Science.gov

Sample records for basic concepts underlying

  1. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  2. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  3. Basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR-compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences, and 3-T field strength magnets allow high-quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

  4. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

  5. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  6. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-04-17

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described.

  7. [Basic concepts in biomedical ethics].

    PubMed

    Arn, Christof

    2009-08-01

    Starting with a complex clinical situation we introduce basic concepts of clinical ethics. We explain why well-defined terms are needed and demonstrate how these terms can be used as practical tools for approaching and resolving ethical dilemmas in a professional decision-making process. It will be outlined how the use of these terms may contribute to the understanding of the ways in which moral values are perceived and communication skills can be improved.

  8. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  9. Basic concepts in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical ventilatory support is a major component of the clinical management of critically ill patients admitted into intensive care. Closely linked with the developments within critical care medicine, the use of ventilatory support has been increasing since the polio epidemics in the 1950s (Lassen 1953). Initially used to provide controlled mandatory ventilation, today with advances in technology, most mechanical ventilators are triggered by the patient, increasing the awareness of the complexity of patient/ventilator interaction (Tobin 1994). Though ventilator appearance and design may have changed quite significantly and the variety of options for support extensive, the basic concepts of mechanical ventilatory support of the critically ill patient remains unchanged. This paper aims to outline these concepts so as to gain a better understanding of mechanical ventilatory support.

  10. Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…

  11. Basic concepts in plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Robert

    2006-03-15

    In this article, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high-energy plasma accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high-brightness lasers and electron and positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high-acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) mechanism which uses conventional long pulse ( approximately 100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I approximately 10(14)-10(16) W cm(-2)), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) which uses the new breed of compact high-brightness lasers (<1 ps) and intensities >10(18) W cm(-2), self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SMLWFA) concept which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches the plasma wakefield accelerator. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomenon such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm(-1) have been generated with monoenergetic particle beams accelerated to about 100 MeV in millimetre distances recorded. Plasma wakefields driven by both electron and positron beams at the Stanford linear accelerator centre (SLAC) facility have accelerated the tail of the beams.

  12. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  13. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  14. [Basic concepts about paternity testing].

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.

  15. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    PubMed

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  16. Some Basic Considerations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Hursh, Daniel E.

    This paper indicates underlying philosophic assumptions which are compatible with the behavior analysis approach to child development. Four issues taken into consideration are (a) biology and environment, (b) structure and function, (c) traits and situations, and (d) mechanistic and organismic approaches to development. The following ideas…

  17. Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality Emanuel R. Baker, Process Strategies Inc. Matthew J. Fisher and Wolfhart Goethert, SEI...is to help CMMI implementers recognize the purpose of some CMMI components relative to quality concepts and principles , and to help ensure a CMMI...TN-002 Over time many of the concepts and principles articulated in the SQF have been implemented in various forms, not only in venues such as the

  18. Optogenetics: Basic Concepts and Their Development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Ku; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of light-gated ion channels and their application to controlling neural activities have had a transformative impact on the field of neuroscience. In recent years, the concept of using light-activated proteins to control biological processes has greatly diversified into other fields, driven by the natural diversity of photoreceptors and decades of knowledge obtained from their biophysical characterization. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the origin and development of optogenetics and highlight the basic concepts that make it such a powerful technology. We will review how these enabling concepts have developed over the past decade, and discuss future perspectives.

  19. Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Milton J., Ed.

    This collection of articles, with a developmental learning focus, explores the core building blocks of intercultural communication. The articles in the collection represent the theory-into-practice school of intercultural communication. The collection's goal is to present basic concepts from a variety of perspectives which, when taken together,…

  20. Item Response Theory: A Basic Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Jumailiyah

    2017-01-01

    With the development in computing technology, item response theory (IRT) develops rapidly, and has become a user friendly application in psychometrics world. Limitation in classical theory is one aspect that encourages the use of IRT. In this study, the basic concept of IRT will be discussed. In addition, it will briefly review the ability…

  1. Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Milton J., Ed.

    This collection of articles, with a developmental learning focus, explores the core building blocks of intercultural communication. The articles in the collection represent the theory-into-practice school of intercultural communication. The collection's goal is to present basic concepts from a variety of perspectives which, when taken together,…

  2. Raising native plants in nurseries: basic concepts

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2012-01-01

    Growing native plants can be fun, challenging, and rewarding. This booklet, particularly the first chapter that introduces important concepts, is for the novice who wants to start growing native plants as a hobby; however, it can also be helpful to someone with a bit more experience who is wondering about starting a nursery. The second chapter provides basic...

  3. 29 CFR 779.202 - Basic concepts of definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Business Unit § 779.202 Basic concepts of definition. Under the definition, the “enterprise” consists of “the related activities performed * * * for a common business purpose.” All of the activities comprising the enterprise must be “related.” Activities serving a single business purpose may be...

  4. Basic concepts and techniques of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tagliareni, Jonathan M; Clarkson, Earl

    2015-04-01

    Dental implants provide completely edentulous and partial edentulous patients the function and esthetics they had with natural dentition. It is critical to understand and apply predictable surgical principles when treatment planning and surgically restoring edentulous spaces with implants. This article defines basic implant concepts that should be meticulously followed for predictable results when treating patients and restoring dental implants. Topics include biological and functional considerations, biomechanical considerations, preoperative assessments, medical history and risk assessments, oral examinations, radiographic examinations, contraindications, and general treatment planning options.

  5. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  6. The Basic Concepts in Thomas Pynchon's "Gravity's Rainbow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokhadze, Lali

    This paper uses passages from Thomas Pynchon's novel, "Gravity's Rainbow," to examine basic concepts, explaining that the process of identifying the basic word-concepts in literary texts is to some extent a tension between anticipation and unexpected frustration. The paper focuses on an interpretation of the basic concept…

  7. A brain-based account of "basic-level" concepts.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Andrew James; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-08-19

    This study provides a brain-based account of how object concepts at an intermediate (basic) level of specificity are represented, offering an enriched view of what it means for a concept to be a basic-level concept, a research topic pioneered by Rosch and others (Rosch et al., 1976). Applying machine learning techniques to fMRI data, it was possible to determine the semantic content encoded in the neural representations of object concepts at basic and subordinate levels of abstraction. The representation of basic-level concepts (e.g. bird) was spatially broad, encompassing sensorimotor brain areas that encode concrete object properties, and also language and heteromodal integrative areas that encode abstract semantic content. The representation of subordinate-level concepts (robin) was less widely distributed, concentrated in perceptual areas that underlie concrete content. Furthermore, basic-level concepts were representative of their subordinates in that they were neurally similar to their typical but not atypical subordinates (bird was neurally similar to robin but not woodpecker). The findings provide a brain-based account of the advantages that basic-level concepts enjoy in everyday life over subordinate-level concepts: the basic level is a broad topographical representation that encompasses both concrete and abstract semantic content, reflecting the multifaceted yet intuitive meaning of basic-level concepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  9. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  10. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  11. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  12. Water homeostasis in the brain: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Kimelberg, H K

    2004-01-01

    The mammalian CNS is separated from the blood by tight junctions, collectively termed the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This imposes unique features of solvent and water movement into and out of the CNS. The basic equations for water fluxes driven by osmotic gradients are presented. The anatomy of the BBB and the physiology of the transport processes for cerebrospinal fluid production, extracellular fluid production and intercellular water and solute transport are then described. A quantitative analysis of the need for aquaporin-based water movements to accompany the known rates of CSF production is also presented. Finally, the mechanisms and roles of cellular and vasogenic edema in the CNS, especially in relation to aquaporins, are described.

  13. Basic concepts of induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    The phenomena of induced AC on pipelines sharing common rights-of-way with overhead high-voltage electrical transmission power lines is discussed. Basic concepts and techniques for personnel safety and some pipeline protective measures are reviewed.

  14. Aids for Teaching Basic Concepts of Sensory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraga, Natalie; And Others

    Instructions for using and constructing approximately 58 instructional materials to aid young visually handicapped children in developing basic sensory concepts are presented. The materials are said to foster important ideas in variously aged children who have difficulty using their hands or understanding numerical concepts. Use of the materials…

  15. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  16. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  17. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  18. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  19. Genetical ESS-models. I. Concepts and basic model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B

    1985-08-01

    Evolutionarily Stable Strategies (ESS) in phenotypic models are used to explain the evolution of animal interactive behaviour. As the behavioural features under consideration are assumed to be genetically determined, the question arises how underlying a genetical system might affect the results of phenotypic ESS-models. This question can be fully treated in terms of ESS-theory. A method of designing Genetical ESS-Models is proposed, which transfers the question of evolutionary stability to a "lower" level, the genetical basis. Genetical ESS-models - although nonlinear even in the simplest cases - can be analysed in a way that is familiar to ESS-theorists and yield immediate results on gene pool ESSs, which then may or may not maintain ESSs on the phenotypic level. Moreover, general results can be obtained to characterize evolutionarily stable gene pool states and their interrelation with commonsense, phenotypic ESSs. This part of the article presents the basic concepts and an outline of the method of genetical ESS-models. It gives, as a demonstration, a complete analysis for phenotypic two-strategy models (linear or nonlinear) based on a diploid, diallelic single-locus system under random mating. The results in this case suggest that a phenotypic ESS should indeed be expected to evolve but, maybe, only after passing through a succession of temporarily stable states.

  20. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  1. [Games as an alternative for teaching basic health concepts].

    PubMed

    Castillo Lizardo, J M; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2001-05-01

    To determine, for the teaching of basic health concepts to school-age children, the effectiveness of an educational strategy based on traditional children's games. Intervention study carried out in the city of Durango, Mexico, in June 2000 with 300 children from 9 to 11 years old. The children were randomly divided into two groups. The children in Group A used a modified version of a Mexican popular game called Serpientes y Escaleras (Snakes and Ladders) that included messages on basic health concepts; the children in Group B made up the control group and did not play the modified game. At baseline there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, grade level, or their scores on a knowledge test of basic health concepts. After the educational intervention, the health concepts test scores, out of a maximum possible of 10, were 9.3 +/- 0.8 for Group A and 7.5 +/- 1.1 for Group B (P < 0.001). Using games that include health and hygiene messages can be an alternative for teaching basic health concepts.

  2. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  4. The concept of basic symptoms in schizophrenic and schizoaffective psychoses.

    PubMed

    Huber, G; Gross, G

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents the psychiatric aspects of the concept of basic symptoms (BS), especially history, actual position and tendencies of development of the doctrine of BS, phenomenology and clinical picture of basic stages, the Bonn Scale for the assessment of dynamic and cognitive basic deficiencies (BSABS) and the importance of this concept for early diagnosis, therapy, prevention and rehabilitation. The patients experience and communicate the BS as deficiencies and are able to cope with, adapt and compensate for them. The BS were termed as basic symptoms because they represent the basis of the productive-psychotic symptomatology. Follow-up studies of cases with the suspicion diagnosis "prodrome of schizophrenia" based on BSABS rating, revealed that the subgroup passing over in schizophrenic psychoses after an average of 6.3 years showed significantly higher scores of cognitive BS at the time of index investigation. It now seems possible to impede increase of cognitive BS already present in prepsychotic prodromal states before reaching the threshold of transition into productive-psychotic symptomatology. Long-term development is more favorable if therapy commences as early as possible including the prepsychotic basic stages and also taking into consideration BS which were, until now, disregarded in DSM-III. Summarizing our findings of the last 30 years we suggest that the BS-concept may be an approach to overcome the dichotomy of negative and positive psychopathology in schizophrenia.

  5. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  6. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  7. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  8. Sex in basic research: concepts in the cardiovascular field.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Dworatzek, Elke; Seeland, Ute; Kararigas, Georgios; Arnal, Jean-Francois; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Carpenter, Thomas C; Erdmann, Jeanette; Franconi, Flavia; Giannetta, Elisa; Glezerman, Marek; Hofmann, Susanna M; Junien, Claudine; Katai, Miyuki; Kublickiene, Karolina; König, Inke R; Majdic, Gregor; Malorni, Walter; Mieth, Christin; Miller, Virginia M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Tannenbaum, Cara; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Women and men, female and male animals and cells are biologically different, and acknowledgement of this fact is critical to advancing medicine. However, incorporating concepts of sex-specific analysis in basic research is largely neglected, introducing bias into translational findings, clinical concepts and drug development. Research funding agencies recently approached these issues but implementation of policy changes in the scientific community is still limited, probably due to deficits in concepts, knowledge and proper methodology. This expert review is based on the EUGenMed project (www.eugenmed.eu) developing a roadmap for implementing sex and gender in biomedical and health research. For sake of clarity and conciseness, examples are mainly taken from the cardiovascular field that may serve as a paradigm for others, since a significant amount of knowledge how sex and oestrogen determine the manifestation of many cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been accumulated. As main concepts for implementation of sex in basic research, the study of primary cell and animals of both sexes, the study of the influence of genetic vs. hormonal factors and the analysis of sex chromosomes and sex specific statistics in genome wide association studies (GWAS) are discussed. The review also discusses methodological issues, and analyses strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in implementing sex-sensitive aspects into basic research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  10. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  11. Visual evoked potential (VEP): basic concepts and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J

    1979-01-01

    The Visual Evoked Potential is the objective measurement of visual function monitored at the level of the occipital cortex with scalp electrodes. This article summarizes many of the recent clinical applications of the VEP. Included are basic concepts of the VEP and its clinical utilization for the objective assessment of refractive error, visual acuity, amblyopia, binocularity, demyelinating diseases, psychogenic disorders, pre-surgical prediction of post-surgical visual function, visual fields, color blindness and neurological development.

  12. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-06-17

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors.

  14. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. PMID:27322277

  15. A new concept for creating the basic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyński, Zenon

    2014-12-01

    A lot of changes have been made to the legislative regulations associated with geodesy during the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive in Poland (amongst others, the structure of databases). There have also been great changes concerning the basic map and the method of its creation and updating. A new concept for creating the basic map is presented in this article Dokonaliśmy wielu zmian w prawnych regulacjach dotyczących geodezji w trakcie implementacji Dyrektywy INSPIRE w Polsce (m.in. struktury baz danych). Bardzo duże zmiany objęły mapę zasadniczą i procedury jej tworzenia i uaktualniania. W artykule jest zaprezentowana nowa koncepcja tworzenia mapy zasadniczej.

  16. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Maarleveld, Timo R; Khandelwal, Ruchir A; Olivier, Brett G; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic plasticity and robustness, and the ability of organisms to cope with different environments. Constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks has become an indispensable tool for such studies. Herein, we review the basic theoretical underpinnings of constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks. Basic concepts, such as stoichiometry, chemical moiety conservation, flux modes, flux balance analysis, and flux solution spaces, are explained with simple, illustrative examples. We emphasize the mathematical definitions and their network topological interpretations.

  17. Topological quantum computation--from basic concepts to first experiments.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ady; Lindner, Netanel H

    2013-03-08

    Quantum computation requires controlled engineering of quantum states to perform tasks that go beyond those possible with classical computers. Topological quantum computation aims to achieve this goal by using non-Abelian quantum phases of matter. Such phases allow for quantum information to be stored and manipulated in a nonlocal manner, which protects it from imperfections in the implemented protocols and from interactions with the environment. Recently, substantial progress in this field has been made on both theoretical and experimental fronts. We review the basic concepts of non-Abelian phases and their topologically protected use in quantum information processing tasks. We discuss different possible realizations of these concepts in experimentally available solid-state systems, including systems hosting Majorana fermions, their recently proposed fractional counterparts, and non-Abelian quantum Hall states.

  18. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  19. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons.

  20. Basic Concepts in Molecular Biology Related to Genetics and Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, Jose M

    2017-09-01

    The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome. Moreover, environmental factors also play an important role in this complex regulation. This review provides a general perspective on the basic concepts of molecular biology related to genetics and epigenetics and a glossary of key terms. Several examples are given of polymorphisms and genetic risk scores related to cardiovascular risk. Likewise, an overview is presented of the main epigenetic regulators, including DNA methylation, methylcytosine-phosphate-guanine-binding proteins, histone modifications, other histone regulations, micro-RNA effects, and additional emerging regulators. One of the greatest challenges is to understand how environmental factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.) could alter the epigenome, resulting in healthy or unhealthy cardiovascular phenotypes. We discuss some gene-environment interactions and provide a methodological overview. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  2. Concept confusion and concept discernment in basic magnetism using analogical reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Miriam; Nicodimus Morabe, Olebogeng

    2017-07-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to all learning, whether in daily life situations, in the classroom or while doing research. Although analogies can aid the learning process of making sense of phenomena and understanding new ideas in terms of known ideas, these should be used with care. This article reports a study of the use of analogies and the consequences of this use in the teaching of magnetism with special reference to misconceptions. We begin by identifying concept confusion and associated misconceptions in magnetism due to in-service physics teachers’ spontaneous analogical reasoning. Two analogy-based experiments that can be used to convert such concept confusion to discernment are then described. These experiments focus on understanding basic principles about sources and interactions of magnetic fields and implement the constructivist learning processes of discrimination and generalization. Lastly, recommendations towards reinforcement of conceptual understanding of basic magnetism in its relation to electricity are proposed.

  3. Basic Mechanisms Underlying Postchemotherapy Cognitive Impairment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    hippocampus is involved in a number of important functions, including memory formation and retrieval, learning, and neuroendocrine and mood regulation...cognitive deficits in humans; however, the mechanism is not known. Neurogenesis, the formation of new nerve cells, occurs throughout adulthood and is...these agents produce cognitive impairment by disrupting neurogenesis in the hippocampus . The experiments in this Concept grant began to develop and

  4. Artificial Intelligence: Underlying Assumptions and Basic Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Nick; McCalla, Gordon

    1984-01-01

    Presents perspectives on methodological assumptions underlying research efforts in artificial intelligence (AI) and charts activities, motivations, methods, and current status of research in each of the major AI subareas: natural language understanding; computer vision; expert systems; search, problem solving, planning; theorem proving and logic…

  5. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  6. Rate and Sequence of Positive and Negative Poles in Basic Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-eight concepts from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale were paired, polarity (positive or negative) was assigned, and concept pairs were contrasted with 1,109 children ages three through seven to determine rate and sequence of polar concept acquisition. For 70 percent of the pairs the positive-pole concept was acquired before the negative-pole…

  7. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  8. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  9. [Nurse's concept in the managerial conception of a basic health unit].

    PubMed

    Passos, Joanir Pereira; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2006-12-01

    This study is part of a larger survey called "Use of indicators in nurses' managerial practice in Basic Health Care Units in the city of Rio de Janeiro", which was carried out in the Basic Health Care Units of the Planning Area 5.3 and whose objectives were to identify nurses' conception regarding the tools required for management in those units and to discuss the role of management in organizing health services. The study is descriptive and data were collected in interviews with seven nurse managers. The results show that health services actions are organized and directed to the purpose of the working process through the relationship established between the object, the instruments and the final product, and that for those nurses the end result to be achieved is client's satisfaction and the quality of medical and nursing care.

  10. THE GROWTH OF BASIC MATHEMATICAL AND SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVELL, K.

    THE RESEARCH OF LOVELL AND PIAGET IS CITED IN A DISCUSSION OF CONCEPT LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. FOLLOWING AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER ON CONCEPT FORMATION, THREE CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO NUMBER CONCEPTS AND TO THE APPROACHES OF TEACHING THE NUMBER CONCEPTS OF STERN, CUISENAIRE AND GATTEGNO, PIAGET, AND DIENES. THE NEXT FOUR CHAPTERS DEAL…

  11. Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Håkan; Wirell, Staffan; Ledin, Torbjörn; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle. Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge. Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

  12. Visualization: a tool for enhancing students' concept images of basic object-oriented concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey including open-ended questions, which was administered to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 12 randomly selected students were conducted to explore their answers to the survey in depth. The results of the first part of the research were utilized to construct visualization scenarios. The students used these scenarios to develop animations using Flash software. The study found that most of the students experienced difficulties in learning object-oriented notions. Overdependence on code-writing practice and examples and incorrectly learned analogies were determined to be the sources of their difficulties. Moreover, visualization was found to be a promising approach in facilitating students' concept images of basic object-oriented notions. The results of this study have implications for researchers and practitioners when designing programming instruction.

  13. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  14. Certain Basic Concepts of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ülker

    2016-01-01

    Concept that is defined to be the intangible and general designs emerging in a mind that belongs to an object or thought, has become both subject and object of a very large field ranging from philosophy to linguistics, from social sciences to science. Regardless of which field is in question, the unity of concept is important in order to pave the…

  15. Corvids Outperform Pigeons and Primates in Learning a Basic Concept.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Vernouillet, Alizée; Kelly, Debbie M

    2017-04-01

    Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons. Even with an initial 8-item picture set, both corvid species showed partial concept learning, outperforming both monkeys and pigeons. Similar corvid performance refutes the hypothesis that nutcrackers' prolific cache-location memory accounts for their superior concept learning, because magpies rely less on caching. That corvids with "primitive" neural architectures evolved to equal primates in full concept learning and even to outperform them on the initial 8-item picture test is a testament to the shared (convergent) survival importance of abstract-concept learning.

  16. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  17. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  18. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  19. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  20. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    PubMed

    Barz, H

    1984-12-08

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself.

  1. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Weltcurriculum? Zum Grundbildungskonzept von PISA und der Aufgabenzuweisung an die Schule (Towards a World Curriculum? -- The Concept of Basic Education (Literacy) underlying PISA and the tasks allocated to Schooling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Hans-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes that the debate on the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) has been dominated by comparisons of the ranks achieved and by the question of the consequences to be drawn from the results. Discusses the educational concept forming the basis for the investigation and aims of PISA. (CAJ)

  2. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  3. The availability and accessibility of basic concept vocabulary in AAC software: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Schwarz, Ilsa; Ashworth, Morgan

    2017-09-01

    Core vocabulary lists obtained through the analyses of children's utterances include a variety of basic concept words. Supporting young children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to develop their understanding and use of basic concepts is an area of practice that has important ramifications for successful communication in a classroom environment. This study examined the availability of basic concept words across eight frequently used, commercially available AAC language systems, iPad© applications, and symbol libraries used to create communication boards. The accessibility of basic concept words was subsequently examined using two AAC language page sets and two iPad applications. Results reveal that the availability of basic concept words represented within the different AAC language programs, iPad applications, and symbol libraries varied but was limited across programs. However, there is no significant difference in the accessibility of basic concept words across the language program page sets or iPad applications, generally because all of them require sophisticated motor and cognitive plans for access. These results suggest that educators who teach or program vocabulary in AAC systems need to be mindful of the importance of basic concept words in classroom settings and, when possible, enhance the availability and accessibility of these words to users of AAC.

  4. Some basic fracture mechanics concepts in functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.-H.; Batra, R. C.

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, the crack-tip fields in a general nonhomogeneous material are summarized. The fracture toughness and R-curve of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are studied based on the crack-bridging concept and a rule of mixtures. It is shown that the fracture toughness is significantly increased when a crack grows from the ceramic-rich region into the metal-rich region in an alumina-nickel FGM. By applying the concept of the toughening mechanism to the study of the strength behavior of FGMs, it is found that the residual strength of the alumina-nickel FGM with an edge crack on the ceramic side is quite notch insensitive.

  5. Concept Systems and Ontologies: Recommendations for Basic Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gunnar O.; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Summary This essay concerns the problems surrounding the use of the term “concept” in current ontology and terminology research. It is based on the constructive dialogue between realist ontology on the one hand and the world of formal standardization of health informatics on the other, but its conclusions are not restricted to the domain of medicine. The term “concept” is one of the most misused even in literature and technical standards which attempt to bring clarity. In this paper we propose to use the term “concept” in the context of producing defined professional terminologies with one specific and consistent meaning which we propose for adoption as the agreed meaning of the term in future terminological research, and specifically in the development of formal terminologies to be used in computer systems. We also discuss and propose new definitions of a set of cognate terms. We describe the relations governing the realm of concepts, and compare these to the richer and more complex set of relations obtaining between entities in the real world. On this basis we also summarize an associated terminology for ontologies as representations of the real world and a partial mapping between the world of concepts and the world of reality. PMID:21308002

  6. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  7. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  8. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  9. An Investigation into the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Present Basic English Grammar Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 DTIC PI-ECTE JAN 0 7 1992 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCMPUT-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR CONCEPTS...aitcoljor AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLIS1H GRAMMAR CONCEPTS THESIS Presented...Structure of the Tutorial .... ............ ... 49 5. " Grammar " Program Structure ............... 6. Hypertext Dispiay Screen

  10. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  11. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    PubMed Central

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  12. Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.

    PubMed

    Boving, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies.

  13. Look Around You. A Primary Student Activity Book Introducing Basic Environmental Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Sharon

    This activity book, designed for student use, introduces environmental concepts to the primary student. The basic concept around which the guide is developed is the idea that the environment contains many interdependent things. Water, wind, clouds, non-living objects, plants, animals, and pollution are dealt with as part of the primary student's…

  14. Does "Part-Whole Concept" Understanding Correlate with Success in Basic Math Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Dorothea Arne

    This study investigates student understanding of the part-whole concept in mathematics at an independent two-year post-secondary institution in New Mexico. The mathematics portion of the Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) Summary Form was used as the evaluative instrument. Evidence for a lack of part-whole concept understanding as a hidden…

  15. [The Basic-Symptom Concept and its Influence on Current International Research on the Prediction of Psychoses].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Lutter, F

    2016-12-01

    The early detection of psychoses has become increasingly relevant in research and clinic. Next to the ultra-high risk (UHR) approach that targets an immediate risk of developing frank psychosis, the basic symptom approach that targets the earliest possible detection of the developing disorder is being increasingly used worldwide. The present review gives an introduction to the development and basic assumptions of the basic symptom concept, summarizes the results of studies on the specificity of basic symptoms for psychoses in different age groups as well as on studies of their psychosis-predictive value, and gives an outlook on future results. Moreover, a brief introduction to first recent imaging studies is given that supports one of the main assumptions of the basic symptom concept, i. e., that basic symptoms are the most immediate phenomenological expression of the cerebral aberrations underlying the development of psychosis. From this, it is concluded that basic symptoms might be able to provide important information on future neurobiological research on the etiopathology of psychoses.

  16. Adaptive fractionation therapy: I. Basic concept and strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiguo; Chen, Mingli; Chen, Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo

    2008-10-01

    Radiotherapy is fractionized to increase the therapeutic ratio. Fractionation in conventional treatment is determined as part of the prescription, and a fixed fraction size is used for the whole course of treatment. Due to patients' day-to-day variations on the relative distance between the tumor and the organs at risk (OAR), a better therapeutic ratio may be attained by using an adaptive fraction size. Intuitively, we want to use a larger fraction size when OAR and the tumor are far apart and a smaller fraction size when OAR and the tumor are close to each other. The concept and strategies of adaptive fractionation therapy (AFT) are introduced in this paper. AFT is an on-line adaptive technique that utilizes the variations of internal structures to get optimal OAR sparing. Changes of internal structures are classified as different configurations according to their feasibility to the radiation delivery. A priori knowledge is used to describe the probability distribution of these configurations. On-line processes include identifying the configuration via daily image guidance and optimizing the current fraction size. The optimization is modeled as a dynamic linear programming problem so that at the end of the treatment course, the tumor receives the same planned dose while OAR receives less dose than the regular fractionation delivery. Extensive simulations, which include thousands of treatment courses with each course consisting of 40 fractions, are used to test the efficiency and robustness of the presented technique. The gains of OAR sparing depend on the variations on configurations and the bounds of the fraction size. The larger the variations and the looser the bounds are, the larger the gains will be. Compared to the conventional fractionation technique with 2 Gy/fraction in 40 fractions, for a 20% variation on tumor-OAR configurations and [1 Gy, 3 Gy] fraction size bounds, the cumulative OAR dose with adaptive fractionation is 3-8 Gy, or 7-20% less than that

  17. Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 1: Basic concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    The adiabatic criterion, widely used in astronomical dynamics, is based on the harmonic oscillator. It asserts that the change in action under a slowly varying perturbation is exponentially small. Recent mathematical results that precisely define the conditions for invariance show that this model does not apply in general. In particular, a slowly varying perturbation may cause significant evolution stellar dynamical systems even if its time scale is longer than any internal orbital time scale. This additional 'heating' may have serious implications for the evolution of star clusters and dwarf galaxies which are subject to long-term environmental forces. The mathematical developments leading to these results are reviewed, and the conditions for applicability to and further implications for stellar systems are discussed. Companion papers present a computational method for a general time-dependent disturbance and detailed example.

  18. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-12-09

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out using the full 3-dimensional, finite-{beta}, resistive MHD model in the DEBS code, including ohmic heating and anisotropic heat conduction, and thus for the first time included the self-consistent effects of the dynamo magnetic fluctuations on the confinement properties of the RFP. By using multi-variant regression analysis of these results, scaling laws for various properties characterizing the conventional RFP were obtained. In particular, it was found that the, for constant ratio of I/N (where I is the current and N = na{sup 2} is the line density), and over a range of Lundquist numbers S that approaches 10{sup 6}, the fluctuations scale as {delta}B/B {approx} S{sup -0.14}, the temperature scales as T {approx} I{sup 0.56}, the poloidal beta scales as {beta}{sub {theta}} {approx} I{sup -0.4}, and the energy confinement time scales as {tau}{sub E} {approx} I{sup 0.34}. The degradation of poloidal beta with current is a result of the weak scaling of the fluctuation level with the Lundquist number, and leads to the unfavorable scaling laws for temperature and energy confinement time. These results compare reasonably well with experimental data, and emphasize the need for external control of the dynamo fluctuations in the RFP. (2) Studies of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in the RFP were performed with the DEBS code in collaboration with the CNR/RFX group in Padua, Italy. The ideal growth rates are ''passively'' reduced by the presence of a resistive wall within the radius for perfectly conducting

  19. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  20. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  1. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  2. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  3. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  4. A survey of medical school teachers to identify basic biomedical concepts medical students should understand.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Saunders, B; Feltovich, P J; Coulson, R L; Steward, D E

    1990-07-01

    Insights from the cognitive sciences indicate a continuing need for physicians to understand conceptual knowledge from the basic sciences, despite recent concerns regarding the increasing amount of information in medicine and the growing emphasis on performance skills. A 1987 survey of selected basic science and clinical teachers in North American medical schools was undertaken to identify basic biomedical concepts that are important in the practice of medicine and to specify how difficult these are for students to learn, apply, or both. Responses from faculty (nominated by their deans to answer the survey) from 82% of the medical schools indicated considerable agreement between the basic science teachers and clinical teachers on the relative importance of a set of biomedical concepts, and showed relatively minor levels of disagreement on how difficult these concepts are. The judgments of these teachers could prove extremely useful in (1) determining concepts that--because of their importance--should receive special attention in curriculum efforts, and (2) determining concepts that--because of their difficulty--need "special handling."

  5. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear family emotional…

  6. Planets Under a Red Sun Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-08

    This artist concept illustrates a young, red dwarf star surrounded by three planets. NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is helping to identify young, red dwarf stars that are close to us by detecting their ultraviolet light.

  7. After Almost Half-Century Landing on the Moon and Still Countering Basic Astronomy Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the fifth graders' understandings of the basic astronomy concept and, if they have, to define their misconceptions and then to determine what reason/s behind them. For this purpose, two hundred seventy fifth grade students from 6 different schools participated. Randomly selected 45 students performing under…

  8. PBCB: A Norming of the Spanish Translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Prueba Boehm de Conceptos Basicos (PBCB), a Spanish translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, was administered to 1,292 children in Puerto Rico. Normative information, reported by type of school, by grade, and by time of year tested is presented. The reliability of PBCB was established. (BH)

  9. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  10. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  11. The Effectiveness of Programed Instruction Versus the Lecture-Discussion Method of Teaching Basic Metallurgical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, David Carl

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional lecture-discussion method and an illustrated programed textbook method when teaching a unit of instruction on the basic concepts of metallurgy. The control group used a portion of a conventional textbook accompanied by lecture, chalkboard illustration, and class discussion. The experimental…

  12. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  13. Social Class Differences on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Are They Due to Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Applied an internal criteria for the detection of bias to standardization data for the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts. Despite sizable social class differences in mean scores, differences in rank orders of item difficulties were negligible. There was little evidence of test bias. (Author)

  14. The Effectiveness of Programed Instruction Versus the Lecture-Discussion Method of Teaching Basic Metallurgical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, David Carl

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional lecture-discussion method and an illustrated programed textbook method when teaching a unit of instruction on the basic concepts of metallurgy. The control group used a portion of a conventional textbook accompanied by lecture, chalkboard illustration, and class discussion. The experimental…

  15. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  16. Teaching Basic Math Skills to Preschoolers Using "Connecting Math Concepts Level K"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Michelle A.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Moore, Marion E.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching basic math skills to 16 children (11 typically developing, 5 with developmental delays) in an integrated university preschool. "Connecting Math Concepts Level K (CMC--K"; Engelmann & Becker, 1995) was delivered by the classroom teacher to small groups of 4 to 6 children over 6.5 weeks.…

  17. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  18. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  19. PBCB: A Norming of the Spanish Translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Prueba Boehm de Conceptos Basicos (PBCB), a Spanish translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, was administered to 1,292 children in Puerto Rico. Normative information, reported by type of school, by grade, and by time of year tested is presented. The reliability of PBCB was established. (BH)

  20. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  1. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  2. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  3. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline.

  4. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Research in Pediatric Dentistry: Part I - Basic Concepts.

    PubMed

    Garrocho-Rangel, J A; Ruiz-Rodríguez, M S; Pozos-Guillén, A J

    The purpose of this report was to provide the reader with some basic concepts in order to better understand the significance and reliability of the results of any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, Pediatric Dentists need the best evidence available in the literature on which to base their diagnoses and treatment decisions for the children's oral care. Basic understanding of Biostatistics plays an important role during the entire Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) process. This report describes Biostatistics fundamentals in order to introduce the basic concepts used in statistics, such as summary measures, estimation, hypothesis testing, effect size, level of significance, p value, confidence intervals, etc., which are available to Pediatric Dentists interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  5. Three Short Films about Water: Presenting Basic Concepts to Students and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Michel, A.; Wilde, P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2011-12-01

    Three short form (3 - 5 minute) movies were produced for CUAHSI, to convey basic concepts such as a hydrologic budget, stores and fluxes of water, and the flowpaths and residence time of water. The films were originally intended to be used by scientists to explain the concepts behind potential environmental observatories, but evolved into serving a broader purpose. The films combine still photos, satellite images, animation and video clips, and interviews with CUAHSI members explaining hydrologic concepts in simple, accessible terms. In producing these films, we have found the importance of engaging scientists in conversation first, to develop a script around key accessible concepts and relevant information. Film and communication professionals play a critical role in distilling the scientific explanation and concepts into accessible, engaging film material. The films have been widely distributed through CD and online to educators for use in courses. Additionally, they provide a way to engage stakeholders, particularly land owners, by conveying basic concepts that are necessary to understand the hydrologic and earth science foundation of many of today's political and environmental issues. The films can be viewed online at the CUAHSI website, which also contains links to other film related resources and programs.

  6. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Toward Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Debbané, Martin; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Wood, Stephen J.; Raballo, Andrea; Michel, Chantal; Schmidt, Stefanie J.; Kindler, Jochen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs) integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis. PMID:26858660

  7. Contexts, concepts and cognition: principles for the transfer of basic science knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Chaudhary, Zarah; Woods, Nicole; Dore, Kelly; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Transfer of basic science aids novices in the development of clinical reasoning. The literature suggests that although transfer is often difficult for novices, it can be optimised by two complementary strategies: (i) focusing learners on conceptual knowledge of basic science or (ii) exposing learners to multiple contexts in which the basic science concepts may apply. The relative efficacy of each strategy as well as the mechanisms that facilitate transfer are unknown. In two sequential experiments, we compared both strategies and explored mechanistic changes in how learners address new transfer problems. Experiment 1 was a 2 × 3 design in which participants were randomised to learn three physiology concepts with or without emphasis on the conceptual structure of basic science via illustrative analogies and by means of one, two or three contexts during practice (operationalised as organ systems). Transfer of these concepts to explain pathologies in familiar organ systems (near transfer) and unfamiliar organ systems (far transfer) was evaluated during immediate and delayed testing. Experiment 2 examined whether exposure to conceptual analogies and multiple contexts changed how learners classified new problems. Experiment 1 showed that increasing context variation significantly improved far transfer performance but there was no difference between two and three contexts during practice. Similarly, the increased conceptual analogies led to higher performance for far transfer. Both interventions had independent but additive effects on overall performance. Experiment 2 showed that such analogies and context variation caused learners to shift to using structural characteristics to classify new problems even when there was superficial similarity to previous examples. Understanding problems based on conceptual structural characteristics is necessary for successful transfer. Transfer of basic science can be optimised by using multiple strategies that collectively emphasise

  8. Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

    Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

  9. The etymology of basic concepts in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dinsmoor, James A

    2004-11-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his data on the rate of lever pressing in the rat (e.g., operant conditioning, conditioned reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and response induction and differentiation) and key pecking in the pigeon (shaping). The concept of drive, however, has largely disappeared from the current literature.

  10. The English Curriculum under Fire: What Are the Real Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillocks, George, Jr., Ed.

    Addressing the wave of public criticism of the English curriculum, the six articles in this book cite "basics" that are far different from those of the current "back to basics" movement. The first article surveys the nature of the curriculum attacks and suggests why English teachers may be more vulnerable to public criticism…

  11. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part I, A Framework for Teaching Economics: Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee; And Others

    A concise framework of basic concepts and generalizations for teaching economics for K-12 students is presented. The guide summarizes the basic structure and substance of economics and lists and describes economic concepts. Standard guidelines are provided to help school systems integrate economics into their on-going courses of study. Designed to…

  12. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  13. Advanced functional thoracic imaging in children: from basic concepts to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-03-01

    The lungs and airways are organs involved in fairly complex body functions, including ventilation, perfusion, respiratory motion and gas exchange. Imaging evaluation of the pediatric thorax is challenging because involuntary, nonsynchronous respiratory motions and cardiac pulsations degrade image quality appreciably. The extraction of clinically useful functional information from noninvasive imaging methods has been realized even in children thanks to recent technical advancements in thoracic imaging modalities. In this article, advanced functional thoracic imaging techniques in children, focusing on CT and MRI, will be explored from basic concepts to clinical applications.

  14. Detection and quantification limits: basic concepts, international harmonization, and outstanding ("low-level") issues.

    PubMed

    Currie, L A

    2004-01-01

    A brief review is given of concepts, basic definitions, and terminology for metrological detection and quantification capabilities, representing harmonized recommendations and norms of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), respectively. Treatment of the (low-level) blank and variance function are discussed in some detail, together with special problems arising with detection decisions and the reporting of low-level data. Key references to the international documents follow, as well as specialized references addressing very low-level counting data, skewed environmental blank distributions, and multiple and multivariate detection decisions.

  15. Introduction to molecular topology: basic concepts and application to drug design.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge; Gálvez-Llompart, María; García-Domenech, Ramón

    2012-09-01

    In this review it is dealt the use of molecular topology (MT) in the selection and design of new drugs. After an introduction of the actual methods used for drug design, the basic concepts of MT are defined, including examples of calculation of topological indices, which are numerical descriptors of molecular structures. The goal is making this calculation familiar to the potential students and allowing a straightforward comprehension of the topic. Finally, the achievements obtained in this field are detailed, so that the reader can figure out the great interest of this approach.

  16. Illustrative presentation of some basic concepts of network internal reliability with comments as regards engineering surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    The paper integrates some earlier and the recent findings of the author in the area of network internal reliability and presents a consistent system of concepts in this respect. The concepts of outlier detection and outlier identification linked directly with the global model test and the outlier tests respectively, are shown as a basis for the concepts such as outlier detectability and outlier identifiability. Also, a four level classification of gross errors expressed in a form of a tree-diagram is presented including perceptible and imperceptible errors, detectable and undetectable errors and identifiable and unidentifiable errors. Their properties are given mainly in a descriptive way, deliberately limiting rigorous mathematical formulas to a necessary minimum. Understanding of different types of gross errors is useful in analyzing the results of the outlier detection and identification procedures as well as in designing the networks to make them duly robust to observation gross errors. It is of special importance for engineering surveys where quite often low-redundancy networks are used. Main objective of the paper is to demonstrate a clear and consistent system of basic concepts related to network internal reliability.

  17. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  18. Basic concepts in the taxonomy of health-related behaviors, habits and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-05-13

    Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  19. The historical origins of the basic concepts of health promotion and education: the role of ancient Greek philosophy and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tountas, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that the basic concepts of 'Health Promotion' have been developed in the last two decades, they have their roots in ancient civilizations and in particular in Greek antiquity. As evident from medical and philosophical documents of the sixth to fourth centuries B.C., the ancient Greeks were the first to break with the supernatural conceptions of health and disease that had so far dominated human societies. The ancient Greeks developed the physiocratic school of thought, realizing that maintaining good health and fighting illness depend on natural causes and that health and disease cannot be dissociated from particular physical and social environments nor from human behavior. In this context, they defined health as a state of dynamic equilibrium between the internal and the external environment, they took under consideration the physical and social determinants of health, they empowered individuals and communities through new democratic and participatory institutions, they gave emphasis in health education and skill development, they recognized the importance of supportive environments and of healthy public policy and they re-oriented medicine toward a more naturalistic and humanistic perspective. The aim of the present study is to highlight such core concepts from these early times that helped establishing the foundations for health promotion and education in the modern era according to the Ottawa Charter.

  20. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  1. The Use of Games to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Number Concepts in Preschool Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea

    Group games were used to teach basic number concepts to educable mentally retarded children. The number concepts were integral but incidental to the intentional teaching of game skills. Subjects were 21 boys and 19 girls from eight classes, free of gross defects (means were IQ=66.22, age=7.9, mental age=5.11), and matched in pairs for…

  2. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  3. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention. (a) General. (1) When an employee becomes entitled to... conversion), the employee would be eligible for pay retention under subpart C of this part to the same extent... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining an employee's rate of basic...

  4. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  5. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture.

  6. Diagnostic questionnaire of astronomy's basic concepts per integrated high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Barbosa, J. I.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Related themes to the study of astronomy permeates almost for all levels of education adopted in Brazil, however, this subject is not a specific discipline part of basic education curriculum, in other words, its contents are distributed in the subjects of Natural Sciences, Geography and Physics. This work presents a questionnaire diagnosis comprises a total of thirteen questions, which was applied to integrated high school students from four campuses of the Federal Institute of Alagoas - IFAL, and its purpose is to investigate the knowledge of these students astronomical basic concepts. The method used was survey and a total of 653 questionnaires were answered, 267 in the 1st year, 219 in 2nd year, and 167 in the 3rd year. This research is ongoing, however it can be initially noted that in ten questions the students of 1st year were below average (ie 50%), students of 2nd year fall short of this note in eight questions, and the students of the 3rd year, have not reached this note in five questions.

  7. Human Factor Management in a Region Under Industrialization - A Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muszynski, Marek; Kowalewski, Andrzej

    Numerous studies conducted by the Committee for Studies on Regions under Industrialization of the Polish Academy of Sciences provide the basis for historical analysis and regional comparison relative to concept formation, program guidelines, and program implementation procedures for rational human factor management. The exhaustion of Poland's…

  8. Basics of Ternary Algebras and their underlying Nambu Brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2013-12-01

    Ternary algebras amount to closing systems of antisymmetrized trinomials of operators. The Filippov conditions (FI, which are not identities) for ternary algebras are contrasted to Bremner's identities dictated by associativity of operator products, and thus analogous to Jacobi identities. Maps of the known FI-compliant ternary algebras to underlying classical Nambu brackets are constructed, which then explain this compliance: FI-compliant ternary algebras are essentially classical Nambu brackets in disguise. In some cases involving infinite algebras, we show the classical limit may be obtained by a contraction of the quantal ternary algebra, and then explicitly realized through classical Nambu brackets. We illustrate this classical-contraction method on our Virasoro-Witt ternary algebra paradigm. The content of the talk is in the two references.

  9. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  10. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  11. Healing and edible clays: a review of basic concepts, benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Celso de Sousa Figueiredo

    2017-02-01

    The use of clay by humans for medicinal and wellness purposes is most probably as old as mankind. Within minerals, due to its ubiquitous occurrence in nature and easy availability, clay was the first to be used and is still used worldwide. Healing clays have been traditionally used by man for therapeutic, nutritional and skin care purposes, but they could impart some important health and skin care risks. For instance, clay particles could adsorb and make available for elimination or excretion any potential toxic elements or toxins being ingested or produced, but they could adsorb and make available for incorporation, through ingestion or through dermal absorption, toxic elements, e.g. heavy metals. Edible clays, a particular case of healing clays, have been traditionally used by man for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Geophagy, the deliberate soil eating, earth eating, clay eating and pica (medical condition or eating disorder shown by individuals addicted to eat earth substances), has been observed in all parts of the world since antiquity, reflecting cultural practice, religious belief and physiological needs, be they nutritional (dietary supplementation) or as a remedy for disease. This paper pretends to review historical data, basic concepts and functions, as well as benefits and risks of the use of healing clays, in general, for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes, and of edible clays, in particular, for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Basic concepts of epigenetics: impact of environmental signals on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2012-02-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins.

  13. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  14. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  15. Transfer of Writing Skills: How the Concept of Transfer Can Help Teachers of ESL and Basic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Nathaniel

    The concept of transfer, which refers to the brain's ability to generalize or situations in which perceptions and behaviors are generalizable, can be of use to teachers of English as a second language (ESL) students and basic writers. What is called "writing across the curriculum" and most classroom writing instruction are based on unexamined…

  16. Mapping the Relationships among Basic Facts, Concepts and Application, and Common Core Curriculum-Based Mathematics Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Mercer, Sterett; Connell, James; Fiorello, Catherine; Kleinert, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence supporting the use of curriculum-based mathematics measures (M-CBMs) at the middle school level, which makes data-based decisions challenging for school professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among three existing M-CBM indices: (a) basic facts, (b) concepts/application, and (c)…

  17. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  18. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  19. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  20. The Development of a Diagnostic Test for Determining Secondary Students' Knowledge and Understanding of Certain Basic Language Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Coleen Rawson

    Problems encountered in evaluating the effectiveness of an English elective program indicated the need for the development of a criterion-referenced diagnostic test for determining students' knowledge and understanding of certain basic language concepts in the field of English. A survey of 76 English elective programs throughout the United States…

  1. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  2. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups.

  3. Integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: a mixed-method study on teacher learning.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia C; Van Tartwijk, Jan; Bolk, Jan; Verloop, Nico

    2015-02-18

    The explication of relations between clinical and basic sciences can help vertical integration in medical curricula. Concept mapping might be a useful technique for this explication. Little is known about teachers' ability regarding the articulation of integration. We examined therefore which factors affect the learning of groups of clinicians and basic scientists on different expertise levels who learn to articulate the integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps. After a pilot for fine-tuning group size and instructions, seven groups of expert clinicians and basic scientists and seven groups of residents with a similar disciplinary composition constructed concept maps about a clinical problem that fit their specializations. Draft and final concepts maps were compared on elaborateness and articulated integration by means of t-tests. Participants completed a questionnaire on motivation and their evaluation of the instructions. ANOVA's were run to compare experts' and residents' views. Data from video tapes and notes were qualitatively analyzed. Finally, the three data sources were interpreted in coherence by using Pearson's correlations and qualitative interpretation. Residents outshone experts as regards learning to articulate integration as comparison of the draft and final versions showed. Experts were more motivated and positive about the concept mapping procedure and instructions, but this did not correlate with the extent of integration fond in the concept maps. The groups differed as to communication: residents interacted from the start (asking each other for clarification), whereas overall experts only started interaction when they had to make joint decisions. Our results suggest that articulation of integration can be learned, but this learning is not related to participants' motivation or their views on the instructions. Decision making and interaction, however, do relate to the articulation of integration and this suggests that teacher

  4. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.216-1 Delivery orders and orders under...

  5. 34 CFR 403.61 - What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs? 403.61 Section 403.61 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  6. 34 CFR 403.61 - What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs? 403.61 Section 403.61 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  7. 34 CFR 403.61 - What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs? 403.61 Section 403.61 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  8. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  9. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  10. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  11. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  12. Reconstructing the Basic Concepts of General Relativity from an Educational and Cultural Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    Presents an example of a reconstruction of the debate concerning the foundations of general relativity on the basis of cultural and educational criteria. In particular, the debate is shown as guided by the concept of space and the different perspectives from which such a concept can be viewed. (Author/MM)

  13. The Effect of Using an Educational Website in Achievement of Bachelor Students in the Course of Basic Concepts in Mathematics at Al al-Bayt University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to detect the effect of using an educational site on the Internet in the collection of bachelor's students in the course of basic concepts in mathematics at Al al-Bayt University, and the study sample consisted of all students in the course basic concepts in mathematics in the first semester of the academic year 2014/2015 and the…

  14. State Plan for the Adult Basic Education Program under the Adult Education Act of 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    The Nevada State Plan for an adult basic education program provides the legal basis for qualifying for Federal funds under the Adult Education Act of 1966. The State Board of Education will administer the program as an integral part of the State System of Public School Adult and Vocational Education, but other agencies (Federal, State, municipal,…

  15. Integrated Learning of Words and Their Underlying Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 1. SlLUJEc TEReMS an:m:nE if ow::n B n1 i:,dsi b FIELD GROUP SUB ROUP Word Learning, Explanation- Based Learning, Concept...concurrently This model is implemented s a word learning component added to the GENESIS explanation- based schema acquisition system for narrative...concepts. Also. developmental data suggests that the learnig of words and their concepts frequently occurs concurrently instead of concept learnng proceeding

  16. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  17. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  18. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  20. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  1. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  2. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  3. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  4. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  5. Using Feature Films to Integrate Themes and Concepts in the Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitter, Roger

    The typical textbook for the basic course fails to integrate the broad range of topics it introduces to the new student of communication. One way of addressing this problem would be to use feature films in the course, such as "Wall Street,""True Colors,""Other People's Money,""Milagro Beanfield War," and…

  6. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  7. Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2007-01-01

    A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

  8. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  9. Subjective Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Research and the Clinic: The Basic Symptom Concept

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    Recent focus on early detection and intervention in psychosis has renewed interest in subtle psychopathology beyond positive and negative symptoms. These are self-experienced subclinical disturbances termed basic symptoms (BS). The phenomenologies of BS and their development in the course of psychotic disorders will be described. PMID:19074497

  10. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  11. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  12. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  13. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  14. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  15. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  16. The Effect of the Use of Number Lines Representations on Student Understanding of Basic Function Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James R.

    Researchers and educators are calling for increased use of technology and attention to function concepts in school mathematics. Students often have considerable difficulty gleaning pointwise and global information from Cartesian (R squared) representations of functions, whether they are hand- or machine-produced. Described here is an interactive…

  17. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  18. Students' Conceptions of Basic Ideas of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Kesidou, Sofia

    The focus of this study was to portray the ideas that students with four years experience in learning physics developed in regard to the second law of thermodynamics. Data were obtained through 34 clinical interviews with grade 10 students. An analysis of student arguments revealed deeply rooted difficulties in using concepts that were learned in…

  19. Basic Concepts and Techniques in Accounting for Spanish Speaking Students (Student's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Constanza

    Intended for limited-English Spanish-speaking adult students, this manual contains an eight-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Spanish with key terms/concepts (and occupation-related vocabulary) translated into English appearing immediately following the Spanish in parentheses. Examples are provided in English only. The information…

  20. Computer Graphics for Use in the Classroom to Illustrate Basic Concepts and Spatial Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    The computer packages of PLOTALL, SYMAP, SURFACE II, QUSMO, QUSMO2, QUCRS, and QUTAB are commercially available plotting programs that provide aids for visualizing spatial distributed data and concepts. The incremental drum and line printer plots communicate often vast and difficult-to-interpret tabular data with or without geographic coordinates.…

  1. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  2. PATCH: Its Origin, Basic Concepts, and Links to Contemporary Public Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.

    1992-01-01

    PATCH (Planned Approach to Community Health), a cooperative program of technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control, strengthens state and local health departments' capacities to plan, implement, and evaluate community-based health promotion activities for priority health problems. The article describes its origin, concepts, and…

  3. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  4. Understanding E2 versus SN2 Competition under Acidic and Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Lando P; Ren, Yi; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose is to understand the mechanism through which pH affects the competition between base-induced elimination and substitution. To this end, we have quantum chemically investigated the competition between elimination and substitution pathways in H2O+C2H5OH2 (+) and OH(-)+C2H5OH, that is, two related model systems that represent, in a generic manner, the same reaction under acidic and basic conditions, respectively. We find that substitution is favored in the acidic case while elimination prevails under basic conditions. Activation-strain analyses of the reaction profiles reveal that the switch in preferred reactivity from substitution to elimination, if one goes from acidic to basic catalysis, is related to (1) the higher basicity of the deprotonated base, and (2) the change in character of the substrates LUMO from C(β)-H bonding in C2H5OH2 (+) to C(β)-H antibonding in C2H5OH.

  5. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  6. MoH 101: Basic Concepts in the Mechanics of Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Epp, Bastian; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-11-01

    We provide a synopsis of selected questions and answers from the second triennial Mechanics of Hearing 101 session held at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The MoH 101 session offers a non-intimidating forum for students, postdocs, and others new to the field to explore issues and ideas relevant to the Workshop. We have augmented the discussion content by giving some basic background and references.

  7. Introduction to the basics of evidence-based dentistry: concepts and skills.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Jane L

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this section of the ADA Champions Pre-Conference is to review the basics of Evidence-based dentistry (EBD), research designs and levels of evidence, and identify the skills necessary for clinicians to efficiently use an evidence-based approach in practice. This session of the pre-conference preceded the session on the skills needed to define a clinical question and search for the evidence to answer that question.

  8. Relation of student characteristics to learning of basic biochemistry concepts from a multimedia goal-based scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of several cognitive and demographic variables to learning outcomes from a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario lesson on DNA. The demographic variables under investigation were: gender, ethnicity, prior science coursework in college and high school, final score in current chemistry course and prior experience with computers. The cognitive variables under study were logical thinking ability, spatial ability and disembedding ability. The subjects for this study were a total of 525 college students enrolled in introductory chemistry classes for non-majors at one of four participating institutions in the U.S. and Canada. Of these participants, 488 formed the experimental group and 37 formed a control group. All subjects completed content pre- and post-tests, a demographic questionnaire and three cognitive tests: Test of Logical Thinking, Hidden Figures Test and Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test. Students in the experimental group used "Whodunnit?," a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario to teach basic biochemistry concepts pertaining to DNA, while students in the control group completed a similar paper-based activity. A combination of general linear models and linear regression analysis was used to examine the data obtained. Post-hoc analyses were conducted for categorical variables when they were found to be significant contributors to the model tested. The results showed that there was no relationship between gender or ethnicity and academic Outcomes. Prior science coursework completed in college did not show a relationship with post-test scores, although number of science courses completed in high school was a significant predictor of academic outcomes. A relationship was observed between course rank and learning outcomes, as students with final course grades in the upper quartile of the sample scored significantly higher on the post-test than all others. The amount of variance in outcomes explained by prior

  9. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-04-01

    An integrated inorganic chemistry laboratory experiment for first-year students in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is presented. It is based on copper sulfate and structured for a duration of about 10 hours, and has three steps: purification of a natural ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates, determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate, and recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. Many basic operations and concepts related to this experiment are studied: weighing; heating; filtration (simple and vacuum-assisted); purification; crystallization; pure compounds and mixtures; hydrated and anhydrous salts; solubility; unsaturated (dilute and concentrated), saturated, and supersaturated solutions; adsorbed and crystallization water; reversible dehydration; redox reaction; electrode potential; free energy; spontaneity; and catalysis.

  10. A Scalable Method for Regioselective 3-Acylation of 2-Substituted Indoles under Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Urruticoechea, Andoni; Larsen, Inna; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2015-01-02

    Privileged structures such as 2-arylindoles are recurrent molecular scaffolds in bioactive molecules. We here present an operationally simple, high yielding and scalable method for regioselective 3-acylation of 2-substituted indoles under basic conditions using functionalized acid chlorides. The method shows good tolerance to both electron-withdrawing and donating substituents on the indole scaffold and gives ready access to a variety of functionalized 3-acylindole building blocks suited for further derivatization.

  11. Reconstructing the Basic Concepts of General Relativity from an Educational and Cultural Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrini, Olivia

    Research in the history and philosophy of physics hasshown that the formalism of General Relativity can be interpreted in several different ways and,consequently, its teaching is very problematic. The present contribution is an example of a reconstruction of thedebate concerning the foundations of General Relativity on the basis of cultural and educational criteria.In particular, the debate will be presented as guided by the concept of space, and by the different perspectives from whichsuch a concept can be viewed. It will be pointed out that the various ways of looking at space give powerfulcriteria not only to create an order among the interpretations, but also to exploit the educational and culturalvalue of the debate.

  12. AOPA Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration October 17-19, 1996. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the Annual Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Convention in 1996. The demonstration consisted of an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft in which the participant took off, flew a brief enroute segment and then flew a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing. The participant was provided an advanced 'pathway-in-the-sky' presentation on both a head-up display and a head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 352 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 144 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 1850 hours total flight time. The performance of the participants was surprisingly good, considering the minimal training in a completely new system concept. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and reduction in pilot workload were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  13. Leukocyte Recruitment in Inflammation: Basic Concepts and New Mechanistic Insights Based on New Models and Microscopic Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Leick, Marion; Azcutia, Veronica; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2014-01-01

    The immune cell system is a critical component of host defense. Recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, immune reaction, or injury is complex and involves coordinated adhesive interactions between the leukocyte and the endothelial cell monolayer that lines blood vessels. This article will review basic mechanisms in the recruitment of leukocytes to tissues, and then selectively review new concepts that are emerging based on advances in live cell imaging microscopy and mouse strains. These emerging concepts are altering the conventional paradigms of inflammatory leukocyte recruitment established in the early 1990’s. Indeed, recent publications have identified previously unrecognized contributions from pericytes and interstitial leukocytes and their secreted products that guide leukocytes to their targets. It is also notable that investigators have begun to design organs on a chip. Recent reports indicate that this avenue of research holds much promise. PMID:24562377

  14. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  15. [August Weismann's concept of germ plasma as the basic reason for the inadequacy of neo-Darwinism].

    PubMed

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Darwinism is a result of synthesis of Darwinian concept of natural selection with Weismannian concept of germ plasma. The concept of germ plasma is based on a hypothesis that phenotypic traits are completely determined by genes. Hence, neo-Darwinism describes evolution as a process of alternation of gene frequencies under the effect of natural selection. This is an inadequate approach to the study of evolution. In the course of evolution, genes change their functions, whereas phenotypic characters change their corresponding genes. As a result, every step of evolutionary transformation changes the structure of phenotype-to-genotype correspondence. Therefore, phenotypic evolution cannot be described in genetic terms, the same as to human languages cannot be translated one into another whenever the meaning of words is constantly changing. Consequently, Weismannian germ-plasma concept adequately describes the relation of characters to genes only during stasis, but is inapplicable to evolution.

  16. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  17. Implementation of educational video improves patient understanding of basic breast cancer concepts in an undereducated county hospital population.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Marcia E; Shirah, Gina R; Nodora, Jesse; Pond, Erika; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Klemens, Anne E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Komenaka, Ian K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a video on patient understanding of basic breast cancer concepts. An 11 item tool of breast cancer concepts was devised. A previous study obtained baseline information on patient knowledge. Subsequently an 8 min video was designed to facilitate the understanding of these concepts. The next 40 consecutive patients who saw the video were then administered the same 11 item questionnaire. Eighty-one women agreed to participate in the study, 41 before and 40 after the implementation of the video. Fifty-one percent had less than a high school education. The group who saw the video had a higher mean number of questions correct (6.7 vs. 8.9, P = 0.0007). Interestingly 90% of all respondents correctly answered the question on the value of screening mammography, however, only 37% of these patients underwent screening mammograms. A multiple linear regression model adjusting for years of education, language, and seeing the video, revealed that having seen the video (P = 0.0029) and years of education (P = 0.0002) remained significantly associated with higher score. Implementation of an educational video significantly improved understanding of breast cancer concepts in an undereducated population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Back stress in dislocation creep. Part 1: Basic concepts and measuring techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadek, J.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is proposed whereby the plastic deformation of metal materials is determined by the difference between the applied stress and the back stress which characterizes the resistance of the material to plastic deformation. The back stress is usually equivalent to the internal stress or the friction stress and depends on the magnitude of the applied stress and temperature. The concept of back stress is applied to the case of the dislocation creep of precipitation-hardened or dispersion-strengthened metal materials. An additivity rule is formulated which can be useful in interpreting the creep behavior of such materials.

  19. Self-awareness: a review and analysis of a basic nursing concept.

    PubMed

    Eckroth-Bucher, Margie

    2010-01-01

    Self-awareness has long been addressed as fundamental for the professional nurse with the accepted view that self-awareness will lead to greater competence. Therefore, it is important to understand the historical evolution of the concept, attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Rodgers' evolutionary method was used for critical analysis of nursing, social sciences, and education literature. Analysis indicates that self-awareness is a dynamic, transformative process of self. Ultimately, self-awareness is the use of self-insights and presence knowingly to guide behavior that is genuine and authentic to create a healing interpersonal environment. Future research areas within practice and education are identified.

  20. Basic Concepts in the Stability Theory of Thin-walled Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guran, A.; Lebedev, L.

    2010-11-01

    Numerous specialized books and papers have been written about the subject of stability in mechanics. Most of these concentrate on methods for obtaining critical values of certain parameters, and typically contain algorithms and graphs generated for describing important but very specific problems. In the present paper we take a step back and discuss the truly central notions regarding mechanical stability. Our intention is to treat the required concepts on a fairly elementary level, while simultaneously offering a bit of useful historical perspective. We also attempt to explain some common discrepancies between theoretical and practical results.

  1. Reconsideration of basic concepts for the low-pressure discharge maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivarova, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The Schottky condition and the concept for the ambipolar field known as bases of the low-pressure discharge maintenance are reconsidered. Whereas the Schottky condition results in a value of the electron temperature independent of the plasma density, the discussed generalized form of the Schottky condition relates - due to the nonlinear processes in the charged particle balance - the electron temperature to the plasma density, thus, ensuring self-consistency of the plasma description. The concept for equality of the electron and ion fluxes resulting into the ambipolar field is the second issue discussed. Localization of the power input outside the high plasma-density region, a common case in many rf plasma sources, breaks it down by transforming the ambipolar field into a vortex, non-conservative, field. Since the dc field in the discharge should be a potential (conservative) field, it appears to be composed by two vortex field: the ambipolar field and a field related to a vortex dc current, the latter driven by a deviation from the Boltzmann distribution of the electron density. In addition, due to the steady-state magnetic field self-induced by the vortex current in the discharge, the plasma appears magnetized without having an external magnetic field applied.

  2. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  3. Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    2013-06-01

    The design of inhomogeneous phantoms for diffuse optical imaging purposes using totally absorbing objects embedded in a diffusive medium is proposed and validated. From time-resolved and continuous-wave Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that a given or desired perturbation strength caused by a realistic absorbing inhomogeneity of a certain absorption and volume can be approximately mimicked by a small totally absorbing object of a so-called equivalent black volume (equivalence relation). This concept can be useful in two ways. First, it can be exploited to design realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with different perturbation strengths simply using a set of black objects with different volumes. Further, it permits one to grade physiological or pathological changes on a reproducible scale of perturbation strengths given as equivalent black volumes, thus facilitating the performance assessment of clinical instruments. A set of plots and interpolating functions to derive the equivalent black volume corresponding to a given absorption change is provided. The application of the equivalent black volume concept for grading different optical perturbations is demonstrated for some examples.

  4. Plasma in dentistry: a review of basic concepts and applications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.

  5. Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Implementation of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) in basic scientific research: Translating the concept beyond regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Jena, G B; Chavan, Sapana

    2017-10-01

    The principles of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) are mainly intended for the laboratories performing studies for regulatory compliances. However, today GLP can be applied to broad disciplines of science to cater to the needs of the experimental objectives, generation of quality data and assay reproducibility. Considering its significance, it can now be applied in academics; industries as well as government set ups throughout the world. GLP is the best way to promote the reliability, reproducibility of the test data and hence facilitates the international acceptability. Now it is high time to translate and implement the concept of GLP beyond regulatory studies. Thus, it can pave the way for better understanding of scientific problems and help to maintain a good human and environmental health. Through this review, we have made an attempt to explore the uses of GLP principles in different fields of science and its acceptability as well as looking for its future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensorimotor integration: basic concepts, abnormalities related to movement disorders and sensorimotor training-induced cortical reorganization.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Cunha, Marlo; Velasques, Bruna; Minc, Daniel; Teixeira, Silmar; Domingues, Clayton A; Silva, Julio G; Bastos, Victor H; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2010-10-01

    Sensorimotor integration is defined as the capability of the central nervous system to integrate different sources of stimuli, and parallelly, to transform such inputs in motor actions. To review the basic principles of sensorimotor integration, such as, its neural bases and its elementary mechanisms involved in specific goal-directed tasks performed by healthy subjects, and the abnormalities reported in the most common movement disorders, such as, Parkinson' disease, dystonia and stroke, like the cortical reorganization-related mechanisms. Whether these disorders are associated with an abnormal peripheral sensory input or defective central processing is still unclear, but most of the data support a central mechanism. We found that the sensorimotor integration process plays a potential role in elementary mechanisms involved in specific goal-directed tasks performed by healthy subjects and in occurrence of abnormalities in most common movement disorders and, moreover, play a potential role on the acquisition of abilities that have as critical factor the coupling of different sensory data which will constitute the basis of elaboration of motor outputs consciously goal-directed.

  9. Revisiting preschoolers' living things concept: a microgenetic analysis of conceptual change in basic biology.

    PubMed

    Opfer, John E; Siegler, Robert S

    2004-12-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological action, but that few preschoolers realize that plants possess this capacity. To test the hypothesis, we taught 5-year-olds one of four biological facts and examined the children's subsequent categorization of life status for numerous animals, plants, and artifacts. As predicted, a large majority of 5-year-olds who learned that both plants and animals, but not artifacts, move in goal-directed ways inferred that both plants and animals, but not artifacts, are alive. These children were considerably more likely to draw this inference than peers who learned that the same plants and animals grow or need water and almost as likely to do so as children who were explicitly told that animals and plants are living things and that artifacts are not. Results also indicated that not all biological properties are extended from familiar animals to plants; some biological properties are first attributed to plants and then extended to animals.

  10. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  11. From Purines to Basic Biochemical Concepts: Experiments for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Many high school biology courses address mainly the molecular and cellular basis of life. The complexity that underlies the most essential processes is often difficult for the students to understand; possibly, in part, because of the inability to see and explore them. Six simple practical experiments on purine catabolism as a part of a…

  12. From Purines to Basic Biochemical Concepts: Experiments for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Many high school biology courses address mainly the molecular and cellular basis of life. The complexity that underlies the most essential processes is often difficult for the students to understand; possibly, in part, because of the inability to see and explore them. Six simple practical experiments on purine catabolism as a part of a…

  13. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of SLMs in an integrated basic science curriculum has the potential to individualize the teaching and improve the learning of basic sciences.

  14. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  15. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  16. Thyroid hormone and cardiovascular system: from basic concepts to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Iervasi, Giorgio; Nicolini, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    Experimental and clinical findings strongly support the concept that thyroid hormone (TH) plays a fundamental role in the cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis. CV diseases represent a major public health care and economic problem being one of the principal causes of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization. In particular, chronic heart failure (HF) is one of the most common reasons for general practitioners consultations in people >65-70 years old. TH derangement may have a key role in the evolution process of HF. In HF, the main and earlier alteration of the thyroid function is referred to as "low-T3" syndrome characterized by the reduction in serum total T3 and free T3 with normal levels of thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH). This syndrome may affect till one-third of advanced HF patients. The main goal of this mini-review is to examine the main pathophysiological and clinical links between an altered thyroid metabolism and CV diseases, namely HF during progression of disease from organ specific to systemic disorder.

  17. Multiplexed microbead immunoassays by flow cytometry for molecular profiling: Basic concepts and proteomics applications.

    PubMed

    Krishhan, V V; Khan, Imran H; Luciw, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was originally established as an automated method for measuring optical or fluorescence characteristics of cells or particles in suspension. With the enormous increase in development of reliable electronics, lasers, micro-fluidics, as well as many advances in immunology and other fields, flow cytometers have become user-friendlier, less-expensive instruments with an increasing importance for both basic research and clinical applications. Conventional uses of flow cytometry include immunophenotyping of blood cells and the analysis of the cell cycle. Importantly, methods for labeling microbeads with unique combinations of fluorescent spectral signatures have made multiplex analysis of soluble analytes (i.e. the ability to detect multiple targets in a single test sample) feasible by flow cytometry. The result is a rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and reproducible detection technology for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring detection of proteins (in cells and biofluids) and nucleic acids. Thus, novel methods of flow cytometry are becoming important for diagnostic purposes (e.g. identifying multiple clinical biomarkers for a wide range of diseases) as well as for developing novel therapies (e.g. elucidating drug mechanisms and potential toxicities). In addition, flow cytometry for multiplex analysis, coupled with automated sample handling devices, has the potential to significantly enhance proteomics research, particularly analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins, on a large scale. Inherently, flow cytometry methods are strongly rooted in the laws of the physics of optics, fluidics, and electromagnetism. This review article describes principles and early sources of flow cytometry, provides an introduction to the multiplex microbead technology, and discusses its applications and advantages in comparison to other methods. Anticipated future directions, particularly for translational research in medicine, are also discussed.

  18. Basic Concepts in Population Modeling, Simulation, and Model-Based Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Mould, D R; Upton, R N

    2012-01-01

    Modeling is an important tool in drug development; population modeling is a complex process requiring robust underlying procedures for ensuring clean data, appropriate computing platforms, adequate resources, and effective communication. Although requiring an investment in resources, it can save time and money by providing a platform for integrating all information gathered on new therapeutic agents. This article provides a brief overview of aspects of modeling and simulation as applied to many areas in drug development. PMID:23835886

  19. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  20. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  1. Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Flohé, Leopold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•− and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-κB and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

  2. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    SciTech Connect

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-06-08

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  3. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    SciTech Connect

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian E-mail: totzauer@mpp.mpg.de

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  4. Investigating Student Understanding of Physics Concepts and the Underlying Calculus Concepts in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John; Christensen, Warren; Mountcastle, Donald

    2010-03-01

    In work on student understanding of concepts in advanced thermal physics, we are exploring student understanding of the mathematics required for productive reasoning about the physics. By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we find evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. Our focus is in two main areas: interpretation of P-V diagrams, requiring an understanding of integration, and material properties and the Maxwell relations, involving partial differentiation. We have also assessed these mathematical concepts among students in multivariable calculus. Calculus results support the findings among physics students: some observed difficulties are not just with transfer of math knowledge to physics contexts, but seem to have origins in the understanding of the math concepts themselves.

  5. Implementing a “choose your own adventure” method in teaching basic concepts of sound to primary-school teacher candidate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichteria Panjaitan, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The grasps of basic physics of sound of primary-school teacher candidates were examined. Ninety students of primary-school teacher candidate program participated in this study. The experimental group was introduced to the basic concept of sound teaching with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method using a daily-life story related to sound; and the control group received the same material with traditional lecture method. The result shows that the students taught with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method got better understanding on basic concepts of sound than students taught with traditional lecture method. The finding suggests that “Choose Your Own Adventure” method may be able to enhance students’ mastery on science especially on basic concepts of sound.

  6. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  7. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  8. Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation.

    PubMed

    Peusner, Kenna D; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input-output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation.

  9. Magnetic filtration of phase separating ferrofluids: From basic concepts to microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; Magnet, C.; Ezzaier, H.; Zubarev, A.; Bossis, G.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we briefly review magnetic separation of ferrofluids composed of large magnetic particles (60 nm of the average size) possessing an induced dipole moment. Such ferrofluids exhibit field-induced phase separation at relatively low particle concentrations (∼0.8 vol%) and magnetic fields (∼10 kA/m). Particle aggregates appearing during the phase separation are extracted from the suspending fluid by magnetic field gradients much easier than individual nanoparticles in the absence of phase separation. Nanoparticle capture by a single magnetized microbead and by multi-collector systems (packed bed of spheres and micro-pillar array) has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under flow and magnetic fields, the particle capture efficiency Λ decreases with an increasing Mason number for all considered geometries. This decrease may become stronger for aggregated magnetic particles (Λ ∝Ma-1.7) than for individual ones (Λ ∝Ma-1) if the shear fields are strong enough to provoke aggregate rupture. These results can be useful for development of new magneto-microfluidic immunoassays based on magnetic nanoparticles offering a much better sensitivity as compared to presently used magnetic microbeads.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were…

  11. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career.

  12. Animal laboratory, interactive and computer based learning, in enhancing basic concepts in physiology: an outlook of 481 undergraduate medical students.

    PubMed

    Shore, Najla; Khawar, Shireen; Qutab, Miraa; Ayub, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are intended to illustrate concepts and add an active learning component to courses. Since 1980s, there has been a decline in animal laboratories in medical physiology courses. Other cost-effective non-aninmal alternatives are being sought. The present study was designed to find out the students' opinion regarding the animal versus computer lab and whether innovative teaching methodologies helped students achieve their goals. Opinions of 481 female in medical students of 2nd and 3rd year MBBS were included in the study. A questionnaire based on animal/computer based experiments and new teaching methodologies in physiology was voluntarily filled in by the students. Majority of students immensely benefited from both the animal lab and other teaching methodologies. Although computer based learning is considered effective in helping students acquire basic concepts, there is evidence that some students acquire a more thorough understanding of the material through more advanced and challenging experience of an animal laboratory. The fact that such labs as well various teaching methods offer distinct educational advantages should be taken into account when courses are designed.

  13. Source-sink interaction: a century old concept under the light of modern molecular systems biology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tian-Gen; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-02-17

    Many approaches to engineer source strength have been proposed to enhance crop yield potential. However, a well-co-ordinated source-sink relationship is required finally to realize the promised increase in crop yield potential in the farmer's field. Source-sink interaction has been intensively studied for decades, and a vast amount of knowledge about the interaction in different crops and under different environments has been accumulated. In this review, we first introduce the basic concepts of source, sink and their interactions, then summarize current understanding of how source and sink can be manipulated through both environmental control and genetic manipulations. We show that the source-sink interaction underlies the diverse responses of crops to the same perturbations and argue that development of a molecular systems model of source-sink interaction is required towards a rational manipulation of the source-sink relationship for increased yield. We finally discuss both bottom-up and top-down routes to develop such a model and emphasize that a community effort is needed for development of this model. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 34 CFR 222.31 - To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic support payments under section 8003(b) of the Act? 222.31 Section 222.31 Education...) and (e) of the Act § 222.31 To which local educational agencies does the Secretary make basic...

  15. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology. A systems viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  16. Basic concepts of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Butcher, Darci T; Roifman, Maian; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2013-03-01

    Several types of epigenetic marks facilitate the complex patterning required for normal human development. These epigenetic marks include DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides, covalent modifications of histone proteins, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). They function in a highly orchestrated manner, regulating mitotically heritable differences in gene expression potential without altering the primary DNA sequence. In germ cells and the developing embryo, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming drives the erasure and reestablishment of correct epigenetic patterns at critical developmental time periods and in specific cell types. Two specific types of epigenetic regulation established in early development include X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting; they regulate gene expression in a dosage-dependent and parent-of-origin-specific manner, respectively. Both genetic and environmental factors impact epigenetic marks, generating phenotypic variation that ranges from normal variation to human disease. Aberrant epigenetic patterning can lead to a variety of human disorders, including subfertility and imprinting disorders.

  17. Proposal of Comprehensive Model of Teaching Basic Nursing Skills Under Goal-Based Scenario Theory.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Yuri; Muranaka, Yoko; Teraoka, Misako; Suzuki, Sayuri; Saito, Yukie; Yamato, Hiromi; Ishii, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design and develop a comprehensive model of teaching basic nursing skills on GBS theory and Four-Stage Performance Cycle. We designed a basic nursing skill program that consists of three courses: basic, application and multi-tasking. The program will be offered as blended study, utilizing e-learning.

  18. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  19. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  20. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  1. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  2. The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

  3. The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

  4. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 1. Statistical Analysis of a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 1 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught in the twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used. The study compared performance in five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A…

  5. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 1. Statistical Analysis of a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 1 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught in the twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used. The study compared performance in five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A…

  6. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  7. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  8. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  9. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  10. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the... Act § 222.38 What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive... assistance. (c) The comparable local contribution rate (LCR) determined in accordance with §§...

  11. Investigation of acyl migration in mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids under aqueous basic, aqueous acidic, and dry roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius Febi; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-09-17

    Acyl migration in chlorogenic acids describes the process of migration of cinnamoyl moieties from one quinic acid alcohol group to another, thus interconverting chlorogenic acid regioisomers. It therefore constitutes a special case of transesterification reaction. Acyl migration constitutes an important reaction pathway in both coffee roasting and brewing, altering the structure of chlorogenic acid initially present in the green coffee bean. In this contribution we describe detailed and comprehensive mechanistic studies comparing inter- and intramolecular acyl migration involving the seven most common chlorogenic acids in coffee. We employe aqueous acidic and basic conditions mimicking the brewing of coffee along with dry roasting conditions. We show that under aqueous basic conditions intramolecular acyl migration is fully reversible with basic hydrolysis competing with acyl migration. 3-Caffeoylquinic acid was shown to be most labile to basic hydrolysis. We additionally show that the acyl migration process is strongly pH dependent with increased transesterification taking place at basic pH. Under dry roasting conditions acyl migration competes with dehydration to form lactones. We argue that acyl migration precedes lactonization, with 3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone being the predominant product.

  12. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. A radical addition/cyclization of diverse ethers to 2-isocyanobiaryls under mildly basic aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Anton-Torrecillas, Cintia; Felipe-Blanco, Diego; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2016-12-07

    Mildly basic aqueous conditions facilitated the tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) mediated dehydrogenative addition of a range of ethers, including acetals, to diverse substituted 2-isocyanobiaryls. Mechanistic studies suggest that this radical cascade is an example of base promoted homolytic aromatic substitution (BHAS).

  14. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  15. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  16. Separation of basic proteins from Leishmania using a combination of Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) and 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) under basic conditions.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Racine, Gina; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Basic proteins, an important class of proteins in intracellular organisms such as Leishmania, are usually underrepresented on 2D gels. This chapter describes a method combining basic proteins fractionation using Free flow electrophoresis in isoelectric focusing mode (IEF-FFE) followed by protein separation using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in basic conditions. The combination of these two techniques represents a great improvement for the visualization of Leishmania proteins with basic pI using 2D gels.

  17. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA.

  18. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  19. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  20. Students' Understanding and Application of the Area under the Curve Concept in Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…

  1. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  2. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  3. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  4. Using the All-Volunteer Concept in Adult Basic Education to Serve the Hard to Reach Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockbrader, Golda

    Based on a successful project in Nebraska, this manual was developed for use in establishing a structured all-volunteer adult basic education (ABE) program in small communities or satellite locations. The greater part of the manual covers the various steps a volunteer leader should follow to establish this kind of program, beginning with a section…

  5. Basic Conceptual Systems (BCSs)--Tools for Analytic Coding, Thinking and Learning: A Concept Teaching Curriculum in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The role of basic conceptual systems (for example, colour, shape, size, position, direction, number, pattern, etc.) as psychological tools for analytic coding, thinking, learning is emphasised, and a proposal for a teaching order of BCSs in kindergarten and primary school is introduced. The first part of this article explains briefly main aspects…

  6. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  7. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  8. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  9. Exploration of an E-Learning Model to Foster Critical Thinking on Basic Science Concepts during Work Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Jobsis, Rijn; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2009-01-01

    We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at…

  10. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  11. Effects of turbulence on mixed-phase deep convective clouds under different basic-state winds and aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Han, Ji-Young

    2014-12-01

    The effects of turbulence-induced collision enhancement (TICE) on mixed-phase deep convective clouds are numerically investigated using a 2-D cloud model with bin microphysics for uniform and sheared basic-state wind profiles and different aerosol concentrations. Graupel particles account for the most of the cloud mass in all simulation cases. In the uniform basic-state wind cases, graupel particles with moderate sizes account for some of the total graupel mass in the cases with TICE, whereas graupel particles with large sizes account for almost all the total graupel mass in the cases without TICE. This is because the growth of ice crystals into small graupel particles is enhanced due to TICE. The changes in the size distributions of graupel particles due to TICE result in a decrease in the mass-averaged mean terminal velocity of graupel particles. Therefore, the downward flux of graupel mass, and thus the melting of graupel particles, is reduced due to TICE, leading to a decrease in the amount of surface precipitation. Moreover, under the low aerosol concentration, TICE increases the sublimation of ice particles, consequently playing a partial role in reducing the amount of surface precipitation. The effects of TICE are less pronounced in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases because the number of ice crystals is much smaller in the sheared basic-state wind cases than in the uniform basic-state wind cases. Thus, the size distributions of graupel particles in the cases with and without TICE show little difference.

  12. Students' Anxiety towards and Perception of Difficulty of Some Biological Concepts under the Concept-mapping Heuristic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola; Jegede, Olugbemiro J.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the possibility that the concept-mapping strategy could be a fruitful way of reducing the anxiety levels of students as well as helping to change their attitudes towards concepts. Concepts from the areas of ecology and genetics were given to pre-degree biology students. Experimental results confirmed the effect. (YP)

  13. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  14. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  15. Foundational concepts and underlying theories for majors in "biochemistry and molecular biology".

    PubMed

    Tansey, John T; Baird, Teaster; Cox, Michael M; Fox, Kristin M; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3) foundational skills that undergraduate majors in biochemistry and molecular biology must understand to complete their major coursework. Using information gained from these workshops, as well as from the ASBMB accreditation working group and the NSF Vision and Change report, the Core Concepts working group has developed a consensus list of learning outcomes and objectives based on five foundational concepts (evolution, matter and energy transformation, homeostasis, information flow, and macromolecular structure and function) that represent the expected conceptual knowledge base for undergraduate degrees in biochemistry and molecular biology. This consensus will aid biochemistry and molecular biology educators in the development of assessment tools for the new ASBMB recommended curriculum.

  16. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  17. Impacts of regulated competition on pricing in Chinese pharmaceutical market under urban employee basic medical insurance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Wu, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Examine the effects of regulated competition on the drug pricing in China. Based on product-level data, a regression method was employed for pricing by using data from Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) database. The market competition measures distinguished generic competition within the same molecule from therapeutic competition within the same therapeutic class. The increases in pricing are inversely related to the number of generic competitions. The generic sub-group results vary from the originator sub-group. For the generics, generic competition has a significantly reduced effect on the price; however, only therapeutic competition has a significantly reduced effect on the originator price. Regulated competition has a positive role in shaping the pharmaceutical market. Furthermore, regulated competition affects the price differently for the sub-groups. The promotion of competition between generic and originator in order to reap full competition benefit and reduce frictions among policies are necessary.

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  19. A Research Project on Higher Education. Investigations into the Learning and Teaching of Basic Concepts in Economics. No. 54. (1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Marton, Ference

    A progress report on a research project directed toward facilitating deeper understanding of economic concepts at the university level is presented. The purposes of the project are to explore phenomena conceptualization and to investigate why some students are more successful at a learning task than other students. In the analysis of a…

  20. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  1. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  2. Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.

    PubMed

    Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

    1985-01-01

    In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  4. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica with a Basic Urea-Derived Framework for Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Capture and Conversion Under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengshuai; Lu, Xingyuan; Shi, Lei; Wang, Fangxiao; Sun, Jianmin

    2017-03-22

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica with a basic urea-derived framework (PMO-UDF) was prepared and characterized thoroughly. The PMO-UDF showed an enhanced CO2 capture capacity at low pressure (≤1 atm) and an exceptional catalytic activity in CO2 coupling reactions with various epoxides to yield the corresponding cyclic carbonates under mild conditions because of the presence of a high surface area, basic pyridine units, and multiple hydrogen-bond donors. The highly stable catalyst could be reused at least six successive times without a significant decrease of the catalytic efficiency or structural deterioration, thus the PMO-UDF composite is considered as a promising material for CO2 capture and conversion.

  5. The Basics of Item Response Theory. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frank B.

    This book is combined with a Web site to allow the reader to acquire the basic concepts of item response theory without becoming enmeshed in the underlying mathematical and computational complexities. The first edition, with its accompanying software, was designed to give the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory without…

  6. Investigation of the phosphorus removal capacities of basic oxygen furnace slag under variable conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Wangjin; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF-slag) dosage and size, and temperature on the phosphorus removal capacities (PRCs) of BOF-slag have been investigated in detail through batch tests. Weakly bound phosphorus, Fe- and Al-associated phosphorus, and Ca-associated phosphorus from fresh and reacted BOF-slag were analysed using sequential chemical extraction processes. It was determined that the PRCs of BOF-slag increased with the increase of initial phosphorus concentration and temperature while it decreased with the increase of BOF-slag dosage and size. The phosphorus removed by BOF-slag was primarily assigned to weakly bound phosphorus and Ca-associated phosphorus. Weakly bound phosphorus showed a significant decrease with the increase in all experimental parameter values. However, Ca-associated phosphorus exhibited a prominent increase with increasing reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, and temperature. These demonstrate that experimental parameters can simultaneously affect the PRCs of BOF-slag and the ways of phosphorus removal by BOF-slag.

  7. Diabetes and vascular disease: basic concepts of nitric oxide physiology, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Capellini, Verena K; Celotto, Andrea C; Baldo, Caroline F; Olivon, Vania C; Viaro, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Evora, Paulo R B

    2010-07-01

    The vascular manifestations associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) result from the dysfunction of several vascular physiology components mainly involving the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and platelets. It is also known that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a role in the development of this dysfunction. This review considers the basic physiology of the endothelium, especially related to the synthesis and function of nitric oxide. We also discuss the pathophysiology of vascular disease associated with DM. This includes the role of hyperglycemia in the induction of oxidative stress and the role of advanced glycation end-products. We also consider therapeutic strategies.

  8. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  9. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Topics in US: B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology.

    PubMed

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been used in medical imaging for over half a century. Current US scanners are based largely on the same basic principles used in the initial devices for human imaging. Modern equipment uses a pulse-echo approach with a brightness-mode (B-mode) display. Fundamental aspects of the B-mode imaging process include basic ultrasound physics, interactions of ultrasound with tissue, ultrasound pulse formation, scanning the ultrasound beam, and echo detection and signal processing. Recent technical innovations that have been developed to improve the performance of modern US equipment include the following: tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, extended field of view imaging, coded pulse excitation, electronic section focusing, three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging, and the general trend toward equipment miniaturization. US is a relatively inexpensive, portable, safe, and real-time modality, all of which make it one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine. Although B-mode US is sometimes referred to as a mature technology, this modality continues to experience a significant evolution in capability with even more exciting developments on the horizon.

  10. Refined transition-state models for proline-catalyzed asymmetric Michael reactions under basic and base-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Akhilesh K; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2012-12-07

    The stereocontrolling transition state (TS) models for C-C bond formation relying on hydrogen bonding have generally been successful in proline-catalyzed aldol, Mannich, α-amination, and α-aminoxylation reactions. However, the suitability of the hydrogen-bonding model in protic and aprotic conditions as well as under basic and base-free conditions has not been well established for Michael reactions. Through a comprehensive density functional theory investigation, we herein analyze different TS models for the stereocontrolling C-C bond formation, both in the presence and absence of a base in an aprotic solvent (THF). A refined stereocontrolling TS for the Michael reaction between cyclohexanone and nitrostyrene is proposed. The new TS devoid of hydrogen bonding between the nitro group of nitrostyrene and carboxylic acid of proline, under base-free conditions, is found to be more preferred over the conventional hydrogen-bonding model besides being able to reproduce the experimentally observed stereochemical outcome. A DBU-bound TS is identified as more suitable for rationalizing the origin of asymmetric induction under basic reaction conditions. In both cases, the most preferred approach of nitrostyrene is identified as occurring from the face anti to the carboxylic acid of proline-enamine. The predicted enantio- and diastereoselectivities are in very good agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. [The concept of basic therapy of chronic polyarthritis with D-penicillamine: clinical experiences over 10 years].

    PubMed

    Hohmeister, R

    1988-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic lifelong disease, facts which must be considered when concepts of therapy are developed. This paper reports retrospectively analyzed results of long-term therapy using D-penicillamine. One-hundred-sixteen patients were selected for critical analysis from among 257 treated patients. Judgment was made according to the parameters: inflammation activity, radiological progression, remission rate, clinical outcome-measurement. The results show that the clinical course of the disease is influenced by the treatment and they confirm the need for long-term therapy with an emphasis on immunomodulation.

  12. Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration at Annual NATA Convention, March 24-26, 1997. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the annual National Air Transportation Association (NATA) Convention in 1997. Following a 5-minute introductory briefing, an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft was conducted. The participant was able to take off, fly a brief enroute segment, fly a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing, and repeat the approach and landing segment. The participant was provided an advanced "highway-in-the-sky" presentation on both a simulated head-up display and on a large LCD head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single-lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 100 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 68 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 6089 hours total flight time. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and use of the head-up display were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  13. Subversive Complicity and Basic Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a simple assertion: time for basic writing to get out from under, a call for us to inculcate a Basic Writing Across the Curriculum. It is time yet again to move away from the concept that basic writers are in need of remedies, in part because all composition courses are in some sense remedial, and to a greater degree because the…

  14. Current concepts of immune based treatments for patients with HCC: from basic science to novel treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Greten, Tim F; Wang, Xin W; Korangy, Firouzeh

    2015-05-01

    The recent approval of two immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of malignant melanoma has sparked great interest by physicians and basic scientists searching for novel therapeutics for GI cancer. Chronic inflammation is recognised as a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and makes this type of cancer a potentially ideal target for an immune based treatment approach. Further evidence for a critical role of immune responses in patients with HCC is derived from the fact that immune signatures and profiles predict patients' outcome as well as the fact that tumour-induced spontaneous antitumour immunity can be detected. In addition ablative therapies can lead to changes in the number, phenotype and function of different immune cell subsets, which correlate with patients' survival. Various HCC-specific mouse models have been developed, which improve our understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis and tumour-immune cell interactions, and lead to the development of novel immune based treatment approaches, which are currently being evaluated in preclinical and in early clinical settings. Immune checkpoint blockade along with adoptive immune cell therapy and vaccine approaches are currently being evaluated either alone or in combination with other treatments. Here, we provide an overview for the rationale of immunotherapy in HCC, summarise ongoing studies and provide a perspective for immune based approaches in patients with HCC.

  15. A novel mechanism underlying the basic defensive response of macrophages against Mycobacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Iyoda, Takuya; Takada, Muneaki; Fukatsu, Yoshinobu; Kumokoshi, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Tatsuya; Shimada, Tomokazu; Shimokawa, Noriko; Matsunaga, Takuya; Makino, Kimiko; Doi, Norio; Terada, Hiroshi; Fukai, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Following inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), pathogens enter and grow inside macrophages by taking advantage of their phagocytic mechanisms. Macrophages often fail to eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis, leading to the induction of host macrophage death. Despite accumulating evidence, the molecular mechanisms underlying M. tuberculosis infection-induced cell death remain controversial. In this study, we show the involvement of two distinct pathways triggered by TLR2 and β2 integrin in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. First, BCG infection induced activation of ERK1/2, which in turn caused phosphorylation/activation of the proapoptotic protein Bim in mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells. BCG-infected Raw cells treated with U0126, an MEK/ERK inhibitor, led to the suppression of Bim phosphorylation alongside a remarkable increase in the number of viable macrophages. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bim rescued the macrophages from the apoptotic cell death induced by BCG infection. Stimulation with Pam3CSK, a TLR2 agonist, induced macrophage apoptosis with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation/activation of MEK/ERK and Bim. These observations indicate the important role of the TLR2/MEK/ERK/Bim pathway in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. Second, we used the β2 integrin agonists C3bi and fibronectin to show that the β2 integrin-derived signal was involved in BCG infection-induced apoptosis, independent of MEK/ERK activation. Interestingly, latex beads coated with Pam3CSK and C3bi were able to induce apoptosis in macrophages to the same extent and specificity as that induced by BCG. Taken together, two distinct pattern-recognition membrane receptors, TLR2 and β2 integrin, acted as triggers in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis, in which MEK/ERK activation played a crucial role following the engagement of TLR2.

  16. Treatment of Depression From a Self-Regulation Perspective: Basic Concepts and Applied Strategies in Self-System Therapy.

    PubMed

    Strauman, Timothy J; Eddington, Kari M

    2017-02-01

    Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally familiar with the psychology of self-regulation. The aim of the present manuscript is twofold. First, we provide an overview of self-regulation as a motivational process essential to well-being and introduce two related theories of self-regulation which have been applied to depression. Second, we describe how self-regulatory concepts and processes from those two theories have been translated into psychosocial interventions, focusing specifically on self-system therapy (SST), a brief structured treatment for depression that targets personal goal pursuit. Two randomized controlled trials have shown that SST is superior to cognitive therapy for depressed clients with specific self-regulatory deficits, and both studies found evidence that SST works in part by restoring adaptive self-regulation. Self-regulation-based psychotherapeutic approaches to depression hold significant promise for enhancing treatment efficacy and ultimately may provide an individualizable framework for treatment planning.

  17. Cells, scaffolds and bioreactors for tissue-engineered heart valves: a journey from basic concepts to contemporary developmental innovations.

    PubMed

    Gandaglia, Alessandro; Bagno, Andrea; Naso, Filippo; Spina, Michele; Gerosa, Gino

    2011-04-01

    The development of viable and functional tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) is a challenge that, for almost two decades, the scientific community has been committed to face to create life-lasting prosthetic devices for treating heart valve diseases. One of the main drawbacks of tissue-based commercial substitutes, xenografts and homografts, is their lack of viability, and hence failure to grow, repair, and remodel. In adults, the average bioprostheses life span is around 13 years, followed by structural valve degeneration, such as calcification; in pediatric, mechanical valves are commonly used instead of biological substitutes, as in young patients, the mobilization of calcium, due to bone remodeling, accelerates the calcification process. Moreover, neither mechanical nor bioprostheses are able to follow children's body growth. Cell seeding and repopulation of acellular heart valve scaffolds, biological and polymeric, appears as a promising way to create a living valve. Biomechanical stimuli have significant impact on cell behavior including in vitro differentiation, and physiological hemodynamic conditioning has been found to promote new tissue development. These concepts have led scientists to design bioreactors to mimic the in vivo environment of heart valves. Many different types of somatic and stem cells have been tested for colonizing both the surface and the core of the valve matrix but controversial results have been achieved so far.

  18. Hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Johnston, P. J.; Cubbage, J. M.; Dillon, J. L.; Richie, C. B.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.; Carlson, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of several tactical and strategic hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. A mid- and chin inlet missile design, constrained to the Navy's vertical box launcher, was investigated; a performance comparison is presented that is favorable to the mid-inlet approach. Parasol wing, confined flow field, and spatula-like cruise missile configurations were examined with strategic applications in mind. The preliminary results are encouraging with respect to aerodynamic and volumetric efficiency and choice of engine integration schemes.

  19. Controlled Fabrication of Functional Capsules Based on the Synergistic Interaction between Polyphenols and MOFs under Weak Basic Condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Wei; Ping, Yuan; Wang, Chen; Gao, Ning; Yin, Xianpeng; Gu, Chen; Ding, Dan; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Li, Guangtao

    2017-04-26

    Metal-organic coordination materials with controllable nanostructures are of widespread interest due to the coupled benefits of inorganic/organic building blocks and desired architectures. In this work, based on the finding of a synergistic interaction between metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and natural polyphenols under weak basic condition, a facile strategy has been developed for directly fabricating diverse phenolic-inspired functional materials or metal-phenolic frameworks (MPFs) with controlled hollow nanostructures (polyhedral core-shell, rattle-like, hollow cage, etc.) and controllable size, morphology, and roughness, as well as composition. By further incorporating the diverse functionalities of polyphenols such as low toxicity and therapeutic properties, catalytic activity, and ability to serve as carbon precursors, into the novel assemblies, diverse artificially designed nanoarchitectures with target functionalities have been generated for an array of applications.

  20. Merging Sets of Taxonomically Organized Data Using Concept Mappings under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thau, David; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    We present a method for using aligned ontologies to merge taxonomically organized data sets that have apparently compatible schemas, but potentially different semantics for corresponding domains. We restrict the relationships involved in the alignment to basic set relations and disjunctions of these relations. A merged data set combines the domains of the source data set attributes, conforms to the observations reported in both data sets, and minimizes uncertainty introduced by ontology alignments. We find that even in very simple cases, merging data sets under this scenario is non-trivial. Reducing uncertainty introduced by the ontology alignments in combination with the data set observations often results in many possible merged data sets, which are managed using a possible worlds semantics. The primary contributions of this paper are a framework for representing aligned data sets and algorithms for merging data sets that report the presence and absence of taxonomically organized entities, including an efficient algorithm for a common data set merging scenario.

  1. Anionic liposome template synthesis of raspberry-like hollow silica particle under ambient conditions with basic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Haruyuki; Sato, Kumi; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2012-04-01

    Hollow silica particle was obtained with a vesicle template synthesis in water under ambient conditions in the presence of ammonia. Biomimetic vesicles, liposomes were used, which consisted of a zwitterionic phospholipid, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), and a tiny amount of charged amphiphiles, hexadecylamine (HDA) or dicetylphosphate (DCP). Aggregation of silica occurred for DPPC or cationic DPPC/HDA liposome, whereas well-dispersed hollow silica particle could be obtained for anionic DPPC/DCP liposome. The hollow particle synthesized with the anionic liposome had single-layered and raspberry-like structures. Electrostatic repulsion between anionic vesicles maintained stable dispersion of the as-synthesized particles during the reaction. Formation of the raspberry-like morphology is explained by silica particle precipitation selectively induced around the liposomes under basic conditions due to affinity of silica precursors for the liposomes. Synthesis of well-dispersed hollow silica particle with a raspberry-like morphology is the first report in vesicle template syntheses.

  2. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

    Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

  3. [Concepts and monitoring of pulmonary mechanic in patients under ventilatory support in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Faustino, Eduardo Antonio

    2007-06-01

    In mechanical ventilation, invasive and noninvasive, the knowledge of respiratory mechanic physiology is indispensable to take decisions and into the efficient management of modern ventilators. Monitoring of pulmonary mechanic parameters is been recommended from all the review works and clinical research. The objective of this study was review concepts of pulmonary mechanic and the methods used to obtain measures in the bed side, preparing a rational sequence to obtain this data. It was obtained bibliographic review through data bank LILACS, MedLine and PubMed, from the last ten years. This review approaches parameters of resistance, pulmonary compliance and intrinsic PEEP as primordial into comprehension of acute respiratory failure and mechanic ventilatory support, mainly in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Monitoring pulmonary mechanics in patients under mechanical ventilation in intensive care units gives relevant informations and should be implemented in a rational and systematic way.

  4. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  5. Contemporary concepts of the medical therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzenko, Dmitry Victorovich

    2015-01-01

    Severe complications of liver cirrhosis are mostly related to portal hypertension. At the base of the pathogenesis of portal hypertension is the increase in hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow with subsequent development of hyperdynamic circulation, which, despite of the formation of collateral circulation, promotes progression of portal hypertension. An important role in its pathogenesis is played by the rearrangement of vascular bed and angiogenesis. As a result, strategic directions of the therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis include selectively decreasing hepatic vascular resistance with preserving or increasing portal blood flow, and correcting hyperdynamic circulation and pathological angiogenesis, while striving to reduce the hepatic venous pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg or 20% of the baseline. Over the last years, substantial progress in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of hemodynamic disorders under liver cirrhosis has resulted in the development of new drugs for their correction. Although the majority of them have so far been investigated only in animal experiments, as well as at the molecular and cellular level, it might be expected that the introduction of the new methods in clinical practice will increase the efficacy of the conservative approach to the prophylaxis and treatment of portal hypertension complications. The purpose of the review is to describe the known methods of portal hypertension pharmacotherapy and discuss the drugs that may affect the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of its development. PMID:26034348

  6. Concept dictionary creation and maintenance under resource constraints: lessons from the AMPATH Medical Record System.

    PubMed

    Were, Martin C; Mamlin, Burke W; Tierney, William M; Wolfe, Ben; Biondich, Paul G

    2007-10-11

    The challenges of creating and maintaining concept dictionaries are compounded in resource-limited settings. Approaches to alleviate this burden need to be based on information derived in these settings. We created a concept dictionary and evaluated new concept proposals for an open source EMR in a resource-limited setting. Overall, 87% of the concepts in the initial dictionary were used. There were 5137 new concepts proposed, with 77% of these proposed only once. Further characterization of new concept proposals revealed that 41% were due to deficiency in the existing dictionary, and 19% were synonyms to existing concepts. 25% of the requests contained misspellings, 41% were complex terms, and 17% were ambiguous. Given the resource-intensive nature of dictionary creation and maintenance, there should be considerations for centralizing the concept dictionary service, using standards, prioritizing concept proposals, and redesigning the user-interface to reduce this burden in settings with limited resources.

  7. Concept Dictionary Creation and Maintenance Under Resource Constraints: Lessons from the AMPATH Medical Record System

    PubMed Central

    Were, Martin C.; Mamlin, Burke W.; Tierney, William M.; Wolfe, Ben; Biondich, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of creating and maintaining concept dictionaries are compounded in resource-limited settings. Approaches to alleviate this burden need to be based on information derived in these settings. We created a concept dictionary and evaluated new concept proposals for an open source EMR in a resource-limited setting. Overall, 87% of the concepts in the initial dictionary were used. There were 5137 new concepts proposed, with 77% of these proposed only once. Further characterization of new concept proposals revealed that 41% were due to deficiency in the existing dictionary, and 19% were synonyms to existing concepts. 25% of the requests contained misspellings, 41% were complex terms, and 17% were ambiguous. Given the resource-intensive nature of dictionary creation and maintenance, there should be considerations for centralizing the concept dictionary service, using standards, prioritizing concept proposals, and redesigning the user-interface to reduce this burden in settings with limited resources. PMID:18693945

  8. Interactive evolution concept for analyzing a rock salt cavern under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Diethard; Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; von Blumenthal, Achim; Schanz, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The excess electricity produced by renewable energy sources available during off-peak periods of consumption can be used e.g. to produce and compress hydrogen or to compress air. Afterwards the pressurized gas is stored in the rock salt cavities. During this process, thermo-mechanical cyclic loading is applied to the rock salt surrounding the cavern. Compared to the operation of conventional storage caverns in rock salt the frequencies of filling and discharging cycles and therefore the thermo-mechanical loading cycles are much higher, e.g. daily or weekly compared to seasonally or yearly. The stress strain behavior of rock salt as well as the deformation behavior and the stability of caverns in rock salt under such loading conditions are unknown. To overcome this, existing experimental studies have to be supplemented by exploring the behavior of rock salt under combined thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. Existing constitutive relations have to be extended to cover degradation of rock salt under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. At least the complex system of a cavern in rock salt under these loading conditions has to be analyzed by numerical modeling taking into account the uncertainties due to limited access in large depth to investigate material composition and properties. An interactive evolution concept is presented to link the different components of such a study - experimental modeling, constitutive modeling and numerical modeling. A triaxial experimental setup is designed to characterize the cyclic thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt. The imposed boundary conditions in the experimental setup are assumed to be similar to the stress state obtained from a full-scale numerical simulation. The computational model relies primarily on the governing constitutive model for predicting the behavior of rock salt cavity. Hence, a sophisticated elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is developed to take into account the dilatancy and damage progress, as well as

  9. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  10. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  11. [Basic concepts of radiology physics].

    PubMed

    Gambini, D-J

    2010-11-01

    An x-ray tube mainly emits low-energy X-rays, with few maximum energy E₀ (equal in keV to the voltage U in kV) x-rays. Aluminium filtration (mandatory minimum thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 mm based on tube voltage) reduces soft X-rays and provides a mean energy equal to 2/3 E₀. The half value layer of a reference material characterizes the spectrum. X-ray attenuation in tissues is due to secondary electron interactions: photoelectric effect at low-energy, especially in dense materials with high Z number; compton effect at intermediate-energy, proportional to density. The optimization of acquisition parameters of a medically necessary examination is based on appropriate selection of the highest voltage (U in kV) providing the best contrast and lowest tube current (Q in mAs) providing a diagnostic image.

  12. Blood pressure regulation: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Guyton, A C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Jackson, T E; Kastner, P R

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we have attempted to explain the difference between proportional pressure control systems and the renal-blood volume-pressure control mechanism, which is an infinite gain pressure control system. Because of this infinite gain of the kidney mechanism, this mechanism has the capability of returning arterial pressure all the way back to the control leve. Furthermore, this mechanism can override the other pressure control mechanisms because of its extreme control capability. On the other hand, the renal-blood volume mechanism for pressure control itself be controlled by many other factors. These other factors are said to change the pressure "set-point" level of the renal system, and then the renal system automatically brings the pressure to the set-point level. It is especially noteworthy, however, that some of the factors that play extreme roles in short-term pressure control-such as heart strength, vascular capacity, and total peripheral resistance-will not alter the long-term arterial pressure level (unless they in some way concurrently alter the set-point of the kidney mechanism).

  13. BASIC CONCEPTS OF CONTAMINANT SORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of ISSUE PAPERS and BRIEFING DOCUMENTS which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  14. Basic insurance concepts for dentists.

    PubMed

    Hagglund, C E; Weimer, B D; Weeding, W C

    1997-06-01

    Dentists cannot afford to be ignorant about insurance. Insurance is an important risk-management tool, minimizing the exposure for catastrophic claims and losses. Patient insurance is also a major source of revenue for most dental practices.

  15. Basic Concepts of Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Ted; Fuhriman, Addie

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of systems analysis to social and behavioral science as well as machine and non-machine systems. Presents rationale, principles, techniques, and advantages and disadvantages. (CJ)

  16. Basic concepts in environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenthun, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    This book covers regulations pertaining to air, land, and water resources. The fundamentals of environmental legislation, including US codes, public laws, and regulations are examined. Methods for conducting environmental assessments are presented. This book offers guidance on writing environmental impact statements. Attention is focused on issues related to toxic and hazardous materials and waste. Preventative safety measures are also included.

  17. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of organic sample solvents on the separation efficiency of basic compounds under strong cation exchange mode.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhen; Yu, Dongping; Liu, Yanfang; Du, Nana; Tao, Yanduo; Mei, Lijuan; Guo, Zhimou; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-04

    This study investigated the influence of organic sample solvents on separation efficiency of basic compounds under strong cation exchange (SCX) mode. The mixtures of acidic aqueous solution and organic solvent such as acetonitrile, ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were tested as sample solvents. For later-eluting analytes, the increase of sample solvent elution strength was responsible for the decrease of separation efficiency. Thus, sample solvents with weak elution strength could provide high separation efficiencies. For earlier-eluting analytes, the retention of organic sample solvents was the main factor affecting separation efficiency. Weakly retained solvents could provide high separation efficiency. In addition, an optimized approach was proposed to reduce the effect of organic sample solvent, in which low ionic solvent was employed as initial mobile phase in the gradient. At last, the analysis of impurities in hydrophobic drug berberine was performed. The results showed that using acidic aqueous methanol as sample solvents could provide high separation efficiency and good resolution (R>1.5).

  19. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin: The Basic and Clinical Science Underlying Carotenoid-based Nutritional Interventions against Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S.; Nolan, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  20. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  1. Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.

    PubMed

    Grover, P K; Cummins, A G; Price, T J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Hardingham, J E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastatic relapse and this has fuelled interest in their detection and quantification. Although numerous methods have been developed for the enrichment and detection of CTCs, none has yet reached the 'gold' standard. Since epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment of CTCs offers several advantages, it is one of the most commonly used and has been adapted for high-throughput technology. However, emerging evidence suggests that CTCs are highly heterogeneous: they consist of epithelial tumour cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells, hybrid (epithelial/EMT(+)) tumour cells, irreversible EMT(+) tumour cells, and circulating tumour stem cells (CTSCs). The EpCAM-based approach does not detect CTCs expressing low levels of EpCAM and non-epithelial phenotypes such as CTSCs and those that have undergone EMT and no longer express EpCAM. Thus, the approach may lead to underestimation of the significance of CTCs, in general, and CTSCs and EMT(+) tumour cells, in particular, in cancer dissemination. Here, we provide a critical review of research literature on the evolving concept of CTCs and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based technology for basic and clinical cancer research. The review also outlines future perspectives in the field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Under-Track CFD-Based Shape Optimization for a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Mathias; Ordaz, Irian; Fenbert, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed outer mold line shaping of a Mach 1.6, demonstrator-sized low-boom concept is presented. Cruise trim is incorporated a priori as part of the shaping objective, using an equivalent-area-based approach. Design work is performed using a gradient-driven optimization framework that incorporates a three-dimensional, nonlinear flow solver, a parametric geometry modeler, and sensitivities derived using the adjoint method. The shaping effort is focused on reducing the under-track sonic boom level using an inverse design approach, while simultaneously satisfying the trim requirement. Conceptual-level geometric constraints are incorporated in the optimization process, including the internal layout of fuel tanks, landing gear, engine, and crew station. Details of the model parameterization and design process are documented for both flow-through and powered states, and the performance of these optimized vehicles presented in terms of inviscid L/D, trim state, pressures in the near-field and at the ground, and predicted sonic boom loudness.

  3. Revealing Ozgur's Thoughts of a Quadratic Function with a Clinical Interview: Concepts and Their Underlying Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozaltun Celik, Aytug; Bukova Guzel, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The quadratic function is an important concept for calculus but the students at high school have many difficulties related to this concept. It is important that the teaching of the quadratic function is realized considering the students' thinking. In this context, the aim of this study conducted through a qualitative case study is to reveal the…

  4. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  5. Analyzing the Effects of Various Concept Mapping Techniques on Learning Achievement under Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Lee, Li-Tze; Tien, Li-Chu; Wang, Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of different concept mapping techniques on the learning achievement of senior accounting students and whether achievements attained using various techniques are affected by different learning styles. The techniques are computer-assisted construct-by-self-concept mapping (CACSB), computer-assisted…

  6. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  7. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings.

  8. Partitioning evapotranspiration based on the concept of underlying water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-02-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is dominated by transpiration (T) in the terrestrial water cycle. However, continuous measurement of transpiration is still difficult, and the effect of vegetation on ET partitioning is unclear. The concept of underlying water use efficiency (uWUE) was used to develop a new method for ET partitioning by assuming that the maximum, or the potential uWUE is related to T while the averaged or apparent uWUE is related to ET. T/ET was thus estimated as the ratio of the apparent over the potential uWUE using half-hourly flux data from 17 AmeriFlux sites. The estimated potential uWUE was shown to be essentially constant for 14 of the 17 sites, and was broadly consistent with the uWUE evaluated at the leaf scale. The annual T/ET was the highest for croplands, i.e., 0.69 for corn and 0.62 for soybean, followed by grasslands (0.60) and evergreen needle leaf forests (0.56), and was the lowest for deciduous broadleaf forests (0.52). The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was shown to be significantly correlated with T/ET and could explain about 75% of the variation in T/ET among the 71 site-years. The coefficients of determination between EVI and T/ET were 0.84 and 0.82 for corn and soybean, respectively, and 0.77 for deciduous broadleaf forests and grasslands, but only 0.37 for evergreen needle leaf forests. This ET partitioning method is sound in principle and simple to apply in practice, and would enhance the value and role of global FLUXNET in estimating T/ET variations and monitoring ecosystem dynamics.

  9. A novel method to partition evapotranspiration based on the concept of underlying water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is dominated by transpiration (T) in the terrestrial water cycle. However, continuous measurement of transpiration is still difficult, and the effect of vegetation on ET partitioning is unclear. The concept of underlying water use efficiency (uWUE) was used to develop a new method for ET partitioning by assuming that the maximum, or the potential uWUE is related to T while the averaged or apparent uWUE is related to ET. T/ET was thus estimated as the ratio of the apparent over the potential uWUE using half-hourly flux data from 17 AmeriFlux sites. The estimated potential uWUE was shown to be essentially constant for the 14 sites with a single vegetation type, and was broadly consistent with the uWUE evaluated at the leaf scale. The annual T/ET was the highest for croplands, i.e., 0.69 for corn and 0.62 for soybean, followed by grasslands (0.60) and evergreen needle leaf forests (0.56), and was the lowest for deciduous broadleaf forests (0.52). The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was shown to be significantly correlated with T/ET and could explain about 75% of the variation in T/ET among the 71 site-years. The coefficients of determination between EVI and T/ET were 0.84 and 0.82 for corn and soybean, respectively, and 0.77 for deciduous broadleaf forests and grasslands, but only 0.37 for evergreen needle leaf forests. This ET partitioning method is sound in principle and simple to apply in practice, and would enhance the value and role of global FLUXNET in estimating T/ET variations and monitoring ecosystem dynamics.

  10. EXTENDED AND REVISED NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM, FUNDED UNDER THE ADULT EDUCATION ACT OF 1966. THIRD PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACK, LYNN; AND OTHERS

    AS A CONTINUATION OF A 1966 PROJECT, THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION (NUEA), UNDER A GRANT FROM THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE), CONDUCTED 20 REGIONAL ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TRAINING INSTITUTES IN THE SUMMER OF 1967. THREE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENTS WERE CARRIED OVER--AN ACCELERATED NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR PREPARATION OF TEACHERS FOR…

  11. The Effective Concepts on Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the basic concepts related to the unit of "Chemical Reactions and Energy" and the sub-concepts underlying for meaningful learning of the unit and to investigate the effectiveness of them on students' learning achievements. For this purpose, the basic concepts of the unit…

  12. The Effective Concepts on Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the basic concepts related to the unit of "Chemical Reactions and Energy" and the sub-concepts underlying for meaningful learning of the unit and to investigate the effectiveness of them on students' learning achievements. For this purpose, the basic concepts of the unit…

  13. Effects of Concept and Vee Mappings under Three Learning Modes on Students' Cognitive Achievement in Ecology and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, Gladys O.; Soyibo, Kola

    1995-01-01

    Verified the efficacy of concept and Vee mapping heuristics under cooperative, cooperative-competitive, and individualistic whole-class learning conditions in improving (n=808) eighth graders' achievement in ecology and genetics. Experimental groups achieved significantly better than the control groups; students in cooperative-competitive…

  14. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  15. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  16. Assessment of the Provision of Educational Services under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme in Southern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, Sam E. O.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the adequacy of educational services available for the implementation of the ideals of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Southern Nigeria. Using the multistage sampling technique, 800 primary school teachers were selected from the three geo political zones in Southern Nigeria as participants in the…

  17. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review of the cohorts underlying the concept.

    PubMed

    Epelbaum, Stéphane; Genthon, Rémy; Cavedo, Enrica; Habert, Marie Odile; Lamari, Foudil; Gagliardi, Geoffroy; Lista, Simone; Teichmann, Marc; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Hampel, Harald; Dubois, Bruno

    2017-02-07

    Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a relatively recent concept describing an entity characterized by the presence of a pathophysiological biomarker signature characteristic for AD in the absence of specific clinical symptoms. There is rising interest in the scientific community to define such an early target population mainly because of failures of all recent clinical trials despite evidence of biological effects on brain amyloidosis for some compounds. A conceptual framework has recently been proposed for this preclinical phase of AD. However, few data exist on this silent stage of AD. We performed a systematic review to investigate how the concept is defined across studies. The review highlights the substantial heterogeneity concerning the three main determinants of preclinical AD: "normal cognition," "cognitive decline," and "AD pathophysiological signature." We emphasize the need for a harmonized nomenclature of the preclinical AD concept and standardized population-based and case-control studies using unified operationalized criteria.

  18. Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement: Modeling the Relationship under the Language Pressure in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    Located at a meeting place between the West and the East, Hong Kong has been chosen in this comparative investigation to reconfirm a theoretical model of "reciprocal relationship" between mathematics achievement and self-concept using the 8th grade databases from TIMSS and TIMSS-R. During the time between these two projects, Hong Kong…

  19. New Light on Old Horizon: Constructing Mathematical Concepts, Underlying Abstraction Processes, and Sense Making Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The initial assumption of this article is that there is an overemphasis on abstraction-from-actions theoretical approaches in research on knowing and learning mathematics. This article uses a critical reflection on research on students' ways of constructing mathematical concepts to distinguish between abstraction-from-actions theoretical…

  20. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  1. The Concept of Common Training: A Comparison of Military Qualification Standards 2 with Selected Past Officer Basic Course Programs of Instruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    This pilot study analysed 8 programs of instrucLion and 5 common cores for past officer basic courses and compared them to the 1988 Military...Kelvin Dale Crow. USA. 181 pages. This pilot study analyzed eight programs of instruction (POI) and five common cores for past officer basic courses...training record to see if it can be of use in providing for the training of today’s lieutenant. -- 1- This paper documents a pilot study of the officer

  2. Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Psychological Stress and Related Concepts in the Context of the Marine Corps Basic Training Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    indicated by the studies of affect (Booth & Hoiberg, 1973). While this change suggests that stress may have a positive effect on recruits, training stress...basic training and the effects of specific stresses in those processes. This report describes the initial phases of a program of research to detail...project toward a realistic de- scription of the development process for both positive and negative effects of stress in basic training. These

  3. Concept of relative variability of cardiac action potential duration and its test under various experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Magyar, János; Kistamás, Kornél; Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration (short-term variability, SV) is an intrinsic property of mammalian myocardium. Since the majority of agents and interventions affecting SV may modify also action potential duration (APD), we propose here the concept of relative SV (RSV), where changes in SV are normalized to changes in APD and these data are compared to the control SV-APD relationship obtained by lengthening or shortening of action potentials by inward and outward current injections. Based on this concept the influence of the several experimental conditions like stimulation frequency, temperature, pH, redox-state and osmolarity were examined on RSV in canine ventricular myocytes using sharp microelectrodes. RSV was increased by high stimulation frequency (cycle lengths <0.7 s), high temperature (above 37ºC), oxidative agents (H2O2), while it was decreased by reductive environment. RSV was not affected by changes in pH (within the range of 6.4-8.4) and osmolarity of the solution (between 250-350 mOsm). The results indicate that changes in beat-to-beat variability of APD must be evaluated exclusively in terms of RSV; furthermore, some experimental conditions, including the stimulation frequency, redox-state and temperature have to be controlled strictly when analyzing alterations in the short-term variability of APD.

  4. Response of the Alliance 1 Proof-of-Concept Airplane Under Gust Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naser, A. S.; Pototzky, A. S.; Spain, C. V.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the work performed by Lockheed Martin's Langley Program Office in support of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The primary purpose of this work was to develop and demonstrate a gust analysis method which accounts for the span-wise variation of gust velocity. This is important because these unmanned aircraft having high aspect ratios and low wing loading are very flexible, and fly at low speeds. The main focus of the work was therefore to perform a two-dimensional Power Spectrum Density (PSD) analysis of the Alliance 1 Proof-of-Concept Unmanned Aircraft, As of this writing, none of the aircraft described in this report have been constructed. They are concepts represented by analytical models. The process first involved the development of suitable structural and aeroelastic Finite Element Models (FEM). This was followed by development of a one-dimensional PSD gust analysis, and then the two-dimensional (PSD) analysis of the Alliance 1. For further validation and comparison, two additional analyses were performed. A two-dimensional PSD gust analysis was performed on a simplet MSC/NASTRAN example problem. Finally a one-dimensional discrete gust analysis was performed on Alliance 1. This report describes this process, shows the relevant comparisons between analytical methods, and discusses the physical meanings of the results.

  5. Input impedance of distributed arterial structures as used in investigations of underlying concepts in arterial haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    By definition, vascular impedance is described in the frequency domain as the ratio of sinusoidal functions of pressure and flow, yielding spectral values of impedance modulus and phase. The impedance spectrum is determined by the structure and physical properties of the vascular system, such that for a given system the relation between pressure and flow can be modified by alteration of the geometric or mechanical properties of the vascular segments. Whereas input impedance of an arterial system can be readily determined by simultaneous measurement of just two time varying signals of blood pressure and flow, the production of the same impedance spectrum from the physical properties of the system would require information of inordinate complexity and magnitude. Hence, arterial models with a tractable number of parameters or explicit mathematical description are used to approximate the physiological impedance of a vascular structure, which in all animal species consists of distributed branching arterial networks. Although models are a necessary approximation, the strong similarity between the impedance spectra of models and physiological arterial systems enables investigations of fundamental concepts. This is illustrated by examining the effect of the branching structure on the decoupling of the high peripheral resistance from the ejecting ventricles and how physical parameters derived from the impedance spectrum can be used to investigate concepts of optimal design and features related to body size across a broad range of animal species.

  6. The prevalence of area-under-a-curve and anti-derivative conceptions over Riemann sum-based conceptions in students' explanations of definite integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in making sense of contextualized integrals. On the other hand, interpreting the integral using Riemann sum-based conceptions proves much more productive for understanding contextualized integrals. This study investigates how frequently students from a US calculus population drew on these three conceptualizations (as well as others) to interpret the meaning of definite integrals. The results were achieved by asking a large sample of students from two US colleges (n = 150) four open-ended questions regarding the underlying meaning of definite integrals. Data from the student responses show a high prevalence of area and anti-derivative ideas and a relatively low occurrence of multiplicatively based summation ideas for interpreting these integrals. Possible reasons for and implications of the results are discussed.

  7. What is Basic Research? Insights from Historical Semantics.

    PubMed

    Schauz, Désirée

    2014-01-01

    For some years now, the concept of basic research has been under attack. Yet although the significance of the concept is in doubt, basic research continues to be used as an analytical category in science studies. But what exactly is basic research? What is the difference between basic and applied research? This article seeks to answer these questions by applying historical semantics. I argue that the concept of basic research did not arise out of the tradition of pure science. On the contrary, this new concept emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a time when scientists were being confronted with rising expectations regarding the societal utility of science. Scientists used the concept in order to try to bridge the gap between the promise of utility and the uncertainty of scientific endeavour. Only after 1945, when United States science policy shaped the notion of basic research, did the concept revert to the older ideals of pure science. This revival of the purity discourse was caused by the specific historical situation in the US at that time: the need to reform federal research policy after the Second World War, the new dimension of ethical dilemmas in science and technology during the atomic era, and the tense political climate during the Cold War.

  8. A generalized sizing method for revolutionary concepts under probabilistic design constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Taewoo

    Internal combustion (IC) engines that consume hydrocarbon fuels have dominated the propulsion systems of air-vehicles for the first century of aviation. In recent years, however, growing concern over rapid climate changes and national energy security has galvanized the aerospace community into delving into new alternatives that could challenge the dominance of the IC engine. Nevertheless, traditional aircraft sizing methods have significant shortcomings for the design of such unconventionally powered aircraft. First, the methods are specialized for aircraft powered by IC engines, and thus are not flexible enough to assess revolutionary propulsion concepts that produce propulsive thrust through a completely different energy conversion process. Another deficiency associated with the traditional methods is that a user of these methods must rely heavily on experts' experience and advice for determining appropriate design margins. However, the introduction of revolutionary propulsion systems and energy sources is very likely to entail an unconventional aircraft configuration, which inexorably disqualifies the conjecture of such "connoisseurs" as a means of risk management. Motivated by such deficiencies, this dissertation aims at advancing two aspects of aircraft sizing: (1) to develop a generalized aircraft sizing formulation applicable to a wide range of unconventionally powered aircraft concepts and (2) to formulate a probabilistic optimization technique that is able to quantify appropriate design margins that are tailored towards the level of risk deemed acceptable to a decision maker. A more generalized aircraft sizing formulation, named the Architecture Independent Aircraft Sizing Method (AIASM), was developed for sizing revolutionary aircraft powered by alternative energy sources by modifying several assumptions of the traditional aircraft sizing method. Along with advances in deterministic aircraft sizing, a non-deterministic sizing technique, named the

  9. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential.

  10. Global scientific research commons under the Nagoya Protocol: Towards a collaborative economy model for the sharing of basic research assets.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo; Broggiato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to get a better understanding of the motivational and transaction cost features of building global scientific research commons, with a view to contributing to the debate on the design of appropriate policy measures under the recently adopted Nagoya Protocol. For this purpose, the paper analyses the results of a world-wide survey of managers and users of microbial culture collections, which focused on the role of social and internalized motivations, organizational networks and external incentives in promoting the public availability of upstream research assets. Overall, the study confirms the hypotheses of the social production model of information and shareable goods, but it also shows the need to complete this model. For the sharing of materials, the underlying collaborative economy in excess capacity plays a key role in addition to the social production, while for data, competitive pressures amongst scientists tend to play a bigger role.

  11. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results.

    PubMed

    Yang, R S; Hong, H L; Boorman, G A

    1989-12-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, there is yet no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last 2 years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

  12. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Long, H.L.; Boorman, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

  13. Modes of climate variability under different background conditions: concepts, data, modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Through its nonlinear dynamics and involvement in past abrupt climate shifts the thermohaline circulation represents a key element for the understanding of rapid climate changes. By applying various statistical techniques on surface temperature data, several variability modes on decadal to millenial timescales are identified. The distinction between the modes provides a frame for interpreting past abrupt climate changes. Abrupt shifts associated to the ocean circulation are detected around 1970 and the last millenium, i.e. the medieval warm period. Such oscillations are analyzed for longer time scales covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. During the Holocene such events seem to be Poisson distributed indicating for an internal mode. Statistical-conceptual and dynamical model concepts are proposed and tested for millenial to orbital time scales, showing the dominant role of the ocean circulation. New GCM model results indicate a strong sensitivity of long-term variability on background conditions. A transition from full glacial (with a strongly stratified ocean) to interglacial conditions is attempted. Finally, climate sensitivity on glacial-interglacial and shorter time scales will be evaluated using SST Alkenone data and GCM simulations. It is shown that the models underestimate the climate sensitivity as compared to the data by a factor of 3. It is argued that the models possibly underestimate the response to obliquity forcing.

  14. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  15. Evaluation of an Intervention Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Basic Particle Concepts among Students Enrolled in Several Levels of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Zain, Ahmad N. M.; Ong, Eng Tek; Karpudewan, Mageswary; Halim, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of an intervention instructional program was evaluated to facilitate understanding of particle theory concepts among students (N = 190) using a diagnostic instrument consisting of eleven two-tier multiple-choice items in a pre-test--post-test design. The students involved were high school students, undergraduates and postgraduates…

  16. Evaluation of an Intervention Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Basic Particle Concepts among Students Enrolled in Several Levels of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Zain, Ahmad N. M.; Ong, Eng Tek; Karpudewan, Mageswary; Halim, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of an intervention instructional program was evaluated to facilitate understanding of particle theory concepts among students (N = 190) using a diagnostic instrument consisting of eleven two-tier multiple-choice items in a pre-test--post-test design. The students involved were high school students, undergraduates and postgraduates…

  17. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  18. Hydrogen Production from a Methanol-Water Solution Catalyzed by an Anionic Iridium Complex Bearing a Functional Bipyridonate Ligand under Weakly Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-ichi; Kawahara, Ryoko; Aikawa, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Ryohei

    2015-07-27

    An efficient catalytic system for the production of hydrogen from a methanol-water solution has been developed using a new anionic iridium complex bearing a functional bipyridonate ligand as a catalyst. This system can be operated under mild conditions [weakly basic solution (0.046 mol L(-1) NaOH) below 100 °C] without the use of an additional organic solvent. Long-term continuous hydrogen production from a methanol-water solution catalyzed by the anionic iridium complex was also achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Students' understanding of measurement and uncertainty in the physics laboratory: Social construction, underlying concepts, and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, Rebecca Faith

    In the physical sciences and other fields, conclusions are made from experimental data. To succeed in such fields, people must know how to gather, analyze, and draw conclusions from data: not just following steps, but understanding the concepts of measurement and uncertainty. We design the Scientific Community Laboratory (SCL) to teach students to utilize their everyday skills of argument and decision-making for data gathering and analysis. We then develop research tools for studying students' understanding of measurement and uncertainty and use these tools to investigate students in the traditional laboratory and in the SCL. For students to apply their everyday skills of argument and decision-making, they must be in a state of mind (a frame) where they consider these skills productive. The laboratory design should create an environment which encourages such a frame. We determine student's frames through information reported by students in interviews and surveys and through analyzing students' behavior. We find that the time students spend sense-making in the SCL is five times more than in traditional labs. Students in both labs frequently evaluate their level of understanding but only in the SCL does that evaluation cause a change to more productive behavior. We analyze lab videotapes to determine underlying concepts commonly used by students when gathering and analyzing data. Our final goal is for students to use these concepts to analyze data in an appropriate manner. We develop a multiple-choice survey which asks students to analyze data from a hypothetical lab context. With this survey we find more students using range to compare data sets after the SCL (from 12% before to 43% after). For students to understand measurement and uncertainty, we argue that the laboratory must be designed to encourage students to be in a frame where they view resources used to argue and evaluate as appropriate, engage in productive behavior and monitor their behavior, use

  20. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  1. Application of basic chemical concepts to understanding the formation and transformation mechanisms of humic substances: A revue of publications and own experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarova, A. Yu.

    2007-09-01

    Fundamental concepts of coordination and organic chemistry and their possible applications to understanding the formation and transformation mechanisms of humic substances were considered. In accordance with the electronic concepts of interactions between inorganic and organic molecules, the ash elements should be considered as structural components of soil humus determining its transformation. An important role of reactions with the participation of nucleophilic (electron-donating) reagents, including inorganic anions, in the transformation of the humus-mineral system of an acid soil is shown. Anion reactions can involve not only metal atoms of humus-mineral complexes but also the C and P atoms of the functional groups of humus macroligands. These reactions determine the transformation of humus molecules related to the formation of migration-capable compounds and the formation of new functional groups in a humus macroligand. The role of iron and phosphorus in the implementation of different transformation pathways of humic substances is shown.

  2. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  3. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  4. A concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature for detecting multiple cracks in beams under noisy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mao-Sen; Xu, Wei; Ren, Wei-Xin; Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Sha, Gang-Gang; Pan, Li-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Detection of multiple damage using modal curvature in noisy environments has become a research focus of considerable challenge and great significance over the last few years. However, a noticeable deficiency of modal curvature is its susceptibility to noise, which usually results in a noisy modal curvature with obscured damage signature. To address this deficiency, this study formulates a new concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature. Complex-wavelet modal curvature features the ability to reveal and delineate damage under noisy conditions. The effectiveness of the concept is analytically verified using cracked beams with various types of boundary conditions. The applicability is further experimentally validated by an aluminum beam with a single crack and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite beam with three cracks in the laboratory with mode shapes measured by a scanning laser vibrometer. Both analytical and experimental results have demonstrated that the complex-wavelet modal curvature is capable of revealing slight damage by eliminating noise interference, with no need for prior knowledge of either material properties or boundary conditions of the beam under inspection.

  5. Effect of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for CO and propylene oxidation under oxygen-deficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Chen, Y.W.

    1997-05-01

    Pt catalysts supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared and characterized with respect to surface area, CO chemisorption, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of H{sub 2}. The effects of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for CO and propylene oxidation were investigated. The addition of basic additives slightly decreases the surface area of the catalyst and does not significantly change Pt dispersion. The basicity of the catalyst is in the order Pt-K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt-Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt-CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The promoted Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are much more active than the unpromoted one for CO and propylene oxidation under the stoichiometric point. Under oxygen-deficient conditions and in the absence of water, propylene conversions on all catalysts studied herein increase with increasing reaction temperature. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits the highest propylene conversion and the lowest CO conversion among these catalysts, and the addition of CeO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, and K{sub 2}O on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can promote the CO conversion. Under oxygen-deficient conditions and in the presence of water, the water-gas shift and steam re-forming reactions can take place and result in increases of CO and propylene conversions. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most active catalyst for the steam reforming reaction and the least active catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction among these catalysts. However, the addition of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst can significantly enhance the water-gas shift reaction that can reduce CO emission. The promotional effect is in the order K{sub 2}O > Na{sub 2}O > CeO{sub 2}. K{sub 2}O could be a promising additive to a catalytic converter of a two-stroke motorcycle since it can enhance CO conversion.

  6. Determination of selectivity differences for basic compounds in gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography under high pH conditions by partial least squares modelling.

    PubMed

    Fornal, Emilia; Borman, Phil; Luscombe, Christopher

    2006-06-16

    The retention behaviour of compounds in a chromatographic system is believed to be multivariate by nature, i.e. many physico-chemical properties of an analyte can influence its retention. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) can therefore be particularly useful tools for visualising, exploring and modelling the complex interactions between solutes and the mobile and stationary phase. PCA allows the relationships between compounds (the observations) and their retention parameters (the variables) to be visualised in usually just two or three dimensions. PLS can be used to model quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) and may lead to better understanding of retention and selectivity changes in chromatographic systems. The objective of the study was to investigate the chromatographic behaviour of basic compounds under optimised gradient conditions using octadecyl high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns designed for high pH separations. Three pharmaceutical mixtures were analysed by linear gradient reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) at high pH using ammonia as a pH modifier, and methanol and/or acetonitrile as the organic modifier. The separations were carried out on three octadecyl columns: Waters XTerra MS C18, Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 and Thermo Hypersil-Keystone BetaBasic-18. Multivariate PCA and PLS modelling were employed to explore and explain the differences in selectivity between the chromatographic systems studied when the basic compounds were analysed under the high pH conditions. The interactions between the analytes and the mobile-stationary phases were described by relating the compound molecular descriptors with the selectivity of each chromatographic system. The selectivity differences between the chromatographic systems were identified.

  7. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  8. First-Row Transition Metal Based Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction under Alkaline Conditions: Basic Principles and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Zhou, Min; Zhou, Yuxue; Zeng, Xianghua

    2017-09-28

    Owing to its abundance, high gravimetric energy density, and environmental friendliness, hydrogen is a promising renewable energy to replace fossil fuels. One of the most prominent routes toward hydrogen acquisition is water splitting, which is currently bottlenecked by the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Numerous of electrocatalysts have been developed in the past decades to accelerate the OER process. Up to now, the first-row transition metal based compounds are in pole position under alkaline conditions, which have become subjects of extensive studies. Recently, significant advances in providing compelling catalytic performance as well as exploring their catalytic mechanisms have been achieved in this area. In this review, we summarized the fundamentals and recent progresses in first-row transition metal based OER catalysts, with special emphasis on the pathways of promoting catalytic performance by concrete strategies. New insight into material design, particularly the role of experimental approaches in the electrocatalytic performance and reaction mechanisms of OER are expected to be provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    PubMed

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgonomics: the identifier concept. Hospital charges in general surgery and surgical specialties under prospective payment systems.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, E; Regan, D M; Margolis, I B; Wise, L

    1985-01-01

    Surgical care is entering a new payment era for inhospital care using the diagnostic related group (DRG) mechanism for Medicare. A study at The Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Center showed that a majority of its surgical DRGs would be unprofitable under the proposed reimbursement scheme. This study was undertaken to develop a method of allowing the hospital to group patients with each DRG that would show a difference in hospital charges and be clinically meaningful to surgeons. The study implementors tested the hypothesis that entities called identifiers, arbitrarily chosen as mode of admission [emergency (+ER vs. nonemergency (-ER)] and presence (+T) or absence (-T) of blood transfusion, would show a difference in charges (mean hospital charge exclusive of physician fees) within a DRG. Nine hundred five patients in nine DRGs encompassing general surgery, thoracic surgery, cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics, urology, and head and neck surgery were studied. For ER identifier, eight of nine DRGs were found to be positive (greater than 20% difference in charges between positive and negative identifier); for T identifier, all DRGs (9) were positive. These findings demonstrate that these identifiers may enable teaching institutions to disaggregate each DRG and, in this way, propose more equitable reimbursement rates. PMID:3925901

  11. An inquiry-based practical for a large, foundation-level undergraduate laboratory that enhances student understanding of basic cellular concepts and scientific experimental design.

    PubMed

    Bugarcic, A; Zimbardi, K; Macaranas, J; Thorn, P

    2012-01-01

    Student-centered education involving research experiences or inquiry have been shown to help undergraduate students understand, and become excited about, the process of scientific investigation. These benefits are particularly important for students in the early stages of their degree (Report and Kenny, http://naplesccsunysbedu/Pres/boyernsf/1998). However, embedding such experiences into the curriculum is particularly difficult when dealing with early stage students, who are in larger cohorts and often lack the background content knowledge necessary to engage with primary research literature and research level methods and equipment. We report here the design, delivery, assessment, and subsequent student learning outcomes of a 4-week practical module for 120 students at the beginning of their second year of university, which successfully engages students in designing cell culture experiments and in understanding the molecular processes and machinery involved in the basic cellular process of macropinocytosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  13. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  14. Computerization of the standard corsi block-tapping task affects its underlying cognitive concepts: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2015-01-01

    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of movements by tapping blocks as demonstrated by an examiner, is widely used as a representative of visuospatial attention and working memory. The aim was to validate a computerized version of the Corsi Task (e-Corsi) by comparing recall accuracy to that on the standard task. Forty university students (Mage = 22.9 years, SD = 2.7 years; 20 female) performed the standard Corsi Task and the e-Corsi on an iPad 3. Results showed higher accuracy in forward reproduction on the standard Corsi compared with the e-Corsi, whereas backward performance was comparable. These divergent performance patterns on the 2 versions (small-to-medium effect sizes) are explained as a result of motor priming and interference effects. This finding implies that computerization has serious consequences for the cognitive concepts that the Corsi Task is assumed to assess. Hence, whereas the e-Corsi was shown to be useful with respect to administration and registration, these findings also stress the need for reconsideration of the underlying theoretical concepts of this task.

  15. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  16. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  17. [Analysis of nursing-related content portrayed in middle and high school textbooks under the national common basic curriculum in Korea].

    PubMed

    Jung, Myun Sook; Choi, Hyeong Wook; Li, Dong Mei

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nursing-related content in middle, and high school textbooks under the National Common Basic Curriculum in Korea. Nursing-related content from 43 middle school textbooks and 13 high school textbooks was analyzed. There were 28 items of nursing-related content in the selected textbooks. Among them, 13 items were in the 'nursing activity' area, 6 items were in the 'nurse as an occupation' area, 2 items were in the 'major and career choice' area, 6 items were 'just one word' and 1 item in 'others'. The main nursing related content which portrayed in the middle and high school textbooks were caring for patients (7 items accounting for 46.5%), nurses working in hospitals (6 items accounting for 21.4%). In terms of gender perspective, female nurses (15 items accounting for 53.6%) were most prevalent.

  18. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research.

  19. Basic Substantive Law for Paralegals: Contracts, Torts, and Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcin, Raymond B.

    Part of the paralegal, or legal assistant, training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution under a Federal grant, the text comprises an overview of the basic legal concepts usually found in introductory law courses concerning contracts, torts, and the due process area of constitutional law. Part 1, Contracts, covers: definition,…

  20. Basic Substantive Law for Paralegals: Contracts, Torts, and Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcin, Raymond B.

    Part of the paralegal, or legal assistant, training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution under a Federal grant, the text comprises an overview of the basic legal concepts usually found in introductory law courses concerning contracts, torts, and the due process area of constitutional law. Part 1, Contracts, covers: definition,…

  1. Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills − A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

  2. Universal reaction mechanism of boronic acids with diols in aqueous solution: kinetics and the basic concept of a conditional formation constant.

    PubMed

    Furikado, Yuki; Nagahata, Tomomi; Okamoto, Takuya; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Iwatsuki, Satoshi; Inamo, Masahiko; Takagi, Hideo D; Odani, Akira; Ishihara, Koji

    2014-10-06

    To establish a detailed reaction mechanism for the condensation between a boronic acid, RB(OH)2, and a diol, H2L, in aqueous solution, the acid dissociation constants (Ka(BL)) of boronic acid diol esters (HBLs) were determined based on the well-established concept of conditional formation constants of metal complexes. The pKa values of HBLs were 2.30, 2.77, and 2.00 for the reaction systems, 2,4-difluorophenylboronic acid and chromotropic acid, 3-nitrophenylboronic acid and alizarin red S, and phenylboronic acid and alizarin red S, respectively. A general and precise reaction mechanism of RB(OH)2 with H2L in aqueous solution, which can serve as a universal reaction mechanism for RB(OH)2 and H2L, was proposed on the basis of (a) the relative kinetic reactivities of the RB(OH)2 and its conjugate base, that is, the boronate ion, toward H2L, and (b) the determined pKa values of HBLs. The use of the conditional formation constant, K', based on the main reaction: RB(OH)2 + H2L (K1)⇌ RB(L)(OH)(-) + H3O(+) instead of the binding constant has been proposed for the general reaction of uncomplexed boronic acid species (B') with uncomplexed diol species (L') to form boronic acid diol complex species (esters, BL') in aqueous solution at pH 5-11: B' + L' (K')⇌ BL'. The proposed reaction mechanism explains perfectly the formation of boronic acid diol ester in aqueous solution.

  3. Reflections on basic science.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, Joram

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science.

  4. Insulin Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  5. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  6. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  7. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  8. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  9. Species delimitation under the general lineage concept: an empirical example using wild North American hops (Cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick A; Richards, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the intent of most species concepts is to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages. However, the criteria used to identify lineages differ among concepts depending on the perceived importance of various attributes of evolving populations. We have examined five different species criteria to ask whether the three taxonomic varieties of Humulus lupulus (hops) native to North America are distinct lineages. Three criteria (monophyly, absence of genetic intermediates, and diagnosability) focus on evolutionary patterns and two (intrinsic reproductive isolation and niche specialization) consider evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data under a relaxed molecular clock, a stochastic Dollo substitution model, and parsimony identified all varieties as monophyletic, thus they satisfy the monophyly criterion for species delimitation. Principal coordinate analysis and a Bayesian assignment procedure revealed deep genetic subdivisions and little admixture between varieties, indicating an absence of genetic intermediates and compliance with the genotypic cluster species criterion. Diagnostic morphological and AFLP characters were found for all varieties, thus they meet the diagnosability criterion. Natural history information suggests that reproductive isolating barriers may have evolved in var. pubescens, potentially qualifying it as a species under a criterion of intrinsic reproductive isolation. Environmental niche modeling showed that the preferred habitat of var. neomexicanus is climatically unique, suggesting niche specialization and thus compliance with an ecological species criterion. Isolation by distance coupled with imperfect sampling can lead to erroneous lineage identification using some species criteria. Compliance with complementary pattern- and process-oriented criteria provides powerful corroboration for a species hypothesis and mitigates the necessity for comprehensive

  10. Basic concepts and issues: a primer on distribution and sales representative agreements in the medical device and durable medical equipment industries.

    PubMed

    Burow, Heiko E; Kolls, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Counsel for a manufacturer of medical devices or durable medical equipment must have working knowledge of various legal disciplines to draft contracts with intermediaries (sales representatives and distributors) for the marketing and sale of the manufacturer's products. If the manufacturer wishes to sell its products abroad, counsel must become familiar with the laws and business practices of the target country, and methods of gaining access to the foreign market. This Article gives readers an overview of the applicable legal principles, under U.S. and foreign laws, in the areas of agency, contracts, healthcare regulation, consumer protection, intellectual property protection, and dealer protection. To aid counsel in drafting intermediary agreements, specific contractual terms and issues are explored in depth, including: appointment clauses, performance provisions, provisions concerning pricing and payment, protective clauses (shielding the manufacturer from liability), term and termination provisions, independent contractor clauses, export control clauses, recordkeeping and audit provisions, choice of law clauses, and dispute resolution clauses.

  11. Concepts and mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced immunogenic cell death: impact on clinical studies and considerations for combined therapies

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Simon; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has historically been thought to induce cancer cell death in an immunogenically silent manner. However, recent studies have demonstrated that therapeutic outcomes with specific chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. anthracyclines) correlate strongly with their ability to induce a process of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in cancer cells. This process generates a series of signals that stimulate the immune system to recognize and clear tumor cells. Extensive studies have revealed that chemotherapy-induced ICD occurs via the exposure/release of calreticulin (CALR), ATP, chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). This review provides an in-depth look into the concepts and mechanisms underlying CALR exposure, activation of the Toll-like receptor 3/IFN/CXCL10 axis, and the release of ATP and HMGB1 from dying cancer cells. Factors that influence the impact of ICD in clinical studies and the design of therapies combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy are also discussed. PMID:26486085

  12. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  13. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  14. Environmental Education: Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes an instructional framework based on concepts of energy, ecosystems, carrying capacity, change, and stewardship. Stresses the importance of determining what is really important (basic) for each student to experience or learn in relation to each concept and grade level. Student-centered learning activities and sample lesson on energy…

  15. Multiwall TPS: An emerging concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. L.; Kelly, H. N.; Avery, D. E.; Blosser, M. L.; Adelman, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    The transformation of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system from a conceptual design to a working reality is described. The thermal and structural performance of the basic multiwall concept is analyzed. Radiant heat, wind tunnel, vibration, acoustic, and lightning strike tests are used to verify the performance of multiwall tiles under representative operating conditions. Flat, all titanium multiwall configurations limited to temperature below 810 K are discussed. Curved surface, higher temperature versions of the multiwall are considered. Preliminary mass estimates for advanced multiwall concepts are presented.

  16. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  17. Self-Supported Cedarlike Semimetallic Cu3P Nanoarrays as a 3D High-Performance Janus Electrode for Both Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution under Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Chao; Chen, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Liang, Fei; Lin, Zheshuai; Fu, Wen-Fu; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-07

    There has been strong and growing interest in the development of cost-effective and highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts for alternative fuels utilization and conversion devices. We report herein that semimetallic Cu3P nanoarrays directly grown on 3D copper foam (CF) substrate can function as effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation. Specifically, the surface oxidation-activated Cu3P only required a relatively low overpotential of 412 mV to achieve a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) and displayed a small Tafel slope of 63 mV dec(-1) in 0.1 M KOH solution, on account of the collaborative effect of large roughness factor (RF) and semimetallic character. Following that, investigations into the mechanism revealed the formation of a unique active phase during the water oxidation process in which conductive Cu3P was the core covered with a thin copper oxide/hydroxide layer. Moreover, this Cu3P 3D electrode was also applied to the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and showed good catalytic performance and stability under the same basic conditions.

  18. Species delimitation under the general lineage concept: An empirical example using wild North American hops (cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is an emerging consensus that the intent of most species concepts is to identify evolutionarily-distinct lineages. However, the criteria used to identify lineages differ between concepts depending on the perceived importance of various attributes of evolving populations. We have applied tests ...

  19. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  1. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  2. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  3. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  4. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  5. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  6. Basic Concepts in Profile Analysis of Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Matthew

    There has been an ongoing debate concerning the usefulness of a statistical technique called profile analysis. Profile analysis is a data analysis process that identifies patterns in a battery of test scores. The use of profile analysis is generally supported by clinicians in the field who are using profile analysis to help determine group…

  7. Basic Concepts in Metastatic Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J.; Daliani, Danai D.; Papandreou, Christos N.

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of the heart in metastatic cancer is a rare clinical diagnosis, as it may be asymptomatic or symptoms, when present, may be attributed to other causes. Issues regarding incidence, intracardiac location, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cardiac tumors will be discussed here.

  8. [Basic concepts for network meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Tobías, Aurelio; Roqué, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have long been fundamental tools for evidence-based clinical practice. Initially, meta-analyses were proposed as a technique that could improve the accuracy and the statistical power of previous research from individual studies with small sample size. However, one of its main limitations has been the fact of being able to compare no more than two treatments in an analysis, even when the clinical research question necessitates that we compare multiple interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) uses novel statistical methods that incorporate information from both direct and indirect treatment comparisons in a network of studies examining the effects of various competing treatments, estimating comparisons between many treatments in a single analysis. Despite its potential limitations, NMA applications in clinical epidemiology can be of great value in situations where there are several treatments that have been compared against a common comparator. Also, NMA can be relevant to a research or clinical question when many treatments must be considered or when there is a mix of both direct and indirect information in the body of evidence.

  9. Macular edema: definition and basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Coscas, Gabriel; Cunha-Vaz, José; Soubrane, Gisèle

    2010-01-01

    Macular edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers around the fovea. It contributes to vision loss by altering the functional cell relationship in the retina and promoting an inflammatory reparative response. Macular edema may be intracellular or extracellular. Intracellular accumulation of fluid, also called cytotoxic edema, is an alteration of the cellular ionic distribution. Extracellular accumulation of fluid, which is more frequent and clinically more relevant, is directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The following parameters are relevant for clinical evaluation of macular edema: extent of the macular edema (i.e., the area that shows increased retinal thickness); distribution of the edema in the macular area (i.e., focal versus diffuse macular edema); central foveal involvement (central area 500 microm); fluorescein leakage (evidence of alteration of the BRB or 'open barrier') and intraretinal cysts; signs of ischemia (broken perifoveolar capillary arcade and/or areas of capillary closure); presence or absence of vitreous traction; increase in retinal thickness and cysts in the retina (inner or outer), and chronicity of the edema (i.e., time elapsed since initial diagnosis and response to therapy). It is essential to establish associations and correlations of all the different images obtained, regardless of whether the same or different modalities are used.

  10. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    PubMed Central

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  11. Course 10: Basic Concepts in Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, A.; Hayden, P. M.; Inamori, H.

    Contents 1 Qubits, gates and networks 2 Quantum arithmetic and function evaluations 3 Algorithms and their complexity 4 From interferometers to computers 5 The first quantum algorithms 6 Quantum search 7 Optimal phase estimation 8 Periodicity and quantum factoring 9 Cryptography 10 Conditional quantum dynamics 11 Decoherence and recoherence 12 Concluding remarks

  12. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  13. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Casaglia, A; DE Dominicis, P; Arcuri, L; Gargari, M; Ottria, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory.

  14. Science and Technology Text Mining Basic Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    from author. Kostoff, R. N. (1993). Database Tomography for Technical Intelligence. Competitive Intelligence Review. 4:1. Kostoff, R.N. (1994...Database Tomography: Origins and Applications. Competitive Intelligence Review, Special Issue on Technology, 5:1. Kostoff, R.N. et al (1995) System and

  15. Case-control studies: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Pearce, Neil

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present in elementary mathematical and statistical terms a simple way to quickly and effectively teach and understand case-control studies, as they are commonly done in dynamic populations-without using the rare disease assumption. Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently.

  16. [Benefits of nebulized therapy: basic concepts].

    PubMed

    Máiz Carro, Luis; Wagner Struwing, Carolin

    2011-06-01

    The main advantage of nebulized drugs is that they are deposited directly into the respiratory tract and thus higher drug concentrations can be achieved in the bronchial tree and pulmonary bed with fewer adverse effects than when the systemic route is used. The effectiveness of nebulization depends on many factors, including the characteristics of the drug to be nebulized (particle size, form, density, and surface tension), the anatomy of the airways, the patient's inhalation technique and the nebulization system employed, among others. The factors determining the particle size produced by a nebulizer include both the characteristics of the solution and the flow velocity of the nebulization system. The higher the flow velocity, the smaller the aerosol particles. The parameter most widely used to measure aerosolized particle size is the mass median aerodynamic diameter. Particles of between 1 and 5 μm are those with the greatest probability of reaching the site of infection in the bronchial tree and of achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Nebulization systems or apparatus are composed of a nebulization chamber where the liquid to be nebulized is introduced and aerosol and an energy source required to make the nebulizer work are generated. There are three types of nebulization systems: ultrasonic, jet and mesh nebulizers. Of the three, the most effective are mesh nebulizers. These nebulizers are also the most compact, quietest and most rapid, which translates into better patient compliance.

  17. Imploding Plasma Radiation Sources: Basic Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-31

    100eV 50 eV Figure 6 7 I" FOR ANY DENSITY AND TEMPERTURE , THERE IS A SPECTRUM OF RADIATED PHOTON ENERGIES- ONLY THE HIGHER PHOTON ENERGIES ARE OF... EFFECTS (FIG. 7). 10161 1015-_ i16 Ciol Z. 101__CD 1012- a-. oil -- 1010I 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 PHOTON ENERGY (keV) Figure 7 ~8 THE RADIATED POWER IN...CURRENT LAYER OF THICKNESS 6 AND CROSS-SECTION AREA ACURR - 2nRs. THE THICKNESS 6 WOULD INCREASE WITH TIME BY IMAGNETIC DIFFUSION ’ IF THE SURFACE WERE

  18. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  19. The Prevalence of Area-under-a-Curve and Anti-Derivative Conceptions over Riemann Sum-Based Conceptions in Students' Explanations of Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in…

  20. The Prevalence of Area-under-a-Curve and Anti-Derivative Conceptions over Riemann Sum-Based Conceptions in Students' Explanations of Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in…

  1. Towards an Integrated Approach to Sexual Health Services: The Contribution of NICE Guidance on One-to-One Interventions to Prevent STIs and under 18 Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Amanda; McCormick, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) evidence-based guidance on one-to-one interventions for prevention of STIs and under 18 conceptions, as a focus for an integrated approach to sexual health services. Method: Documentation of the process for developing NICE guidance that is…

  2. Towards an Integrated Approach to Sexual Health Services: The Contribution of NICE Guidance on One-to-One Interventions to Prevent STIs and under 18 Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Amanda; McCormick, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) evidence-based guidance on one-to-one interventions for prevention of STIs and under 18 conceptions, as a focus for an integrated approach to sexual health services. Method: Documentation of the process for developing NICE guidance that is…

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  4. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  5. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  6. Three Concepts or One? Students' Understanding of Basic Limit Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Plaza, José Antonio; Simpson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In many mathematics curricula, the notion of limit is introduced three times: the limit of a sequence, the limit of a function at a point and the limit of a function at infinity. Despite the use of very similar symbols, few connections between these notions are made explicitly and few papers in the large literature on student understanding of…

  7. Three Concepts or One? Students' Understanding of Basic Limit Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Plaza, José Antonio; Simpson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In many mathematics curricula, the notion of limit is introduced three times: the limit of a sequence, the limit of a function at a point and the limit of a function at infinity. Despite the use of very similar symbols, few connections between these notions are made explicitly and few papers in the large literature on student understanding of…

  8. The Implementation and Results of the Academic Administration System in the Center for Education Quality Development Network under the Jurisdiction of the Office of the Basic Education Commission of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruanglae, Phumiphat; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2017-01-01

    This purpose of this study was twofold. The researcher aimed to investigate the implementation results of the academic administration system in the Center for Education Quality Development Network under the jurisdiction of the Office of the Basic Education Commission of Thailand and to design the Actions Research which can be effectively utilized…

  9. A Repeal of the Basic Writing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Vincent D.

    The development of alternative instructional activities for use in the basic writing classroom and a description and analysis of four levels of basic writing are the results of a study of basic writing teaching techniques. The linguistic concepts of immediate and transferred utterances and nominal-verbal pairing, and the work of L. Vygotsky on…

  10. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  11. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  12. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  13. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  14. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  15. Student understanding of the second law of thermodynamics and the underlying concepts of heat, temperature, and thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Matthew

    This dissertation reports on a project to improve student understanding of the second law of thermodynamics. Through the administration of written questions and individual student interviews, we have identified a variety of specific conceptual and reasoning difficulties students have with the second law of thermodynamics and the related concept of entropy. In addition, we have identified student difficulties with the concepts of heat and temperature that, in some cases, contribute to problems they have applying more the advanced ideas of the second law and entropy. All of these findings guided the design of curriculum to improve student learning in algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses. We comment on some formal problems with the way entropy and the second law are typically presented and argue for stricter use of the phrase "the second law of thermodynamics."

  16. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados

  17. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  18. Microscope basics.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter.

  19. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  20. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  1. Students' Conceptions of Underlying Principles in Medical Physiology: An Interview Study of Medical Students' Understanding in a PBL Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyrenius, Anna; Silen, Charlotte; Wirell, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Medical physiology is known to be a complex area where students develop significant errors in conceptual understanding. Students' knowledge is often bound to situational descriptions rather than underlying principles. This study explores how medical students discern and process underlying principles in physiology. Indepth interviews, where…

  2. The effects of concept and vee mappings under three learning modes on Jamaican eighth graders' knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugwu, Okechukwu; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate if the experimental students' post-test knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction would be improved more significantly than that of their control group counterparts based on their treatment, attitudes to science, self-esteem, gender and socio-economic background. Treatment involved teaching the experimental students under three learning modes--pure cooperative, cooperative-competitive and individualistic whole class interpersonal competitive condition--using concept and vee mappings and the lecture method. The control groups received the same treatment but were not exposed to concept and vee mappings. This study's second objective was to determine which of the three learning modes would produce the highest post-test mean gain in the subjects' knowledge of the two biology concepts. The study's sample comprised 932 eighth graders (12-13-year-olds) in 14 co-educational comprehensive high schools randomly selected from two Jamaican parishes. An integrated science performance test, an attitudes to science questionnaire and a self-esteem questionnaire were used to collect data. The results indicated that the experimental students (a) under the three learning modes, (b) with high, moderate, and low attitudes to science, and (c) with high, moderate, and low self-esteem, performed significantly better than their control group counterparts. The individualist whole class learning mode engendered the highest mean gain on the experimental students' knowledge, while the cooperative-competitive learning mode generated the highest mean gain for the control group students.

  3. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  4. Career Education and Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Owen, Ed.

    To provide a reliable correlation of how the "basics" are strengthened by implementing career education units, concepts, and/or skills into existing curricula, the Career Education Project of the Kentucky Valley Educational Cooperative studied the achievement of career education and non-career education students in reading, mathematics,…

  5. JSC interactive basic accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts for an interactive basic accounting system (IBAS) are considered in terms of selecting the design option which provides the best response at the lowest cost. Modeling the IBAS workload and applying this workload to a U1108 EXEC 8 based system using both a simulation model and the real system is discussed.

  6. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  7. [Intensity of apoptotic processes, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated steatohepatitis under application of epifamin at basic therapy].

    PubMed

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Agarkov, A A; Shulgin, K K

    2015-01-01

    DNA fragmentation, caspase-1 and caspase-3, aconitate hydratase (AH) activities, and citrate content have been investigated in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by steatohepatitis. These indicators of apoptotic processes intensity and oxidative stress development were estimated after basic treatment and a combined therapy including epifamin. Before treatment DNA fragmentation blood leukocytes, decrease of AH activity and increase of caspases activities in the serum of patients were detected. Treatment with epifamin provided more pronounced changes in the investigated parameters towards control values as compared to basis therapy. Epifamin caused a positive effect on the citrate content in the serum of patients. Epifamin inclusion to the basic therapy was accompanied by a more pronounced changes towards the normal values of such biochemical parameters as ALT, AST, b-lipoproteins, cholesterol, fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels. All these changes may be obviously attributed to epifamin-induced correction of the melatonin level and manifestation of adaptogenic properties and antioxidant effects of the hormone.

  8. ONR Basic Research Program: Summary and Bibliographies. Annual Reports under Grant N00014-90-J-1366, FY90 and FY91.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-19

    Propagation in Bubbly Media,’ under A. M. Bedford (UT); working with D. T. Blackstock (UT and ARL:UT), J. N. Tjotta (ARL:UT), and James A. TenCate (ARL:UT...3. TenCate , James A. (Mechanical Engineering). ’Scattering of Sound by Sound,’ under M. F. Hamilton (UT); working with D. T. Blackstock (UT and

  9. Loading concepts for Hoover Powerplant to optimize plant operating efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stitt, S.C.

    1983-08-01

    Plant efficiency gains that could be realized at Hoover Powerplant by the use of an algorithm to optimize plant efficiency are given. Comparisons are shown between the present plant operating conditions modeled on a digital computer, and the plant with the proposed unified bus operating under control of a GELA (Generator Efficiency Loading Algorithm) system. The basic concepts of that algorithm are given.

  10. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects in spontaneously breathing children under deep sedation: a feasible and safe concept.

    PubMed

    Hanslik, Andreas; Moysich, Axel; Laser, K Thorsten; Mlczoch, Elisabeth; Kececioglu, Deniz; Haas, Nikolaus A

    2014-02-01

    Interventional cardiac catheterization in children and adolescents is traditionally performed with the patient under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. However, percutaneous closure of atrial septum defect (ASD) without general anaesthesia is currently being attempted in a growing number of children. The study objective was to evaluate the success and complication rate of percutaneous ASD closure in spontaneously breathing children under deep sedation. Retrospective single centre cohort study of consecutive children undergoing percutaneous ASD closure at a tertiary care pediatric cardiology centre. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and percutaneous ASD closure were performed with the patient under deep sedation with intravenous bolus of midazolam and ketamine for induction and propofol continuous infusion for maintenance of sedation in spontaneously breathing children. One hundred and ninety-seven patients (median age 6.1 years [minimum 0.5; maximum 18.8]) underwent TEE and ASD balloon sizing. Percutaneous ASD closure was attempted in 174 patients (88 %), and device implantation was performed successfully in 92 %. To achieve sufficient deep sedation, patients received a median ketamine dose of 2.7 mg/kg (0.3; 7) followed by a median propofol continuous infusion rate of 5 mg/kg/h (1.1; 10.7). There were no major cardiorespiratory complications associated with deep sedation, and only two patients (1 %) required endotracheal intubation due to bronchial obstruction immediately after induction of sedation. Seventeen patients (8 %) had minor respiratory complications and required frequent oral suctioning or temporary bag-mask ventilation. TEE and percutaneous ASD closure can be performed safely and successfully under deep sedation in spontaneously breathing children of all ages.

  11. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  12. The aesthetics of water and land: a promising concept for managing scarce water resources under climate change.

    PubMed

    Tielbörger, Katja; Fleischer, Aliza; Menzel, Lucas; Metz, Johannes; Sternberg, Marcelo

    2010-11-28

    The eastern Mediterranean faces a severe water crisis: water supply decreases due to climate change, while demand increases due to rapid population growth. The GLOWA Jordan River project generates science-based management strategies for maximizing water productivity under global climate change. We use a novel definition of water productivity as the full range of services provided by landscapes per unit blue (surface) and green (in plants and soil) water. Our combined results from climatological, ecological, economic and hydrological studies suggest that, in Israel, certain landscapes provide high returns as ecosystem services for little input of additional blue water. Specifically, cultural services such as recreation may by far exceed that of food production. Interestingly, some highly valued landscapes (e.g. rangeland) appear resistant to climate change, making them an ideal candidate for adaptive land management. Vice versa, expanding irrigated agriculture is unlikely to be sustainable under global climate change. We advocate the inclusion of a large range of ecosystem services into integrated land and water resources management. The focus on cultural services and integration of irrigation demand will lead to entirely different but productive water and land allocation schemes that may be suitable for withstanding the problems caused by climate change.

  13. Meeting Basic Needs Is Not beyond Our Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Mahbub ul

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the status of the continuing debate on the concept of "basic needs" in development policy for the world's poorest countries, reprinted from a World Bank report. Discusses "core" basic needs (food and nutrition, drinking water, basic health, shelter, and basic education) and possible operational policies. (MF)

  14. Emerging tools, concepts and ideas to track the modulator genes underlying plant drought adaptive traits: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2016-01-01

    Crop vulnerability to multiple abiotic stresses is increasing at an alarming rate in the current global climate change scenario, especially drought. Crop improvement for adaptive adjustments to accomplish stress tolerance requires a comprehensive understanding of the key contributory processes. This requires the identification and careful analysis of the critical morpho-physiological plant attributes and their genetic control. In this review we try to discuss the crucial traits underlying drought tolerance and the various modes followed to understand their molecular level regulation. Plant stress biology is progressing into new dimensions and a conscious attempt has been made to traverse through the various approaches and checkpoints that would be relevant to tackle drought stress limitations for sustainable crop production. PMID:26618613

  15. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refuges can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refuges. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little

  16. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  17. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  18. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  19. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the…

  20. The Basic Course: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Penny

    Defining basic speech communication courses as those public speaking, interpersonal, or communication courses that treat fundamental communication concepts, this annotated bibliography reflects the current thought of speech educators on the basic course. The bibliography consists of 27 citations, all of which are drawn from the ERIC database. (SKC)

  1. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the…

  2. COLORADO STATE PLAN FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION UNDER PROVISIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION ACT OF 1966 (PL 89-750, NOV 3, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    LACK OF FINANCES, QUALIFIED PERSONNEL, AND TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING MADE THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATING THE 250,000 COLORADO ADULTS WITH LESS THAN EIGHT YEARS OF FORMAL SCHOOLING DIFFICULT TO ATTACK. UNDER THE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 1964, A COOPERATIVE EFFORT WAS BEGUN BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND OTHER AGENCIES TO…

  3. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to ;produce; helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  4. Fundamental Concepts of Ion-Beam Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P.

    The basic concepts underlying the response of materials to ion-beam irradiation are outlined. These include the slowing of energetic ions, the creation of defects, sputtering, ion-beam mixing, the acceleration of kinetic processes, and phase transformations. Several examples are cited to illustrate how each of these concepts can be exploited to modify materials in ways not easily achieved, or not even possible, by more conventional processing methods. The chapter attempts to provide a physical understanding of the basic effects of ion-beam irradiation on materials, to enable readers in other areas of research to better understand the more technical chapters that follow, and to develop ideas relevant to their own disciplines. We provide references to more quantitative treatments of the topics covered here.

  5. Introducing a New Elementary GLOBE Book on Climate: Supporting Educators and Students in their Understanding of the Concepts Underlying Climate and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanitski, D.; Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Much of the focus on climate literacy in K-12 occurs in middle and high school, where teachers and students can dig into the science in some depth. It is important, however, to introduce this topic at an early age, building on a child's natural curiosity about the world around them - but without overwhelming them with frightening climate change impacts. In some U.S. school systems, a recent focus on standardized testing has crowded out science instruction in order to bring up literacy scores. To give teachers a resource to maintain some science instruction under these conditions, a series of Elementary GLOBE books have been developed. These fictional stories describe sound science and engineering practices that are essential for students to learn the process of science while expanding literacy skills, strongly encouraged in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The main concepts developed in a new Elementary GLOBE book on climate, titled "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?", will be introduced in this presentation. This book complements six other Earth System Science modules within the Elementary GLOBE curriculum and is freely available on the GLOBE website (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe). The book discusses the concept that climate is changing in different ways and places around the world, and what happens to the climate in one place affects other locations across the globe. Supporting ideas clarify the difference between weather and climate, introduce climate science concepts, reveal the impacts of sea level rise, and help students understand that, while humans are contributing to climate change, they can also participate in solutions that address this challenge. Accompanying teacher's notes and companion classroom activities will be described to help elementary school teachers understand how to approach the subject of climate change with their students.

  6. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  7. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  8. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations. PMID:26793283

  9. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  10. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  11. Adult Basic Education. Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators Conference Proceedings (Miami, Florida, June 8, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Blanca R., Comp.

    Adult education is an umbrella concept under which come various dimensions, including adult literacy, adult basic education, continued education, continued professional education, and adult vocational education. To be effective, an adult educator must realize that: (1) adults learn differently than children do; (2) adult education must develop…

  12. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  13. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  14. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a “quantum dot”), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1–014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1–245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals’ behavior.

  15. Basic epidemiologic and statistical methods in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, M; Anderson, G; Lepor, H

    1992-11-01

    Various study designs and approaches to statistical analysis in clinical research have their own underlying rationales and limitations for interpretation. This information is presented in an intuitive and accessible manner, relying minimally on basic algebra. Epidemiologic concepts of study design and interpretation, bias and confounding, hypothesis testing, and sample size and power are explained. Statistical tests and their appropriate applications are discussed for mean comparisons (t tests and ANOVA), percentages (chi-square), survival analysis, and correlation and regression. Applicable nonparametric tests are also introduced.

  16. A Basic Incompetence in the Defining of Basic Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledd, James

    1986-01-01

    Applies a brief history of standard English usage in America to take issue with the College Board's pronouncements on basic academic competencies. Points out the underlying injustice to demand a mastery of standard English from students who, through no fault of their own, have had no chance to master it. (JK)

  17. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  18. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  19. The basics and underlying mechanisms of mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Smart, John D

    2005-11-03

    Mucoadhesion is where two surfaces, one of which is a mucous membrane, adhere to each other. This has been of interest in the pharmaceutical sciences in order to enhance localised drug delivery, or to deliver 'difficult' molecules (proteins and oligonucleotides) into the systemic circulation. Mucoadhesive materials are hydrophilic macromolecules containing numerous hydrogen bond forming groups, the carbomers and chitosans being two well-known examples. The mechanism by which mucoadhesion takes place has been said to have two stages, the contact (wetting) stage followed by the consolidation stage (the establishment of the adhesive interactions). The relative importance of each stage will depend on the individual application. For example, adsorption is a key stage if the dosage form cannot be applied directly to the mucosa of interest, while consolidation is important if the formulation is exposed to significant dislodging stresses. Adhesive joint failure will inevitably occur as a result of overhydration of a dosage form, or as a result of epithelia or mucus turnover. New mucoadhesive materials with optimal adhesive properties are now being developed, and these should enhance the potential applications of this technology.

  20. Autoxidation of salvinorin A under basic conditions.

    PubMed

    Munro, Thomas A; Goetchius, Glenn W; Roth, Bryan L; Vortherms, Timothy A; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2005-11-25

    [reaction: see text] Treatment of salvinorin A (1a) with KOH in MeOH gave the enedione 3, for which the dienone structure 7 was recently proposed. Also isolated, after methylation, were the secotriesters 4a-c. A mechanism for this unusual series of autoxidations is proposed. Surprisingly, 4a showed weak affinity at the kappa-opioid receptor. Divinatorins A-C (2a-c) showed no affinity at opioid receptors. Attempted reduction of 3 to a novel salvinorin diol (9d) was unsuccessful, but careful deacetylation of salvinorin C (9a) provided a viable route to this compound. A general method for identifying salvinorin 8-epimers by TLC is also presented.