Science.gov

Sample records for basic concepts layout

  1. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-06-20

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management.

  2. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  3. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-04-17

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described.

  4. [Basic concepts in biomedical ethics].

    PubMed

    Arn, Christof

    2009-08-01

    Starting with a complex clinical situation we introduce basic concepts of clinical ethics. We explain why well-defined terms are needed and demonstrate how these terms can be used as practical tools for approaching and resolving ethical dilemmas in a professional decision-making process. It will be outlined how the use of these terms may contribute to the understanding of the ways in which moral values are perceived and communication skills can be improved.

  5. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  6. Basic concepts in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical ventilatory support is a major component of the clinical management of critically ill patients admitted into intensive care. Closely linked with the developments within critical care medicine, the use of ventilatory support has been increasing since the polio epidemics in the 1950s (Lassen 1953). Initially used to provide controlled mandatory ventilation, today with advances in technology, most mechanical ventilators are triggered by the patient, increasing the awareness of the complexity of patient/ventilator interaction (Tobin 1994). Though ventilator appearance and design may have changed quite significantly and the variety of options for support extensive, the basic concepts of mechanical ventilatory support of the critically ill patient remains unchanged. This paper aims to outline these concepts so as to gain a better understanding of mechanical ventilatory support.

  7. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  8. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  9. Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…

  10. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  11. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  12. [Basic concepts about paternity testing].

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.

  13. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    PubMed

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  14. Basic concepts in plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Robert

    2006-03-15

    In this article, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high-energy plasma accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high-brightness lasers and electron and positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high-acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) mechanism which uses conventional long pulse ( approximately 100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I approximately 10(14)-10(16) W cm(-2)), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) which uses the new breed of compact high-brightness lasers (<1 ps) and intensities >10(18) W cm(-2), self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SMLWFA) concept which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches the plasma wakefield accelerator. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomenon such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm(-1) have been generated with monoenergetic particle beams accelerated to about 100 MeV in millimetre distances recorded. Plasma wakefields driven by both electron and positron beams at the Stanford linear accelerator centre (SLAC) facility have accelerated the tail of the beams.

  15. Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality Emanuel R. Baker, Process Strategies Inc. Matthew J. Fisher and Wolfhart Goethert, SEI...is to help CMMI implementers recognize the purpose of some CMMI components relative to quality concepts and principles , and to help ensure a CMMI...TN-002 Over time many of the concepts and principles articulated in the SQF have been implemented in various forms, not only in venues such as the

  16. Artist's concept of topographical layout of Taurus-Littrow landing site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-10-01

    S72-49761 (October 1972) --- An artist's concept illustrating the topographical layout of the Taurus-Littrow landing site of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The Lunar Module touchdown point is in the center of the smooth area in the middle of the picture. The imposing mountain in the center is South Massif. A portion of North Massif is in the lower right corner of the photograph. Note the ridge-like feature extending from South Massif to North Massif. The southern portion of the ridge is called Lee Scarp and the northerly portion Lincoln Scarp. (This concept is by JSC artist Jerry Elmore).

  17. Optogenetics: Basic Concepts and Their Development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Ku; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of light-gated ion channels and their application to controlling neural activities have had a transformative impact on the field of neuroscience. In recent years, the concept of using light-activated proteins to control biological processes has greatly diversified into other fields, driven by the natural diversity of photoreceptors and decades of knowledge obtained from their biophysical characterization. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the origin and development of optogenetics and highlight the basic concepts that make it such a powerful technology. We will review how these enabling concepts have developed over the past decade, and discuss future perspectives.

  18. Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Milton J., Ed.

    This collection of articles, with a developmental learning focus, explores the core building blocks of intercultural communication. The articles in the collection represent the theory-into-practice school of intercultural communication. The collection's goal is to present basic concepts from a variety of perspectives which, when taken together,…

  19. Item Response Theory: A Basic Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Jumailiyah

    2017-01-01

    With the development in computing technology, item response theory (IRT) develops rapidly, and has become a user friendly application in psychometrics world. Limitation in classical theory is one aspect that encourages the use of IRT. In this study, the basic concept of IRT will be discussed. In addition, it will briefly review the ability…

  20. Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Milton J., Ed.

    This collection of articles, with a developmental learning focus, explores the core building blocks of intercultural communication. The articles in the collection represent the theory-into-practice school of intercultural communication. The collection's goal is to present basic concepts from a variety of perspectives which, when taken together,…

  1. Raising native plants in nurseries: basic concepts

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2012-01-01

    Growing native plants can be fun, challenging, and rewarding. This booklet, particularly the first chapter that introduces important concepts, is for the novice who wants to start growing native plants as a hobby; however, it can also be helpful to someone with a bit more experience who is wondering about starting a nursery. The second chapter provides basic...

  2. Artist's concept of topographical layout of Taurus-Littrow landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating the topographical layout of the Taurus-Littrow landing site, depicting the traverses planned on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission using the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals indicate the three periods of extravehicular activity (EVA). The Arabic numbers represent the station stops. The mountain in the center of the picture is South Massif. A portion of North Massif is in the lower right corner of the photograph. The names of some of the craters are: Camelot (at Station 5); Emory (nearest Station 1); Sherlock (at station 10); Steno (between Emory and Sherlock); Amundsen (at Station 2); Lara (at Station 3); Henry (nearest Station 6); Shakespeare (nearest Station 9); Cochise (nearest Station 8); and Powell (halfway between Camelot and Emory). Note the ridge-like feature extending from Station 2 to North Massif. The southern portion of the ridge is called Lee Scarp; and the Northerly portion is Lincoln Scarp. This concept is by MSC artist Jerry Elm

  3. Artist's concept of topographical layout of Taurus-Littrow landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating the topographical layout of the Taurus-Littrow landing site, depicting the traverses planned on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission using the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals indicate the three periods of extravehicular activity (EVA). The Arabic numbers represent the station stops. The mountain in the center of the picture is South Massif. A portion of North Massif is in the lower right corner of the photograph. The names of some of the craters are: Camelot (at Station 5); Emory (nearest Station 1); Sherlock (at station 10); Steno (between Emory and Sherlock); Amundsen (at Station 2); Lara (at Station 3); Henry (nearest Station 6); Shakespeare (nearest Station 9); Cochise (nearest Station 8); and Powell (halfway between Camelot and Emory). Note the ridge-like feature extending from Station 2 to North Massif. The southern portion of the ridge is called Lee Scarp; and the Northerly portion is Lincoln Scarp. This concept is by MSC artist Jerry Elm

  4. Basic concepts and techniques of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tagliareni, Jonathan M; Clarkson, Earl

    2015-04-01

    Dental implants provide completely edentulous and partial edentulous patients the function and esthetics they had with natural dentition. It is critical to understand and apply predictable surgical principles when treatment planning and surgically restoring edentulous spaces with implants. This article defines basic implant concepts that should be meticulously followed for predictable results when treating patients and restoring dental implants. Topics include biological and functional considerations, biomechanical considerations, preoperative assessments, medical history and risk assessments, oral examinations, radiographic examinations, contraindications, and general treatment planning options.

  5. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  6. The Basic Concepts in Thomas Pynchon's "Gravity's Rainbow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokhadze, Lali

    This paper uses passages from Thomas Pynchon's novel, "Gravity's Rainbow," to examine basic concepts, explaining that the process of identifying the basic word-concepts in literary texts is to some extent a tension between anticipation and unexpected frustration. The paper focuses on an interpretation of the basic concept…

  7. Machine Tool Layout: Outlining a Basic Shape on Flat Steel. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochsner, Alan

    This vocational instructional module on outlining a basic shape on flat steel is one of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the student enrolled in a machine tool course to…

  8. A brain-based account of "basic-level" concepts.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Andrew James; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-08-19

    This study provides a brain-based account of how object concepts at an intermediate (basic) level of specificity are represented, offering an enriched view of what it means for a concept to be a basic-level concept, a research topic pioneered by Rosch and others (Rosch et al., 1976). Applying machine learning techniques to fMRI data, it was possible to determine the semantic content encoded in the neural representations of object concepts at basic and subordinate levels of abstraction. The representation of basic-level concepts (e.g. bird) was spatially broad, encompassing sensorimotor brain areas that encode concrete object properties, and also language and heteromodal integrative areas that encode abstract semantic content. The representation of subordinate-level concepts (robin) was less widely distributed, concentrated in perceptual areas that underlie concrete content. Furthermore, basic-level concepts were representative of their subordinates in that they were neurally similar to their typical but not atypical subordinates (bird was neurally similar to robin but not woodpecker). The findings provide a brain-based account of the advantages that basic-level concepts enjoy in everyday life over subordinate-level concepts: the basic level is a broad topographical representation that encompasses both concrete and abstract semantic content, reflecting the multifaceted yet intuitive meaning of basic-level concepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  10. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  11. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  12. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  13. Water homeostasis in the brain: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Kimelberg, H K

    2004-01-01

    The mammalian CNS is separated from the blood by tight junctions, collectively termed the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This imposes unique features of solvent and water movement into and out of the CNS. The basic equations for water fluxes driven by osmotic gradients are presented. The anatomy of the BBB and the physiology of the transport processes for cerebrospinal fluid production, extracellular fluid production and intercellular water and solute transport are then described. A quantitative analysis of the need for aquaporin-based water movements to accompany the known rates of CSF production is also presented. Finally, the mechanisms and roles of cellular and vasogenic edema in the CNS, especially in relation to aquaporins, are described.

  14. Basic concepts of induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    The phenomena of induced AC on pipelines sharing common rights-of-way with overhead high-voltage electrical transmission power lines is discussed. Basic concepts and techniques for personnel safety and some pipeline protective measures are reviewed.

  15. Discrete tuning concept for fiber-integrated lasers based on tailored FBG arrays and a theta cavity layout.

    PubMed

    Tiess, Tobias; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias

    2017-03-15

    We demonstrate a novel tuning concept for pulsed fiber-integrated lasers with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as a discrete and tailored spectral filter, as well as a modified laser design. Based on a theta cavity layout, the structural delay lines originating from the FBG array are balanced, enabling a constant repetition rate and stable pulse properties over the full tuning range. The emission wavelength is electrically tuned with respect to the filter properties based on an adapted temporal gating scheme using an acousto-optic modulator. This concept has been investigated with an Yb-doped fiber laser, demonstrating excellent emission properties with high signal contrast (>35  dB) and narrow linewidth (<150  pm) over a tuning range of 25 nm.

  16. Aids for Teaching Basic Concepts of Sensory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraga, Natalie; And Others

    Instructions for using and constructing approximately 58 instructional materials to aid young visually handicapped children in developing basic sensory concepts are presented. The materials are said to foster important ideas in variously aged children who have difficulty using their hands or understanding numerical concepts. Use of the materials…

  17. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  18. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  19. Habitable Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Concept. [Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Layout and Configuration: 6-Crew, Habitable, Nested Tank Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dang, Victor; Rucker, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    NASA's ultimate goal is the human exploration of Mars. Among the many difficult aspects of a trip to Mars is the return mission that would transport the astronauts from the Martian surface back into Mars orbit. One possible conceptual design to accomplish this task is a two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). In order to assess this design, a general layout and configuration for the spacecraft must be developed. The objective of my internship was to model a conceptual MAV design to support NASA's latest human Mars mission architecture trade studies, technology prioritization decisions, and mass, cost, and schedule estimates.

  20. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  1. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  2. Trainee Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning, Classroom Layout and Exam Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study centres on identifying and classifying the conceptions of teaching and learning held by future secondary school teachers, and on analysing the relationship between these conceptions and the way classroom space is organized and exams are designed. The test instruments used were applied to a sample of 138 graduates, who…

  3. Trainee Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning, Classroom Layout and Exam Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study centres on identifying and classifying the conceptions of teaching and learning held by future secondary school teachers, and on analysing the relationship between these conceptions and the way classroom space is organized and exams are designed. The test instruments used were applied to a sample of 138 graduates, who…

  4. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  5. [Games as an alternative for teaching basic health concepts].

    PubMed

    Castillo Lizardo, J M; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2001-05-01

    To determine, for the teaching of basic health concepts to school-age children, the effectiveness of an educational strategy based on traditional children's games. Intervention study carried out in the city of Durango, Mexico, in June 2000 with 300 children from 9 to 11 years old. The children were randomly divided into two groups. The children in Group A used a modified version of a Mexican popular game called Serpientes y Escaleras (Snakes and Ladders) that included messages on basic health concepts; the children in Group B made up the control group and did not play the modified game. At baseline there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, grade level, or their scores on a knowledge test of basic health concepts. After the educational intervention, the health concepts test scores, out of a maximum possible of 10, were 9.3 +/- 0.8 for Group A and 7.5 +/- 1.1 for Group B (P < 0.001). Using games that include health and hygiene messages can be an alternative for teaching basic health concepts.

  6. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  8. 29 CFR 779.202 - Basic concepts of definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Business Unit § 779.202 Basic concepts of definition. Under the definition, the “enterprise” consists of “the related activities performed * * * for a common business purpose.” All of the activities comprising the enterprise must be “related.” Activities serving a single business purpose may be...

  9. The concept of basic symptoms in schizophrenic and schizoaffective psychoses.

    PubMed

    Huber, G; Gross, G

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents the psychiatric aspects of the concept of basic symptoms (BS), especially history, actual position and tendencies of development of the doctrine of BS, phenomenology and clinical picture of basic stages, the Bonn Scale for the assessment of dynamic and cognitive basic deficiencies (BSABS) and the importance of this concept for early diagnosis, therapy, prevention and rehabilitation. The patients experience and communicate the BS as deficiencies and are able to cope with, adapt and compensate for them. The BS were termed as basic symptoms because they represent the basis of the productive-psychotic symptomatology. Follow-up studies of cases with the suspicion diagnosis "prodrome of schizophrenia" based on BSABS rating, revealed that the subgroup passing over in schizophrenic psychoses after an average of 6.3 years showed significantly higher scores of cognitive BS at the time of index investigation. It now seems possible to impede increase of cognitive BS already present in prepsychotic prodromal states before reaching the threshold of transition into productive-psychotic symptomatology. Long-term development is more favorable if therapy commences as early as possible including the prepsychotic basic stages and also taking into consideration BS which were, until now, disregarded in DSM-III. Summarizing our findings of the last 30 years we suggest that the BS-concept may be an approach to overcome the dichotomy of negative and positive psychopathology in schizophrenia.

  10. The Conceptional Design of the Shielding Layout and Beam Absorber at the PXIE

    SciTech Connect

    Eidelman, Yu.; Kerby, J.; Lebedev, V.; Leibfritz, J.; Leveling, T.; Nagaisev, S.; Stanek, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading physics program at Fermilab. Project X will provide high intensity beams for neutrino, kaon, muon, and nuclei based experiments and for studies supporting energy applications. The Project X Injector Experiment (PIXIE) is a prototype of the Project X front end. A 30 MeV 50 kW beam will be used to validate the design concept of the Project X. This paper discusses a design of the accelerator enclosure radiation shielding and the beam dump.

  11. Effects on driving performance of interacting with an in-vehicle music player: a comparison of three interface layout concepts for information presentation.

    PubMed

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Trotter, Margaret J; Lenné, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Interface design is an important factor in assessing the potential effects on safety of interacting with an in-vehicle information system while driving. In the current study, the layout of information on a visual display was manipulated to explore its effect on driving performance in the context of music selection. The comparative effects of an auditory-verbal (cognitive) task were also explored. The driving performance of 30 participants was assessed under both baseline and dual task conditions using the Lane Change Test. Concurrent completion of the music selection task with driving resulted in significant impairment to lateral driving performance (mean lane deviation and percentage of correct lane changes) relative to the baseline, and significantly greater mean lane deviation relative to the combined driving and the cognitive task condition. The magnitude of these effects on driving performance was independent of layout concept, although significant differences in subjective workload estimates and performance on the music selection task across layout concepts highlights that potential uncertainty regarding design use as conveyed through layout concept could be disadvantageous. The implications of these results for interface design and safety are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex in basic research: concepts in the cardiovascular field.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Dworatzek, Elke; Seeland, Ute; Kararigas, Georgios; Arnal, Jean-Francois; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Carpenter, Thomas C; Erdmann, Jeanette; Franconi, Flavia; Giannetta, Elisa; Glezerman, Marek; Hofmann, Susanna M; Junien, Claudine; Katai, Miyuki; Kublickiene, Karolina; König, Inke R; Majdic, Gregor; Malorni, Walter; Mieth, Christin; Miller, Virginia M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Tannenbaum, Cara; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Women and men, female and male animals and cells are biologically different, and acknowledgement of this fact is critical to advancing medicine. However, incorporating concepts of sex-specific analysis in basic research is largely neglected, introducing bias into translational findings, clinical concepts and drug development. Research funding agencies recently approached these issues but implementation of policy changes in the scientific community is still limited, probably due to deficits in concepts, knowledge and proper methodology. This expert review is based on the EUGenMed project (www.eugenmed.eu) developing a roadmap for implementing sex and gender in biomedical and health research. For sake of clarity and conciseness, examples are mainly taken from the cardiovascular field that may serve as a paradigm for others, since a significant amount of knowledge how sex and oestrogen determine the manifestation of many cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been accumulated. As main concepts for implementation of sex in basic research, the study of primary cell and animals of both sexes, the study of the influence of genetic vs. hormonal factors and the analysis of sex chromosomes and sex specific statistics in genome wide association studies (GWAS) are discussed. The review also discusses methodological issues, and analyses strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in implementing sex-sensitive aspects into basic research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  14. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  15. Visual evoked potential (VEP): basic concepts and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J

    1979-01-01

    The Visual Evoked Potential is the objective measurement of visual function monitored at the level of the occipital cortex with scalp electrodes. This article summarizes many of the recent clinical applications of the VEP. Included are basic concepts of the VEP and its clinical utilization for the objective assessment of refractive error, visual acuity, amblyopia, binocularity, demyelinating diseases, psychogenic disorders, pre-surgical prediction of post-surgical visual function, visual fields, color blindness and neurological development.

  16. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A new concept for creating the basic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyński, Zenon

    2014-12-01

    A lot of changes have been made to the legislative regulations associated with geodesy during the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive in Poland (amongst others, the structure of databases). There have also been great changes concerning the basic map and the method of its creation and updating. A new concept for creating the basic map is presented in this article Dokonaliśmy wielu zmian w prawnych regulacjach dotyczących geodezji w trakcie implementacji Dyrektywy INSPIRE w Polsce (m.in. struktury baz danych). Bardzo duże zmiany objęły mapę zasadniczą i procedury jej tworzenia i uaktualniania. W artykule jest zaprezentowana nowa koncepcja tworzenia mapy zasadniczej.

  18. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Maarleveld, Timo R; Khandelwal, Ruchir A; Olivier, Brett G; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic plasticity and robustness, and the ability of organisms to cope with different environments. Constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks has become an indispensable tool for such studies. Herein, we review the basic theoretical underpinnings of constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks. Basic concepts, such as stoichiometry, chemical moiety conservation, flux modes, flux balance analysis, and flux solution spaces, are explained with simple, illustrative examples. We emphasize the mathematical definitions and their network topological interpretations.

  19. Topological quantum computation--from basic concepts to first experiments.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ady; Lindner, Netanel H

    2013-03-08

    Quantum computation requires controlled engineering of quantum states to perform tasks that go beyond those possible with classical computers. Topological quantum computation aims to achieve this goal by using non-Abelian quantum phases of matter. Such phases allow for quantum information to be stored and manipulated in a nonlocal manner, which protects it from imperfections in the implemented protocols and from interactions with the environment. Recently, substantial progress in this field has been made on both theoretical and experimental fronts. We review the basic concepts of non-Abelian phases and their topologically protected use in quantum information processing tasks. We discuss different possible realizations of these concepts in experimentally available solid-state systems, including systems hosting Majorana fermions, their recently proposed fractional counterparts, and non-Abelian quantum Hall states.

  20. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  1. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Aug 15, 2002 to Nov. 15, 2002) - DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Lawrence Townsend; Martin Williamson; Rupy Sawhney; Jacob Fife

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. This report covers the ninth quarter of the project. The three reactor concept teams have completed initial plant concept development, evaluation and layout. A significant design effort has proceeded with substantial change and evolution from original ideas. The concepts have been reviewed by the industry participants and improvements have been implemented. The third phase, industrial engineering simulation of reactor fabrication has begun.

  2. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons.

  3. Basic Concepts in Molecular Biology Related to Genetics and Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, Jose M

    2017-09-01

    The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome. Moreover, environmental factors also play an important role in this complex regulation. This review provides a general perspective on the basic concepts of molecular biology related to genetics and epigenetics and a glossary of key terms. Several examples are given of polymorphisms and genetic risk scores related to cardiovascular risk. Likewise, an overview is presented of the main epigenetic regulators, including DNA methylation, methylcytosine-phosphate-guanine-binding proteins, histone modifications, other histone regulations, micro-RNA effects, and additional emerging regulators. One of the greatest challenges is to understand how environmental factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.) could alter the epigenome, resulting in healthy or unhealthy cardiovascular phenotypes. We discuss some gene-environment interactions and provide a methodological overview. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  5. Concept confusion and concept discernment in basic magnetism using analogical reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Miriam; Nicodimus Morabe, Olebogeng

    2017-07-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to all learning, whether in daily life situations, in the classroom or while doing research. Although analogies can aid the learning process of making sense of phenomena and understanding new ideas in terms of known ideas, these should be used with care. This article reports a study of the use of analogies and the consequences of this use in the teaching of magnetism with special reference to misconceptions. We begin by identifying concept confusion and associated misconceptions in magnetism due to in-service physics teachers’ spontaneous analogical reasoning. Two analogy-based experiments that can be used to convert such concept confusion to discernment are then described. These experiments focus on understanding basic principles about sources and interactions of magnetic fields and implement the constructivist learning processes of discrimination and generalization. Lastly, recommendations towards reinforcement of conceptual understanding of basic magnetism in its relation to electricity are proposed.

  6. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Nov. 15, 2001 - Feb. 15,2002) ''Design and Layout Concepts for Compact, Factory-Produced, Transportable, Generation IV Reactor Systems''

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Mohammed Khan; Joe McConn; Lawrence Townsend; Wesley Williams; Martin Williamson

    2002-03-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. Three nuclear power plant concepts are being studied representing water, helium and lead-bismuth coolants. This is the sixth quarterly progress report.

  7. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  8. Genetical ESS-models. I. Concepts and basic model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B

    1985-08-01

    Evolutionarily Stable Strategies (ESS) in phenotypic models are used to explain the evolution of animal interactive behaviour. As the behavioural features under consideration are assumed to be genetically determined, the question arises how underlying a genetical system might affect the results of phenotypic ESS-models. This question can be fully treated in terms of ESS-theory. A method of designing Genetical ESS-Models is proposed, which transfers the question of evolutionary stability to a "lower" level, the genetical basis. Genetical ESS-models - although nonlinear even in the simplest cases - can be analysed in a way that is familiar to ESS-theorists and yield immediate results on gene pool ESSs, which then may or may not maintain ESSs on the phenotypic level. Moreover, general results can be obtained to characterize evolutionarily stable gene pool states and their interrelation with commonsense, phenotypic ESSs. This part of the article presents the basic concepts and an outline of the method of genetical ESS-models. It gives, as a demonstration, a complete analysis for phenotypic two-strategy models (linear or nonlinear) based on a diploid, diallelic single-locus system under random mating. The results in this case suggest that a phenotypic ESS should indeed be expected to evolve but, maybe, only after passing through a succession of temporarily stable states.

  9. Rate and Sequence of Positive and Negative Poles in Basic Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-eight concepts from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale were paired, polarity (positive or negative) was assigned, and concept pairs were contrasted with 1,109 children ages three through seven to determine rate and sequence of polar concept acquisition. For 70 percent of the pairs the positive-pole concept was acquired before the negative-pole…

  10. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  11. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  12. [Nurse's concept in the managerial conception of a basic health unit].

    PubMed

    Passos, Joanir Pereira; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2006-12-01

    This study is part of a larger survey called "Use of indicators in nurses' managerial practice in Basic Health Care Units in the city of Rio de Janeiro", which was carried out in the Basic Health Care Units of the Planning Area 5.3 and whose objectives were to identify nurses' conception regarding the tools required for management in those units and to discuss the role of management in organizing health services. The study is descriptive and data were collected in interviews with seven nurse managers. The results show that health services actions are organized and directed to the purpose of the working process through the relationship established between the object, the instruments and the final product, and that for those nurses the end result to be achieved is client's satisfaction and the quality of medical and nursing care.

  13. THE GROWTH OF BASIC MATHEMATICAL AND SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVELL, K.

    THE RESEARCH OF LOVELL AND PIAGET IS CITED IN A DISCUSSION OF CONCEPT LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. FOLLOWING AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER ON CONCEPT FORMATION, THREE CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO NUMBER CONCEPTS AND TO THE APPROACHES OF TEACHING THE NUMBER CONCEPTS OF STERN, CUISENAIRE AND GATTEGNO, PIAGET, AND DIENES. THE NEXT FOUR CHAPTERS DEAL…

  14. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  15. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  16. Visualization: a tool for enhancing students' concept images of basic object-oriented concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey including open-ended questions, which was administered to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 12 randomly selected students were conducted to explore their answers to the survey in depth. The results of the first part of the research were utilized to construct visualization scenarios. The students used these scenarios to develop animations using Flash software. The study found that most of the students experienced difficulties in learning object-oriented notions. Overdependence on code-writing practice and examples and incorrectly learned analogies were determined to be the sources of their difficulties. Moreover, visualization was found to be a promising approach in facilitating students' concept images of basic object-oriented notions. The results of this study have implications for researchers and practitioners when designing programming instruction.

  17. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  18. Certain Basic Concepts of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Concept that is defined to be the intangible and general designs emerging in a mind that belongs to an object or thought, has become both subject and object of a very large field ranging from philosophy to linguistics, from social sciences to science. Regardless of which field is in question, the unity of concept is important in order to pave the…

  19. Corvids Outperform Pigeons and Primates in Learning a Basic Concept.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Vernouillet, Alizée; Kelly, Debbie M

    2017-04-01

    Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons. Even with an initial 8-item picture set, both corvid species showed partial concept learning, outperforming both monkeys and pigeons. Similar corvid performance refutes the hypothesis that nutcrackers' prolific cache-location memory accounts for their superior concept learning, because magpies rely less on caching. That corvids with "primitive" neural architectures evolved to equal primates in full concept learning and even to outperform them on the initial 8-item picture test is a testament to the shared (convergent) survival importance of abstract-concept learning.

  20. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  1. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  2. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-06-17

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors.

  3. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. PMID:27322277

  4. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    PubMed

    Barz, H

    1984-12-08

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself.

  5. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  6. The availability and accessibility of basic concept vocabulary in AAC software: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Schwarz, Ilsa; Ashworth, Morgan

    2017-09-01

    Core vocabulary lists obtained through the analyses of children's utterances include a variety of basic concept words. Supporting young children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to develop their understanding and use of basic concepts is an area of practice that has important ramifications for successful communication in a classroom environment. This study examined the availability of basic concept words across eight frequently used, commercially available AAC language systems, iPad© applications, and symbol libraries used to create communication boards. The accessibility of basic concept words was subsequently examined using two AAC language page sets and two iPad applications. Results reveal that the availability of basic concept words represented within the different AAC language programs, iPad applications, and symbol libraries varied but was limited across programs. However, there is no significant difference in the accessibility of basic concept words across the language program page sets or iPad applications, generally because all of them require sophisticated motor and cognitive plans for access. These results suggest that educators who teach or program vocabulary in AAC systems need to be mindful of the importance of basic concept words in classroom settings and, when possible, enhance the availability and accessibility of these words to users of AAC.

  7. Some basic fracture mechanics concepts in functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.-H.; Batra, R. C.

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, the crack-tip fields in a general nonhomogeneous material are summarized. The fracture toughness and R-curve of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are studied based on the crack-bridging concept and a rule of mixtures. It is shown that the fracture toughness is significantly increased when a crack grows from the ceramic-rich region into the metal-rich region in an alumina-nickel FGM. By applying the concept of the toughening mechanism to the study of the strength behavior of FGMs, it is found that the residual strength of the alumina-nickel FGM with an edge crack on the ceramic side is quite notch insensitive.

  8. Concept Systems and Ontologies: Recommendations for Basic Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gunnar O.; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Summary This essay concerns the problems surrounding the use of the term “concept” in current ontology and terminology research. It is based on the constructive dialogue between realist ontology on the one hand and the world of formal standardization of health informatics on the other, but its conclusions are not restricted to the domain of medicine. The term “concept” is one of the most misused even in literature and technical standards which attempt to bring clarity. In this paper we propose to use the term “concept” in the context of producing defined professional terminologies with one specific and consistent meaning which we propose for adoption as the agreed meaning of the term in future terminological research, and specifically in the development of formal terminologies to be used in computer systems. We also discuss and propose new definitions of a set of cognate terms. We describe the relations governing the realm of concepts, and compare these to the richer and more complex set of relations obtaining between entities in the real world. On this basis we also summarize an associated terminology for ontologies as representations of the real world and a partial mapping between the world of concepts and the world of reality. PMID:21308002

  9. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  10. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  11. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  12. An Investigation into the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Present Basic English Grammar Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 DTIC PI-ECTE JAN 0 7 1992 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCMPUT-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR CONCEPTS...aitcoljor AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLIS1H GRAMMAR CONCEPTS THESIS Presented...Structure of the Tutorial .... ............ ... 49 5. " Grammar " Program Structure ............... 6. Hypertext Dispiay Screen

  13. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  14. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    PubMed Central

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  15. Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.

    PubMed

    Boving, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies.

  16. Look Around You. A Primary Student Activity Book Introducing Basic Environmental Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Sharon

    This activity book, designed for student use, introduces environmental concepts to the primary student. The basic concept around which the guide is developed is the idea that the environment contains many interdependent things. Water, wind, clouds, non-living objects, plants, animals, and pollution are dealt with as part of the primary student's…

  17. Does "Part-Whole Concept" Understanding Correlate with Success in Basic Math Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Dorothea Arne

    This study investigates student understanding of the part-whole concept in mathematics at an independent two-year post-secondary institution in New Mexico. The mathematics portion of the Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) Summary Form was used as the evaluative instrument. Evidence for a lack of part-whole concept understanding as a hidden…

  18. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  19. Adaptive fractionation therapy: I. Basic concept and strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiguo; Chen, Mingli; Chen, Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo

    2008-10-01

    Radiotherapy is fractionized to increase the therapeutic ratio. Fractionation in conventional treatment is determined as part of the prescription, and a fixed fraction size is used for the whole course of treatment. Due to patients' day-to-day variations on the relative distance between the tumor and the organs at risk (OAR), a better therapeutic ratio may be attained by using an adaptive fraction size. Intuitively, we want to use a larger fraction size when OAR and the tumor are far apart and a smaller fraction size when OAR and the tumor are close to each other. The concept and strategies of adaptive fractionation therapy (AFT) are introduced in this paper. AFT is an on-line adaptive technique that utilizes the variations of internal structures to get optimal OAR sparing. Changes of internal structures are classified as different configurations according to their feasibility to the radiation delivery. A priori knowledge is used to describe the probability distribution of these configurations. On-line processes include identifying the configuration via daily image guidance and optimizing the current fraction size. The optimization is modeled as a dynamic linear programming problem so that at the end of the treatment course, the tumor receives the same planned dose while OAR receives less dose than the regular fractionation delivery. Extensive simulations, which include thousands of treatment courses with each course consisting of 40 fractions, are used to test the efficiency and robustness of the presented technique. The gains of OAR sparing depend on the variations on configurations and the bounds of the fraction size. The larger the variations and the looser the bounds are, the larger the gains will be. Compared to the conventional fractionation technique with 2 Gy/fraction in 40 fractions, for a 20% variation on tumor-OAR configurations and [1 Gy, 3 Gy] fraction size bounds, the cumulative OAR dose with adaptive fractionation is 3-8 Gy, or 7-20% less than that

  20. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-12-09

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out using the full 3-dimensional, finite-{beta}, resistive MHD model in the DEBS code, including ohmic heating and anisotropic heat conduction, and thus for the first time included the self-consistent effects of the dynamo magnetic fluctuations on the confinement properties of the RFP. By using multi-variant regression analysis of these results, scaling laws for various properties characterizing the conventional RFP were obtained. In particular, it was found that the, for constant ratio of I/N (where I is the current and N = na{sup 2} is the line density), and over a range of Lundquist numbers S that approaches 10{sup 6}, the fluctuations scale as {delta}B/B {approx} S{sup -0.14}, the temperature scales as T {approx} I{sup 0.56}, the poloidal beta scales as {beta}{sub {theta}} {approx} I{sup -0.4}, and the energy confinement time scales as {tau}{sub E} {approx} I{sup 0.34}. The degradation of poloidal beta with current is a result of the weak scaling of the fluctuation level with the Lundquist number, and leads to the unfavorable scaling laws for temperature and energy confinement time. These results compare reasonably well with experimental data, and emphasize the need for external control of the dynamo fluctuations in the RFP. (2) Studies of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in the RFP were performed with the DEBS code in collaboration with the CNR/RFX group in Padua, Italy. The ideal growth rates are ''passively'' reduced by the presence of a resistive wall within the radius for perfectly conducting

  1. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  2. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  3. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  4. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  5. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  6. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  7. A survey of medical school teachers to identify basic biomedical concepts medical students should understand.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Saunders, B; Feltovich, P J; Coulson, R L; Steward, D E

    1990-07-01

    Insights from the cognitive sciences indicate a continuing need for physicians to understand conceptual knowledge from the basic sciences, despite recent concerns regarding the increasing amount of information in medicine and the growing emphasis on performance skills. A 1987 survey of selected basic science and clinical teachers in North American medical schools was undertaken to identify basic biomedical concepts that are important in the practice of medicine and to specify how difficult these are for students to learn, apply, or both. Responses from faculty (nominated by their deans to answer the survey) from 82% of the medical schools indicated considerable agreement between the basic science teachers and clinical teachers on the relative importance of a set of biomedical concepts, and showed relatively minor levels of disagreement on how difficult these concepts are. The judgments of these teachers could prove extremely useful in (1) determining concepts that--because of their importance--should receive special attention in curriculum efforts, and (2) determining concepts that--because of their difficulty--need "special handling."

  8. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear family emotional…

  9. After Almost Half-Century Landing on the Moon and Still Countering Basic Astronomy Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the fifth graders' understandings of the basic astronomy concept and, if they have, to define their misconceptions and then to determine what reason/s behind them. For this purpose, two hundred seventy fifth grade students from 6 different schools participated. Randomly selected 45 students performing under…

  10. PBCB: A Norming of the Spanish Translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Prueba Boehm de Conceptos Basicos (PBCB), a Spanish translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, was administered to 1,292 children in Puerto Rico. Normative information, reported by type of school, by grade, and by time of year tested is presented. The reliability of PBCB was established. (BH)

  11. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  12. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  13. The Effectiveness of Programed Instruction Versus the Lecture-Discussion Method of Teaching Basic Metallurgical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, David Carl

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional lecture-discussion method and an illustrated programed textbook method when teaching a unit of instruction on the basic concepts of metallurgy. The control group used a portion of a conventional textbook accompanied by lecture, chalkboard illustration, and class discussion. The experimental…

  14. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  15. Social Class Differences on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Are They Due to Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Applied an internal criteria for the detection of bias to standardization data for the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts. Despite sizable social class differences in mean scores, differences in rank orders of item difficulties were negligible. There was little evidence of test bias. (Author)

  16. The Effectiveness of Programed Instruction Versus the Lecture-Discussion Method of Teaching Basic Metallurgical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, David Carl

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional lecture-discussion method and an illustrated programed textbook method when teaching a unit of instruction on the basic concepts of metallurgy. The control group used a portion of a conventional textbook accompanied by lecture, chalkboard illustration, and class discussion. The experimental…

  17. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  18. Teaching Basic Math Skills to Preschoolers Using "Connecting Math Concepts Level K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Michelle A.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Moore, Marion E.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching basic math skills to 16 children (11 typically developing, 5 with developmental delays) in an integrated university preschool. "Connecting Math Concepts Level K (CMC--K"; Engelmann & Becker, 1995) was delivered by the classroom teacher to small groups of 4 to 6 children over 6.5 weeks.…

  19. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  20. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  1. PBCB: A Norming of the Spanish Translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Prueba Boehm de Conceptos Basicos (PBCB), a Spanish translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, was administered to 1,292 children in Puerto Rico. Normative information, reported by type of school, by grade, and by time of year tested is presented. The reliability of PBCB was established. (BH)

  2. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  3. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  4. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  5. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline.

  6. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Research in Pediatric Dentistry: Part I - Basic Concepts.

    PubMed

    Garrocho-Rangel, J A; Ruiz-Rodríguez, M S; Pozos-Guillén, A J

    The purpose of this report was to provide the reader with some basic concepts in order to better understand the significance and reliability of the results of any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, Pediatric Dentists need the best evidence available in the literature on which to base their diagnoses and treatment decisions for the children's oral care. Basic understanding of Biostatistics plays an important role during the entire Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) process. This report describes Biostatistics fundamentals in order to introduce the basic concepts used in statistics, such as summary measures, estimation, hypothesis testing, effect size, level of significance, p value, confidence intervals, etc., which are available to Pediatric Dentists interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  7. Three Short Films about Water: Presenting Basic Concepts to Students and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Michel, A.; Wilde, P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2011-12-01

    Three short form (3 - 5 minute) movies were produced for CUAHSI, to convey basic concepts such as a hydrologic budget, stores and fluxes of water, and the flowpaths and residence time of water. The films were originally intended to be used by scientists to explain the concepts behind potential environmental observatories, but evolved into serving a broader purpose. The films combine still photos, satellite images, animation and video clips, and interviews with CUAHSI members explaining hydrologic concepts in simple, accessible terms. In producing these films, we have found the importance of engaging scientists in conversation first, to develop a script around key accessible concepts and relevant information. Film and communication professionals play a critical role in distilling the scientific explanation and concepts into accessible, engaging film material. The films have been widely distributed through CD and online to educators for use in courses. Additionally, they provide a way to engage stakeholders, particularly land owners, by conveying basic concepts that are necessary to understand the hydrologic and earth science foundation of many of today's political and environmental issues. The films can be viewed online at the CUAHSI website, which also contains links to other film related resources and programs.

  8. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  9. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  10. Contexts, concepts and cognition: principles for the transfer of basic science knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Chaudhary, Zarah; Woods, Nicole; Dore, Kelly; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Transfer of basic science aids novices in the development of clinical reasoning. The literature suggests that although transfer is often difficult for novices, it can be optimised by two complementary strategies: (i) focusing learners on conceptual knowledge of basic science or (ii) exposing learners to multiple contexts in which the basic science concepts may apply. The relative efficacy of each strategy as well as the mechanisms that facilitate transfer are unknown. In two sequential experiments, we compared both strategies and explored mechanistic changes in how learners address new transfer problems. Experiment 1 was a 2 × 3 design in which participants were randomised to learn three physiology concepts with or without emphasis on the conceptual structure of basic science via illustrative analogies and by means of one, two or three contexts during practice (operationalised as organ systems). Transfer of these concepts to explain pathologies in familiar organ systems (near transfer) and unfamiliar organ systems (far transfer) was evaluated during immediate and delayed testing. Experiment 2 examined whether exposure to conceptual analogies and multiple contexts changed how learners classified new problems. Experiment 1 showed that increasing context variation significantly improved far transfer performance but there was no difference between two and three contexts during practice. Similarly, the increased conceptual analogies led to higher performance for far transfer. Both interventions had independent but additive effects on overall performance. Experiment 2 showed that such analogies and context variation caused learners to shift to using structural characteristics to classify new problems even when there was superficial similarity to previous examples. Understanding problems based on conceptual structural characteristics is necessary for successful transfer. Transfer of basic science can be optimised by using multiple strategies that collectively emphasise

  11. The etymology of basic concepts in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dinsmoor, James A

    2004-11-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his data on the rate of lever pressing in the rat (e.g., operant conditioning, conditioned reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and response induction and differentiation) and key pecking in the pigeon (shaping). The concept of drive, however, has largely disappeared from the current literature.

  12. Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Håkan; Wirell, Staffan; Ledin, Torbjörn; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle. Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge. Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

  13. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part I, A Framework for Teaching Economics: Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee; And Others

    A concise framework of basic concepts and generalizations for teaching economics for K-12 students is presented. The guide summarizes the basic structure and substance of economics and lists and describes economic concepts. Standard guidelines are provided to help school systems integrate economics into their on-going courses of study. Designed to…

  14. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  15. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  16. CEV Seat Layout Evaluation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-15

    Photographic documentation of the CEV Seat Layout Evaluation taken in the Orion mockup located in bldg 9NW, Johnson Space Center (JSC). Test subjects in orange Launch and Entry Suit (LES) is visible in the seat.

  17. Advanced functional thoracic imaging in children: from basic concepts to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-03-01

    The lungs and airways are organs involved in fairly complex body functions, including ventilation, perfusion, respiratory motion and gas exchange. Imaging evaluation of the pediatric thorax is challenging because involuntary, nonsynchronous respiratory motions and cardiac pulsations degrade image quality appreciably. The extraction of clinically useful functional information from noninvasive imaging methods has been realized even in children thanks to recent technical advancements in thoracic imaging modalities. In this article, advanced functional thoracic imaging techniques in children, focusing on CT and MRI, will be explored from basic concepts to clinical applications.

  18. Detection and quantification limits: basic concepts, international harmonization, and outstanding ("low-level") issues.

    PubMed

    Currie, L A

    2004-01-01

    A brief review is given of concepts, basic definitions, and terminology for metrological detection and quantification capabilities, representing harmonized recommendations and norms of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), respectively. Treatment of the (low-level) blank and variance function are discussed in some detail, together with special problems arising with detection decisions and the reporting of low-level data. Key references to the international documents follow, as well as specialized references addressing very low-level counting data, skewed environmental blank distributions, and multiple and multivariate detection decisions.

  19. Introduction to molecular topology: basic concepts and application to drug design.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge; Gálvez-Llompart, María; García-Domenech, Ramón

    2012-09-01

    In this review it is dealt the use of molecular topology (MT) in the selection and design of new drugs. After an introduction of the actual methods used for drug design, the basic concepts of MT are defined, including examples of calculation of topological indices, which are numerical descriptors of molecular structures. The goal is making this calculation familiar to the potential students and allowing a straightforward comprehension of the topic. Finally, the achievements obtained in this field are detailed, so that the reader can figure out the great interest of this approach.

  20. Illustrative presentation of some basic concepts of network internal reliability with comments as regards engineering surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    The paper integrates some earlier and the recent findings of the author in the area of network internal reliability and presents a consistent system of concepts in this respect. The concepts of outlier detection and outlier identification linked directly with the global model test and the outlier tests respectively, are shown as a basis for the concepts such as outlier detectability and outlier identifiability. Also, a four level classification of gross errors expressed in a form of a tree-diagram is presented including perceptible and imperceptible errors, detectable and undetectable errors and identifiable and unidentifiable errors. Their properties are given mainly in a descriptive way, deliberately limiting rigorous mathematical formulas to a necessary minimum. Understanding of different types of gross errors is useful in analyzing the results of the outlier detection and identification procedures as well as in designing the networks to make them duly robust to observation gross errors. It is of special importance for engineering surveys where quite often low-redundancy networks are used. Main objective of the paper is to demonstrate a clear and consistent system of basic concepts related to network internal reliability.

  1. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  2. Basic concepts in the taxonomy of health-related behaviors, habits and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-05-13

    Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  3. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  4. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  5. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  6. The Use of Games to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Number Concepts in Preschool Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea

    Group games were used to teach basic number concepts to educable mentally retarded children. The number concepts were integral but incidental to the intentional teaching of game skills. Subjects were 21 boys and 19 girls from eight classes, free of gross defects (means were IQ=66.22, age=7.9, mental age=5.11), and matched in pairs for…

  7. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  8. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture.

  9. Basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR-compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences, and 3-T field strength magnets allow high-quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

  10. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

  11. Hierarchical approaches to VLSI circuit layout

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrafzadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis studies two hierarchical approaches to the circuit-layout problem: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The first part is devoted to the traditional top-down approach, and particularly, to an important subproblem thereof called the Channel Routing Problem (CRP). The complexity of CRP in three different layout modes - the reserved mode, the knock-knee mode, and the restricted-overlap mode - is studied. Besides the conventional square grid, two new grids - the alternate grid and the 45/sup 0/ grid - are considered, and their respective versatility is assessed. In the second part, a novel bottom-up technique for solving the layout problem is proposed. The strategy is to recursively interconnect a set of modules, in conformity with the design rules. The basic step consists of merging a pair of strongly-connected modules. This technique is elaborated on and the fundamental problems of this approach are discussed.

  12. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  13. Diagnostic questionnaire of astronomy's basic concepts per integrated high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Barbosa, J. I.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Related themes to the study of astronomy permeates almost for all levels of education adopted in Brazil, however, this subject is not a specific discipline part of basic education curriculum, in other words, its contents are distributed in the subjects of Natural Sciences, Geography and Physics. This work presents a questionnaire diagnosis comprises a total of thirteen questions, which was applied to integrated high school students from four campuses of the Federal Institute of Alagoas - IFAL, and its purpose is to investigate the knowledge of these students astronomical basic concepts. The method used was survey and a total of 653 questionnaires were answered, 267 in the 1st year, 219 in 2nd year, and 167 in the 3rd year. This research is ongoing, however it can be initially noted that in ten questions the students of 1st year were below average (ie 50%), students of 2nd year fall short of this note in eight questions, and the students of the 3rd year, have not reached this note in five questions.

  14. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    SciTech Connect

    C.L. Linden

    2000-06-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

  15. A New Computer Program for Plant Layout Design - OPDEP Optimal Plant Design and Evaluation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    systematized technique of plant layout can be traced to "Systematic Layout Planning", by Richard Muther (1). He attempts to provide procedures with sufficient...11). This is the same basic assumption stated by Muther (1) in his previously mentioned book on plant layout. The author acknowledges that this may be...analysis and reasoning towards some optimum solution. REFERENCES 1. Muther , R. Systematic Layout Planning. Industrial Education Institute, Boston

  16. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  17. Economics of wind farm layout

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, A.C.; Bain, D.A.

    1997-12-31

    The life cycle cost of energy (COE) is the primary determinant of the economic viability of a wind energy generation facility. The cost of wind turbines and associated hardware is counterbalanced by the energy which can be generated. This paper focuses on the turbine layout design process, considering the cost and energy capture implications of potential spacing options from the viewpoint of a practicing project designer. It is argued that lateral spacings in the range of 1.5 to 5 diameters are all potentially optimal, but only when matched to wind resource characteristics and machine design limits. The effect of wakes on energy capture is quantified while the effect on turbine life and maintenance cost is discussed qualitatively. Careful optimization can lower COE and project designers are encouraged to integrate the concepts in project designs.

  18. Automatic page layout using genetic algorithms for electronic albuming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geigel, Joe; Loui, Alexander C. P.

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a flexible system for automatic page layout that makes use of genetic algorithms for albuming applications. The system is divided into two modules, a page creator module which is responsible for distributing images amongst various album pages, and an image placement module which positions images on individual pages. Final page layouts are specified in a textual form using XML for printing or viewing over the Internet. The system makes use of genetic algorithms, a class of search and optimization algorithms that are based on the concepts of biological evolution, for generating solutions with fitness based on graphic design preferences supplied by the user. The genetic page layout algorithm has been incorporated into a web-based prototype system for interactive page layout over the Internet. The prototype system is built using client-server architecture and is implemented in java. The system described in this paper has demonstrated the feasibility of using genetic algorithms for automated page layout in albuming and web-based imaging applications. We believe that the system adequately proves the validity of the concept, providing creative layouts in a reasonable number of iterations. By optimizing the layout parameters of the fitness function, we hope to further improve the quality of the final layout in terms of user preference and computation speed.

  19. PXIE Optics and Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Shteynas, B.G.; Solyak, N.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) will serve as a prototype for the Project X front end. The aim is to validate the Project-X design and to decrease technical risks mainly related to the front end. The paper discusses the main requirements and constraints motivating the facility layout and optics. Final adjustments to the Project X front end design, if needed, will be based on operational experience gained with PXIE.

  20. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  1. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  2. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Toward Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Debbané, Martin; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Wood, Stephen J.; Raballo, Andrea; Michel, Chantal; Schmidt, Stefanie J.; Kindler, Jochen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs) integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis. PMID:26858660

  3. Healing and edible clays: a review of basic concepts, benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Celso de Sousa Figueiredo

    2017-02-01

    The use of clay by humans for medicinal and wellness purposes is most probably as old as mankind. Within minerals, due to its ubiquitous occurrence in nature and easy availability, clay was the first to be used and is still used worldwide. Healing clays have been traditionally used by man for therapeutic, nutritional and skin care purposes, but they could impart some important health and skin care risks. For instance, clay particles could adsorb and make available for elimination or excretion any potential toxic elements or toxins being ingested or produced, but they could adsorb and make available for incorporation, through ingestion or through dermal absorption, toxic elements, e.g. heavy metals. Edible clays, a particular case of healing clays, have been traditionally used by man for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Geophagy, the deliberate soil eating, earth eating, clay eating and pica (medical condition or eating disorder shown by individuals addicted to eat earth substances), has been observed in all parts of the world since antiquity, reflecting cultural practice, religious belief and physiological needs, be they nutritional (dietary supplementation) or as a remedy for disease. This paper pretends to review historical data, basic concepts and functions, as well as benefits and risks of the use of healing clays, in general, for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes, and of edible clays, in particular, for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Basic concepts of epigenetics: impact of environmental signals on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2012-02-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins.

  5. [The Basic-Symptom Concept and its Influence on Current International Research on the Prediction of Psychoses].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Lutter, F

    2016-12-01

    The early detection of psychoses has become increasingly relevant in research and clinic. Next to the ultra-high risk (UHR) approach that targets an immediate risk of developing frank psychosis, the basic symptom approach that targets the earliest possible detection of the developing disorder is being increasingly used worldwide. The present review gives an introduction to the development and basic assumptions of the basic symptom concept, summarizes the results of studies on the specificity of basic symptoms for psychoses in different age groups as well as on studies of their psychosis-predictive value, and gives an outlook on future results. Moreover, a brief introduction to first recent imaging studies is given that supports one of the main assumptions of the basic symptom concept, i. e., that basic symptoms are the most immediate phenomenological expression of the cerebral aberrations underlying the development of psychosis. From this, it is concluded that basic symptoms might be able to provide important information on future neurobiological research on the etiopathology of psychoses.

  6. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  7. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  8. Transfer of Writing Skills: How the Concept of Transfer Can Help Teachers of ESL and Basic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Nathaniel

    The concept of transfer, which refers to the brain's ability to generalize or situations in which perceptions and behaviors are generalizable, can be of use to teachers of English as a second language (ESL) students and basic writers. What is called "writing across the curriculum" and most classroom writing instruction are based on unexamined…

  9. Mapping the Relationships among Basic Facts, Concepts and Application, and Common Core Curriculum-Based Mathematics Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Mercer, Sterett; Connell, James; Fiorello, Catherine; Kleinert, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence supporting the use of curriculum-based mathematics measures (M-CBMs) at the middle school level, which makes data-based decisions challenging for school professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among three existing M-CBM indices: (a) basic facts, (b) concepts/application, and (c)…

  10. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  11. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  12. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  13. The Development of a Diagnostic Test for Determining Secondary Students' Knowledge and Understanding of Certain Basic Language Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Coleen Rawson

    Problems encountered in evaluating the effectiveness of an English elective program indicated the need for the development of a criterion-referenced diagnostic test for determining students' knowledge and understanding of certain basic language concepts in the field of English. A survey of 76 English elective programs throughout the United States…

  14. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  15. Integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: a mixed-method study on teacher learning.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia C; Van Tartwijk, Jan; Bolk, Jan; Verloop, Nico

    2015-02-18

    The explication of relations between clinical and basic sciences can help vertical integration in medical curricula. Concept mapping might be a useful technique for this explication. Little is known about teachers' ability regarding the articulation of integration. We examined therefore which factors affect the learning of groups of clinicians and basic scientists on different expertise levels who learn to articulate the integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps. After a pilot for fine-tuning group size and instructions, seven groups of expert clinicians and basic scientists and seven groups of residents with a similar disciplinary composition constructed concept maps about a clinical problem that fit their specializations. Draft and final concepts maps were compared on elaborateness and articulated integration by means of t-tests. Participants completed a questionnaire on motivation and their evaluation of the instructions. ANOVA's were run to compare experts' and residents' views. Data from video tapes and notes were qualitatively analyzed. Finally, the three data sources were interpreted in coherence by using Pearson's correlations and qualitative interpretation. Residents outshone experts as regards learning to articulate integration as comparison of the draft and final versions showed. Experts were more motivated and positive about the concept mapping procedure and instructions, but this did not correlate with the extent of integration fond in the concept maps. The groups differed as to communication: residents interacted from the start (asking each other for clarification), whereas overall experts only started interaction when they had to make joint decisions. Our results suggest that articulation of integration can be learned, but this learning is not related to participants' motivation or their views on the instructions. Decision making and interaction, however, do relate to the articulation of integration and this suggests that teacher

  16. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  17. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  18. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  19. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  20. Reconstructing the Basic Concepts of General Relativity from an Educational and Cultural Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    Presents an example of a reconstruction of the debate concerning the foundations of general relativity on the basis of cultural and educational criteria. In particular, the debate is shown as guided by the concept of space and the different perspectives from which such a concept can be viewed. (Author/MM)

  1. Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

    Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

  2. Extensible layout in functional documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

    2006-02-01

    Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

  3. The Effect of Using an Educational Website in Achievement of Bachelor Students in the Course of Basic Concepts in Mathematics at Al al-Bayt University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to detect the effect of using an educational site on the Internet in the collection of bachelor's students in the course of basic concepts in mathematics at Al al-Bayt University, and the study sample consisted of all students in the course basic concepts in mathematics in the first semester of the academic year 2014/2015 and the…

  4. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  5. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  6. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  8. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  9. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  10. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  11. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  12. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  13. Using Feature Films to Integrate Themes and Concepts in the Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitter, Roger

    The typical textbook for the basic course fails to integrate the broad range of topics it introduces to the new student of communication. One way of addressing this problem would be to use feature films in the course, such as "Wall Street,""True Colors,""Other People's Money,""Milagro Beanfield War," and…

  14. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  15. Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2007-01-01

    A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

  16. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  17. Subjective Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Research and the Clinic: The Basic Symptom Concept

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    Recent focus on early detection and intervention in psychosis has renewed interest in subtle psychopathology beyond positive and negative symptoms. These are self-experienced subclinical disturbances termed basic symptoms (BS). The phenomenologies of BS and their development in the course of psychotic disorders will be described. PMID:19074497

  18. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  19. TopoLayout: multilevel graph layout by topological features.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Daniel; Munzner, Tamara; Auber, David

    2007-01-01

    We describe TopoLayout, a feature-based, multilevel algorithm that draws undirected graphs based on the topological features they contain. Topological features are detected recursively inside the graph, and their subgraphs are collapsed into single nodes, forming a graph hierarchy. Each feature is drawn with an algorithm tuned for its topology. As would be expected from a feature-based approach, the runtime and visual quality of TopoLayout depends on the number and types of topological features present in the graph. We show experimental results comparing speed and visual quality for TopoLayout against four other multilevel algorithms on a variety of data sets with a range of connectivities and sizes. TopoLayout frequently improves the results in terms of speed and visual quality on these data sets.

  20. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  1. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  2. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  3. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  4. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  5. The Effect of the Use of Number Lines Representations on Student Understanding of Basic Function Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James R.

    Researchers and educators are calling for increased use of technology and attention to function concepts in school mathematics. Students often have considerable difficulty gleaning pointwise and global information from Cartesian (R squared) representations of functions, whether they are hand- or machine-produced. Described here is an interactive…

  6. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  7. Students' Conceptions of Basic Ideas of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Kesidou, Sofia

    The focus of this study was to portray the ideas that students with four years experience in learning physics developed in regard to the second law of thermodynamics. Data were obtained through 34 clinical interviews with grade 10 students. An analysis of student arguments revealed deeply rooted difficulties in using concepts that were learned in…

  8. Basic Concepts and Techniques in Accounting for Spanish Speaking Students (Student's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Constanza

    Intended for limited-English Spanish-speaking adult students, this manual contains an eight-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Spanish with key terms/concepts (and occupation-related vocabulary) translated into English appearing immediately following the Spanish in parentheses. Examples are provided in English only. The information…

  9. Computer Graphics for Use in the Classroom to Illustrate Basic Concepts and Spatial Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    The computer packages of PLOTALL, SYMAP, SURFACE II, QUSMO, QUSMO2, QUCRS, and QUTAB are commercially available plotting programs that provide aids for visualizing spatial distributed data and concepts. The incremental drum and line printer plots communicate often vast and difficult-to-interpret tabular data with or without geographic coordinates.…

  10. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  11. PATCH: Its Origin, Basic Concepts, and Links to Contemporary Public Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.

    1992-01-01

    PATCH (Planned Approach to Community Health), a cooperative program of technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control, strengthens state and local health departments' capacities to plan, implement, and evaluate community-based health promotion activities for priority health problems. The article describes its origin, concepts, and…

  12. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  13. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  14. MoH 101: Basic Concepts in the Mechanics of Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Epp, Bastian; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-11-01

    We provide a synopsis of selected questions and answers from the second triennial Mechanics of Hearing 101 session held at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The MoH 101 session offers a non-intimidating forum for students, postdocs, and others new to the field to explore issues and ideas relevant to the Workshop. We have augmented the discussion content by giving some basic background and references.

  15. Introduction to the basics of evidence-based dentistry: concepts and skills.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Jane L

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this section of the ADA Champions Pre-Conference is to review the basics of Evidence-based dentistry (EBD), research designs and levels of evidence, and identify the skills necessary for clinicians to efficiently use an evidence-based approach in practice. This session of the pre-conference preceded the session on the skills needed to define a clinical question and search for the evidence to answer that question.

  16. Design & layout of recreation facilities

    Treesearch

    Howard R. Orr

    1971-01-01

    Design and layout of recreation facilities is a problem solving process that must be divorced from the emotionalism that has shrouded outdoor recreation and must deal deliberately with the growing information concerning people and natural resources.

  17. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-04-01

    An integrated inorganic chemistry laboratory experiment for first-year students in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is presented. It is based on copper sulfate and structured for a duration of about 10 hours, and has three steps: purification of a natural ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates, determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate, and recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. Many basic operations and concepts related to this experiment are studied: weighing; heating; filtration (simple and vacuum-assisted); purification; crystallization; pure compounds and mixtures; hydrated and anhydrous salts; solubility; unsaturated (dilute and concentrated), saturated, and supersaturated solutions; adsorbed and crystallization water; reversible dehydration; redox reaction; electrode potential; free energy; spontaneity; and catalysis.

  18. Reconstructing the Basic Concepts of General Relativity from an Educational and Cultural Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrini, Olivia

    Research in the history and philosophy of physics hasshown that the formalism of General Relativity can be interpreted in several different ways and,consequently, its teaching is very problematic. The present contribution is an example of a reconstruction of thedebate concerning the foundations of General Relativity on the basis of cultural and educational criteria.In particular, the debate will be presented as guided by the concept of space, and by the different perspectives from whichsuch a concept can be viewed. It will be pointed out that the various ways of looking at space give powerfulcriteria not only to create an order among the interpretations, but also to exploit the educational and culturalvalue of the debate.

  19. AOPA Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration October 17-19, 1996. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the Annual Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Convention in 1996. The demonstration consisted of an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft in which the participant took off, flew a brief enroute segment and then flew a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing. The participant was provided an advanced 'pathway-in-the-sky' presentation on both a head-up display and a head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 352 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 144 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 1850 hours total flight time. The performance of the participants was surprisingly good, considering the minimal training in a completely new system concept. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and reduction in pilot workload were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  20. Leukocyte Recruitment in Inflammation: Basic Concepts and New Mechanistic Insights Based on New Models and Microscopic Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Leick, Marion; Azcutia, Veronica; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2014-01-01

    The immune cell system is a critical component of host defense. Recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, immune reaction, or injury is complex and involves coordinated adhesive interactions between the leukocyte and the endothelial cell monolayer that lines blood vessels. This article will review basic mechanisms in the recruitment of leukocytes to tissues, and then selectively review new concepts that are emerging based on advances in live cell imaging microscopy and mouse strains. These emerging concepts are altering the conventional paradigms of inflammatory leukocyte recruitment established in the early 1990’s. Indeed, recent publications have identified previously unrecognized contributions from pericytes and interstitial leukocytes and their secreted products that guide leukocytes to their targets. It is also notable that investigators have begun to design organs on a chip. Recent reports indicate that this avenue of research holds much promise. PMID:24562377

  1. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  2. Implementation of educational video improves patient understanding of basic breast cancer concepts in an undereducated county hospital population.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Marcia E; Shirah, Gina R; Nodora, Jesse; Pond, Erika; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Klemens, Anne E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Komenaka, Ian K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a video on patient understanding of basic breast cancer concepts. An 11 item tool of breast cancer concepts was devised. A previous study obtained baseline information on patient knowledge. Subsequently an 8 min video was designed to facilitate the understanding of these concepts. The next 40 consecutive patients who saw the video were then administered the same 11 item questionnaire. Eighty-one women agreed to participate in the study, 41 before and 40 after the implementation of the video. Fifty-one percent had less than a high school education. The group who saw the video had a higher mean number of questions correct (6.7 vs. 8.9, P = 0.0007). Interestingly 90% of all respondents correctly answered the question on the value of screening mammography, however, only 37% of these patients underwent screening mammograms. A multiple linear regression model adjusting for years of education, language, and seeing the video, revealed that having seen the video (P = 0.0029) and years of education (P = 0.0002) remained significantly associated with higher score. Implementation of an educational video significantly improved understanding of breast cancer concepts in an undereducated population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-02-01

    This library provides a simple-to-use API for implementing an altnerative to traditional row-major order in-memory layout, one based on a Morton- order space filling curve (SFC) , specifically, a Z-order variant of the Morton order curve. The library enables programmers to, after a simple initialization step, to convert a multidimensional array from row-major to Z- order layouts, then use a single, generic API call to access data from any arbitrary (i,j,k) location from within the array, whether it it be stored in row- major or z-order format. The motivation for using a SFC in-memory layout is for improved spatial locality, which results in increased use of local high speed cache memory. The basic idea is that with row-major order layouts, a data access to some location that is nearby in index space is likely far away in physical memory, resulting in poor spatial locality and slow runtime. On the other hand, with a SFC-based layout, accesses that are nearby in index space are much more likely to also be nearby in physical memory, resulting in much better spatial locality, and better runtime performance. Numerous studies over the years have shown significant runtime performance gains are realized by using a SFC-based memory layout compared to a row-major layout, sometimes by as much as 50%, which result from the better use of the memory and cache hierarchy that are attendant with a SFC-based layout (see, for example, [Beth2012]). This library implementation is intended for use with codes that work with structured, array-based data in 2 or 3 dimensions. It is not appropriate for use with unstructured or point-based data.

  4. Back stress in dislocation creep. Part 1: Basic concepts and measuring techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadek, J.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is proposed whereby the plastic deformation of metal materials is determined by the difference between the applied stress and the back stress which characterizes the resistance of the material to plastic deformation. The back stress is usually equivalent to the internal stress or the friction stress and depends on the magnitude of the applied stress and temperature. The concept of back stress is applied to the case of the dislocation creep of precipitation-hardened or dispersion-strengthened metal materials. An additivity rule is formulated which can be useful in interpreting the creep behavior of such materials.

  5. Self-awareness: a review and analysis of a basic nursing concept.

    PubMed

    Eckroth-Bucher, Margie

    2010-01-01

    Self-awareness has long been addressed as fundamental for the professional nurse with the accepted view that self-awareness will lead to greater competence. Therefore, it is important to understand the historical evolution of the concept, attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Rodgers' evolutionary method was used for critical analysis of nursing, social sciences, and education literature. Analysis indicates that self-awareness is a dynamic, transformative process of self. Ultimately, self-awareness is the use of self-insights and presence knowingly to guide behavior that is genuine and authentic to create a healing interpersonal environment. Future research areas within practice and education are identified.

  6. Basic Concepts in the Stability Theory of Thin-walled Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guran, A.; Lebedev, L.

    2010-11-01

    Numerous specialized books and papers have been written about the subject of stability in mechanics. Most of these concentrate on methods for obtaining critical values of certain parameters, and typically contain algorithms and graphs generated for describing important but very specific problems. In the present paper we take a step back and discuss the truly central notions regarding mechanical stability. Our intention is to treat the required concepts on a fairly elementary level, while simultaneously offering a bit of useful historical perspective. We also attempt to explain some common discrepancies between theoretical and practical results.

  7. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups.

  8. Reconsideration of basic concepts for the low-pressure discharge maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivarova, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The Schottky condition and the concept for the ambipolar field known as bases of the low-pressure discharge maintenance are reconsidered. Whereas the Schottky condition results in a value of the electron temperature independent of the plasma density, the discussed generalized form of the Schottky condition relates - due to the nonlinear processes in the charged particle balance - the electron temperature to the plasma density, thus, ensuring self-consistency of the plasma description. The concept for equality of the electron and ion fluxes resulting into the ambipolar field is the second issue discussed. Localization of the power input outside the high plasma-density region, a common case in many rf plasma sources, breaks it down by transforming the ambipolar field into a vortex, non-conservative, field. Since the dc field in the discharge should be a potential (conservative) field, it appears to be composed by two vortex field: the ambipolar field and a field related to a vortex dc current, the latter driven by a deviation from the Boltzmann distribution of the electron density. In addition, due to the steady-state magnetic field self-induced by the vortex current in the discharge, the plasma appears magnetized without having an external magnetic field applied.

  9. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  10. Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    2013-06-01

    The design of inhomogeneous phantoms for diffuse optical imaging purposes using totally absorbing objects embedded in a diffusive medium is proposed and validated. From time-resolved and continuous-wave Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that a given or desired perturbation strength caused by a realistic absorbing inhomogeneity of a certain absorption and volume can be approximately mimicked by a small totally absorbing object of a so-called equivalent black volume (equivalence relation). This concept can be useful in two ways. First, it can be exploited to design realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with different perturbation strengths simply using a set of black objects with different volumes. Further, it permits one to grade physiological or pathological changes on a reproducible scale of perturbation strengths given as equivalent black volumes, thus facilitating the performance assessment of clinical instruments. A set of plots and interpolating functions to derive the equivalent black volume corresponding to a given absorption change is provided. The application of the equivalent black volume concept for grading different optical perturbations is demonstrated for some examples.

  11. Plasma in dentistry: a review of basic concepts and applications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.

  12. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  13. Repository Surface Design Site Layout Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD (Reference 5.5), including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  14. Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. Implementation of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) in basic scientific research: Translating the concept beyond regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Jena, G B; Chavan, Sapana

    2017-10-01

    The principles of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) are mainly intended for the laboratories performing studies for regulatory compliances. However, today GLP can be applied to broad disciplines of science to cater to the needs of the experimental objectives, generation of quality data and assay reproducibility. Considering its significance, it can now be applied in academics; industries as well as government set ups throughout the world. GLP is the best way to promote the reliability, reproducibility of the test data and hence facilitates the international acceptability. Now it is high time to translate and implement the concept of GLP beyond regulatory studies. Thus, it can pave the way for better understanding of scientific problems and help to maintain a good human and environmental health. Through this review, we have made an attempt to explore the uses of GLP principles in different fields of science and its acceptability as well as looking for its future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensorimotor integration: basic concepts, abnormalities related to movement disorders and sensorimotor training-induced cortical reorganization.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Cunha, Marlo; Velasques, Bruna; Minc, Daniel; Teixeira, Silmar; Domingues, Clayton A; Silva, Julio G; Bastos, Victor H; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2010-10-01

    Sensorimotor integration is defined as the capability of the central nervous system to integrate different sources of stimuli, and parallelly, to transform such inputs in motor actions. To review the basic principles of sensorimotor integration, such as, its neural bases and its elementary mechanisms involved in specific goal-directed tasks performed by healthy subjects, and the abnormalities reported in the most common movement disorders, such as, Parkinson' disease, dystonia and stroke, like the cortical reorganization-related mechanisms. Whether these disorders are associated with an abnormal peripheral sensory input or defective central processing is still unclear, but most of the data support a central mechanism. We found that the sensorimotor integration process plays a potential role in elementary mechanisms involved in specific goal-directed tasks performed by healthy subjects and in occurrence of abnormalities in most common movement disorders and, moreover, play a potential role on the acquisition of abilities that have as critical factor the coupling of different sensory data which will constitute the basis of elaboration of motor outputs consciously goal-directed.

  18. Revisiting preschoolers' living things concept: a microgenetic analysis of conceptual change in basic biology.

    PubMed

    Opfer, John E; Siegler, Robert S

    2004-12-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological action, but that few preschoolers realize that plants possess this capacity. To test the hypothesis, we taught 5-year-olds one of four biological facts and examined the children's subsequent categorization of life status for numerous animals, plants, and artifacts. As predicted, a large majority of 5-year-olds who learned that both plants and animals, but not artifacts, move in goal-directed ways inferred that both plants and animals, but not artifacts, are alive. These children were considerably more likely to draw this inference than peers who learned that the same plants and animals grow or need water and almost as likely to do so as children who were explicitly told that animals and plants are living things and that artifacts are not. Results also indicated that not all biological properties are extended from familiar animals to plants; some biological properties are first attributed to plants and then extended to animals.

  19. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  20. The historical origins of the basic concepts of health promotion and education: the role of ancient Greek philosophy and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tountas, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that the basic concepts of 'Health Promotion' have been developed in the last two decades, they have their roots in ancient civilizations and in particular in Greek antiquity. As evident from medical and philosophical documents of the sixth to fourth centuries B.C., the ancient Greeks were the first to break with the supernatural conceptions of health and disease that had so far dominated human societies. The ancient Greeks developed the physiocratic school of thought, realizing that maintaining good health and fighting illness depend on natural causes and that health and disease cannot be dissociated from particular physical and social environments nor from human behavior. In this context, they defined health as a state of dynamic equilibrium between the internal and the external environment, they took under consideration the physical and social determinants of health, they empowered individuals and communities through new democratic and participatory institutions, they gave emphasis in health education and skill development, they recognized the importance of supportive environments and of healthy public policy and they re-oriented medicine toward a more naturalistic and humanistic perspective. The aim of the present study is to highlight such core concepts from these early times that helped establishing the foundations for health promotion and education in the modern era according to the Ottawa Charter.

  1. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of SLMs in an integrated basic science curriculum has the potential to individualize the teaching and improve the learning of basic sciences.

  2. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  3. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  4. Thyroid hormone and cardiovascular system: from basic concepts to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Iervasi, Giorgio; Nicolini, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    Experimental and clinical findings strongly support the concept that thyroid hormone (TH) plays a fundamental role in the cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis. CV diseases represent a major public health care and economic problem being one of the principal causes of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization. In particular, chronic heart failure (HF) is one of the most common reasons for general practitioners consultations in people >65-70 years old. TH derangement may have a key role in the evolution process of HF. In HF, the main and earlier alteration of the thyroid function is referred to as "low-T3" syndrome characterized by the reduction in serum total T3 and free T3 with normal levels of thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH). This syndrome may affect till one-third of advanced HF patients. The main goal of this mini-review is to examine the main pathophysiological and clinical links between an altered thyroid metabolism and CV diseases, namely HF during progression of disease from organ specific to systemic disorder.

  5. Multiplexed microbead immunoassays by flow cytometry for molecular profiling: Basic concepts and proteomics applications.

    PubMed

    Krishhan, V V; Khan, Imran H; Luciw, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was originally established as an automated method for measuring optical or fluorescence characteristics of cells or particles in suspension. With the enormous increase in development of reliable electronics, lasers, micro-fluidics, as well as many advances in immunology and other fields, flow cytometers have become user-friendlier, less-expensive instruments with an increasing importance for both basic research and clinical applications. Conventional uses of flow cytometry include immunophenotyping of blood cells and the analysis of the cell cycle. Importantly, methods for labeling microbeads with unique combinations of fluorescent spectral signatures have made multiplex analysis of soluble analytes (i.e. the ability to detect multiple targets in a single test sample) feasible by flow cytometry. The result is a rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and reproducible detection technology for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring detection of proteins (in cells and biofluids) and nucleic acids. Thus, novel methods of flow cytometry are becoming important for diagnostic purposes (e.g. identifying multiple clinical biomarkers for a wide range of diseases) as well as for developing novel therapies (e.g. elucidating drug mechanisms and potential toxicities). In addition, flow cytometry for multiplex analysis, coupled with automated sample handling devices, has the potential to significantly enhance proteomics research, particularly analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins, on a large scale. Inherently, flow cytometry methods are strongly rooted in the laws of the physics of optics, fluidics, and electromagnetism. This review article describes principles and early sources of flow cytometry, provides an introduction to the multiplex microbead technology, and discusses its applications and advantages in comparison to other methods. Anticipated future directions, particularly for translational research in medicine, are also discussed.

  6. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  7. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  8. Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Flohé, Leopold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•− and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-κB and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

  9. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    SciTech Connect

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-06-08

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  10. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    SciTech Connect

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian E-mail: totzauer@mpp.mpg.de

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  11. Implementing a “choose your own adventure” method in teaching basic concepts of sound to primary-school teacher candidate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichteria Panjaitan, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The grasps of basic physics of sound of primary-school teacher candidates were examined. Ninety students of primary-school teacher candidate program participated in this study. The experimental group was introduced to the basic concept of sound teaching with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method using a daily-life story related to sound; and the control group received the same material with traditional lecture method. The result shows that the students taught with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method got better understanding on basic concepts of sound than students taught with traditional lecture method. The finding suggests that “Choose Your Own Adventure” method may be able to enhance students’ mastery on science especially on basic concepts of sound.

  12. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  13. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  14. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were…

  16. Perceiving Layout without Effective Schemas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Dale S.

    The processing of mental structures in perception appears to be serial, in that viewers can fill in missing parts from an impoverished stimulus following a top down process. To investigate the effects of unfamiliarity, complexity, and legibility on object and layout perception of unfamiliar stimuli, ten subjects were shown one of four ribbon…

  17. Cache-oblivious mesh layouts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-Eui; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Manocha, Dinesh

    2005-07-01

    We present a novel method for computing cache-oblivious layouts of large meshes that improve the performance of interactive visualization and geometric processing algorithms. Given that the mesh is accessed in a reasonably coherent manner, we assume no particular data access patterns or cache parameters of the memory hierarchy involved in the computation. Furthermore, our formulation extends directly to computing layouts of multi-resolution and bounding volume hierarchies of large meshes. We develop a simple and practical cache-oblivious metric for estimating cache misses. Computing a coherent mesh layout is reduced to a combinatorial optimization problem. We designed and implemented an out-of-core multilevel minimization algorithm and tested its performance on unstructured meshes composed of tens to hundreds of millions of triangles. Our layouts can significantly reduce the number of cache misses. We have observed 2-20 times speedups in view-dependent rendering, collision detection, and isocontour extraction without any modification of the algorithms or runtime applications.

  18. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career.

  19. Animal laboratory, interactive and computer based learning, in enhancing basic concepts in physiology: an outlook of 481 undergraduate medical students.

    PubMed

    Shore, Najla; Khawar, Shireen; Qutab, Miraa; Ayub, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are intended to illustrate concepts and add an active learning component to courses. Since 1980s, there has been a decline in animal laboratories in medical physiology courses. Other cost-effective non-aninmal alternatives are being sought. The present study was designed to find out the students' opinion regarding the animal versus computer lab and whether innovative teaching methodologies helped students achieve their goals. Opinions of 481 female in medical students of 2nd and 3rd year MBBS were included in the study. A questionnaire based on animal/computer based experiments and new teaching methodologies in physiology was voluntarily filled in by the students. Majority of students immensely benefited from both the animal lab and other teaching methodologies. Although computer based learning is considered effective in helping students acquire basic concepts, there is evidence that some students acquire a more thorough understanding of the material through more advanced and challenging experience of an animal laboratory. The fact that such labs as well various teaching methods offer distinct educational advantages should be taken into account when courses are designed.

  20. Graphic composite segmentation for PDF documents with complex layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Shi, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Converting the PDF books to re-flowable format has recently attracted various interests in the area of e-book reading. Robust graphic segmentation is highly desired for increasing the practicability of PDF converters. To cope with various layouts, a multi-layer concept is introduced to segment graphic composites including photographic images, drawings with text insets or surrounded with text elements. Both image based analysis and inherent digital born document advantages are exploited in this multi-layer based layout analysis method. By combining low-level page elements clustering applied on PDF documents and connected component analysis on synthetically generated PNG image document, graphic composites can be segmented for PDF documents with complex layouts. The experimental results on graphic composite segmentation of PDF document pages have shown satisfactory performance.

  1. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    PubMed

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user.

  2. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  3. Impact of data layouts on the efficiency of GPU-accelerated IDW interpolation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang; Tian, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of different data layouts on the computational efficiency of GPU-accelerated Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation algorithm. First we redesign and improve our previous GPU implementation that was performed by exploiting the feature of CUDA dynamic parallelism (CDP). Then we implement three versions of GPU implementations, i.e., the naive version, the tiled version, and the improved CDP version, based upon five data layouts, including the Structure of Arrays (SoA), the Array of Structures (AoS), the Array of aligned Structures (AoaS), the Structure of Arrays of aligned Structures (SoAoS), and the Hybrid layout. We also carry out several groups of experimental tests to evaluate the impact. Experimental results show that: the layouts AoS and AoaS achieve better performance than the layout SoA for both the naive version and tiled version, while the layout SoA is the best choice for the improved CDP version. We also observe that: for the two combined data layouts (the SoAoS and the Hybrid), there are no notable performance gains when compared to other three basic layouts. We recommend that: in practical applications, the layout AoaS is the best choice since the tiled version is the fastest one among three versions. The source code of all implementations are publicly available.

  4. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  5. Basic concepts of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Butcher, Darci T; Roifman, Maian; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2013-03-01

    Several types of epigenetic marks facilitate the complex patterning required for normal human development. These epigenetic marks include DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides, covalent modifications of histone proteins, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). They function in a highly orchestrated manner, regulating mitotically heritable differences in gene expression potential without altering the primary DNA sequence. In germ cells and the developing embryo, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming drives the erasure and reestablishment of correct epigenetic patterns at critical developmental time periods and in specific cell types. Two specific types of epigenetic regulation established in early development include X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting; they regulate gene expression in a dosage-dependent and parent-of-origin-specific manner, respectively. Both genetic and environmental factors impact epigenetic marks, generating phenotypic variation that ranges from normal variation to human disease. Aberrant epigenetic patterning can lead to a variety of human disorders, including subfertility and imprinting disorders.

  6. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  7. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  8. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  9. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  10. The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

  11. The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

  12. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 1. Statistical Analysis of a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 1 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught in the twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used. The study compared performance in five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A…

  13. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 1. Statistical Analysis of a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 1 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught in the twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used. The study compared performance in five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A…

  14. Basic Drafting: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The first of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 13 topics in the following units: introduction to drafting, general safety, basic tools and lines, major equipment, applying for a job, media, lettering, reproduction, drawing sheet layout, architect's scale usage, civil engineer's scale usage, mechanical engineer's scale usage,…

  15. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  16. On the suitability and development of layout templates for analog layout reuse and layout-aware synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Lopez, Rafael; Fernandez, Francisco V.; Rodriguez Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Accelerating the synthesis of increasingly complex analog integrated circuits is key to bridge the widening gap between what we can integrate and what we can design while meeting ever-tightening time-to-market constraints. It is a well-known fact in the semiconductor industry that such goal can only be attained by means of adequate CAD methodologies, techniques, and accompanying tools. This is particularly important in analog physical synthesis (a.k.a. layout generation), where large sensitivities of the circuit performances to the many subtle details of layout implementation (device matching, loading and coupling effects, reliability, and area features are of utmost importance to analog designers), render complete automation a truly challenging task. To approach the problem, two directions have been traditionally considered, knowledge-based and optimization-based, both with their own pros and cons. Besides, recently reported solutions oriented to speed up the overall design flow by means of reuse-based practices or by cutting off time-consuming, error-prone spins between electrical and layout synthesis (a technique known as layout-aware synthesis), rely on a outstandingly rapid yet efficient layout generation method. This paper analyses the suitability of procedural layout generation based on templates (a knowledge-based approach) by examining the requirements that both layout reuse and layout-aware solutions impose, and how layout templates face them. The ability to capture the know-how of experienced layout designers and the turnaround times for layout instancing are considered main comparative aspects in relation to other layout generation approaches. A discussion on the benefit-cost trade-off of using layout templates is also included. In addition to this analysis, the paper delves deeper into systematic techniques to develop fully reusable layout templates for analog circuits, either for a change of the circuit sizing (i.e., layout retargeting) or a change of

  17. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  18. Online medical journal article layout analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a physical and logical layout analysis algorithm, which is applied to segment and label online medical journal articles (regular HTML and PDF-Converted-HTML files). For these articles, the geometric layout of the Web page is the most important cue for physical layout analysis. The key to physical layout analysis is then to render the HTML file in a Web browser, so that the visual information in zones (composed of one or a set of HTML DOM nodes), especially their relative position, can be utilized. The recursive X-Y cut algorithm is adopted to construct a hierarchical zone tree structure. In logical layout analysis, both geometric and linguistic features are used. The HTML documents are modeled by a Hidden Markov Model with 16 states, and the Viterbi algorithm is then used to find the optimal label sequence, concluding the logical layout analysis.

  19. Layout techniques for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques are presented for solving circuit-layout problems. In particular, a channel-placement algorithm is first introduced to reduce the channel density (d) so that a channel router can complete the routing requirements in fewer tracks. A 4-layer channel-routing model is then formulated so that a general channel routing problem (CRP) with cyclic conflicts and long critical paths can be completed with d/2. Finally, the 4-layer, 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem needed to enhance the channel routing in general circuit layout is investigated from the graph-theoretical viewpoint. The channel-placement technique consists of two phases. Using the principle of decomposition, the initial placement phase effectively reduces the complexity of the problem and, therefore, improves the efficiency of the second phase, which is called the iterative improvement placement. The main feature of this phase is its hill-climbing ability to avoid being trapped at local minima. The combination of these two phases leads to an efficient technique for standard cell placement. To utilize multi-layer technology, a new 4-layer channel routing model is introduced to minimize the channel width of more-generalized CRP's. The 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem is transformed to an equivalent graph-theoretical problem.

  20. Rapid graph layout using space filling curves.

    PubMed

    Muelder, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    Network data frequently arises in a wide variety of fields, and node-link diagrams are a very natural and intuitive representation of such data. In order for a node-link diagram to be effective, the nodes must be arranged well on the screen. While many graph layout algorithms exist for this purpose, they often have limitations such as high computational complexity or node colocation. This paper proposes a new approach to graph layout through the use of space filling curves which is very fast and guarantees that there will be no nodes that are colocated. The resulting layout is also aesthetic and satisfies several criteria for graph layout effectiveness.

  1. Relation of student characteristics to learning of basic biochemistry concepts from a multimedia goal-based scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of several cognitive and demographic variables to learning outcomes from a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario lesson on DNA. The demographic variables under investigation were: gender, ethnicity, prior science coursework in college and high school, final score in current chemistry course and prior experience with computers. The cognitive variables under study were logical thinking ability, spatial ability and disembedding ability. The subjects for this study were a total of 525 college students enrolled in introductory chemistry classes for non-majors at one of four participating institutions in the U.S. and Canada. Of these participants, 488 formed the experimental group and 37 formed a control group. All subjects completed content pre- and post-tests, a demographic questionnaire and three cognitive tests: Test of Logical Thinking, Hidden Figures Test and Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test. Students in the experimental group used "Whodunnit?," a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario to teach basic biochemistry concepts pertaining to DNA, while students in the control group completed a similar paper-based activity. A combination of general linear models and linear regression analysis was used to examine the data obtained. Post-hoc analyses were conducted for categorical variables when they were found to be significant contributors to the model tested. The results showed that there was no relationship between gender or ethnicity and academic Outcomes. Prior science coursework completed in college did not show a relationship with post-test scores, although number of science courses completed in high school was a significant predictor of academic outcomes. A relationship was observed between course rank and learning outcomes, as students with final course grades in the upper quartile of the sample scored significantly higher on the post-test than all others. The amount of variance in outcomes explained by prior

  2. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  3. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  4. Optimized layout generator for microgyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.; Li, Shifeng; Logeeswaran, V. J.; Ng, David C.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents an optimized out-of-plane microgyroscope layout generator using AutoCAD R14 and MS ExcelTM as a first attempt to automating the design of resonant micro- inertial sensors. The out-of-plane microgyroscope with two degrees of freedom lumped parameter model was chosen as the synthesis topology. Analytical model for the open loop operating has been derived for the gyroscope performance characteristics. Functional performance parameters such as sensitivity are ensured to be satisfied while simultaneously optimizing a design objective such as minimum area. A single algorithm will optimize the microgyroscope dimensions, while simultaneously maximizing or minimizing the objective functions: maximum sensitivity and minimum area. The multi- criteria objective function and optimization methodology was implemented using the Generalized Reduced Gradient algorithm. For data conversion a DXF to GDS converter was used. The optimized theoretical design performance parameters show good agreement with finite element analysis.

  5. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  6. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  7. Staking Terraces Online: A Terrace Layout Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Terrace construction in Missouri exceeded 3 million feet at a cost of over $8 million in 2008. Up to 50 % of the total construction and design time is spent on the terrace layout itself. A web-based computer program, MOTERR, has been developed to design terrace layouts. The program utilizes digital ...

  8. Study on the general layout of semi-submersible offshore drilling platforms based on process flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ji-Xiang; Qi, Yao-Guang; Xiao, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Pu

    2009-06-01

    The general layout of 6th generation semi-submersible drilling platforms is the main factor impacting the efficiency of their drilling operations. This paper provides a compound/integrated algorithm based on process flow that is aimed at improving efficiency, while giving attention to stability and safety at the same time. The paper describes the process flow of dual drilling centers and a hierarchical division of rigs based on the different modes of transportation of various drilling support systems. The general layout-centripetal overall arrangement spatially was determined based on drilling efficiency. We derived our modules according to drilling functionality; the modules became our basic layout units. We applied different layout algorithm to mark out the upper and lower decks. That is, the upper deck was designed based on the lowest transportation cost while the lower deck’s calculations were based on the best-fit scope. Storage configurations in columns and pontoons were also considered for the layout design. Finally the center of gravity was taken into consideration and the general layout was adjusted accordingly, to result in an optimal center of gravity. The methodology of the general layout can provide a reference for implementation of domestic designs of semi-submersible rigs.

  9. [August Weismann's concept of germ plasma as the basic reason for the inadequacy of neo-Darwinism].

    PubMed

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Darwinism is a result of synthesis of Darwinian concept of natural selection with Weismannian concept of germ plasma. The concept of germ plasma is based on a hypothesis that phenotypic traits are completely determined by genes. Hence, neo-Darwinism describes evolution as a process of alternation of gene frequencies under the effect of natural selection. This is an inadequate approach to the study of evolution. In the course of evolution, genes change their functions, whereas phenotypic characters change their corresponding genes. As a result, every step of evolutionary transformation changes the structure of phenotype-to-genotype correspondence. Therefore, phenotypic evolution cannot be described in genetic terms, the same as to human languages cannot be translated one into another whenever the meaning of words is constantly changing. Consequently, Weismannian germ-plasma concept adequately describes the relation of characters to genes only during stasis, but is inapplicable to evolution.

  10. Luminaire layout: Design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report was presented during the discussion regarding guidelines for PAR uniformity in greenhouses. The data shows a lighting uniformity analysis in a research greenhouse for rose production at the Cornell University campus. The luminaire layout was designed using the computer program Lumen-Micro. After implementation of the design, accurate measurements were taken in the greenhouse and the uniformity analysis for both the design and implementation were compared. A study of several supplemental lighting installations resulted in the following recommendations: include only the actual growing area in the lighting uniformity analysis; for growing areas up to 20 square meters, take four measurements per square meter; for growing areas above 20 square meters, take one measurement per square meter; use one of the uniformity criteria and frequency graphs to compare lighting uniformity amongst designs; and design for uniformity criterion of a least 0.75 and the fraction within +/- 15% of the average PAR value should be close to one.

  11. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  12. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation with asymmetrical exits layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hao; Guan, Hongzhi; Shao, Chunfu; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of pedestrian evacuation from a room with asymmetrical exit layout is presented based on the improved Dynamic Parameter Model in this paper. A special technique is introduced to compute two basic dynamic parameters: Direction- parameter and Empty- parameter considering the effects of pedestrian jam around exits and the width of exits on evacuation path selection in order to reduce evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits layout. Two new coefficients: cognition coefficient and imbalance coefficient are introduced to respectively describe pedestrian cognitive ability and the layout imbalance of exits. The simulation results of the improved and original models are compared and analyzed. Simulation results show that evacuation time depends on the cognition coefficient and imbalance coefficient under normal evacuation condition with reasonable pedestrian. It is also found that there are phase transitions and critical points in the simulation curves of evacuation time against cognition coefficient and that the pedestrian flow shows distinctive characteristics at different phases. The values of critical cognition coefficient points depend on the initial pedestrian density and imbalance coefficient.

  13. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  14. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  15. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  16. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  17. Using the All-Volunteer Concept in Adult Basic Education to Serve the Hard to Reach Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockbrader, Golda

    Based on a successful project in Nebraska, this manual was developed for use in establishing a structured all-volunteer adult basic education (ABE) program in small communities or satellite locations. The greater part of the manual covers the various steps a volunteer leader should follow to establish this kind of program, beginning with a section…

  18. Basic Conceptual Systems (BCSs)--Tools for Analytic Coding, Thinking and Learning: A Concept Teaching Curriculum in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The role of basic conceptual systems (for example, colour, shape, size, position, direction, number, pattern, etc.) as psychological tools for analytic coding, thinking, learning is emphasised, and a proposal for a teaching order of BCSs in kindergarten and primary school is introduced. The first part of this article explains briefly main aspects…

  19. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  20. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  1. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  2. Exploration of an E-Learning Model to Foster Critical Thinking on Basic Science Concepts during Work Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Jobsis, Rijn; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2009-01-01

    We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at…

  3. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  4. Hi-trees and their layout.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  5. Diamond MOSFET: An innovative layout to improve performance of ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Salvador Pinillos

    2010-12-01

    A new planar MOSFET structure is proposed through a simple layout change, which modifies the gate geometric shape from rectangular to hexagonal in order to use the "corner effect concept" to enhance the resultant longitudinal (parallel) electric field, drift velocity of mobile carriers in the channel, drain current, transconductance, Early voltage and on-resistance in comparison to the equivalent conventional parameters. This paper is conceptual and performs a comparative analyzes between conventional and Diamond Partially-Depleted SOI nMOSFETs by 3D numerical simulations to understand the advantages and disadvantages of this innovative device compared to the conventional counterpart, keeping the same gate area, geometric factor and bias conditions. A simple analytical model for the drain current was proposed and tested for the Diamond transistor. Since we found better results of the Diamond SOI nMOSFETs we believe that, this innovative layout can be a new alternative for analog and digital integrated circuit applications for whatever area it may be needed, without any extra burden to the current technology. This layout approach can also be applied for any planar or 3D transistors technologies.

  6. A new sensitivity model with blank space for layout optimization*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junping; Wu, Yao; Liu, Shigang; Xing, Runsen

    2017-06-01

    As the technology scales advancing into the nanometer region, the concept of yield has become an increasingly important design metric. To reduce the yield loss caused by local defects, layout optimization can play a critical role. In this paper, we propose a new open sensitivity-based model with consideration of the blank space around the net, and study the corresponding net optimization. The proposed new model not only has a high practicability in the selection of nets to be optimized but also solves the issue of the increase in short critical area brought during the open optimization,which means to reduce the open critical area with no new short critical area produced, and thereby this model can ensure the decrease of total critical area and finally achieves an integrative optimization. Compared with the models available, the experimental results show that our sensitivity model not only consumes less time with concise algorithm but also can deal with irregular layout, which is out of the scope of other models. At the end of this paper, the effectiveness of the new model is verified by the experiment on the randomly selected five metal layers from the synthesized OpenSparc circuit layout.

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  8. A Research Project on Higher Education. Investigations into the Learning and Teaching of Basic Concepts in Economics. No. 54. (1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Marton, Ference

    A progress report on a research project directed toward facilitating deeper understanding of economic concepts at the university level is presented. The purposes of the project are to explore phenomena conceptualization and to investigate why some students are more successful at a learning task than other students. In the analysis of a…

  9. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  10. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  11. Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.

    PubMed

    Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

    1985-01-01

    In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  13. Non-Manhattan layout extraction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkhozhina, Aziza; Ahmadullin, Ildus; Allebach, Jan P.; Lin, Qian; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Hunter, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Automated publishing requires large databases containing document page layout templates. The number of layout templates that need to be created and stored grows exponentially with the complexity of the document layouts. A better approach for automated publishing is to reuse layout templates of existing documents for the generation of new documents. In this paper, we present an algorithm for template extraction from a docu- ment page image. We use the cost-optimized segmentation algorithm (COS) to segment the image, and Voronoi decomposition to cluster the text regions. Then, we create a block image where each block represents a homo- geneous region of the document page. We construct a geometrical tree that describes the hierarchical structure of the document page. We also implement a font recognition algorithm to analyze the font of each text region. We present a detailed description of the algorithm and our preliminary results.

  14. Application of layout DOE in RET flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; van Adrichem, Paul; Li, Ji; Yang, Amy; Lucas, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    At low k1 lithography and strong off-axis illumination, it is very hard to achieve edge-placement tolerances and 2-D image fidelity requirements for some layout configurations. Quite often these layouts are within simple design rules constraint for a given technology node. Evidently it is important to have these layouts included during early RET flow development. Simple shrinkage from previous technology node is quite common, although often not enough. For logic designs, it is hard to control design styles. Moreover for engineers in fabless design groups, it is difficult to assess the manufacturability of their layouts because of the lack of understanding of the litho process. Assist features (AF) are frequently placed according to pre-determined rules to improve lithography process window. These rules are usually derived from lithographic models. Direct validation of AF rules is required at development phase.To ensure good printability through process window, process aware optical proximity correction (OPC) recipes were developed. Generally rules based correction is performed before model based correction. Furthermore, there are also lots of other options and parameters in OPC recipes for an advanced technology, thus making it difficult to holistically optimize performance of recipe bearing all these variables in mind. In this paper we demonstrate the application of layout DOE in RET flow development. Layout pattern libraries are generated using the Synopsys Test Pattern Generator (STPG), which is embedded in a layout tool (ICWB). Assessment gauges are generated together with patterns for quick correction accuracy assessment. OPC verification through full process is also deployed. Several groups of test pattern libraries for different applications are developed, ranging from simple 1D pattern for process capability study and settings of process aware parameters to a full set of patterns for the assessment of rules based correction, line end and corner interaction

  15. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  16. Automatic layout of structured hierarchical reports.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Eirik; Karger, David R; Miller, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Domain-specific database applications tend to contain a sizable number of table-, form-, and report-style views that must each be designed and maintained by a software developer. A significant part of this job is the necessary tweaking of low-level presentation details such as label placements, text field dimensions, list or table styles, and so on. In this paper, we present a horizontally constrained layout management algorithm that automates the display of structured hierarchical data using the traditional visual idioms of hand-designed database UIs: tables, multi-column forms, and outline-style indented lists. We compare our system with pure outline and nested table layouts with respect to space efficiency and readability, the latter with an online user study on 27 subjects. Our layouts are 3.9 and 1.6 times more compact on average than outline layouts and horizontally unconstrained table layouts, respectively, and are as readable as table layouts even for large datasets.

  17. Automatic layout and visualization of biclusters

    PubMed Central

    Grothaus, Gregory A; Mufti, Adeel; Murali, TM

    2006-01-01

    Background Biclustering has emerged as a powerful algorithmic tool for analyzing measurements of gene expression. A number of different methods have emerged for computing biclusters in gene expression data. Many of these algorithms may output a very large number of biclusters with varying degrees of overlap. There are no systematic methods that create a two-dimensional layout of the computed biclusters and display overlaps between them. Results We develop a novel algorithm for laying out biclusters in a two-dimensional matrix whose rows (respectively, columns) are rows (respectively, columns) of the original dataset. We display each bicluster as a contiguous submatrix in the layout. We allow the layout to have repeated rows and/or columns from the original matrix as required, but we seek a layout of the smallest size. We also develop a web-based search interface for the user to query the genes and samples of interest and visualise the layout of biclusters matching the queries. Conclusion We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach on gene expression data for two types of leukaemia and on protein-DNA binding data for two growth conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The software implementing the layout algorithm is available at . PMID:16952321

  18. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  19. Diabetes and vascular disease: basic concepts of nitric oxide physiology, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Capellini, Verena K; Celotto, Andrea C; Baldo, Caroline F; Olivon, Vania C; Viaro, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Evora, Paulo R B

    2010-07-01

    The vascular manifestations associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) result from the dysfunction of several vascular physiology components mainly involving the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and platelets. It is also known that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a role in the development of this dysfunction. This review considers the basic physiology of the endothelium, especially related to the synthesis and function of nitric oxide. We also discuss the pathophysiology of vascular disease associated with DM. This includes the role of hyperglycemia in the induction of oxidative stress and the role of advanced glycation end-products. We also consider therapeutic strategies.

  20. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Topics in US: B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology.

    PubMed

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been used in medical imaging for over half a century. Current US scanners are based largely on the same basic principles used in the initial devices for human imaging. Modern equipment uses a pulse-echo approach with a brightness-mode (B-mode) display. Fundamental aspects of the B-mode imaging process include basic ultrasound physics, interactions of ultrasound with tissue, ultrasound pulse formation, scanning the ultrasound beam, and echo detection and signal processing. Recent technical innovations that have been developed to improve the performance of modern US equipment include the following: tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, extended field of view imaging, coded pulse excitation, electronic section focusing, three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging, and the general trend toward equipment miniaturization. US is a relatively inexpensive, portable, safe, and real-time modality, all of which make it one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine. Although B-mode US is sometimes referred to as a mature technology, this modality continues to experience a significant evolution in capability with even more exciting developments on the horizon.

  1. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  3. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  4. [The concept of basic therapy of chronic polyarthritis with D-penicillamine: clinical experiences over 10 years].

    PubMed

    Hohmeister, R

    1988-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic lifelong disease, facts which must be considered when concepts of therapy are developed. This paper reports retrospectively analyzed results of long-term therapy using D-penicillamine. One-hundred-sixteen patients were selected for critical analysis from among 257 treated patients. Judgment was made according to the parameters: inflammation activity, radiological progression, remission rate, clinical outcome-measurement. The results show that the clinical course of the disease is influenced by the treatment and they confirm the need for long-term therapy with an emphasis on immunomodulation.

  5. User-friendly design approach for analog layout design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Lee, Zhao Chuan; Tripathi, Vikas; Perez, Valerio; Ong, Yoong Seang; Hui, Chiu Wing

    2017-03-01

    Analog circuits are sensitives to the changes in the layout environment conditions, manufacturing processes, and variations. This paper presents analog verification flow with five types of analogfocused layout constraint checks to assist engineers in identifying any potential device mismatch and layout drawing mistakes. Compared to several solutions, our approach only requires layout design, which is sufficient to recognize all the matched devices. Our approach simplifies the data preparation and allows seamless integration into the layout environment with minimum disruption to the custom layout flow. Our user-friendly analog verification flow provides the engineer with more confident with their layouts quality.

  6. Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration at Annual NATA Convention, March 24-26, 1997. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the annual National Air Transportation Association (NATA) Convention in 1997. Following a 5-minute introductory briefing, an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft was conducted. The participant was able to take off, fly a brief enroute segment, fly a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing, and repeat the approach and landing segment. The participant was provided an advanced "highway-in-the-sky" presentation on both a simulated head-up display and on a large LCD head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single-lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 100 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 68 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 6089 hours total flight time. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and use of the head-up display were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  7. Model-based multiple patterning layout decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daifeng; Tian, Haitong; Du, Yuelin; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2015-10-01

    As one of the most promising next generation lithography technologies, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) plays an important role in the attempts to keep in pace with 10 nm technology node and beyond. With feature size keeps shrinking, it has become impossible to print dense layouts within one single exposure. As a result, MPL such as double patterning lithography (DPL) and triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been widely adopted. There is a large volume of literature on DPL/TPL layout decomposition, and the current approach is to formulate the problem as a classical graph-coloring problem: Layout features (polygons) are represented by vertices in a graph G and there is an edge between two vertices if and only if the distance between the two corresponding features are less than a minimum distance threshold value dmin. The problem is to color the vertices of G using k colors (k = 2 for DPL, k = 3 for TPL) such that no two vertices connected by an edge are given the same color. This is a rule-based approach, which impose a geometric distance as a minimum constraint to simply decompose polygons within the distance into different masks. It is not desired in practice because this criteria cannot completely capture the behavior of the optics. For example, it lacks of sufficient information such as the optical source characteristics and the effects between the polygons outside the minimum distance. To remedy the deficiency, a model-based layout decomposition approach to make the decomposition criteria base on simulation results was first introduced at SPIE 2013.1 However, the algorithm1 is based on simplified assumption on the optical simulation model and therefore its usage on real layouts is limited. Recently AMSL2 also proposed a model-based approach to layout decomposition by iteratively simulating the layout, which requires excessive computational resource and may lead to sub-optimal solutions. The approach2 also potentially generates too many stiches. In this

  8. Current concepts of immune based treatments for patients with HCC: from basic science to novel treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Greten, Tim F; Wang, Xin W; Korangy, Firouzeh

    2015-05-01

    The recent approval of two immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of malignant melanoma has sparked great interest by physicians and basic scientists searching for novel therapeutics for GI cancer. Chronic inflammation is recognised as a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and makes this type of cancer a potentially ideal target for an immune based treatment approach. Further evidence for a critical role of immune responses in patients with HCC is derived from the fact that immune signatures and profiles predict patients' outcome as well as the fact that tumour-induced spontaneous antitumour immunity can be detected. In addition ablative therapies can lead to changes in the number, phenotype and function of different immune cell subsets, which correlate with patients' survival. Various HCC-specific mouse models have been developed, which improve our understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis and tumour-immune cell interactions, and lead to the development of novel immune based treatment approaches, which are currently being evaluated in preclinical and in early clinical settings. Immune checkpoint blockade along with adoptive immune cell therapy and vaccine approaches are currently being evaluated either alone or in combination with other treatments. Here, we provide an overview for the rationale of immunotherapy in HCC, summarise ongoing studies and provide a perspective for immune based approaches in patients with HCC.

  9. Process window aware layout optimization using hot spot fixing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kyoh, Suigen; Kotani, Toshiya; Inoue, Soichi

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of Hot Spot Fixing (HSF) system in DfM flow is studied and reported. Hot spot fixing using process simulation is indispensable under low-k1 lithography process for logic devices with advanced design rule (DR). Hot spot such as pinching, bridging, line-end shortening will occur, mainly depending on local pattern context. Proper calibration of DR, mask data preparation (MDP), resolution enhancement technique (RET) and optical proximity effect correction (OPC) will reduce potential hot spots. However, pattern layout variety is so enormous that, even with most careful calibration of every process, unexpected potential hot spots are occasionally left in the design layout 1-2. OPC optimization is useful for maximizing common process margin, but it cannot expand individual pattern's process margin without modification of design layout. So, at an early design stage, hot spot extraction using lithography compliance check (LCC) and manual modification of design at hot spots will be a simple and useful method. The problem is that, it is difficult to determine how to modify layout in order to be consistent with DR, MDP/OPC rule. For proper layout modification, intimate knowledge of the entire process would be necessary, and moreover, the modification work often tends to be iterative, and thus time-consuming. Therefore, using our automated HSF system in the cell design stage and also the chip design stage is helpful for fixing design layout while avoiding fatal hot spot occurrence, with enough process margin and also with short turnaround time (TAT) 3-4. The basic system flow in the developed system is as follows; LCC extracts potential hot spots, and the hot spots are categorized by lithography error mode, grade, and surrounding context. And then, hot spot modification instructor, taking the surrounding situation into consideration, generates modification guide for every hot spot. Design data is automatically modified according to the instruction at every hot

  10. Treatment of Depression From a Self-Regulation Perspective: Basic Concepts and Applied Strategies in Self-System Therapy.

    PubMed

    Strauman, Timothy J; Eddington, Kari M

    2017-02-01

    Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression. Second, we describe how self-regulatory concepts and processes from those two theories have been translated into psychosocial interventions, focusing specifically on self-system therapy (SST), a brief structured treatment for depression that targets personal goal pursuit. Two randomized controlled trials have shown that SST is superior to cognitive therapy for depressed clients with specific self-regulatory deficits, and both studies found evidence that SST works in part by restoring adaptive self-regulation. Self-regulation-based psychotherapeutic approaches to depression hold significant promise for enhancing treatment efficacy and ultimately may provide an individualizable framework for treatment planning.

  11. Cells, scaffolds and bioreactors for tissue-engineered heart valves: a journey from basic concepts to contemporary developmental innovations.

    PubMed

    Gandaglia, Alessandro; Bagno, Andrea; Naso, Filippo; Spina, Michele; Gerosa, Gino

    2011-04-01

    The development of viable and functional tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) is a challenge that, for almost two decades, the scientific community has been committed to face to create life-lasting prosthetic devices for treating heart valve diseases. One of the main drawbacks of tissue-based commercial substitutes, xenografts and homografts, is their lack of viability, and hence failure to grow, repair, and remodel. In adults, the average bioprostheses life span is around 13 years, followed by structural valve degeneration, such as calcification; in pediatric, mechanical valves are commonly used instead of biological substitutes, as in young patients, the mobilization of calcium, due to bone remodeling, accelerates the calcification process. Moreover, neither mechanical nor bioprostheses are able to follow children's body growth. Cell seeding and repopulation of acellular heart valve scaffolds, biological and polymeric, appears as a promising way to create a living valve. Biomechanical stimuli have significant impact on cell behavior including in vitro differentiation, and physiological hemodynamic conditioning has been found to promote new tissue development. These concepts have led scientists to design bioreactors to mimic the in vivo environment of heart valves. Many different types of somatic and stem cells have been tested for colonizing both the surface and the core of the valve matrix but controversial results have been achieved so far.

  12. Logical and layout structures of documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickel, Jürgen

    1990-11-01

    Document preparation systems are commonly layout oriented in that way that the user interactively creates and modifies frames for text, mathematical formulas, raster or geometric graphics, etc. For batch-oriented systems the user manipulates the process of formatting by inserting control commands into the plain text. These modify the position or graphic aspect of the following text portion. Many systems provide a macro mechanism to combine lengthy and repeatedly used control commands to macros, with the result that the text is interpersed with macrocalls. Macro calls. Macro calls are often logical delimiters. They subdivide the plain text into a linear of document objects, which forms the linear description of the logical document structure similar to a tree. It must be mentioned that in most systems there is no direct support or representation of the logical document structure. The logical structure exists only in the author's mind and the author himself compiles the logical document objects and their hierarchical relationship to physical layout representation. More flexiblw and interactively formatting editors for structured document preparation presuppose a strong distinction of logical and layout structure and incorporate a formal description of the mapping, how the layout is derived from the logical structure. The logical structure is an enriched tree-oriented representation, in which between pbjects are constrained by grammatical specification. The layout structures define the layout relationships on the physical pages of the document and they are also constrained by grammatical spedifications. Another goal is to define the mapping well known as formatting by high-level specification for classes of documents, in order to be able to generate automatically formatting editors by high-level specifications.

  13. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  14. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  15. Layout and Design in "Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Janet; Stocker, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Educators are required to combine their expertise and allow students to explore the different areas by using the method of collaboration in which teachers from different disciplines will create an environment where each will use their expert skills. The collaboration of a computer teacher with an art teacher resulted in the creation of Layout and…

  16. Interactive layout mechanisms for image database retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    MacCuish, J.; McPherson, A.; Barros, J.; Kelly, P.

    1996-01-29

    In this paper we present a user interface, CANDID Camera, for image retrieval using query-by-example technology. Included in the interface are several new layout algorithms based on multidimensional scaling techniques that visually display global and local relationships between images within a large image database. We use the CANDID project algorithms to create signatures of the images, and then measure the dissimilarity between the signatures. The layout algorithms are of two types. The first are those that project the all-pairs dissimilarities to two dimensions, presenting a many-to-many relationship for a global view of the entire database. The second are those that relate a query image to a small set of matched images for a one-to-many relationship that provides a local inspection of the image relationships. Both types are based on well-known multidimensional scaling techniques that have been modified and used together for efficiency and effectiveness. They include nonlinear projection and classical projection. The global maps are hybrid algorithms using classical projection together with nonlinear projection. We have developed several one-to-many layouts based on a radial layout, also using modified nonlinear and classical projection.

  17. Trends in Newspaper Layout and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiley, Kenneth C.; Erb, Lyle L.

    With the increasing competition from television in recent years, the newspaper industry has finally realized that it doesn't have the news field as its sole domain. The competition, especially from colored television, and the fast pace of contemporary society have influenced the layout and printing format of the national newspapers in several…

  18. Representation and Perception of Scenic Layout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanocki, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive approach to on-line spatial perception within scenes. A theoretical framework is developed, based on the idea that experience with a scene can activate a complex representation of layout that facilitates subsequent processing of spatial relations within the scene. The representations integrate significant, relevant…

  19. Interactive layout mechanisms for image database retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCuish, John; McPherson, Allen; Barros, Julio E.; Kelly, Patrick M.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a user interface, CANDID Camera, for image retrieval using query- by-example technology. Included in the interface are several new layout algorithms based on multidimensional scaling techniques that visually display global and local relationships between images within a large image database. We use the CANDID project algorithms to create signatures of the images, and then measure the dissimilarity between the signatures. The layout algorithms are of two types. The first are those that project the all-pairs dissimilarities to two dimensions, presenting a many-to-many relationship for a global view of the entire database. The second are those that relate a query image to a small set of matched images for a one-to-many relationship that provides a local inspection of the image relationships. Both types are based on well-known multidimensional scaling techniques that have been modified and used together for efficiency and effectiveness. They include nonlinear projection and classical projection. The global maps are hybrid algorithms using classical projection together with nonlinear projection. We have developed several one-to-many layouts based on a radial layout, also using modified nonlinear and classical projection.

  20. You Be the Judge: Newspaper Advertising Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The learning package is designed to provide the marketing educator with a culminating activity for an instructional unit focusing on advertising layout principles and procedures. It is to be used in conjunction with 35mm slides of newspaper advertisements, which the student views and rates in comparison with the ratings of a panel of experts. A…

  1. Layout and Design in "Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Janet; Stocker, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Educators are required to combine their expertise and allow students to explore the different areas by using the method of collaboration in which teachers from different disciplines will create an environment where each will use their expert skills. The collaboration of a computer teacher with an art teacher resulted in the creation of Layout and…

  2. Stereoscopic layout of a perspective flight guidance display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Matthias; Muecke, Stephan K. M.; Mayer, Udo

    1997-05-01

    Analyses of aviation accidents ascribe about 75% of all incidents to human (pilot) behavior. A strong effort is being made to improve ergonomic cockpit layout, because of dramatic changes in the airspace structure, the increase in air traffic, and larger aircraft. One part of an interdisciplinary research project investigates the potential of stereoscopic flight-guidance displays in order to improve pilots' situation awareness. This experimental approach, which aims to research and apply ergonomic design recommendations for stereoscopic flight displays, is based upon a new type of perspective flight-guidance display. The examination of existing research regarding stereoscopic flight displays reveals a lack of basic knowledge, as well as a need for further systematic research into cockpit application. Thus the project contains experiments on different levels of abstraction, ranging from classic parameter experiments to flight simulator tests. Both current knowledge and recent discoveries are applied to superimposed 2-D flight parameters and to real and synthetic 3-D elements, such as a perspective landscape, other airplanes or flight prediction. The stereoscopic layout takes into consideration specific informational needs within different flight phases and is evaluated by means of pilot performance and pilot strain. Selected symbols of the flight guidance display and actual results are presented as examples of the research approach.

  3. A comparison of user-generated and automatic graph layouts.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Lee, Bongshin; Fisher, Danyel; Quinn, Kori Inkpen; Isenberg, Petra; Robertson, George; North, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this paper compares user-generated and automatic graph layouts. Following the methods suggested by van Ham et al. (2008), a group of users generated graph layouts using both multi-touch interaction on a tabletop display and mouse interaction on a desktop computer. Users were asked to optimize their layout for aesthetics and analytical tasks with a social network. We discuss characteristics of the user-generated layouts and interaction methods employed by users in this process. We then report on a web-based study to compare these layouts with the output of popular automatic layout algorithms. Our results demonstrate that the best of the user-generated layouts performed as well as or better than the physics-based layout. Orthogonal and circular automatic layouts were found to be considerably less effective than either the physics-based layout or the best of the user-generated layouts. We highlight several attributes of the various layouts that led to high accuracy and improved task completion time, as well as aspects in which traditional automatic layout methods were unsuccessful for our tasks.

  4. Simultaneous optimization of micro-heliostat geometry and field layout using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazardjani, Mani Yousefpour; Kronhardt, Valentina; Dikta, Gerhard; Göttsche, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    A new optimization tool for micro-heliostat (MH) geometry and field layout is presented. The method intends simultaneous performance improvement and cost reduction through iteration of heliostat geometry and field layout parameters. This tool was developed primarily for the optimization of a novel micro-heliostat concept, which was developed at Solar-Institut Jülich (SIJ). However, the underlying approach for the optimization can be used for any heliostat type. During the optimization the performance is calculated using the ray-tracing tool SolCal. The costs of the heliostats are calculated by use of a detailed cost function. A genetic algorithm is used to change heliostat geometry and field layout in an iterative process. Starting from an initial setup, the optimization tool generates several configurations of heliostat geometries and field layouts. For each configuration a cost-performance ratio is calculated. Based on that, the best geometry and field layout can be selected in each optimization step. In order to find the best configuration, this step is repeated until no significant improvement in the results is observed.

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  6. Layout of the Super-FRS target hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E.; Weick, H.; Achenbach, B.; Behr, K.-H.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Geissel, H.; Gleim, M.; Karagiannis, C.; Kelic, A.; Kratz, A.; Radon, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Winkler, M.

    2008-10-01

    The fragment separator Super-FRS is an important part of the planned international facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). The high intensity heavy ion beams with a beam power of up to 40 kW for uranium require strong shielding of the area and safe handling of the components in the beamline. As the primary beam may be dumped at many positions along the separator the whole first part of the Super-FRS will be located in a dedicated target hall. The layout of this target hall is presented in this paper. The combination of iron and concrete for the biological shielding is determined by dose rate calculations with a radiation transport code (FLUKA) which can also treat heavy ions and predict dose rates after activation. The resulting layout foresees a compact iron shielding surrounded by many meters of concrete shielding. A plug system is used to insert devices into the beamline. A crane can transport these plugs to a nearby hot cell. The thickness of the inner shielding was adjusted to reduce the calculated dose rate on a working platform after a short waiting time to enable hands-on maintenance. Very important for the handling concept is the predicted activation of the devices inserted into the beam and of the shielding material itself.

  7. Wiring knock-knee layouts: A global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Wagner, Dorothea; Wagner, Frank; Weihe, Karsten

    1994-05-01

    We present a global approach to solve the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts. In general, the problem is NP-complete. Only for very restricted classes of layouts polynomial three-layer wiring algorithms are known up to now. In this paper, we show that for a large class of layouts a three-layer wiring can be constructed by solving a path problem in a special class of graphs or a two-satisfiability problem, and thus may be wired in time linear in the size of the layout area. Moreover, it is shown that a minimum stretching of the layout into a layout belonging to this class can be found by solving a clique cover problem in an interval graph. This problem is solvable in time linear in the size of the layout area as well. Altogether, the method also yields a good heuristic for the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts.

  8. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  9. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  10. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  11. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts...

  12. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  13. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  14. Some Basic Considerations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Hursh, Daniel E.

    This paper indicates underlying philosophic assumptions which are compatible with the behavior analysis approach to child development. Four issues taken into consideration are (a) biology and environment, (b) structure and function, (c) traits and situations, and (d) mechanistic and organismic approaches to development. The following ideas…

  15. [Basic concepts of radiology physics].

    PubMed

    Gambini, D-J

    2010-11-01

    An x-ray tube mainly emits low-energy X-rays, with few maximum energy E₀ (equal in keV to the voltage U in kV) x-rays. Aluminium filtration (mandatory minimum thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 mm based on tube voltage) reduces soft X-rays and provides a mean energy equal to 2/3 E₀. The half value layer of a reference material characterizes the spectrum. X-ray attenuation in tissues is due to secondary electron interactions: photoelectric effect at low-energy, especially in dense materials with high Z number; compton effect at intermediate-energy, proportional to density. The optimization of acquisition parameters of a medically necessary examination is based on appropriate selection of the highest voltage (U in kV) providing the best contrast and lowest tube current (Q in mAs) providing a diagnostic image.

  16. Blood pressure regulation: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Guyton, A C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Jackson, T E; Kastner, P R

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we have attempted to explain the difference between proportional pressure control systems and the renal-blood volume-pressure control mechanism, which is an infinite gain pressure control system. Because of this infinite gain of the kidney mechanism, this mechanism has the capability of returning arterial pressure all the way back to the control leve. Furthermore, this mechanism can override the other pressure control mechanisms because of its extreme control capability. On the other hand, the renal-blood volume mechanism for pressure control itself be controlled by many other factors. These other factors are said to change the pressure "set-point" level of the renal system, and then the renal system automatically brings the pressure to the set-point level. It is especially noteworthy, however, that some of the factors that play extreme roles in short-term pressure control-such as heart strength, vascular capacity, and total peripheral resistance-will not alter the long-term arterial pressure level (unless they in some way concurrently alter the set-point of the kidney mechanism).

  17. BASIC CONCEPTS OF CONTAMINANT SORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of ISSUE PAPERS and BRIEFING DOCUMENTS which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  18. Basic insurance concepts for dentists.

    PubMed

    Hagglund, C E; Weimer, B D; Weeding, W C

    1997-06-01

    Dentists cannot afford to be ignorant about insurance. Insurance is an important risk-management tool, minimizing the exposure for catastrophic claims and losses. Patient insurance is also a major source of revenue for most dental practices.

  19. Basic Concepts of Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Ted; Fuhriman, Addie

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of systems analysis to social and behavioral science as well as machine and non-machine systems. Presents rationale, principles, techniques, and advantages and disadvantages. (CJ)

  20. Basic concepts in environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenthun, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    This book covers regulations pertaining to air, land, and water resources. The fundamentals of environmental legislation, including US codes, public laws, and regulations are examined. Methods for conducting environmental assessments are presented. This book offers guidance on writing environmental impact statements. Attention is focused on issues related to toxic and hazardous materials and waste. Preventative safety measures are also included.

  1. Center for Shape Optimization and Material Layout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    that eventually participate in the optimal layout for non -self-adjoint problems . Currently, these microstructures are worked out numerically [6...the fourth order problem arising in the theory of plates. 1.2 The Fourth Order Problems Direct Approach in the Optimal Design of Plates. The state of... constraint set. In fact, the constraint set is not only nonlinear, its also non -smooth, and even non - convex . Worst of all, we do not even have an analytic

  2. Document Template for Printed Circuit Board Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.T.; /Fermilab

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the information that may be required to properly specify a printed circuit board (PCB) design. You must provide sufficient information to the PCB layout vendor such that they can quote accurately and design the PCB that you need. Use the following information as a guide to write your specification. Include as much of it as is necessary to get the PCB design that you want.

  3. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  4. Numerical optimization of illumination and mask layout for the enlargement of process windows and for the control of photoresist profiles in proximity printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motzek, Kristian; Partel, Stefan; Vogler, Uwe; Erdmann, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Although proximity printing is the oldest and, in view of the basic optical setup, simplest photolithographic technique, it still remains in heavy use in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The fact that this technique exists for a long time does not mean that there is no more room for improvements or new applications. Lending concepts developed for modern projection scanners and steppers and adapting them for our purposes, we demonstrate how numerical simulation and optimization can help to make the proximity printing process more stable against process variations and to increase the resolution for critical features. For this purpose, we numerically optimize the angular spectrum of the illumination and the mask layout. Furthermore, we couple the optimization of the optical degrees of freedom to the simulation of photoresist development to assess the effects of changes to the illumination and mask on the final photoresist profile.

  5. Association of the Spatial Layout of the Home and ADL Abilities Among Older Adults With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S.; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Samus, Quincy M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between architectural space syntax measures describing the spatial layout of a home and activities of daily living (ADL) among people with dementia. We visited the homes of 82 participants in a dementia care comparative effectiveness clinical trial and measured the space syntax variables intelligibility and convexity along with several clinical variables, including ADLs. In regression models, we estimated the cross-sectional association between space syntax measures and ADLs. Higher convexity was associated with worse performance of basic but not instrumental ADLs (adjusted β = 19.2, P = .02). Intelligibility was not associated with ADLs. These results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home resulting in better basic ADL performance. These results warrant further research on space syntax measures in the home environment of people with dementia, including longitudinal study, which we are pursuing. PMID:21282278

  6. Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.

    PubMed

    Grover, P K; Cummins, A G; Price, T J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Hardingham, J E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastatic relapse and this has fuelled interest in their detection and quantification. Although numerous methods have been developed for the enrichment and detection of CTCs, none has yet reached the 'gold' standard. Since epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment of CTCs offers several advantages, it is one of the most commonly used and has been adapted for high-throughput technology. However, emerging evidence suggests that CTCs are highly heterogeneous: they consist of epithelial tumour cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells, hybrid (epithelial/EMT(+)) tumour cells, irreversible EMT(+) tumour cells, and circulating tumour stem cells (CTSCs). The EpCAM-based approach does not detect CTCs expressing low levels of EpCAM and non-epithelial phenotypes such as CTSCs and those that have undergone EMT and no longer express EpCAM. Thus, the approach may lead to underestimation of the significance of CTCs, in general, and CTSCs and EMT(+) tumour cells, in particular, in cancer dissemination. Here, we provide a critical review of research literature on the evolving concept of CTCs and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based technology for basic and clinical cancer research. The review also outlines future perspectives in the field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.

  8. The layout of a bacterial genome.

    PubMed

    Képès, François; Jester, Brian C; Lepage, Thibaut; Rafiei, Nafiseh; Rosu, Bianca; Junier, Ivan

    2012-07-16

    Recently the mismatch between our newly acquired capacity to synthetize DNA at genome scale, and our low capacity to design ab initio a functional genome has become conspicuous. This essay gathers a variety of constraints that globally shape natural genomes, with a focus on eubacteria. These constraints originate from chromosome replication (leading/lagging strand asymmetry; gene dosage gradient from origin to terminus; collisions with the transcription complexes), from biased codon usage, from noise control in gene expression, and from genome layout for co-functional genes. On the basis of this analysis, lessons are drawn for full genome design.

  9. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings.

  10. Adjoint Optimization of Wind Plant Layouts

    DOE PAGES

    King, Ryan N.; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; ...

    2016-08-31

    Using adjoint optimization and three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations, we present a new gradient-based approach for optimally siting wind turbines within utility-scale wind plants. By solving the adjoint equations of the flow model, the gradients needed for optimization are found at a cost that is independent of the number of control variables, thereby permitting optimization of large wind plants with many turbine locations. Moreover, compared to the common approach of superimposing prescribed wake deficits onto linearized flow models, the computational efficiency of the adjoint approach allows the use of higher-fidelity RANS flow models which can capture nonlinear turbulent flowmore » physics within a wind plant. The RANS flow model is implemented in the Python finite element package FEniCS and the derivation of the adjoint equations is automated within the dolfin-adjoint framework. Gradient-based optimization of wind turbine locations is demonstrated on idealized test cases that reveal new optimization heuristics such as rotational symmetry, local speedups, and nonlinear wake curvature effects. Layout optimization is also demonstrated on more complex wind rose shapes, including a full annual energy production (AEP) layout optimization over 36 inflow directions and 5 windspeed bins.« less

  11. Adjoint Optimization of Wind Plant Layouts

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan N.; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Hamlington, Peter E.

    2016-08-31

    Using adjoint optimization and three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations, we present a new gradient-based approach for optimally siting wind turbines within utility-scale wind plants. By solving the adjoint equations of the flow model, the gradients needed for optimization are found at a cost that is independent of the number of control variables, thereby permitting optimization of large wind plants with many turbine locations. Moreover, compared to the common approach of superimposing prescribed wake deficits onto linearized flow models, the computational efficiency of the adjoint approach allows the use of higher-fidelity RANS flow models which can capture nonlinear turbulent flow physics within a wind plant. The RANS flow model is implemented in the Python finite element package FEniCS and the derivation of the adjoint equations is automated within the dolfin-adjoint framework. Gradient-based optimization of wind turbine locations is demonstrated on idealized test cases that reveal new optimization heuristics such as rotational symmetry, local speedups, and nonlinear wake curvature effects. Layout optimization is also demonstrated on more complex wind rose shapes, including a full annual energy production (AEP) layout optimization over 36 inflow directions and 5 windspeed bins.

  12. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Bhaskar, Gaikwad; Singh, J K

    2009-01-01

    Tractors in low-income countries are used both for farm and non-farm activities. Most of the tractors being manufactured in India are products of collaboration with other countries. The design of tractors manufactured in India has not changed much in the past five decades especially from an ergonomics point of view, because of economic considerations. This paper describes a tractor control layout assessment with respect to the Indian population and compares the location of controls with workspace envelopes and the IS12343 standard for commonly used tractors on Indian farms. Controls like steering, foot clutch, foot brake, foot accelerator are located in areas defined by IS12343 standard in some tractors but these are not placed in the workspace envelopes of the Indian population. This results in a mismatch between the workspace envelope and location of controls as defined by the standard. The controls need a complete change in their layout to be in the workspace envelopes, as this cannot be achieved by providing seat movement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present tractor design.

  13. Lossless compression of VLSI layout image data.

    PubMed

    Dai, Vito; Zakhor, Avideh

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel lossless compression algorithm called Context Copy Combinatorial Code (C4), which integrates the advantages of two very disparate compression techniques: context-based modeling and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) style copying. While the algorithm can be applied to many lossless compression applications, such as document image compression, our primary target application has been lossless compression of integrated circuit layout image data. These images contain a heterogeneous mix of data: dense repetitive data better suited to LZ-style coding, and less dense structured data, better suited to context-based encoding. As part of C4, we have developed a novel binary entropy coding technique called combinatorial coding which is simultaneously as efficient as arithmetic coding, and as fast as Huffman coding. Compression results show C4 outperforms JBIG, ZIP, BZIP2, and two-dimensional LZ, and achieves lossless compression ratios greater than 22 for binary layout image data, and greater than 14 for gray-pixel image data.

  14. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

  15. DFM viewpoints of cell-level layout assessments and indications for concurrent layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chung-Min; Yeh, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Yi-Kan; Klaver, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Design-for-manufacturing (DFM) is becoming an actual design practice among IC manufacturers, designers and EDA companies. Layout assessment by design-rule-check (DRC) using EDA tools is a common practice today to ensure well-manufactured design geometries. Standalone DFM tools, which require iteration loops of DFM analysis and fixing, do not fit well in design flows and are considered cumbersome. A better layout assessment method for DFM issues is required: one that gives actionable feedback, and that can be used with automatic optimization in early design stages. The latter is needed to avoid costly design re-spins that will consume critical time-to-market as well as use a lot of engineering resources, reticles and wafer material costs. For example, a DFM checking tool may report the hotspot types and locations, but this information is not sufficient for designers to decide tradeoffs between different fixing choices and to take care of trade-off between physical and electrical design constraints at the same time. When model-based properties are introduced such as lithographic contour, the tradeoffs between rule-based and model-based properties can only be resolved by the automatic and concurrent optimization. This work demonstrates a methodology of DFM scoring of layout based on preferred rules compliance, lithography GATE printability, as well as the layout fixing. The electrical impact on gates is analyzed and showed reduced variability (compared to nominal behavior) in gate performance. Designers can get visual feedback of the layout quality, as well as improvement suggestions. Takumi TKE software is used to demonstrate automatic and concurrent optimization. The method applies to both cell-level and custom designs.

  16. Identification of nonclassical properties of light with multiplexing layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Eckstein, A.; Clements, W. R.; Moore, M.; Renema, J. J.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Nam, S. W.; Lita, A.; Gerrits, T.; Walmsley, I. A.; Agarwal, G. S.; Vogel, W.

    2017-07-01

    In Sperling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 163602 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.163602], we introduced and applied a detector-independent method to uncover nonclassicality. Here, we extend those techniques and give more details on the performed analysis. We derive a general theory of the positive-operator-valued measure that describes multiplexing layouts with arbitrary detectors. From the resulting quantum version of a multinomial statistics, we infer nonclassicality probes based on a matrix of normally ordered moments. We discuss these criteria and apply the theory to our data which are measured with superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our experiment produces heralded multiphoton states from a parametric down-conversion light source. We show that the known notions of sub-Poisson and sub-binomial light can be deduced from our general approach, and we establish the concept of sub-multinomial light, which is shown to outperform the former two concepts of nonclassicality for our data.

  17. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    SciTech Connect

    Cronje, J. M.; Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    above grade. This is an improvement to conventional reactor design since it prevents failures of multiple trains during floods or fires and other external events. The main control room is located below grade, with a remote shutdown room in a different quadrant. All defense in depth systems are placed on the nuclear island, primarily above grade, while the safety systems are located on lower floors. The economics of the Westinghouse SMR challenges the established approach of large Light Water Reactors (LWR) that utilized the economies of scale to reach economic competitiveness. To serve the market expectation of smaller capital investment and cost competitive energy, a modular design approach is implemented within the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR building layout integrates the three basic design constraints of modularization; transportation, handling and module-joining technology. (authors)

  18. Automatic page composition with nested sub-layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of a system for the automatic composition of publications. The system first composes nested hierarchies of contents, then applies layout engines at branch points in the hierarchies to explore layout options, and finally selects the best overall options for the finished publications. Although the system has been developed as a general platform for automated publishing, this paper describes its application to the composition and layout of a magazine-like publication for social content from Facebook. The composition process works by assembling design fragments that have been populated with text and images from the Facebook social network. The fragments constitute a design language for a publication. Each design fragment is a nested mutable sub-layout that has no specific size or shape until after it has been laid-out. The layout process balances the space requirements of the fragment's internal contents with its external context in the publication. The mutability of sub-layouts requires that their layout options must be kept open until all the other contents that share the same space have been considered. Coping with large numbers of options is one of the greatest challenges in layout automation. Most existing layout methods work by rapidly elimination design options rather than by keeping options open. A further goal of this publishing system is to confirm that a custom publication can be generated quickly by the described methods. In general, the faster that publications can be created, the greater the opportunities for the technology.

  19. Characterization and decomposition of self-aligned quadruple patterning friendly layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Du, Yuelin; Wong, Martin D. F.; Topaloglu, Rasit O.

    2012-03-01

    Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) lithography is one of the major techniques for the future process requirement after 16nm/14nm technology node. In this paper, based on the existing knowledge of current 193nm lithography and process flow of SAQP, we will process an early study on the definition of SAQP-friendly layout. With the exploration of the feasible feature regions and possible combinations of adjacent features, we will define several simple but important geometry rules to help define the SAQP-friendliness. Then, we will introduce a conflicting graph algorithm to generate the feature region assignment for SAQP decomposition. Our experimental results validate our SAQP-friendly layout definition, and basic circuit building blocks in the low level metal layer are analyzed.

  20. Optimal Sensor Layouts in Underwater Locomotory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Retrieving and understanding global flow characteristics from local sensory measurements is a challenging but extremely relevant problem in fields such as defense, robotics, and biomimetics. It is an inverse problem in that the goal is to translate local information into global flow properties. In this talk we present techniques for optimization of sensory layouts within the context of an idealized underwater locomotory system. Using techniques from fluid mechanics and control theory, we show that, under certain conditions, local measurements can inform the submerged body about its orientation relative to the ambient flow, and allow it to recognize local properties of shear flows. We conclude by commenting on the relevance of these findings to underwater navigation in engineered systems and live organisms.

  1. Progressive classification scheme for document layout recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillon, Julian; Pujol, Jaume; Zeger, Kenneth

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, we present a progressive classification scheme for a document layout recognition system using three stages. The first stages, preprocessing, extracts statistical information that may be used for background detection and removal. The second stage, a tree based classified, uses a variable block size and a set of probabilistic rules to classify segmented blocks that are independently classified. The third, state, postprocessing, uses the label map generated in the second state with a set of context rules to label unclassified blocks, trying also to solve some of the misclassification errors that may have been generated during the previous stage. The progressive scheme used in the second and third stages allows the user to stop the classification process at any block size, depending on this requirements. Experiments show that a progressive scheme combined with a set of postprocessing rules increases the percentage of correctly classified blocks and reduces the number of block computations.

  2. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  3. A quantitative model for designing keyboard layout.

    PubMed

    Shieh, K K; Lin, C C

    1999-02-01

    This study analyzed the quantitative relationship between keytapping times and ergonomic principles in typewriting skills. Keytapping times and key-operating characteristics of a female subject typing on the Qwerty and Dvorak keyboards for six weeks each were collected and analyzed. The results showed that characteristics of the typed material and the movements of hands and fingers were significantly related to keytapping times. The most significant factors affecting keytapping times were association frequency between letters, consecutive use of the same hand or finger, and the finger used. A regression equation for relating keytapping times to ergonomic principles was fitted to the data. Finally, a protocol for design of computerized keyboard layout based on the regression equation was proposed.

  4. The Aurora Project: A new sail layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Brusa, Eugenio

    1999-05-01

    Aurora spacecraft is a scientific probe propelled by a "fast" solar sail whose first goal is to perform a technology assessment mission. The main characteristic of the sail is its low mass, which implies the absence of a plastic backing of the aluminum film and the lightness of the whole structure. In previous structural studies the limiting factor has been shown to be the elastic stability of a number of structural members subject to compressive loads. An alternative structural layout is here suggested: an inflatable beam, which is kept pressurized also after the deployment, relieves all compressive stresses, allowing a very simple configuration and a straightforward deployment procedure. However, as the mission profile requires a trajectory passing close to the Sun, a configuration different from the 'parachute' sail proposed in another paper, must be used.

  5. Printed circuit board layout by microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausman, E. W.

    1983-12-01

    Printed circuit board artwork is usually prepared manually because of the unavailability of computer-aided-design tools. This thesis presents the design of a microcomputer based printed circuit board layout system that is easy to use and cheap. Automatic routing and component placement routines will significantly speed up the process. The design satisfies the following requirements: Microcomputer implementation, portable, algorithm independent, interactive, and user friendly. When it is fully implemented a user will be able to select components and a board outline from an automated catalog, enter a schematic diagram, position the components on the board, and completely route the board from a single graphics terminal. Currently, the user interface and the outer level command processor have been implemented in Pascal. Future versions will be written in C for better portability.

  6. CMOS VLSI Layout and Verification of a SIMD Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Jianqing

    1996-01-01

    A CMOS VLSI layout and verification of a 3 x 3 processor parallel computer has been completed. The layout was done using the MAGIC tool and the verification using HSPICE. Suggestions for expanding the computer into a million processor network are presented. Many problems that might be encountered when implementing a massively parallel computer are discussed.

  7. Layout and cabling considerations for a large communications antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Layout considerations for a large deep space communications antenna array are discussed. A fractal geometry for the antenna layout is described that provides optimal packing of antenna elements, efficient cable routing, and logical division of the array into identical sub-arrays.

  8. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  9. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica"…

  10. Issues in Text Design and Layout for Computer Based Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…

  11. Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE): An efficient optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Navid; Sabaghzadeh, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    For finding the optimum layout of spacecraft subsystems, important factors such as the center of gravity, moments of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies, etc. should be taken into account. This large number of effective parameters makes the optimum layout process of spacecraft subsystems complex and time consuming. In this paper, an automatic tool, based on multi-objective optimization methods, is proposed for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems. In this regard, an efficient Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE) is produced by integration of some modeling, FEM, and optimization software. SCALE automatically provides optimal solutions for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems with considering important constraints such as center of gravity, moment of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies and structural strength. In order to show the superiority and efficiency of SCALE, layout of a telecommunication spacecraft and a remote sensing spacecraft are performed. The results show that, the objective functions values for obtained layouts by using SCALE are in a much better condition than traditional one i.e. Reference Baseline Solution (RBS) which is proposed by the engineering system team. This indicates the good performance and ability of SCALE for finding the optimal layout of spacecraft subsystems.

  12. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  13. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  14. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  15. Game level layout generation using evolved cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Andrew; Masek, Martin; Lam, Chiou-Peng; Hingston, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Design of level layouts typically involves the production of a set of levels which are different, yet display a consistent style based on the purpose of a particular level. In this paper, a new approach to the generation of unique level layouts, based on a target set of attributes, is presented. These attributes, which are learned automatically from an example layout, are used for the off-line evolution of a set of cellular automata rules. These rules can then be used for the real-time generation of level layouts that meet the target parameters. The approach is demonstrated on a set of maze-like level layouts. Results are presented to show the effect of various CA parameters and rule representation.

  16. Topology-optimized metasurfaces: impact of initial geometric layout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianji; Fan, Jonathan A

    2017-08-15

    Topology optimization is a powerful iterative inverse design technique in metasurface engineering and can transform an initial layout into a high-performance device. With this method, devices are optimized within a local design phase space, making the identification of suitable initial geometries essential. In this Letter, we examine the impact of initial geometric layout on the performance of large-angle (75 deg) topology-optimized metagrating deflectors. We find that when conventional metasurface designs based on dielectric nanoposts are used as initial layouts for topology optimization, the final devices have efficiencies around 65%. In contrast, when random initial layouts are used, the final devices have ultra-high efficiencies that can reach 94%. Our numerical experiments suggest that device topologies based on conventional metasurface designs may not be suitable to produce ultra-high-efficiency, large-angle metasurfaces. Rather, initial geometric layouts with non-trivial topologies and shapes are required.

  17. Exact solution for the optimal neuronal layout problem.

    PubMed

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B

    2004-10-01

    Evolution perfected brain design by maximizing its functionality while minimizing costs associated with building and maintaining it. Assumption that brain functionality is specified by neuronal connectivity, implemented by costly biological wiring, leads to the following optimal design problem. For a given neuronal connectivity, find a spatial layout of neurons that minimizes the wiring cost. Unfortunately, this problem is difficult to solve because the number of possible layouts is often astronomically large. We argue that the wiring cost may scale as wire length squared, reducing the optimal layout problem to a constrained minimization of a quadratic form. For biologically plausible constraints, this problem has exact analytical solutions, which give reasonable approximations to actual layouts in the brain. These solutions make the inverse problem of inferring neuronal connectivity from neuronal layout more tractable.

  18. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, R.; Ghiglino, A.; de Vicente, J. P.; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Perlado, J. M.; Bermejo, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final keff value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  19. The Concept of Common Training: A Comparison of Military Qualification Standards 2 with Selected Past Officer Basic Course Programs of Instruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    This pilot study analysed 8 programs of instrucLion and 5 common cores for past officer basic courses and compared them to the 1988 Military...Kelvin Dale Crow. USA. 181 pages. This pilot study analyzed eight programs of instruction (POI) and five common cores for past officer basic courses...training record to see if it can be of use in providing for the training of today’s lieutenant. -- 1- This paper documents a pilot study of the officer

  20. Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Psychological Stress and Related Concepts in the Context of the Marine Corps Basic Training Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    indicated by the studies of affect (Booth & Hoiberg, 1973). While this change suggests that stress may have a positive effect on recruits, training stress...basic training and the effects of specific stresses in those processes. This report describes the initial phases of a program of research to detail...project toward a realistic de- scription of the development process for both positive and negative effects of stress in basic training. These

  1. Surrogate based wind farm layout optimization using manifold mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja Kamaludeen, Shaafi M.; van Zuijle, Alexander; Bijl, Hester

    2016-09-01

    High computational cost associated with the high fidelity wake models such as RANS or LES serves as a primary bottleneck to perform a direct high fidelity wind farm layout optimization (WFLO) using accurate CFD based wake models. Therefore, a surrogate based multi-fidelity WFLO methodology (SWFLO) is proposed. The surrogate model is built using an SBO method referred as manifold mapping (MM). As a verification, optimization of spacing between two staggered wind turbines was performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology and the performance was compared with that of direct optimization using high fidelity model. Significant reduction in computational cost was achieved using MM: a maximum computational cost reduction of 65%, while arriving at the same optima as that of direct high fidelity optimization. The similarity between the response of models, the number of mapping points and its position, highly influences the computational efficiency of the proposed method. As a proof of concept, realistic WFLO of a small 7-turbine wind farm is performed using the proposed surrogate based methodology. Two variants of Jensen wake model with different decay coefficients were used as the fine and coarse model. The proposed SWFLO method arrived at the same optima as that of the fine model with very less number of fine model simulations.

  2. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  3. ITER plant layout and site services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuyanov, V. A.

    2000-03-01

    The ITER site has not yet been determined. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electrical power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, demineralized water, steam and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radiation exposure of workers and the public. To prevent interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographical centre of the site. The locations of the buildings on the generic site were selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach was used to determine the locations of services above, at and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography, resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment.

  4. Lossless compression algorithm for hierarchical IC layout data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2007-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). While OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it also significantly increases IC layout file size. This has the undesirable side effect of increasing storage, processing, and I.O. times for subsequent steps of mask preparation. To alleviate the growing volume of layout data, a new layout data format, Open Artwork System Interchange Standard (OASIS), was introduced in 2001 by SEMI's Data Path Task Force. Even though OASIS results in a more efficient representation than the previous industry standard format GDSII, there is still room for improvement by applying data compression techniques. In this paper, we propose two such techniques for compressing layout data, including OPC layout, while remaining complaint with existing industry standard formats such as OASIS and GDSII. Such compliance ensures that the resulting compressed files can be viewed, edited, and manipulated by industry standard CAD viewing and editing tools without the need for a decoder. Our approach is to eliminate redundancies in the representation of the geometrical data by finding repeating groups of geometries between multiple cells and within a cell. We refer to the former as "inter-cell sub-cell detection (InterSCD)" and latter as "intra-cell sub-cell detection (IntraSCD)". We show both problems to be NP hard, and propose two sets of heuristics to solve them. For OPC layout data, we also propose a fast compression method based on IntraSCD which utilizes the hierarchical information in the pre-OPC layout data. We show that the IntraSCD approach can also be effective in reconstructing hierarchy from flattened layout data. We demonstrate the results of our proposed algorithms on actual IC layouts for 90nm, 130nm, and 180nm feature size circuit designs.

  5. Two linear time, low overhead algorithms for graph layout

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Brian; Baumes, Jeff

    2008-01-10

    The software comprises two algorithms designed to perform a 2D layout of a graph structure in time linear with respect to the vertices and edges in the graph, whereas most other layout algorithms have a running time that is quadratic with respect to the number of vertices or greater. Although these layout algorithms run in a fraction of the time as their competitors, they provide competitive results when applied to most real-world graphs. These algorithms also have a low constant running time and small memory footprint, making them useful for small to large graphs.

  6. An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.

  7. The perception of surface layout during low level flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Although it is fairly well established that information about surface layout can be gained from motion cues, it is not so clear as to what information humans can use and what specific information they should be provided. Theoretical analyses tell us that the information is in the stimulus. It will take more experiments to verify that this information can be used by humans to extract surface layout from the 2D velocity flow field. The visual motion factors that can affect the pilot's ability to control an aircraft and to infer the layout of the terrain ahead are discussed.

  8. zorder-lib: Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy; Edward W. Bethel

    2015-04-01

    This document describes the motivation for, elements of, and use of the zorder-lib, a library API that implements organization of and access to data in memory using either a-order (also known as "row-major" order) or z-order memory layouts. The primary motivation for this work is to improve the performance of many types of data- intensive codes by increasing both spatial and temporal locality of memory accesses. The basic idea is that the cost associated with accessing a datum is less when it is nearby in either space or time.

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1984) The Contractor shall lay out its work from Government-established base lines and bench marks indicated on the drawings, and shall be responsible for all measurements in connection with the layout....

  10. Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2015-07-01

    The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).

  11. 32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR LAYOUT PLAN OF CROSSCUT STEAM AND DIESEL PLANT, TRACED FROM DRAWING BY C.C. MOORE AND CO., ENGINEERS. July 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, etc. Courtesy of Norwood Noonan Company, Chicago, 1930. - Congress Street Bascule Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at Congress Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Ad Layout Students Become "Artists" with Viewer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the use of a projection viewer employed by professional art studios to make revised enlargements or reductions of existing art can improve the appearance of layouts done by creative, but artistically unskilled, students. (KS)

  14. 10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Floor Layout of Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory, from The Thermal Hydraulics Laboratory at Hanford. General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, Washington, 1961. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  15. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General layout of power plant, piping and fuel tanks, sheet 93 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Fuel Tanks, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  20. Ad Layout Students Become "Artists" with Viewer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the use of a projection viewer employed by professional art studios to make revised enlargements or reductions of existing art can improve the appearance of layouts done by creative, but artistically unskilled, students. (KS)

  1. 9. Heating & Plumbing layout. This is the only extant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Heating & Plumbing layout. This is the only extant technical drawing showing the floor plan of this building. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rushmore Air Force Station, Security Central Control Building, Quesada Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  2. 20. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. HEATING LAYOUT. October 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 19. BUILDINGS 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BUILDINGS 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. BUILDING LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 18. BUILDING 243247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BUILDING 243-247. PRIMER DRYHOUSES. GENERAL LAYOUT. February 16, 1917 - Frankford Arsenal, Building Nos. 242-246A, South side Craig Road between Eakin & Walbach Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  6. Layout of barracks, Building No. 909 (right) and Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Layout of barracks, Building No. 909 (right) and Building No. 910 (left), looking 282 degrees west - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  8. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  9. Evaluation of an Intervention Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Basic Particle Concepts among Students Enrolled in Several Levels of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Zain, Ahmad N. M.; Ong, Eng Tek; Karpudewan, Mageswary; Halim, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of an intervention instructional program was evaluated to facilitate understanding of particle theory concepts among students (N = 190) using a diagnostic instrument consisting of eleven two-tier multiple-choice items in a pre-test--post-test design. The students involved were high school students, undergraduates and postgraduates…

  10. Evaluation of an Intervention Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Basic Particle Concepts among Students Enrolled in Several Levels of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Zain, Ahmad N. M.; Ong, Eng Tek; Karpudewan, Mageswary; Halim, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of an intervention instructional program was evaluated to facilitate understanding of particle theory concepts among students (N = 190) using a diagnostic instrument consisting of eleven two-tier multiple-choice items in a pre-test--post-test design. The students involved were high school students, undergraduates and postgraduates…

  11. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  12. 36. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  13. 27. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT AND CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT AND CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS C-1, C-3, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-9 INCL., MIXING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  14. 31. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO U-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  15. 44. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PLAN LAYOUT OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant 8, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  16. 48. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated August 6, 1976 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated August 6, 1976 by Raytheon Company. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-2 - PAVE PAWS TECHNICAL FACILITY - OTIS AFB - EQUIPMENT LAYOUT - SECOND FLOOR AND PLATFORM 2A. DRAWING NO. AW35-46-06 - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 58. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-5 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 3RD, 3A, 4TH LEVELS. DRAWING NO. AL-5 - SHEET 6 OF 21 - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 59. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-6 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 4-A, 5TH & 5-A. DRAWING NO. AL-6 - SHEET 7 OF 21. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 57. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. AL-3 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - LAYOUT 1 FLOOR AND 1sr FLOOR ROOF. DRAWING NO. AL-3 - SHEET 4 OF 21. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. Revisiting the layout decomposition problem for double patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong; Xu, Xu; Yao, Hailong

    2008-10-01

    In double patterning lithography (DPL) layout decomposition for 45nm and below process nodes, two features must be assigned opposite colors (corresponding to different exposures) if their spacing is less than the minimum coloring spacing.5, 11, 14 However, there exist pattern configurations for which pattern features separated by less than the minimum coloring spacing cannot be assigned different colors. In such cases, DPL requires that a layout feature be split into two parts. We address this problem using a layout decomposition algorithm that incorporates integer linear programming (ILP), phase conflict detection (PCD), and node-deletion bipartization (NDB) methods. We evaluate our approach on both real-world and artificially generated testcases in 45nm technology. Experimental results show that our proposed layout decomposition method effectively decomposes given layouts to satisfy the key goals of minimized line-ends and maximized overlap margin. There are no design rule violations in the final decomposed layout. While we have previously reported other facets of our research on DPL pattern decomposition,6 the present paper differs from that work in the following key respects: (1) instead of detecting conflict cycles and splitting nodes in conflict cycles to achieve graph bipartization,6 we split all nodes of the conflict graph at all feasible dividing points and then formulate a problem of bipartization by ILP, PCD8 and NDB9 methods; and (2) instead of reporting unresolvable conflict cycles, we report the number of deleted conflict edges to more accurately capture the needed design changes in the experimental results.

  1. Uncluttering graph layouts using anisotropic diffusion and mass transport.

    PubMed

    Frishman, Yaniv; Tal, Ayellet

    2009-01-01

    Many graph layouts include very dense areas, making the layout difficult to understand. In this paper, we propose a technique for modifying an existing layout in order to reduce the clutter in dense areas. A physically inspired evolution process based on a modified heat equation is used to create an improved layout density image, making better use of available screen space. Using results from optimal mass transport problems, a warp to the improved density image is computed. The graph nodes are displaced according to the warp. The warp maintains the overall structure of the graph, thus limiting disturbances to the mental map, while reducing the clutter in dense areas of the layout. The complexity of the algorithm depends mainly on the resolution of the image visualizing the graph and is linear in the size of the graph. This allows scaling the computation according to required running times. It is demonstrated how the algorithm can be significantly accelerated using a graphics processing unit (GPU), resulting in the ability to handle large graphs in a matter of seconds. Results on several layout algorithms and applications are demonstrated.

  2. Application of basic chemical concepts to understanding the formation and transformation mechanisms of humic substances: A revue of publications and own experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarova, A. Yu.

    2007-09-01

    Fundamental concepts of coordination and organic chemistry and their possible applications to understanding the formation and transformation mechanisms of humic substances were considered. In accordance with the electronic concepts of interactions between inorganic and organic molecules, the ash elements should be considered as structural components of soil humus determining its transformation. An important role of reactions with the participation of nucleophilic (electron-donating) reagents, including inorganic anions, in the transformation of the humus-mineral system of an acid soil is shown. Anion reactions can involve not only metal atoms of humus-mineral complexes but also the C and P atoms of the functional groups of humus macroligands. These reactions determine the transformation of humus molecules related to the formation of migration-capable compounds and the formation of new functional groups in a humus macroligand. The role of iron and phosphorus in the implementation of different transformation pathways of humic substances is shown.

  3. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  4. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for...

  5. An inquiry-based practical for a large, foundation-level undergraduate laboratory that enhances student understanding of basic cellular concepts and scientific experimental design.

    PubMed

    Bugarcic, A; Zimbardi, K; Macaranas, J; Thorn, P

    2012-01-01

    Student-centered education involving research experiences or inquiry have been shown to help undergraduate students understand, and become excited about, the process of scientific investigation. These benefits are particularly important for students in the early stages of their degree (Report and Kenny, http://naplesccsunysbedu/Pres/boyernsf/1998). However, embedding such experiences into the curriculum is particularly difficult when dealing with early stage students, who are in larger cohorts and often lack the background content knowledge necessary to engage with primary research literature and research level methods and equipment. We report here the design, delivery, assessment, and subsequent student learning outcomes of a 4-week practical module for 120 students at the beginning of their second year of university, which successfully engages students in designing cell culture experiments and in understanding the molecular processes and machinery involved in the basic cellular process of macropinocytosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  7. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  8. Current NASA lunar base concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed the following: systems level design; element requirements and conceptual design; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquilliatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase established basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase, the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on Earth. The analysis classifies base characteristics into several major functional areas: Human Systems; Assembly and Construction; Energy Management; Launch and Landing; Surface Transportation; In-Situ Resources Utilization; User Accommodations; and Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management. Results of various NASA-sponsored studies were synthesized to meet requirements. The system level architecture was determined, the physical layout was developed from a set of proximity criteria and related functions, and the evlotuionary path of the base was analyzed. Conclusions include a summary of technology needs, design drivers, high leverage items, and important issues.

  9. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  10. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors. PMID:25897500

  11. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors.

  12. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  13. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  14. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  15. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

    2004-05-01

    In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

  16. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  17. Compiler-Directed File Layout Optimization for Hierarchical Storage Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yuanrui; Kandemir, Mahmut; ...

    2013-01-01

    File layout of array data is a critical factor that effects the behavior of storage caches, and has so far taken not much attention in the context of hierarchical storage systems. The main contribution of this paper is a compiler-driven file layout optimization scheme for hierarchical storage caches. This approach, fully automated within an optimizing compiler, analyzes a multi-threaded application code and determines a file layout for each disk-resident array referenced by the code, such that the performance of the target storage cache hierarchy is maximized. We tested our approach using 16 I/O intensive application programs and compared its performancemore » against two previously proposed approaches under different cache space management schemes. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the execution time of these parallel applications by 23.7% on average.« less

  18. View combination in recognition of 3-D virtual reality layouts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Friedman, Alinda; Mou, Weimin; Waller, David

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether a normalization model or view combination model fit the performance of scene recognition of 3-D layouts using a virtual-reality paradigm. Participants learned a layout of seven objects from two training views (e.g., 0° and 48°) by discriminating the "correct" layout from distracters. Later, they performed a discrimination task using the training views (e.g., 0° and 48°), an interpolated view (e.g., 24°), an extrapolated view (e.g., 72°), and a far view (e.g., 96°). The results showed that the interpolated view was easier to discriminate than the extrapolated view and even easier than the training views. These results extend the applicability of view combination accounts of recognition to 3-D stimuli with stereoscopic depth information. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements.

  20. Layout optimization with algebraic multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regler, Hans; Ruede, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    Finding the optimal position for the individual cells (also called functional modules) on the chip surface is an important and difficult step in the design of integrated circuits. This paper deals with the problem of relative placement, that is the minimization of a quadratic functional with a large, sparse, positive definite system matrix. The basic optimization problem must be augmented by constraints to inhibit solutions where cells overlap. Besides classical iterative methods, based on conjugate gradients (CG), we show that algebraic multigrid methods (AMG) provide an interesting alternative. For moderately sized examples with about 10000 cells, AMG is already competitive with CG and is expected to be superior for larger problems. Besides the classical 'multiplicative' AMG algorithm where the levels are visited sequentially, we propose an 'additive' variant of AMG where levels may be treated in parallel and that is suitable as a preconditioner in the CG algorithm.

  1. Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills − A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

  2. Satellite antenna layout and optimization in electromagnetic compatibility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Xie, Shuguo; Liu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the main factors that impact the layout of satellite antenna. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is used to establish mathematical model for calculating the coupling of satellite antenna, and set up the objective function of the placement optimization. The genetic algorithm incorporating high-frequency simulation to minimize antenna coupling by optimally positioning satellite antenna is described in detail. The results of antenna placement on a realistic satellite show that this method is effective in the optimal design of satellite antenna layout for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility.

  3. Universal reaction mechanism of boronic acids with diols in aqueous solution: kinetics and the basic concept of a conditional formation constant.

    PubMed

    Furikado, Yuki; Nagahata, Tomomi; Okamoto, Takuya; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Iwatsuki, Satoshi; Inamo, Masahiko; Takagi, Hideo D; Odani, Akira; Ishihara, Koji

    2014-10-06

    To establish a detailed reaction mechanism for the condensation between a boronic acid, RB(OH)2, and a diol, H2L, in aqueous solution, the acid dissociation constants (Ka(BL)) of boronic acid diol esters (HBLs) were determined based on the well-established concept of conditional formation constants of metal complexes. The pKa values of HBLs were 2.30, 2.77, and 2.00 for the reaction systems, 2,4-difluorophenylboronic acid and chromotropic acid, 3-nitrophenylboronic acid and alizarin red S, and phenylboronic acid and alizarin red S, respectively. A general and precise reaction mechanism of RB(OH)2 with H2L in aqueous solution, which can serve as a universal reaction mechanism for RB(OH)2 and H2L, was proposed on the basis of (a) the relative kinetic reactivities of the RB(OH)2 and its conjugate base, that is, the boronate ion, toward H2L, and (b) the determined pKa values of HBLs. The use of the conditional formation constant, K', based on the main reaction: RB(OH)2 + H2L (K1)⇌ RB(L)(OH)(-) + H3O(+) instead of the binding constant has been proposed for the general reaction of uncomplexed boronic acid species (B') with uncomplexed diol species (L') to form boronic acid diol complex species (esters, BL') in aqueous solution at pH 5-11: B' + L' (K')⇌ BL'. The proposed reaction mechanism explains perfectly the formation of boronic acid diol ester in aqueous solution.

  4. Reflections on basic science.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, Joram

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science.

  5. Insulin Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  6. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  7. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  8. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  9. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  10. 13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY LAYOUT. Drawing was made by the Berlin Construction Company and is in the possession of the Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield, Connecticut. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  11. Evidence-based ergonomics. A comparison of Japanese and American office layouts.

    PubMed

    Noro, Kageyu; Fujimaki, Goroh; Kishi, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    There is a variety of alternatives in office layouts. Yet the theoretical basis and criteria for predicting how well these layouts accommodate employees are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate criteria for selecting office layouts. Intensive computer workers worked in simulated office layouts in a controlled experimental laboratory. Eye movement measures indicate that knowledge work requires both concentration and interaction. Findings pointed to one layout as providing optimum balance between these 2 requirements. Recommendations for establishing a theoretical basis and design criteria for selecting office layouts based on work style are suggested.

  12. Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.

    2017-03-01

    Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.

  13. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  14. Optimised layout and roadway support planning with integrated intelligent software

    SciTech Connect

    Kouniali, S.; Josien, J.P.; Piguet, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Experience with knowledge-based systems for Layout planning and roadway support dimensioning is on hand in European coal mining since 1985. The systems SOUT (Support choice and dimensioning, 1989), SOUT 2, PLANANK (planning of bolt-support), Exos (layout planning diagnosis. 1994), Sout 3 (1995) have been developed in close cooperation by CdF{sup 1}. INERIS{sup 2} , EMN{sup 3} (France) and RAG{sup 4}, DMT{sup 5}, TH - Aachen{sup 6} (Germany); ISLSP (Integrated Software for Layout and support planning) development is in progress (completion scheduled for July 1996). This new software technology in combination with conventional programming systems, numerical models and existing databases turned out to be suited for setting-up an intelligent decision aid for layout and roadway support planning. The system enhances reliability of planning and optimises the safety-to-cost ratio for (1) deformation forecast for roadways in seam and surrounding rocks, consideration of the general position of the roadway in the rock mass (zones of increased pressure, position of operating and mined panels); (2) support dimensioning; (3) yielding arches, rigid arches, porch sets, rigid rings, yielding rings and bolting/shotcreting for drifts; (4) yielding arches, rigid arches and porch sets for roadways in seam; and (5) bolt support for gateroads (assessment of exclusion criteria and calculation of the bolting pattern) bolting of face-end zones (feasibility and safety assessment; stability guarantee).

  15. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size.

  16. Fuzzy pattern matching techniques for photomask layout data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kokoro; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kuninori

    2013-06-01

    Pattern matching seems to be promising technique to the mask industry. It can be used for many applications such as hot spot detection of post-OPC data, search of AIMS reference location or CDSEM measurement point extraction. In particular, fuzzy pattern matching is more needed for mask data processing because the mask layout has different derivatives generated by OPC and there are many similar "OPC brothers" that come from the same layout. However, application of fuzzy pattern matching to the mask layout is challenging due to the reasons related to the characteristics of photomask data. In this paper we introduce a novel method of fuzzy pattern matching to cope with the issues that comes from the characteristics of mask data. The rule specification is quite simple - we only need to specify a single tolerance value for each edge displacement. We will show the experimental results using the actual mask layout and prove that the calculation speed and quality of the proposed technique is satisfactory from the view point of realistic MDP processing.

  17. Multi-level graph layout on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Frishman, Yaniv; Tal, Ayellet

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for force directed graph layout on the GPU. The algorithm, whose goal is to compute layouts accurately and quickly, has two contributions. The first contribution is proposing a general multi-level scheme, which is based on spectral partitioning. The second contribution is computing the layout on the GPU. Since the GPU requires a data parallel programming model, the challenge is devising a mapping of a naturally unstructured graph into a well-partitioned structured one. This is done by computing a balanced partitioning of a general graph. This algorithm provides a general multi-level scheme, which has the potential to be used not only for computation on the GPU, but also on emerging multi-core architectures. The algorithm manages to compute high quality layouts of large graphs in a fraction of the time required by existing algorithms of similar quality. An application for visualization of the topologies of ISP (Internet Service Provider) networks is presented.

  18. Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.

    2017-03-01

    Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.

  19. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Photocopy of original drawing showing Building 3 layout (drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Building 3 layout (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES-H.L. GOGERTY: DISPENSARY, CONNECTING CORRIDORS, FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  2. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  3. How to Choose the Network Layout That's Right for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines major network structures and provides criteria for selecting the best layout. Describes daisy-chain, star, bus, tree, ring, and token ring topologies. Discusses factors to consider when connecting computers, including user needs, printing demands, modem and file sharing, user grouping, the physical plant, and connective equipment. (AEF)

  4. 13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Control room layout, 1941, drawn by Waddell and Hardesty, New York, New York. Drawing in collection of Caretaker Site Office, Philadelphia Naval Business Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Lift Bridge, Mouth of Reserve Basin, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET exhaust gas duct, system layout, plan, and section. shows mounting brackets, concrete braces, divided portion of duct, other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-5-ANP-712-S 429. Date: May 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0712-60-693-106980 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  8. Improving Parallel I/O Performance with Data Layout Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Sun, Xian-He; Thakur, Dr. Rajeev; Song, Huaiming; Jin, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Parallel applications can benefit greatly from massive computational capability, but their performance suffers from large latency of I/O accesses. The poor I/O performance has been attributed as a critical cause of the low sustained performance of parallel computing systems. In this study, we propose a data layout-aware optimization strategy to promote a better integration of the parallel I/O middleware and parallel file systems, two major components of the current parallel I/O systems, and to improve the data access performance. We explore the layout-aware optimization in both independent I/O and collective I/O, two primary forms of I/O in parallel applications. We illustrate that the layout-aware I/O optimization could improve the performance of current parallel I/O strategy effectively. The experimental results verify that the proposed strategy could improve parallel I/O performance by nearly 40% on average. The proposed layout-aware parallel I/O has a promising potential in improving the I/O performance of parallel systems.

  9. Layout of barracks, looking 13 degrees northnortheast, with Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Layout of barracks, looking 13 degrees north-northeast, with Building No. 909 (on left) and Building No. 905 (on right) - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Neural network on two-dimensional IC layout compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Chen, K.-N.; Lai, Y.-T.; Liu, B.-D.

    1992-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel method that employs a neural optimization network to solve the 2D layout compaction problem. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem, where the value of each integer variable is 0 or 1. A special mixed integer linear programming neural optimization network is used to treat the problem.

  11. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    SciTech Connect

    Barthold, W.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems.

  12. A microcomputer-based menu-driven chip layout language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrese, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The Menu Driven Chip Layout Language (MDCLL) is a microcomputer-based design tool used for representing the physical layout of integrated circuit designs in the Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF). MDCLL is based on the Chip Layout Language (CLL) created by Tim Saxe of Stanford University and as modified at the Air Force Institute of Technology. MDCLL leads the user through interactive menu-driven functions, allowing the user to represent a circuit design in CIF; however, the user sees a language similar to CLL even though the file is stored on disk as CIF. The output CIF file is suitable for use with other Computer Aided Design tools or for use in the fabrication process. MDCLL uses a cell-oriented design methodology in which the user defines cell, and then the user combines these cells with the necessary interconnects to form the layout of an entire integrated circuit. Cell interconnections are possible by placing wires, abutting cells, or by overlapping cells. The main functions of MDCLL are to create a new cell, delete a cell, place a cell, move a cell, modify a cell, interconnect cells, and print the CIF file of a cell.

  13. 18. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Architectural Layout drawing, dated 25 June, 1993 by US Air Force Space Command. Original drawing property of United States Air Force, 21' Space Command AL-2 PAVE PAWS SUPPORT SYSTEMS - CAPE COD AFB, MASSACHUSETTS - SITE PLAN. DRAWING NO. AL-2 - SHEET 3 OF 21. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. Developing a Web Page: Ethics, Prerequisites, Design and Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Joseph A.; Lane, Kenneth E.

    For educators interested in developing Web sites, four major issues should be addressed--ethics, prerequisites, design, and layout. By giving attention to these four areas, teachers will develop Web sites that improve their teaching and increase the opportunities for student learning. Each of these areas is addressed in detail, including:…

  15. Layout and Design. Module 2. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the second of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on layout and design are eight instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or…

  16. 31. "FIGURE 310, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. "FIGURE 3-10, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and rail head cross sections. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  18. Layout pattern analysis using the Voronoi diagram of line segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sandeep Kumar; Cheilaris, Panagiotis; Gabrani, Maria; Papadopoulou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of problematic patterns in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs is of great value as the lithographic simulation tools face significant timing challenges. To reduce the processing time, such a tool selects only a fraction of possible patterns which have a probable area of failure, with the risk of missing some problematic patterns. We introduce a fast method to automatically extract patterns based on their structure and context, using the Voronoi diagram of line-segments as derived from the edges of VLSI design shapes. Designers put line segments around the problematic locations in patterns called "gauges," along which the critical distance is measured. The gauge center is the midpoint of a gauge. We first use the Voronoi diagram of VLSI shapes to identify possible problematic locations, represented as gauge centers. Then we use the derived locations to extract windows containing the problematic patterns from the design layout. The problematic locations are prioritized by the shape and proximity information of the design polygons. We perform experiments for pattern selection in a portion of a 22-nm random logic design layout. The design layout had 38,584 design polygons (consisting of 199,946 line segments) on layer Mx, and 7079 markers generated by an optical rule checker (ORC) tool. The optical rules specify requirements for printing circuits with minimum dimension. Markers are the locations of some optical rule violations in the layout. We verify our approach by comparing the coverage of our extracted patterns to the ORC-generated markers. We further derive a similarity measure between patterns and between layouts. The similarity measure helps to identify a set of representative gauges that reduces the number of patterns for analysis.

  19. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  20. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…