measures the real and imaginary parts of the index of the material represented as n and k, respectively. Measuring the substrate at several angles gives additional information that can be used to measure multilayer thin film stacks. However, the outstanding problem in standard ellipsometry is that it uses a limited number of incident polarization states (s and p). This limits the technique to isotropic materials. The technique discussed in this paper extends the standard process to measure anisotropic materials by using a larger set of incident polarization states. By using a polarimeter to generate several incident polarization states and measure the polarization properties of the sample, ellipsometry can be performed on biaxial materials. Use of an optimization algorithm in conjunction with biaxial ellipsometry can more accurately determine the dielectric tensor of individual layers in multilayer structures. Biaxial ellipsometry is a technique that measures the dielectric tensors of a biaxial substrate, single-layer thin film, or multi-layer structure. The dielectric tensor of a biaxial material consists of the real and imaginary parts of the three orthogonal principal indices (n x + ikx, ny +iky and nz + i kz) as well as three Euler angles (alpha, beta and gamma) to describe its orientation. The method utilized in this work measures an angle-of-incidence Mueller matrix from a Mueller matrix imaging polarimeter equipped with a pair of microscope objectives that have low polarization properties. To accurately determine the dielectric tensors for multilayer samples, the angle-of-incidence Mueller matrix images are collected for multiple wavelengths. This is done in either a transmission mode or a reflection mode, each incorporates an appropriate dispersion model. Given approximate a priori knowledge of the dielectric

  11. Characterizing Fracture Property Using Resistivity Measured at Different Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen

    2014-09-30

    The objective was to develop geophysical approaches to detecting and evaluating the fractures created or existing in EGS and other geothermal reservoirs by measuring the resistivity at different frequencies. This project has been divided into two phases: Phase I (first year): Proof of Concept – develop the resistivity approach and verify the effect of frequency on the resistivity in rocks with artificial or natural fractures over a wide range of frequencies. Phase II: Prototyping Part 1 (second year): measure the resistivity in rocks with fractures of different apertures, different length, and different configurations at different frequencies. Part 2 (third year): develop mathematical models and the resistivity method; infer the fracture properties using the measured resistivity data.

  12. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-12-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  13. Characterization of probe contact effects on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Mayjonade, Mallory; Ahadi, Aylin; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-invasive optical method widely adopted to gain diagnostic information of tissue. The most flexible approach to this method is a fiber-optic contact-probe used with a spectroscopy system. A challenge of this method is that the external pressure brought by the probe can significantly affect the tissue optical properties as well as the light coupling into the probe, and thus influence the collected DRS-spectrum. In this study we investigate and characterize the effect of probe pressure on DRS-spectra obtained with a calibrated loaded-spring system used with a fiber optic probe in the range (400 - 1600) nm. A multilayer FE-model of the indentation is developed to get a better insight of the distribution of pressure and stresses inside the skin under indentation.

  14. Measurement system analysis of viscometers used for drilling mud characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Shayuti, M. S.; Adzhar, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Viscometers in the Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, are subject to heavy utilization from the members of the faculty. Due to doubts surrounding their result integrity and maintenance management, Measurement System Analysis was executed. 5 samples of drilling muds with varied barite content from 5 - 25 weight% were prepared and their rheological properties determined in 3 trials by 3 operators using the viscometers. Gage Linearity and Bias Study were performed using Minitab software and the result shows high biases in the range of 19.2% to 38.7%, with non-linear trend along the span of measurements. Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (Nested) analysis later produces Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility more than 7.7% and Percent Tolerance above 30%. Lastly, good and marginal Distinct Categories output are seen among the results. Despite acceptable performance of the measurement system in Distinct Categories, the poor results in accuracy, linearity, and Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility render the gage generally not capable. Improvement to the measurement system is imminent.

  15. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  16. Characterization of Solid Liquid Suspensions Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, P. D.; Tucker, B. J.; Pappas, R. A.; Ahmed, S.

    2003-03-01

    Rapid, on-line determination of particle size and concentration is required for the efficient process measurement and control of many processes in government and industrial applications such as waste remediation for the Department of Energy sites and process control for chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing. However, existing methods based on ultrasonic attenuation can become inaccurate for highly concentrated suspensions due to careful transducer alignment and the complicated mathematics required to describe multiple scattering, which controls the attenuation. Two measurements that help to overcome these difficulties are the ultrasonic backscattering and diffuse field. Backscattering is attractive because the single scattering theories typically used to describe backscattering are mathematically simpler than attenuation theories and lend themselves to more stable inversion processes. Also, the measurements of backscattering and diffuse fields do not require long travel distances and can be made with a single transducer thus eliminating alignment problems. We will present ultrasonic measurements on solid liquid suspensions designed to elucidate the particle size and concentration at high concentrations.

  17. Extended measurement setup for transient TEM waveguide characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briest, Niklas; Garbe, Heyno; Potthast, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses a field measurement method, based on a two-antenna setup, to qualify the transmission of transient signals inside a GTEM cell. The transmission characteristic of the GTEM1250 is evaluated by the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and is presented with a heatmap. Due to deviations of the uncertainty contribution of the field homogeneity, the frequency band around 100 MHz is evaluated and its effect to the PCC is discussed. Therefore, a comparable narrowband transient signal, a damped sinusoidal (DS) is used. Furthermore, a detailed discussion focussing on nonlinear and distorting effects of the GTEM1250 is performed. The measurements in time domain (TD) identify comparable high secondary E-field components in the propagation direction, which are characteristic for higher order modes. Based on the same setup, another measurement is performed in frequency domain (FD) and relates the phase response of the GTEM cell to the above mentioned effects. According to the measured phase response the propagation time is discussed to investigate the distorting effects caused by higher order modes.

  18. Characterization and measurement of VOC emissions from silage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is growing concern in the U.S. regarding the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from farms and their contribution to smog formation near ozone non-attainment areas. The few studies that have measured VOC emissions have identified mixed feed and the exposed silage face as major farm ...

  19. Characterization and Measurement of Passive and Active Metamaterial Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    153 VB Visual BASIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 xxviii...basic structures that offer some control of the magnetic permeability. However, the structure of interest here consists of two round , concentric SRR...and measurement results of the LHM struc- ture presented in [46]. The structure consists of two concentric, round SRR particles and a single wire

  20. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  1. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  2. Measuring CCN to Characterize Warm Cloud Microphysics Over The Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Hudson, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) are embryos for cloud droplets and are suspected to play a vital role in the production of initial collision drops that explain the classical problem of warm rain initiation. They may also be instrumental in modifying the droplet spectra to promote warm rain initiation. Although the giant nuclei hypothesis seems to be the simplest solution to the problem of warm rain initiation, modeling studies by Johnson 1982 and Ochs and Semonin 1978, suggest that the importance of UGN for precipitation formation diminishes when the CCN concentrations are low as in clear maritime air. Measurement of CCN is essential to verify all hypotheses that investigate precipitation processes. Thus, a detailed analysis of the complete CCN spectra in relation to other cloud parameters is crucial for understanding warm rain initiation. During the RICO field project, aerosol measurements were made by the two DRI instantaneous CCN spectrometers to analyze their distribution and properties. Use of two instruments ensured redundancy and enabled in-flight calibrations without interrupting ambient measurements. These measurements include more than 180 flight hours from 19 flights over a two month period in the western Atlantic near the northeastern corner of the Antilles (Antigua and Barbuda) in December and January (2004-05). During 17 of these flights there were two hours of subcloud measurements at constant altitudes, which enabled evaluation of aerosol characteristics since they allowed long observation times in clear air with very few cloud penetrations. Average and standard deviations of the total particle (CN) and cumulative CCN concentrations during the low altitude horizontal legs showed major variations in the total concentrations and standard deviations. This implies that even in clean maritime air there is some significant day-to-day variability in concentrations, which seems to be related either to wind velocity or to cloudiness. Higher concentrations at

  3. Estimating Baselines From Constrained Data On GPS Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey I.

    1991-01-01

    Method of processing measurements of signals received at terrestrial stations from satellites in Global Positioning System (GPS) increases precision of estimates of both orbits of GPS satellites and locations of stations, computed from measurement and orbital data. Involves network of fiducial GPS stations collocated with very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) stations, for which independent VLBI determinations of baselines available. Locations of stations used to establish baselines for geodesy. Potential applications include measurements of seismic and volcanic displacements and movements of tectonic plates.

  4. Measurement and Characterization of Concentrator Solar Cells II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, Dave; Sater, Bernard L.; Chubb, Donald; Jenkins, Phillip; Snyder, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Concentrator solar cells are continuing to get more consideration for use in power systems. This interest is because concentrator systems can have a net lower cost per watt in solar cell materials plus ongoing improvements in sun-tracking technology. Quantitatively measuring the efficiency of solar cells under concentration is difficult. Traditionally, the light concentration on solar cells has been determined by using a ratio of the measured solar cell s short circuit current to that at one sun, this assumes that current changes proportionally with light intensity. This works well with low to moderate (<20 suns) concentration levels on "well-behaved" linear cells but does not apply when cells respond superlinearly, current increases faster than intensity, or sublinearly, current increases more slowly than intensity. This paper continues work on using view factors to determine the concentration level and linearity of the solar cell with mathematical view factor analysis and experimental results [1].

  5. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

  6. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part I: Motion Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, Samuel; Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim

    2017-06-01

    High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to midwater locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9-m spherical buoy, and a 100-lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of a research vessel.more » The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial subrange for flow speeds exceeding 1.0 m s-1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less

  7. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings - Part I: Motion Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, Samuel; Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim

    2017-06-20

    High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) to mid-water locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor™ buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9 m spherical buoy, and a 100 lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of amore » research vessel. The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial sub-range for flow speeds exceeding 1:0 ms-1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less

  8. Angular Transmission Characterization of CPV Modules Based On CCD Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, R.; Domínguez, C.; Askins, S.; Antón, I.; Sala, G.; Berrios, J.

    2010-10-01

    A cost effective method to obtain the two-dimensional angular transmission function of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system is presented. For this purpose, we take advantage of a large area collimator mirror and the forward biased receiver cell itself to reproduce a Lambertian beam by electroluminescence. To validate this method, angular transmission functions of several CPV system technologies have been measured with direct illumination (flash CPV simulator and Sun light) and the "luminescence inverse method".

  9. Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  10. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  11. Measurement and Characterization of Helicopter Noise at Different Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Stephenson, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a flight test campaign performed at different test sites whose altitudes ranged from 0 to 7000 feet above mean sea level (AMSL) between September 2014 and February 2015. The purposes of this campaign were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. In addition to describing the test campaign, results of the acoustic effects of altitude variation for the AS350 SD1 and EH-60L aircraft are presented. Large changes in acoustic amplitudes were observed in response to changes in ambient conditions when the helicopter was flown at constant indicated airspeed and gross weight at the three test sites. However, acoustic amplitudes were found to scale with ambient pressure when flight conditions were defined in terms of the non-dimensional parameters, such as the weight coefficient and effective hover tip Mach number.

  12. Validation and Error Characterization for the Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Steven W.; Adams, W. J.; Everett, D. F.; Smith, E. A.; Yuter, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international effort to increase scientific knowledge on the global water cycle with specific goals of improving the understanding and the predictions of climate, weather, and hydrology. These goals will be achieved through several satellites specifically dedicated to GPM along with the integration of numerous meteorological satellite data streams from international and domestic partners. The GPM effort is led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. In addition to the spaceborne assets, international and domestic partners will provide ground-based resources for validating the satellite observations and retrievals. This paper describes the validation effort of Global Precipitation Measurement to provide quantitative estimates on the errors of the GPM satellite retrievals. The GPM validation approach will build upon the research experience of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) retrieval comparisons and its validation program. The GPM ground validation program will employ instrumentation, physical infrastructure, and research capabilities at Supersites located in important meteorological regimes of the globe. NASA will provide two Supersites, one in a tropical oceanic and the other in a mid-latitude continental regime. GPM international partners will provide Supersites for other important regimes. Those objectives or regimes not addressed by Supersites will be covered through focused field experiments. This paper describes the specific errors that GPM ground validation will address, quantify, and relate to the GPM satellite physical retrievals. GPM will attempt to identify the source of errors within retrievals including those of instrument calibration, retrieval physical assumptions, and algorithm applicability. With the identification of error sources, improvements will be made to the respective calibration

  13. Validation and Error Characterization for the Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Steven W.; Adams, W. J.; Everett, D. F.; Smith, E. A.; Yuter, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international effort to increase scientific knowledge on the global water cycle with specific goals of improving the understanding and the predictions of climate, weather, and hydrology. These goals will be achieved through several satellites specifically dedicated to GPM along with the integration of numerous meteorological satellite data streams from international and domestic partners. The GPM effort is led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. In addition to the spaceborne assets, international and domestic partners will provide ground-based resources for validating the satellite observations and retrievals. This paper describes the validation effort of Global Precipitation Measurement to provide quantitative estimates on the errors of the GPM satellite retrievals. The GPM validation approach will build upon the research experience of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) retrieval comparisons and its validation program. The GPM ground validation program will employ instrumentation, physical infrastructure, and research capabilities at Supersites located in important meteorological regimes of the globe. NASA will provide two Supersites, one in a tropical oceanic and the other in a mid-latitude continental regime. GPM international partners will provide Supersites for other important regimes. Those objectives or regimes not addressed by Supersites will be covered through focused field experiments. This paper describes the specific errors that GPM ground validation will address, quantify, and relate to the GPM satellite physical retrievals. GPM will attempt to identify the source of errors within retrievals including those of instrument calibration, retrieval physical assumptions, and algorithm applicability. With the identification of error sources, improvements will be made to the respective calibration

  14. Measuring Pickup Ions to Characterize the Lunar Surface and Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    It has been known for some time that measurement of the ion components, born from neutral exospheres imbedded in the solar wind, can be used to determine the composition and structure of the parent neutral exospheres (Hartle et al., 1973, Hartle and Thomas, 1974, Luhmann, 1996). The ion pickup process has been observed and verified for more than two decades, including pickup ions born from cometary comas, exospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan, and interstellar gases. Several observations (Mall, et al., 1998 and Hilchenbach et al., 1992) of lunar pickup ions have been reported from passing spacecraft including observations of metallic elements that were presumably sputtered from the lunar surface. The ions so formed, primarily by photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange, are picked up and accelerated by the motional electric field E = -V × B, where V is the plasma bulk velocity and B the magnetic field. The unique orbital characteristics of pickup ions make it possible to infer important details about their sources. For a given ion mass, energy, and incoming direction, the ion trajectory can be mapped back to a point where the velocity vanishes at the cusp of a cycloid. When the gyroradius is much greater than the neutral source scale height (most cases), this cusp point is, it can be safely assumed, the source point. This also requires that the source velocity is much less than pickup acceleration integrated from the source point to spacecraft (again, true in most cases). This makes it possible to derive the neutral exosphere density at that point, assuming the ionization rate is known. When this measurement scheme is carried out on numerous orbits of a mission, it will be possible to derive neutral exosphere densities of all those species whose pickup ions can be measured. With the exception of H+, ion gyroradii are much greater than their source gas scale heights for typical solar wind conditions. Then, for a given ion mass, a spectrometer in lunar

  15. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  16. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  17. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  18. Baseline blood oxygenation modulates response amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hanzhang; Zhao, Chenguang; Ge, Yulin; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although BOLD fMRI provides a useful tool for probing neuronal activities, large inter-subject variations in signal amplitude are commonly observed. Understanding the physiologic basis for these variations will have a significant impact on many fMRI studies. First, the physiologic modulator can be used as a regressor to reduce variations across subjects, thereby improving statistical power for detecting group differences. Second, if a pathologic condition or a drug treatment is shown to change fMRI responses, monitoring this modulatory parameter is useful in correctly interpreting the fMRI changes to neuronal deficits/recruitments. Here we present evidence that the task-evoked fMRI signals are modulated by baseline blood oxygenation. To measure global blood oxygenation, we used a recently developed technique, T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging MRI, yielding baseline oxygenation of 63.7±7.2% in sagittal sinus with an estimation error of 1.3%. It was found that individuals with higher baseline oxygenation tend to have a smaller fMRI signal and vice versa. For every 10% difference in baseline oxygenation across subjects, the BOLD and cerebral blood flow signal differ by -0.4% and -30.0%, respectively, when using visual stimulation. TRUST MRI is a useful measurement for fMRI studies to control for the modulatory effects of baseline oxygenation that are unique to each subject. PMID:18666103

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  20. Using Impedance Measurements to Characterize Surface Modified with Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Scott; Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Tamura, Marcus; Yan, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection allows for greater versatility in the detection of biological molecules. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based POC biosensor that can detect changes in the surface modification of a micro-fabricated chip using impedance spectroscopy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been employed to evaluate the sensing ability of our new chip using impedance measurements. Furthermore, we used impedance measurements to monitor surface functionalization progress on the sensor’s interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). Electrodes made from aluminum and gold were employed and the results were analyzed to compare the impact of electrode material. GNPs coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid were also used as a model of biomolecules to greatly enhance chemical affinity to the silicon substrate. The portable sensor can be used as an alternative technology to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. This system has advantages over PCR and ELISA both in the amount of time required for testing and the ease of use of our sensor. With other techniques, larger, expensive equipment must be utilized in a lab environment, and procedures have to be carried out by trained professionals. The simplicity of our sensor system can lead to an automated and portable sensing system.

  1. Global characterization of atmospheric hydrology with HDO measurements from Aura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D.; Worden, J.; Bowman, K.

    2005-12-01

    The history of condensation and evaporation processes is captured by the isotopic composition of atmospheric water. While the analysis of the isotopic measurement from a global standpoint provides new insight to the role of the hydrologic cycle in climate, the richness of the measurements lies in the fact that the isotopes are indicative of processes rather than atmospheric state. Isotopic methods have been used extensively in previous studies to understand continental hydrology and specifically estimate recycling of water between the atmosphere and landscapes. Similarly the use of water isotopes in determining the sources of atmospheric water has been endorsed widely based on global model calculations. The isotopic composition of precipitation has been monitored since the 1950 globally, yet the existing vapor isotope datasets are inadequate to allow source estimation at anything but local scales and largely inadequate for examining the hydrology of the troposphere at large. New measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the NASA Aura spacecraft address this need by providing estimates of vapor H2O and HDO in the lower and mid troposphere. Here, we use over 5000 observations scattered globally from 9 days of nadir observations taken in November 2004 and January 2005. The retrieved HDO and H2O profiles are averaged between 850 hPa and 400 hPa to attain a typical precision is approximately 1%, which translates to an error in HDO delta values of around 15 permil. The data show greater depletion toward the polar regions and is characteristic of preferential removal of heavy nuclides during condensation as water vapor moves pole-ward. These observations are consistent with precipitation measurements that also show a latitudinal gradient. In the extra-tropics we contrast results from cloud free profiles with low humidity (where evaporation from the ocean surface is more dominant) with those having clouds and high humidity (where condensations

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

  3. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in β band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). WDS group presented more complexity than EDS in the occipital zone, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between occipital and frontal zones was detected in EDS patients than in WDS. The AMIF and CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing Delta-Scale Connectivity Using Entropic Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendrowski, A.; Passalacqua, P.; Twilley, R.; Castaneda, E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity in river deltas between distributary channels and inter-channel islands brings sediment and nutrients onto islands resulting in distinct vegetation zonation patterns on island interiors. Deltaic islands can also remain inundated for long periods of time, providing the conditions for denitrification to occur. To understand these dynamics and the overall complexity of the deltaic plain, water, sediment, and nutrient fluxes need to be considered at the network scale. Some key questions are what effect does external environmental forcing, such as river discharge, wind, and tides, have on spatial patterns in the delta, and what role do internal dynamics play in deltaic evolution. We apply the mutual information and transfer entropy metrics to quantify couplings between environmental controls and delta variables on islands and channels in Wax Lake Delta, a naturally prograding 100km2 river delta in coastal Louisiana, USA. Mutual information measures the amount of shared information in a coupling, while the transfer entropy measures the information transfer between two variables. With this method, we are able to analyze different dimensional variables across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Continuous water levels, water temperature, and turbidity data were collected in three channels and on five islands from November 2013 to August 2014. Continuous surface water nitrate concentrations were collected at six locations on one island in the delta during the summer of 2015. The data occur over a suite of discharge, wind, and tidal conditions. While discharge is a predominant force, winds and tides play a significant role in water movement and residence time inside the islands. Nitrate fluctuations, in response to environmental forcing, vary spatially and temporally at the island scale, which will have an effect on nitrate dynamics on island interiors. Turbidity and water levels show variation at the network scale, leading to patterns of

  5. Measurement and characterization of angiotensin peptides in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, K.; Ganten, D.; Unger, T.; Bayer, C.; Lang, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    We report a method for the extraction of angiotensin peptides from plasma with a mixture of acetone, 1 mol/L HCl, and water (40/1/5 by vol). The method is highly reproducible for the measurement of angiotensin I and angiotensin II in small sample volumes, with analytical recoveries of about 80% for both peptides. We investigated the influence of sample handling and found a standard procedure for blood collection, plasma preparation, and extraction was essential. The method was used to measure angiotensin I and II in rat and human plasma. In rat plasma, the mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of angiotensin I and angiotensin II were determined to be 67 (+/- 8) and 14 (+/- 1) pmol/L (n = 10), respectively. Neither angiotensin I nor angiotensin II was detectable 24 h after bilateral nephrectomy. Acute oral administration of the converting-enzyme inhibitor ramipril caused a significant increase of angiotensin I from 85 (+/- 6) to 257 (+/- 33) pmol/L (n = 10; P less than 0.001) and a significant decrease of angiotensin II from 12 (+/- 1) to 7 (+/- 0.4) pmol/L in rat plasma (n = 9; P less than 0.001). In human plasma, angiotensin I and angiotensin II values of 21 (+/- 1) and 6.6 (+/- 0.5) pmol/L (n = 10) were found. A single oral dose of the diuretic furosemide increased angiotensin I significantly from 21 (+/- 1) to 32 (+/- 1.7) pmol/L (n = 5); P less than 0.001), whereas angiotensin II remained unchanged, 6.6 (+/- 0.5) vs 6.4 (+/- 0.4) pmol/L (n = 5). Extracted peptides could be identified as (IIe5)-angiotensin I and (IIe5)-angiotensin II by HPLC in combination with specific radioimmunoassays for angiotensin I and angiotensin II.

  6. Characterization of Lorenz number with Seebeck coefficient measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hyun -Sik; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Tang, Yinglu; ...

    2015-04-01

    In analyzing zT improvements due to lattice thermal conductivity (κL ) reduction, electrical conductivity (σ) and total thermal conductivity (κTotal ) are often used to estimate the electronic component of the thermal conductivity (κE ) and in turn κL from κL = ~ κTotal - LσT. The Wiedemann-Franz law, κE = LσT, where L is Lorenz number, is widely used to estimate κE from σ measurements. It is a common practice to treat L as a universal factor with 2.44 × 10⁻⁸ WΩK⁻² (degenerate limit). However, significant deviations from the degenerate limit (approximately 40% or more for Kane bands) aremore » known to occur for non-degenerate semiconductors where L converges to 1.5 × 10⁻⁸ WΩK⁻² for acoustic phonon scattering. The decrease in L is correlated with an increase in thermopower (absolute value of Seebeck coefficient (S)). Thus, a first order correction to the degenerate limit of L can be based on the measured thermopower, |S|, independent of temperature or doping. We propose the equation: (where L is in 10⁻⁸ WΩK⁻² and S in μV/K) as a satisfactory approximation for L. This equation is accurate within 5% for single parabolic band/acoustic phonon scattering assumption and within 20% for PbSe, PbS, PbTe, Si₀.₈Ge₀.₂ where more complexity is introduced, such as non-parabolic Kane bands, multiple bands, and/or alternate scattering mechanisms. The use of this equation for L rather than a constant value (when detailed band structure and scattering mechanism is not known) will significantly improve the estimation of lattice thermal conductivity. L = 1.5 + exp [-|S|116]« less

  7. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-08-20

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area.

  8. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  9. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up.

  10. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  11. Characterization of Lorenz number with Seebeck coefficient measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sik; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Tang, Yinglu; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    In analyzing zT improvements due to lattice thermal conductivity (κ{sub L}) reduction, electrical conductivity (σ) and total thermal conductivity (κ{sub Total}) are often used to estimate the electronic component of the thermal conductivity (κ{sub E}) and in turn κ{sub L} from κ{sub L} = ∼ κ{sub Total} − LσT. The Wiedemann-Franz law, κ{sub E} = LσT, where L is Lorenz number, is widely used to estimate κ{sub E} from σ measurements. It is a common practice to treat L as a universal factor with 2.44 × 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} (degenerate limit). However, significant deviations from the degenerate limit (approximately 40% or more for Kane bands) are known to occur for non-degenerate semiconductors where L converges to 1.5 × 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} for acoustic phonon scattering. The decrease in L is correlated with an increase in thermopower (absolute value of Seebeck coefficient (S)). Thus, a first order correction to the degenerate limit of L can be based on the measured thermopower, |S|, independent of temperature or doping. We propose the equation: L=1.5+exp[−(|S|)/(116) ] (where L is in 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} and S in μV/K) as a satisfactory approximation for L. This equation is accurate within 5% for single parabolic band/acoustic phonon scattering assumption and within 20% for PbSe, PbS, PbTe, Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} where more complexity is introduced, such as non-parabolic Kane bands, multiple bands, and/or alternate scattering mechanisms. The use of this equation for L rather than a constant value (when detailed band structure and scattering mechanism is not known) will significantly improve the estimation of lattice thermal conductivity.

  12. Airborne lidar measurements for aerosol and cloud characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, S.; Wirth, M.; Schäfler, A.; Ewald, F.; Urbanek, B.; Kiemle, C.; Ehret, G.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorbing of solar and terrestrial radiation, and by influencing the transport of latent heat. In addition, aerosols can modify the cloud properties like their lifetime, thickness and radiative effect. Up to now a sufficient level of understanding of the climate impact of aerosols and clouds has not yet been achieved. The processes vary strongly in space and time, as sign and magnitude of the radiative forcing crucially depends on e.g. the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, the reflectance of the underlying surface and the microphysical properties. Furthermore these properties may vary due to mixing and aging processes of aerosols, the interaction of aerosols and clouds, as well as during the cloud's lifetime. Observations of aerosols and water vapor were performed with the airborne high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system WALES of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The system was operated onboard the German high altitude and long range research aircraft HALO during a number of flight experiments over Europe and over the tropical and extra-tropical North-Atlantic. These observations provide an ideal base to study aerosol and cloud properties, their variability and dependence on environmental conditions. Additionally, a cloud radar was employed on HALO during most of the campaigns allowing synergistic investigations of cloud properties. In our presentation we will give an overview of the WALES system and the performed campaigns, and we will show first results of airborne lidar measurements with focus on aerosol classification, the investigation of cirrus cloud properties, and the humidity distribution in the vicinity of clouds.

  13. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  14. The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare, Spring 2008 - Project 08-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Global Innovation and Strategy Center The Characterization and Measurement of Cyber Warfare Spring 2008 – Project 08-01 May 2008...and Measurement of Cyber Warfare N/A N/A N/A 08-01Dobitz, Kyle Haas, Brad Holtje, Michael Jokerst, Amanda Ochsner, Geoff Silva, Stephanie...research team as critical for purposes of cyber act characterization: Motivation, Intent, Target, Effects, and Actors. cyberspace, cyber warfare , targets

  15. Specific conductance measurements in central and western New York streams - A retrospective characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Sinclair, Gaylen J.; Reddy, James E.; Eckhardt, David A.; deVries, M. Peter; Phillips, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Rescue Program funds were used to recover data from paper records for 139 streamgages across central and western New York State; 6,133 different streamflow measurement forms, collected between 1970-80, contained field water-quality measurements. The water-quality data were entered, reviewed, and uploaded into the USGS National Water Information System. In total, 4,285 unique site visits were added to the database. The new values represent baseline water quality from which to measure change and will lead to a comparison of water-quality change over the last 40 years and into the future. Specific conductance was one of the measured properties and represents a simple way to determine if ambient inorganic water quality has been altered by anthropogenic (road salt runoff, wastewater discharges, or natural gas development) or natural sources. The objective of this report is to describe ambient specific conductance characteristics of surface water across the central and western part of New York. This report presents median specific conductance of stream discharge for the period 1970-80 and a description of the relation between specific conductance and concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database from 1955 to present. The data descriptions provide a baseline of surface-water specific conductance data that can used for comparison to current and future measurements in New York streams.

  16. Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-12

    PHOTO DATE: 5-12-11 LOCATION: Building 261 - Room 138 SUBJECT: Expedition 29 Preflight Training with Dan Burbank during Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection. WORK ORDER: 2011-1214 PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  17. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    These sensors were defined using basic unclassified information from several different sources [15] [16] [17]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal ...unclassified information from several different sources [19] [20] [21]. DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February...Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 – 27 – 5758-001 Version 01 platform from a couple of different perspectives

  18. Ask the experts: chromatographic baselines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; James, Christopher A; Scott, Rebecca; Woolf, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on chromatographic baseline assignment in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges presented with ensuring automated baseline assignment is correct, when reintegration is necessary, regulation and consistency in terminology. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into developing an industry consensus towards reintegration. An accompanying commentary article in this issue, authored by Howard Hill and colleagues (Huntingdon Life Sciences), provides background to this much debated topic.

  19. Characterization of Upper Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX using LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Linne, H.; Lammert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. We show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UTWV measurements.

  20. Characterization of upper troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, I.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Bosenberg, J.; Diskin, G.; Goldsmith, J.; Lesht, B.; Podolske, J.; Sachse, G.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Turner, D.; Whitemann, D.

    2002-07-15

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere (UT) water vapor measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. They show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UT water vapor measurements.

  1. Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods.

    PubMed

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Boxall, Alistair B A; Chaudhry, Qasim; Mølhave, Kristian; Tiede, Karen; Hofmann, Peter; Linsinger, Thomas P J

    2015-06-01

    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider replications and matrix removal prior to sample preparation.

  2. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  3. Statistical Analysis of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-11-10

    Policymakers are encouraging the development of standardized and consistent methods to quantify the electric load impacts of demand response programs. For load impacts, an essential part of the analysis is the estimation of the baseline load profile. In this paper, we present a statistical evaluation of the performance of several different models used to calculate baselines for commercial buildings participating in a demand response program in California. In our approach, we use the model to estimate baseline loads for a large set of proxy event days for which the actual load data are also available. Measures of the accuracy and bias of different models, the importance of weather effects, and the effect of applying morning adjustment factors (which use data from the day of the event to adjust the estimated baseline) are presented. Our results suggest that (1) the accuracy of baseline load models can be improved substantially by applying a morning adjustment, (2) the characterization of building loads by variability and weather sensitivity is a useful indicator of which types of baseline models will perform well, and (3) models that incorporate temperature either improve the accuracy of the model fit or do not change it.

  4. On the suitability of broadband attenuation measurement for characterizing contrast microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Dhiman; Sarkar, Kausik; Jain, Pankaj; Schreppler, Nathan E

    2005-06-01

    Broadband attenuation measurement has been widely used for characterizing ultrasound contrast agents. Chen et al. (2002) recently suggested that broadband attenuation data depend on the center frequency of the broadband excitation pulse and, therefore, that they are not a reliable measure of the bubble behavior. We investigated the suitability of measurement of broadband attenuation as a characterizing tool using the contrast agent Definity as a test case. Analyzing the attenuation data obtained with three broadband unfocused transducers with different center frequencies (2.25, 3.5 and 5 MHz), we found that attenuation is independent of the transducer used and matches in the overlap regions of any two transducers. Attenuation does not depend on excitation pressure amplitude as long as the excitation amplitude remains below a critical value ( approximately 0.26 MPa), indicating that the measurement of broadband attenuation below critical excitation can, indeed, be used for characterization. Furthermore, the linear relationship of attenuation with concentrations of Definity is also investigated.

  5. NIST micronutrients measurement quality assurance program: characterizing individual participant measurement performance over time.

    PubMed

    Duewer, D L; Kline, M C; Sharpless, K E; Thomas, J B; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Sowell, A L

    2000-08-01

    The mission of the Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program (M2QAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology is enhanced interlaboratory measurement comparability for fat-soluble vitamin-related measurands in human serum. We recently described improved tools for evaluating individual participant measurement performance in single interlaboratory comparison exercises; we here apply and extend these tools to the evaluation of participant performance over the entire 15-year history of the M2QAP. We describe and illustrate a set of interconnected graphical reporting tools for identifying long-term trends and single-exercise events. We document and discuss recurrent patterns we observe in the measurement performance characteristics for M2QAP participants. The graphical analysis techniques utilized may be applicable to other interlaboratory comparison programs.

  6. NIST micronutrients measurement quality assurance program: characterizing the measurement community's performance over time.

    PubMed

    Duewer, D L; Kline, M C; Sharpless, K E; Thomas, J B

    2000-09-01

    The Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program (M2QAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was created in 1984 with the goal of improving among-participant measurement comparability for fat-soluble vitamin-related compounds in human serum. We recently described improved tools for evaluating comparison exercise data; we here extend and apply these tools to the evaluation of the measurement community's performance over the entire 15-year history of the M2QAP. We here display measurement performance characteristics for the 14 measurands most commonly reported by the M2QAP community. We confirm that among-participant comparability for total beta-carotene cannot be much improved without improving average long-term within-participant measurement stability. We demonstrate that improved measurand definition and/or identification of interferences may help participants improve comparability for many of the M2QAP's other commonly reported measurands. The reported measurement performance characteristics may be of interest to clinical, nutritional, and epidemiological studies involving any of these measurands. The data analysis techniques utilized may be applicable to other programs.

  7. Characterizing the performance of the PTB line scale interferometer by measuring photoelectric incremental encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koening, Rainer; Fluegge, Jens; Bosse, Harald

    2005-08-01

    Until today one dimensional length comparators or line scale interferometers are used to realize and disseminate the unit of length. The performance of the vacuum length comparator of the PTB, the Nanometer Comparator, was characterized by measuring photoelectric incremental encoders. In some respects the measurements were used to optimize the performance of the instrument, e.g. with respect to its noise characteristics. The non-linearity of its vacuum interferometer could be determined to show an amplitude of 0.2 nm. The reproducibility of the measurement of an incremental encoder system with 280 mm measuring range was 0.3 nm. Currently, the relative expanded measurement uncertainty for the calibration of incremental encoder systems is in the range of 2x10-8. These results show that incremental encoders are well suited to characterize one dimensional length measuring machines.

  8. Vibrational mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy using a fiber laser probe: asymptotic limit in signal-to-baseline contrast.

    PubMed

    Totachawattana, Atcha; Liu, Hui; Mertiri, Alket; Hong, Mi K; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Sander, Michelle Y

    2016-01-01

    We report on a mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy system with a near-infrared fiber probe laser and a tunable quantum cascade pump laser. Photothermal spectra of a 6 μm-thick 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal sample are measured with a signal-to-baseline contrast above 103. As both the peak photothermal signal and the corresponding baseline increase linearly with probe power, the signal-to-baseline contrast converges to an asymptotic limit for a given pump power. This limit is independent of the probe power and characterizes the best contrast achievable for the system. This enables sensitive quantitative spectral characterization of linear infrared absorption features directly from photothermal spectroscopy measurements.

  9. Evaluation of Current Tropospheric Mapping Functions by Deep Space Network Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark III intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, though the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  10. Revisiting the BCS, a measurement system for characterizing the optics of solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. W.

    The Beam Characterization System is being employed at the Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility to characterize the optical performance of heliostats, point-focus solar collectors, and their optical sub-elements as part of the on-going task to develop solar thermal technologies. With this measurement system, images of concentrated solar flux are acquired using digital imaging and processed to obtain such measures of the collector's optical performance as beam power, flux distribution, and beam diameter. Key system elements are a diffusely reflective target for imaging collector beams, meteorological instrumentation including a flux gauge to measure flux at one point in the beam, and a calibration technique to establish a pixel-intensity to flux-density conversion factor for the image. The system is employed in a variety of collector tests such as beam quality, tracking error, and wind effects. The paper describes the Beam Characterization System and its components and presents, for illustration, sample test results. An analysis of the Beam Characterization System's sources of measurement error is presented. Lastly, measurement techniques that employ the BCS to align heliostats and to measure or estimate collector surface slope errors are described.

  11. Baseline Report on HB2320

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  12. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    registers in which the main spike of the MUAP occupies the central position) [1]; or else just give the BL a zero level (system ground). We regard...a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC

  13. Redox characterization of semiconductors based on electrochemical measurements combined with UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Świętek, Elżbieta; Pilarczyk, Kacper; Derdzińska, Justyna; Szaciłowski, Konrad; Macyk, Wojciech

    2013-09-14

    Several techniques can be applied to characterize redox properties of wide bandgap semiconductors, however some of them are of limited use. In this paper we propose a new modification of the old spectroelectrochemical method developed two decades ago. A procedure based on measurements of the reflectance changes as a function of potential applied to the electrode coated with the studied material appears to be a very convenient tool for characterizing redox properties of semiconductors, forming either transparent or opaque films at a platinum electrode. A discussion on the measured redox parameters of semiconductor films concludes with a definition of a new term, the absorption onset potential of the material.

  14. CO2 Isotopes and Elemental Carbon Measurements in air Samples at Canadian Baseline Stations: Can Human Impacts on Atmospheric CO2 be Detected and Quantified via an Integrated Approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Sharma, S.; Chan, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Worthy, D.; Tans, P.; Sweeney, C.; Brook, J.; Chan, T.; Leaitch, R.

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and quantifying human induced CO2 and other air pollutants are important in air quality as well as in carbon cycle related climate research, particularly for addressing the issue of the continued increase of atmospheric CO2. It is known that isotope compositions are widely used as tracers in source identifications and attributions for atmospheric CO2. Due to a long life time (about 200 years) of CO2 and its exchanges with natural systems, the signal of human induced CO2 and its carbon isotopic compositions in the atmosphere is small. It is very challenging to quantify its impact within an accepted range of uncertainty at global/regional scales. Thus, the requirements for the precision and accuracy in CO2 and related tracers measurements, including its stable isotope, are very rigid. At the same time, measuring multi- species together with CO2, has been strongly recommended by the global carbon cycle research community. Elemental carbon or black carbon (EC or BC) in fine carbonaceous particulate matter (PM2.5μm) is an important air pollutant as well as a key player in climate change. Similar to CO2, EC is also called as greenhouse aerosol, absorbing light and warming the atmosphere. Since it is coemitted with CO2 from fossil fuel combustions and biomass burning, tracking the spatial and temporal distributions of EC may provide valuable insight to those emission sources/transport mechanisms. Having a short atmospheric life time (7-10 days), the atmospheric EC is sensitive to the emission strength of those related sources (i.e., fossil fuel combustions and biomass burning). Thus, with a combination of EC with CO2 and its isotope measurements, it is expected to provide independent constraints for detecting and quantifying the human induced CO2 at regional scales. In this talk, an integrated data set of CO2 concentration, CO2 isotopes (with a focus on δ13C) and EC measurements in fine PM at Canadian baseline sites will be presented. Those measurements have

  15. Baseline Graphite Initial Mechanical Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Carroll; Randy Lloyd

    2009-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. One of the major fundamental objectives of the project is establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing of

  16. Baseline Factors Predictive of SLT Response: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Robin; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the response to Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) according to baseline medical treatment, angle pigmentation, age, diagnosis (open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension), and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods. 74 eyes of 74 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline characteristics were recorded for each patient. IOP in the treated and fellow eyes was measured at baseline, and 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months following SLT. IOP changes in the different groups were compared using two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results. The mean age of our cohort was 71 ± 10 years. The mean baseline IOP was 21.5 ± 5 mmHg, and the mean change in IOP from baseline in the treated eye at one year was -4.67 ± 3.40 mmHg. Higher baseline IOP was highly correlated with greater absolute IOP decrease. Prostaglandin analogue use at baseline was shown to be associated with a statistically decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT when corrected for baseline IOP. No significant differences in IOP response were found when comparing groups stratified for age, angle pigmentation, phakic status, gender, or diagnosis. Discussion. The results of this study confirm the finding that higher baseline IOP is a predictor of greater IOP response following SLT, and that pretreatment with prostaglandin analogue therapy is associated with a decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT. The study is limited by the small number of eyes with data available for complete case analysis.

  17. Additional comments on multiple-baseline designs in instructional research.

    PubMed

    Strain, P S; Shores, R E

    1979-11-01

    A number of measurement and design issues that are critical to the use of multiple-baseline procedures in evaluating instructional interventions were highlighted. First, issues related to the interaction between length of baseline assessment and the following outcomes were presented: (a) deceleration in behavior across baseline, (b) prediction of behavior change, (c) error analyses performance on instructional stimuli, and (d) reactivity of observation. Finally, an attempt was made to match the variety of multiple-baseline designs to specific questions often asked by instructional researchers.

  18. Measurement setup and protocol for characterizing and testing radio frequency personal exposure meters.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Oliver; Neubauer, Georg; Röösli, Martin; Riederer, Markus; Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Body-worn radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) personal exposure meters (PEMs) have been increasingly used for exposure assessment in epidemiological research. However, little research on the measurement accuracy of these devices is available. In this article a novel measurement setup and a measurement protocol are presented for characterizing and testing PEMs. The whole setup and procedure is tested using two EME SPY 120 devices. The performance of the PEM was analyzed for absolute measurements in an anechoic chamber. Modulated signals representing the different services as real signals generated by appropriate testers were used. Measurement results were evaluated with respect to a root mean square detector. We found that measurement accuracy depends strongly on the carrier frequency and also on the number of occupied time slots for Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-based services. Thus, correction factors can only be derived if the distribution of the network configuration over the measurement time for all measurement points is available. As a result of the simplicity of the measurement setup and the straightforward measurement protocol, the possibility of fast validation leads to a higher accuracy in the characterization and testing of PEMs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  20. Noise and artifact characterization of in vivo Raman spectroscopy skin measurements.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Elías, Miguel G; Alda, Javier; González, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    In this work principal component analysis (PCA), a multivariate pattern recognition technique, is used to characterize the noise contribution of the experimental apparatus and two commonly used methods for fluorescence removal used in biomedical Raman spectroscopy measurements. These two methods are a fifth degree polynomial fitting and an iterative variation of it commonly known as the Vancouver method. The results show that the noise in Raman spectroscopy measurements is related to the spectral resolution of the measurement equipment, the intrinsic variability of the biological measurements, and the fluorescence removal algorithm used.

  1. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  2. Large short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν¯μ→ν¯e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν¯e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν¯μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν¯e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν¯μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin⁡22ϑμμ≳0.1 for short-baseline ν¯μ disappearance generated by 0.2≲Δm2≲1eV2, which could be measured in future experiments.

  3. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  4. A measurement system for the photoelectric and electrical characterization of modern semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskorski, K.; Niemiec, M.; Borowicz, L.; Przewlocki, H. M.

    2017-05-01

    In this article a universal system for photoelectric measurements (USPM) is described, with several subsystems allowing comprehensive characterization of various semiconductor devices, primarily MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) structures. MOS structures are fundamental components of all modern integrated circuits and the key parameters of these structures can be determined by several electrical and photoelectric techniques. In particular, photoelectric investigations are very important and useful in the characterization of micro- and nanoelectronic semiconductor devices since they offer very accurate and reproducible measurements of important electric parameters, e.g. barrier heights on interfaces of multilayered structures. In the case of integrated circuits with structures of nm aerial dimensions, photoelectric measurements have to be made on test structures with larger aerial dimensions, accompanying the integrated circuits, since the minimum diameter of the light beam used is in the range of micrometers. The USPM system has been designed and built in our laboratory and allows very precise and sensitive measurements to be taken.

  5. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  6. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  8. Computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for material property characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    Instrumentation and computer programming concepts that were developed for ultrasonic materials characterization are described. Methods that facilitate velocity and attenuation measurements are outlined. The apparatus described is based on a broadband, buffered contact probe using a pulse-echo approach for simultaneously measuring velocity and attenuation. Instrumentation, specimen condition, and signal acquisition and acceptance criteria are discussed. Typical results with some representative materials are presented.

  9. Computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for material property characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    This report deals with instrumentation and computer programming concepts that have been developed for ultrasonic materials characterization. Methods that facilitate velocity and attenuation measurements are described. The apparatus described is based on a broadband, buffered contact probe using a pulse-echo approach for simultaneously measuring velocity and attenuation. Instrumentation, specimen condition, and signal acquisition and acceptance criteria are discussed. Typical results with some representative materials are presented.

  10. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  11. How accurately will SWOT measurements be able to characterize river discharge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, M.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Andreadis, K.; Clark, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is a swath mapping radar altimeter that would provide new measurements of inland water surface elevation (WSE) for rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs. SWOT has been recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey to measure ocean topography as well as WSE over land; the proposed launch date timeframe is between 2013 - 2016. SWOT WSE estimates would provide a source of information for characterizing streamflow globally. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of river discharge estimates obtained from SWOT measurements over the Ohio River and eight of its major tributaries within the context of a virtual mission (VM). SWOT VM measurements are obtained by simulation from the hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD, using USGS streamflow gages as boundary conditions and validation data. SWOT measurements are then input into an algorithm to obtain estimates of discharge variations. The algorithm is based on Manning's equation, in which river width and slope are obtained from SWOT, roughness is estimated a priori. Three different algorithms are used to estimate depth. SWOT discharge estimates are compared to the discharge simulated by LISFLOOD. In this way, we are able to characterize the accuracy of SWOT estimates of instantaneous discharge. More specifically, we characterize how SWOT accuracy varies as a function of the river characteristics and contributing area, such as Strahler order. More accurate depth and discharge estimates can be obtained by data assimilation, but will be more computationally expensive.

  12. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  13. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  14. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  15. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential

  16. Approach for environmental baseline water sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the exploration phase of mining represent baseline conditions at the site. As such, they can be very important in forecasting potential environmental impacts should mining proceed, and can become measurements against which future changes are compared. Constituents in stream water draining mined and mineralized areas tend to be geochemically, spatially, and temporally variable, which presents challenges in collecting both exploration and baseline water-quality samples. Because short-term (daily) variations can complicate long-term trends, it is important to consider recent findings concerning geochemical variability of stream-water constituents at short-term timescales in designing sampling plans. Also, adequate water-quality information is key to forecasting potential ecological impacts from mining. Therefore, it is useful to collect baseline water samples adequate tor geochemical and toxicological modeling. This requires complete chemical analyses of dissolved constituents that include major and minor chemical elements as well as physicochemical properties (including pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen) and dissolved organic carbon. Applying chemical-equilibrium and appropriate toxicological models to water-quality information leads to an understanding of the speciation, transport, sequestration, bioavailability, and aquatic toxicity of potential contaminants. Insights gained from geochemical and toxicological modeling of water-quality data can be used to design appropriate mitigation and for economic planning for future mining activities.

  17. Characterization of a measurement reference standard and neutron fluence determination method in IRSN monoenergetic neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressier, V.; Lacoste, V.; Martin, A.; Pepino, M.

    2014-10-01

    The variation in the response of instruments with neutron energy has to be determined in well-characterized monoenergetic neutron fields. The quantities associated with these fields are the neutron fluence and the mean energy of the monoenergetic neutron peak needed to determine the related dosimetric quantities. At the IRSN AMANDE facility, the reference measurement standard for neutron fluence is based on a long counter calibrated in the IRSN reference 252Cf neutron field. In this paper, the final characterization of this device is presented as well as the method used to determine the reference fluence at the calibration point in monoenergetic neutron fields.

  18. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  19. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; ...

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  20. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  1. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  2. Need for Standardization of EBSD Measurements for Microstructural Characterization of Thin Film Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Geiss, Roy H.; Read, David T.

    2007-09-26

    Microstructural characterization of metal thin films includes measurement of grain size, crystallographic texture and misorientation angle across grain boundaries. All of these measurements can be made simultaneously by the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope. The use of EBSD measurements to characterize microstructure requires the collection and analysis of thousands of individual diffraction patterns, and the extraction of statistical quantities of interest from the data set. The results depend on the particular analytical procedures used. Since the grains in interconnect structures are often much smaller than those in bulk materials, the measurement and reporting protocols require adaptation of procedures developed for bulk materials. Here we demonstrate results from a specific procedure for collecting and analyzing EBSD data on electrodeposited copper films. We show that without careful controls, the apparent grain size can vary by a factor of two or more, and the time required to acquire the data can differ by hours. The demonstrated practical advantages of EBSD over previously available techniques and the severe effect of experimental parameters on the results support the need for standardization of the methods used for microstructural characterization by use of EBSD.

  3. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  4. Non-invasive characterization of fluid foodstuffs based on ultrasonic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2004-07-01

    The food industry can benefit from a highly sensitive, non-invasive, self-calibrating, on-line sensor for characterizing liquid or slurry in process vessels during mixing, settling, stationary, or flowing conditions by measuring the density, sound speed, and attenuation of ultrasound. The sensor system was developed by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The sensor transducers are mounted directly on the stainless steel wall and the pipeline wall becomes part of the measurement system. Multiple reflections within the stainless steel wall are used to determine the acoustic impedance of the liquid, where the acoustic impedance is defined as the product of the density and the speed of sound. The probe becomes self-calibrating because variations in the pulser voltage do not affect the measurements. By basing the measurement upon multiple reflections, the sensitivity of the measurement is significantly increased

  5. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  7. Agricultural Baseline (BL0) scenario

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000181319328); Hellwinckel, Chad M [University of Tennessee] (ORCID:0000000173085058); Eaton, Laurence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000312709626); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000228159350); Brandt, Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000214707379); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000281537154)

    2016-07-13

    Scientific reason for data generation: to serve as the reference case for the BT16 volume 1 agricultural scenarios. The agricultural baseline runs from 2015 through 2040; a starting year of 2014 is used. Date the data set was last modified: 02/12/2016 How each parameter was produced (methods), format, and relationship to other data in the data set: simulation was developed without offering a farmgate price to energy crops or residues (i.e., building on both the USDA 2015 baseline and the agricultural census data (USDA NASS 2014). Data generated are .txt output files by year, simulation identifier, county code (1-3109). Instruments used: POLYSYS (version POLYS2015_V10_alt_JAN22B) supplied by the University of Tennessee APAC The quality assurance and quality control that have been applied: • Check for negative planted area, harvested area, production, yield and cost values. • Check if harvested area exceeds planted area for annuals. • Check FIPS codes.

  8. Measurement of fish movements at depths to 6000 m using a deep-ocean lander incorporating a short base-line sonar utilizing miniature code-activated transponder technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, P. M.; Bradley, S.; Priede, I. G.; Gray, P.

    1999-12-01

    Most research on animal behaviour in the deep ocean (to depths of 6000 m) is restricted to the capture of dead specimens or viewing activity over small areas of the sea floor by means of cameras or submersibles. This paper describes the use of a miniature acoustic code-activated transponder (CAT) tag and short base-line sonar to track the movements of deep-sea fish in two dimensions over an area 1 km in diameter centred on a lander platform. The CAT tags and sonar are transported to the deep-sea floor by means of a subsea mooring which is ballasted so that it lands and remains on the sea floor for the duration of the tracking experiment (the lander). A description of the CAT, lander and short base-line sonar is given. Results are presented to illustrate the operation of the system.

  9. Characterization of Solid Liquid Suspensions Utilizing Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Panetta, P.D.; Tucker, B.; Ahmed, S.; Pappas, R.A.

    2004-03-31

    Rapid, on-line characterization of the particle size and concentration of moderate to highly concentrated slurries is required for efficient waste remediation at the DOE complexes. This paper discusses the advancements achieved under the Environmental Management Science Program to accurately characterize high-level waste at the high concentrations expected at the DOE complexes. In addition, the results are applicable to efficient process measurement and control in many chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Existing methods for determining the particle size and concentration of non-dilute slurries based on ultrasonic attenuation can become inaccurate due to the complex interactions of ultrasonic waves with the constituents of the slurries and the necessity for very careful transducer alignment. Two measurements that help to overcome these difficulties are the ultrasonic backscattering and diffuse field. The backscattering measurement is attractive because viscous, thermal and inertial effects have small contributions to the backscattering. In addition, the backscattering theories are simpler than attenuation theories and lend themselves to more stable inversion processes. Furthermore, the measurements of backscattering measurement do not require long travel distances and can be made with a single transducer thus eliminating alignment problems. We will present ultrasonic measurements and theoretical comparisons on solid liquid suspensions designed to elucidate the particle size and concentration at high concentration relevant to the high level waste at the DOE complexes.

  10. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow baseline and suppressor nozzles. Volume 1: Noise source locations and extrapolation of static free-field jet noise data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Boeing Large Anechoic Chamber to determine static jet noise source locations of six baseline and suppressor nozzle models, and establish a technique for extrapolating near field data into the far field. The test covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K.

  11. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  12. New methodology to baseline and match AME polysilicon etcher using advanced diagnostic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, James; Shipman, John; Reinhardt, Barbara E.; Roussel, Myriam; Hedgecock, Raymond; Fonda, Arturo

    1999-09-01

    As process controls tighten in the semiconductor industry, the need to understand the variables that determine system performance become more important. For plasma etch systems, process success depends on the control of key parameters such as: vacuum integrity, pressure, gas flows, and RF power. It is imperative to baseline, monitor, and control these variables. This paper presents an overview of the methods and tools used by Motorola BMC fabrication facility to characterize an Applied Materials polysilicon etcher. Tool performance data obtained from our traditional measurement techniques are limited in their scope and do not provide a complete picture of the ultimate tool performance. Presently the BMC traditional characterization tools provide a snapshot of the static operation of the equipment under test (EUT); however, complete evaluation of the dynamic performance cannot be monitored without the aid of specialized diagnostic equipment. To provide us with a complete system baseline evaluation of the polysilicon etcher, three diagnostic tools were utilized: Lucas Labs Vacuum Diagnostic System, Residual Gas Analyzer, and the ENI Voltage/Impedance Probe. The diagnostic methodology used to baseline and match key parameters of qualified production equipment has had an immense impact on other equipment characterization in the facility. It has resulted in reduced cycle time for new equipment introduction as well.

  13. Characterizing Geothermal Surface Manifestation Based on Multivariate Geostatistics of Ground Measurements Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaq; Nur Heriawan, Mohamad; Saepuloh, Asep

    2016-09-01

    Mt. Wayang Windu is one of geothermal field located in West Java, Indonesia. The characterization of steam spots at surface manifestation zones based on the soil physical measurements of the area is presented in this study. The multivariate geostatistical methods incorporating the soil physical parameter data were used to characterize the zonation of geothermal surface manifestations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of spatial estimation method of multivariate geostatistics using Ordinary Cokriging (COK) to characterize the physical properties of geothermal surface manifestations at Mt. Wayang Windu. The COK method was selected because this method is favorable when the secondary variables has more number than the primary variables. There are four soil physical parameters used as the basis of COK method, i.e. Electrical Conductivity, Susceptibility, pH, and Temperature. The parameters were measured directly at and around geothermal surface manifestations including hot springs, fumaroles, and craters. Each location of surface manifestations was measured about 30 points with 30 x 30 m grids. The measurement results were analyzed by descriptive statistics to identify at the nature of data. The correlation among variables was analyzed using linear regression. When the correlation coefficient among variables is higher, the estimation results is expected to have better Linear Coregionalization Model (LCM). LCM was used to analyze the spatial correlation of each variable based on their variogram and cross-variogram model. In oder to evaluate the performance of multivariate geostatistical using COK method, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was performed. Estimation result using COK method is well applicable for characterizing the surface physics parameters of radar images data.

  14. Some characterizations of local bmo and h 1 on metric measure spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafni, Galia; Yue, Hong

    2012-09-01

    We study, in the setting of a doubling metric measure space, the local bmo space and Hardy space h 1 defined by Goldberg. We state a John-Nirenberg type inequality for the local bmo space and give two proofs, via a good-lambda inequality and via duality. We also prove the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function from bmo to bmo. Finally, we give characterizations of bmo and h 1 using alternative mean-oscillation and moment conditions.

  15. Characterizing Learning by Simultaneous Analysis of Continuous and Binary Measures of Performance

    PubMed Central

    Prerau, M. J.; Smith, A. C.; Eden, Uri T.; Kubota, Y.; Yanike, M.; Suzuki, W.; Graybiel, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous observations, such as reaction and run times, and binary observations, such as correct/incorrect responses, are recorded routinely in behavioral learning experiments. Although both types of performance measures are often recorded simultaneously, the two have not been used in combination to evaluate learning. We present a state-space model of learning in which the observation process has simultaneously recorded continuous and binary measures of performance. We use these performance measures simultaneously to estimate the model parameters and the unobserved cognitive state process by maximum likelihood using an approximate expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. We introduce the concept of a reaction-time curve and reformulate our previous definitions of the learning curve, the ideal observer curve, the learning trial and between-trial comparisons of performance in terms of the new model. We illustrate the properties of the new model in an analysis of a simulated learning experiment. In the simulated data analysis, simultaneous use of the two measures of performance provided more credible and accurate estimates of the learning than either measure analyzed separately. We also analyze two actual learning experiments in which the performance of rats and of monkeys was tracked across trials by simultaneously recorded reaction and run times and the correct and incorrect responses. In the analysis of the actual experiments, our algorithm gave a straightforward, efficient way to characterize learning by combining continuous and binary measures of performance. This analysis paradigm has implications for characterizing learning and for the more general problem of combining different data types to characterize the properties of a neural system. PMID:19692505

  16. First GPS baseline results from the North Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Neilan, Ruth E.; Ropain, Clemente

    1990-01-01

    The CASA Uno GPS experiment (January-February 1988) has provided the first epoch baseline measurements for the study of plate motions and crustal deformation in and around the North Andes. Two dimensional horizontal baseline repeatabilities are as good as 5 parts in 10 to the 8th for short baselines (100-1000 km), and better than 3 parts in 10 to the 8th for long baselines (greater than 1000 km). Vertical repeatabilities are typically 4-6 cm, with a weak dependence on baseline length. The expected rate of plate convergence across the Colombia Trench is 6-8cm/yr, which should be detectable by the repeat experiment planned for 1991. Expected deformation rates within the North Andes are of the order of 1 cm/yr, which may be detectable with the 1991 experiment.

  17. Characterization of Generalized Gradient Young Measures Generated by Sequences in W1,1 and BV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Jan; Rindler, Filip

    2010-08-01

    Generalized Young measures as introduced by DiPerna and Majda (Commun Math Phys 108:667-689, 1987) provide a quantitative tool for studying the one-point statistics of oscillation and concentration in sequences of functions. In this work, after developing a functional-analytic framework for such measures, including a compactness theorem and results on the generation of such Young measures by L1-bounded sequences (or even by sequences of bounded Radon measures), we turn to investigation of those Young measures that are generated by bounded sequences of W1,1-gradients or BV-derivatives. We provide several techniques to manipulate such measures (including shifting, averaging and approximation by piecewise-homogeneous Young measures) and then establish the main new result of this work, the duality characterization of the set of (BV- or W1,1-)gradient Young measures in terms of Jensen-type inequalities for quasiconvex functions with linear growth at infinity. This result is the natural generalization of the Kinderlehrer-Pedregal Theorem (Arch Ration Mech Anal 115:329-365, 1991; J Geom Anal 4:59-90, 1994) for classical Young measures to the W1,1- and BV-case and contains its version for weakly converging sequences in W1,1 as a special case. Finally, we give an application to a new lower semicontinuity theorem in BV.

  18. Interplanetary navigation using a continental baseline large antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeberle, Dennis W.; Spencer, David B.; Ely, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    Navigation is a key component of interplanetary missions and must continue to be precise with the changing landscape of antenna design. Improvements for the Deep Space Network (DSN) may include the use of antenna arrays to simulate the power of a larger single antenna at much lower operating and construction costs. Therefore, it is necessary to test the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of arrayed antennas from a navigational point-of-view. This initial investigation focuses on the performance of delta one-way range measurements using a shorter baseline with more data collection then current systems use. With all other parameter equal, the longer the baseline, the better the accuracy for navigation making the number of data packets very important. This trade study compares baseline distances ranging from 1 to 1000km with an in use baseline, looking at a due east baseline, a due north baseline at 45 degrees East of North. The precision of the baseline systems can be found through a simulated created for this purpose using the Jet Propulsion Lab based Monte navigation and mission design tool. The simulation combines the delta one-way range measurements with two-range and two-way Doppler measurements and puts the measurements through a Kalman filter to determine an orbit solution. Noise is added along with initial errors to give the simulation realism. This study is an important step towards the assessment of the utility of arrays for navigational purposes. The preliminary results have showed a decrease in reliability as the baseline is shortened but the larger continental baselines show comparable results t that of the current Goldstone to Canberra.

  19. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-10-15

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  20. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionigi, F.; Nielsen, M. G.; Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.

    2013-10-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ˜0.4 and ˜4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  1. Metrological characterization of a large aperture Fizeau for x-ray mirrors measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.61025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth). Due to the very short wavelength and very high pulse energy, all the mirrors need to have high quality surface, to be very long, and at the same time to implement an effective cooling system. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mounts, we equipped a Metrology Laboratory with a Large Aperture Fizeau. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been done in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. In this report, we show the preparation of the instrument, the calibration and the performance characterization, together with some preliminary results. We also describe the approach that we want to follow for the x-rays mirrors measurements. The final goal will be to characterize very long mirrors, almost 1 meter long, with nanometer accuracy.

  2. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, F; Nielsen, M G; Pedersen, T; Hansen, O; Chorkendorff, I; Vesborg, P C K

    2013-10-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ~0.4 and ~4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  3. Optical Characterization and Guided Wave Loss Measurements for End- Capped 6F-Polybenzoxazole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    AD-A274 586 WL-TR-93-4098 OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND GUIDED WAVE LOSS MEASUREMENTS FOR END-CAPPED 6F- POLYBENZOXAZOLE ANGELA L. MCPHERSON JEFFERY W...MEASUREMENTS FOR END-CAPPED 6F- POLYBENZOXAZOLE PE 61102 PR 2305 6. AUTHOR(S) TA F0 ANGELA L. MCPHERSON WU FJ JEFFERY W. BAUR 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...sopropylidene- polybenzoxazole (6F-PBO), became a primary candidate. Having been synthesized by various methods approximately 25 years ago5 -9

  4. Design, construction, characterization and use of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, A. C.; Félix, J.

    2016-10-01

    In the study of cosmic rays, measurements of time of flight and momentum have been used to identify incident particles from its physical properties, like mass. In this poster we present the design, construction, characterization, and operation of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays. The device is comprised of three plates of plastic scintillator arranged in vertical straight line, they are coupled to one photomultiplier tube. The analogical output has been connected to a data acquisition system to obtain the number of digital pulses per millisecond. We present preliminary results.

  5. Computational characterization of cutoff probe system for the measurement of electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Byung-Keun; Kim, Dae-Woong; Kwon, Jun-Hyuk; Chang, Hong-Young; Kim, Jung-Hyung; You, Shin-Jae

    2012-05-15

    The wave cutoff probe, a precise measurement method for measuring the electron density, was recently proposed. To characterize the cutoff probe system, in this paper, the microwave simulations of a cutoff probe system were performed at various configurations of the cutoff probe system. The influence of the cutoff probe spectrum stemming from numerous parametric elements such as the probe tip length, probe tip distance, probe tip plane orientation, chamber volume/geometry, and coaxial cable length is presented and discussed. This article is expected to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into cutoff probe systems and its optimization process.

  6. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  7. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  9. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: a combined measurement and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Canney, Michael S; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2008-10-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24,000 W/cm(2). The inputs to a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W/cm(2), lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields.

  10. Nonlinear propagation effects on broadband attenuation measurements and its implications for ultrasonic tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    D'hooge, J; Bijnens, B; Nuyts, J; Gorce, J M; Friboulet, D; Thoen, J; Van de Werf, F; Suetens, P

    1999-08-01

    A study is presented in which the influence of the pressure amplitude of the incident pulse on the estimated frequency dependency of the attenuation coefficient is shown. First, the effect is demonstrated with a simple theoretical model for both transmission and reflection measurements. Simulations show that for both measurement techniques a high-amplitude incident pulse results in a biased estimate of the attenuation coefficient due to nonlinear interaction of the different frequency components of the incident pulse. It is shown that in transmission and reflection measurements the biases have opposite signs. The effect of bandwidth, central frequency, and phase of the incident pulse on this bias is investigated. Second, the effect is demonstrated both in vitro, using a broadband through-transmission substitution technique on a tissue mimicking gelatine phantom, and in vivo, using reflection measurements with standard clinical equipment. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical model. The relevance of this study for ultrasonic tissue characterization is shown.

  11. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    PubMed

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  12. Characterization of Alpha Contamination in Lanthanum Trichloride Scintillators Using Coincidence Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Runkle, Robert C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kaye, William R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-08-01

    The commercial availability of LaCl3:Ce scintillators has been much anticipated due to their significantly lower resolution relative to NaI(Tl). Our investigation of these scintillators in regards to the effect of their improved resolution for coincidence gamma-ray measurement applications revealed that the scintillators had a large, internal alpha contamination affecting the gamma-ray energy range from 1700-3000 keV. One passive method of identifying contaminants relies on exploiting coincident signatures. Aided by a coincidence lookup library developed at PNNL, we determined that the parent contaminant is Ac-227 via an alpha-gamma coincidence measurement. In this paper, we characterize the level of contamination and describe our coincidence measurement technique. The Ac-227 concentration was approximately 0.13 ppt. We demonstrate that this coincidence technique measures minimum detectable activities much lower than singles gamma-ray spectroscopy. We also discuss gamma- and beta-contamination in these scintillators.

  13. Validity and Reliability of Baseline Testing in a Standardized Environment.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Caze, Todd; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-08-11

    The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol on the reliability and performance validity of athletes' baseline test scores on ImPACT by comparing scores obtained in two different group-testing settings. Three hundred-sixty one Division 1 cohort-matched collegiate athletes' baseline data were assessed using a variety of indicators of potential performance invalidity; internal reliability was also examined. Thirty-one to thirty-nine percent of the baseline cases had at least one indicator of low performance validity, but there were no significant differences in validity indicators based on environment in which the testing was conducted. Internal consistency reliability scores were in the acceptable to good range, with no significant differences between administration conditions. These results suggest that athletes may be reliably performing at levels lower than their best effort would produce.

  14. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 1: Measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization.

    PubMed

    Belli, Renan; Wendler, Michael; de Ligny, Dominique; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Petschelt, Anselm; Peterlik, Herwig; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the mechanical behavior of dental restorative materials requires an insight into the materials elastic constants and microstructure. Here we aim to use complementary methodologies to thoroughly characterize chairside CAD/CAM materials and discuss the benefits and limitations of different analytical strategies. Eight commercial CAM/CAM materials, ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Elastic constants were evaluated using three methods: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), Resonant Beam Technique (RBT) and Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (PE). The microstructures were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Young's modulus (E), Shear modulus (G), Bulk modulus (B) and Poisson's ratio (ν) were obtained for each material. E and ν reached values ranging from 10.9 (Lava Ultimate) to 201.4 (e.max ZirCAD) and 0.173 (Empress CAD) to 0.47 (Lava Ultimate), respectively. RUS showed to be the most complex and reliable method, while the PE method the easiest to perform but most unreliable. All dynamic methods have shown limitations in measuring the elastic constants of materials showing high damping behavior (hybrid materials). SEM images, Raman spectra and XRD patterns were made available for each material, showing to be complementary tools in the characterization of their crystal phases. Here different methodologies are compared for the measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization of CAD/CAM restorative materials. The elastic properties and crystal phases of eight materials are herein fully characterized. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials

  15. Characterizing and Filling Data Gaps in ARM Measurements for Carbon Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. A.; Hargrove, W. W.; Jager, H. I.; Brandt, C. C.; Hanan, N.

    2003-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data archive includes many of the measurements needed by carbon modelers to predict carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, but data gaps limit the use of ARM data as input for simulation models. Because the DOE ARM Program records actual measurements, circumstances unavoidably arise when instrument and storage failures create gaps in the temporal stream of measurements. Most temporal gaps are short in duration and affect only one or a few related parameters. However, some rare failures, such as wide-area power outages or ice storms, occasionally affect many measurement streams at one or more ARM facilities simultaneously. We have statistically characterized the frequency of univariate temporal gap lengths in various ARM measurements, and have devised approaches for filling such data gaps in space and time. To make ARM measurements suitable as model input, we identified and eliminated outliers, removed values with known QA problems, aggregated the measurements to an appropriate temporal scale (hours), and filled gaps in the data record using univariate imputation methods across time and space. We have prepared a set of hourly aggregated, gap-filled products from ARM SIRS and SMOS data collected at the SGP site from 1996 through 2001. These products were designed to facilitate the use of ARM measurements as climate drivers for carbon simulations. In cases where no raw data were available, we imputed a replacement value from adjacent hours or sites. ARM measurements differed widely in predictability. Temperature and vapor pressure were easiest to impute, but precipitation was a challenge. Shortwave radiation was more difficult to impute than longwave radiation. Successful imputation created reasonable values and patterns that were indistinguishable from the surrounding measurements. The difficulty of imputation for each measurement could help prioritize instrument repair and operational triage during data collection.

  16. Characterizing GEO Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-Based and Telescopic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Heather; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Reyes, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while the Transtage fragmented a third time in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in low Earth orbit. To better assess and characterize these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that it was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to continue material analysis and historical documentation. The Transtage has undergone two separate spectral measurement campaigns to characterize the reflectance spectroscopy of historical aerospace materials. These data have been incorporated into the NASA Spectral Database, with the goal of using telescopic data comparisons for potential material identification. A Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system scan also has been completed and a scale model has been created for use in the Optical Measurement Center (OMC) for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An historical overview of the Titan IIIC Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment will be discussed in the subsequent presentation.

  17. Optical Characterization of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injector for Gas Turbine Combustors: Velocity and Fuel Drop Size Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a multipoint, lean direct injection (MP-LDI) strategy for low emission aero-propulsion systems has been tested in a Jet-A fueled, lean flame tube combustion rig. Operating conditions for the series of tests included inlet air temperatures between 672 and 828 K, pressures between 1034 and 1379 kPa and total equivalence ratios between 0.41 and 0.45, resulting in equilibrium flame temperatures approaching 1800 K. Ranges of operation were selected to represent the spectrum of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions projected for the next-generation of commercial aircraft. This document reports laser-based measurements of in situ fuel velocities and fuel drop sizes for the NASA 9-point LDI hardware arranged in a 3 3 square grid configuration. Data obtained represent a region of the flame tube combustor with optical access that extends 38.1-mm downstream of the fuel injection site. All data were obtained within reacting flows, without particle seeding. Two diagnostic methods were employed to evaluate the resulting flow path. Three-component velocity fields have been captured using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), and two-component velocity distributions using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data from these techniques have also offered insight into fuel drop size and distribution, fuel injector spray angle and pattern, turbulence intensity, degree of vaporization and extent of reaction. This research serves to characterize operation of the baseline NASA 9- point LDI strategy for potential use in future gas-turbine combustor applications. An additional motive is the compilation of a comprehensive database to facilitate understanding of combustor fuel injector aerodynamics and fuel vaporization processes, which in turn may be used to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC), among others.

  18. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Yu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Ying-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture.

  19. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  20. Design and characterization of a versatile reference instrument for rapid, reproducible specular gloss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jian; Noel, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne

    2005-08-01

    A reference goniospectrophotometer has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) for providing high-accuracy traceable measurements of specular gloss at several standard geometries, including 75 deg. for paper samples, haze and absence-of-bloom gloss, and color appearance of gonioapparent materials. This is to the authors/ knowledge the first reported reference instrument that has this level of versatility for rapidly characterizing the total visual appearance properties of a wide variety of materials and applications. This instrument also replaces the NRC glossmeter that has been providing primary level specular gloss measurements in accordance with International Organization for Standardization and American Society for Testing and Materials standards for measurements of paint and ceramic materials at geometries of 20 deg. , 60 deg. , and 85 deg. . The new instrument has been fully characterized for sources of error and compared with the NRC glossmeter. Its measurement reproducibility of 0.02 gloss unit is a factor-of-5 improvement, and its overall estimated expanded (k=2) uncertainty is 0.3 gloss unit at all three standard geometries.

  1. Combining fibre optic Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance measurement for tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candefjord, Stefan; Nyberg, Morgan; Jalkanen, Ville; Ramser, Kerstin; Lindahl, Olof A.

    2010-12-01

    Tissue characterization is fundamental for identification of pathological conditions. Raman spectroscopy (RS) and tactile resonance measurement (TRM) are two promising techniques that measure biochemical content and stiffness, respectively. They have potential to complement the golden standard--histological analysis. By combining RS and TRM, complementary information about tissue content can be obtained and specific drawbacks can be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate approach to compare RS and TRM information. The approach was evaluated on measurements at the same points on porcine abdominal tissue. The measurement points were divided into five groups by multivariate analysis of the RS data. A regression analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the RS and TRM data. TRM identified one group efficiently (area under ROC curve 0.99). The RS data showed that the proportion of saturated fat was high in this group. The regression analysis showed that stiffness was mainly determined by the amount of fat and its composition. We concluded that RS provided additional, important information for tissue identification that was not provided by TRM alone. The results are promising for development of a method combining RS and TRM for intraoperative tissue characterization.

  2. Characterizing Molecular Structure by Combining Experimental Measurements with Density Functional Theory Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan M.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, the power and synergy of combining experimental measurements with density functional theory computations as a single tool to unambiguously characterize the molecular structure of complex atomic systems is shown. Here, we bring three beautiful cases where the interaction between the experiment and theory is in very good agreement for both finite and extended systems: 1) Characterizing Metal Coordination Environments in Porous Organic Polymers: A Joint Density Functional Theory and Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy Study 2) Characterization of Rhenium Compounds Obtained by Electrochemical Synthesis After Aging Process and 3) Infrared Study of H(D)2 + Co4+ Chemical Reaction: Characterizing Molecular Structures. J.M. López-Encarnación, K.K. Tanabe, M.J.A. Johnson, J. Jellinek, Chemistry-A European Journal 19 (41), 13646-13651 A. Vargas-Uscategui, E. Mosquera, J.M. López-Encarnación, B. Chornik, R. S. Katiyar, L. Cifuentes, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 220, 17-21

  3. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions.

  4. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, R.J.

    1989-04-04

    An apparatus is described for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions. 8 figs.

  5. Measurement and characterization of soft tissue behavior with surface deformation and force response under large deformations.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Bummo; Kim, Jung

    2010-04-01

    Soft tissue characterization with the inverse finite element method (FEM) optimization algorithm plays an important role in developing a physical model for medical simulations. However, tissue characterization that takes into account comprehensive boundary conditions for large deformations remains a challenge due to computational complexities and a lack of experimental data. In this study, soft tissue experiments on porcine livers were performed to measure the surface deformation and force response of soft tissues resulting from indentation loading depending on various indentation depths and two different tip shapes. Measurements were carried out with a three-dimensional (3D) optical system and a force transducer. Using the surface deformation and force response results, we estimated the maximum radius of influence, which can be utilized to determine the minimal required soft tissue model size for the FEM simulation. Considering the influence of the boundary conditions, the model was designed and integrated into an inverse FEM optimization algorithm to estimate the model parameters. The mechanical behavior of large deformations was characterized with FE modeling via hyperelastic and linear viscoelastic models. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of pixel crosstalk and impact of Bayer patterning by quantum efficiency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, Jérôme; Mornet, Clémence; Decroux, Thomas; Hérault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle