Science.gov

Sample records for basic energy sciences

  1. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  2. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  3. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  4. Basic energy sciences: Summary of accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  5. Basic Energy Sciences: Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy-related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user'' facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  6. Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

  7. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  8. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee...; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  9. 78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy; SC-22/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  10. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory... Perine; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building,...

  11. 76 FR 48147 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of...

  12. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  13. 78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  14. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  15. 75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, Independence Avenue, Washington,...

  16. 76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  17. 78 FR 47677 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... Sciences Advisory Committee's (BESAC) charter will be renewed for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice and recommendations to the Office of Science on the Basic Energy Sciences...

  18. Basic research supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    This presentation will outline the basic research activities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department`s mission. Of particular focus in the presentation are the research programs, amounting to about $10 million, supported by the Materials Sciences Division and the Chemical Sciences Division which are fairly directly related to electrochemical technologies.

  19. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  20. Opportunities for Computational Discovery in Basic Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Mark

    2011-03-01

    An overview of the broad-ranging support of computational physics and computational science within the Department of Energy Office of Science will be provided. Computation as the third branch of physics is supported by all six offices (Advanced Scientific Computing, Basic Energy, Biological and Environmental, Fusion Energy, High-Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics). Support focuses on hardware, software and applications. Most opportunities within the fields of~condensed-matter physics, chemical-physics and materials sciences are supported by the Officeof Basic Energy Science (BES) or through partnerships between BES and the Office for Advanced Scientific Computing. Activities include radiation sciences, catalysis, combustion, materials in extreme environments, energy-storage materials, light-harvesting and photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and superconductivity.~ A summary of two recent reports by the computational materials and chemical communities on the role of computation during the next decade will be provided. ~In addition to materials and chemistry challenges specific to energy sciences, issues identified~include a focus on the role of the domain scientist in integrating, expanding and sustaining applications-oriented capabilities on evolving high-performance computing platforms and on the role of computation in accelerating the development of innovative technologies. ~~

  1. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  2. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  3. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  4. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  5. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  6. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the

  7. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  8. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  9. Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  10. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  11. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  12. [Basic science and applied science].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  13. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  14. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

  15. Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-07-15

    On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

  16. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J; Lewis, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues

  18. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  19. Data and Communications in Basic Energy Sciences: Creating a Pathway for Scientific Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter E.; Simonson, J. Michael

    2011-10-24

    This report is based on the Department of Energy (DOE) Workshop on “Data and Communications in Basic Energy Sciences: Creating a Pathway for Scientific Discovery” that was held at the Bethesda Marriott in Maryland on October 24-25, 2011. The workshop brought together leading researchers from the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) facilities and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The workshop was co-sponsored by these two Offices to identify opportunities and needs for data analysis, ownership, storage, mining, provenance and data transfer at light sources, neutron sources, microscopy centers and other facilities. Their charge was to identify current and anticipated issues in the acquisition, analysis, communication and storage of experimental data that could impact the progress of scientific discovery, ascertain what knowledge, methods and tools are needed to mitigate present and projected shortcomings and to create the foundation for information exchanges and collaboration between ASCR and BES supported researchers and facilities. The workshop was organized in the context of the impending data tsunami that will be produced by DOE’s BES facilities. Current facilities, like SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s Linac Coherent Light Source, can produce up to 18 terabytes (TB) per day, while upgraded detectors at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Advanced Light Source will generate ~10TB per hour. The expectation is that these rates will increase by over an order of magnitude in the coming decade. The urgency to develop new strategies and methods in order to stay ahead of this deluge and extract the most science from these facilities was recognized by all. The four focus areas addressed in this workshop were: Workflow Management - Experiment to Science: Identifying and managing the data path from experiment to publication. Theory and Algorithms: Recognizing the need for new tools for computation at scale, supporting large data sets and realistic

  20. Basic sciences: an alternative career?

    PubMed

    Khatri, R

    2013-01-01

    Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career. PMID:23774420

  1. Basic science of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cucchiarini, Magali; de Girolamo, Laura; Filardo, Giuseppe; Oliveira, J Miguel; Orth, Patrick; Pape, Dietrich; Reboul, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, disabling disorder of the joints that affects a large population worldwide and for which there is no definitive cure. This review provides critical insights into the basic knowledge on OA that may lead to innovative end efficient new therapeutic regimens. While degradation of the articular cartilage is the hallmark of OA, with altered interactions between chondrocytes and compounds of the extracellular matrix, the subchondral bone has been also described as a key component of the disease, involving specific pathomechanisms controlling its initiation and progression. The identification of such events (and thus of possible targets for therapy) has been made possible by the availability of a number of animal models that aim at reproducing the human pathology, in particular large models of high tibial osteotomy (HTO). From a therapeutic point of view, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising option for the treatment of OA and may be used concomitantly with functional substitutes integrating scaffolds and drugs/growth factors in tissue engineering setups. Altogether, these advances in the fundamental and experimental knowledge on OA may allow for the generation of improved, adapted therapeutic regimens to treat human OA. PMID:27624438

  2. Basic science of pain.

    PubMed

    DeLeo, Joyce A

    2006-04-01

    The origin of the theory that the transmission of pain is through a single channel from the skin to the brain can be traced to the philosopher and scientist René Descartes. This simplified scheme of the reflex was the beginning of the development of the modern doctrine of reflexes. Unfortunately, Descartes' reflex theory directed both the study and treatment of pain for more than 330 years. It is still described in physiology and neuroscience textbooks as fact rather than theory. The gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 rejuvenated the field of pain study and led to further investigation into the phenomena of spinal sensitization and central nervous system plasticity, which are the potential pathophysiologic correlates of chronic pain. The processing of pain takes place in an integrated matrix throughout the neuroaxis and occurs on at least three levels-at peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal sites. Basic strategies of pain control monopolize on this concept of integration by attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the periphery, by activation of inhibitory processes that gate pain at the spinal cord and brain, and by interference with the perception of pain. This article discusses each level of pain modulation and reviews the mechanisms of action of opioids and potential new analgesics. A brief description of animal models frames a discussion about recent advances regarding the role of glial cells and central nervous system neuroimmune activation and innate immunity in the etiology of chronic pain states. Future investigation into the discovery and development of novel, nonopioid drug therapy may provide needed options for the millions of patients who suffer from chronic pain syndromes, including syndromes in which the pain originates from peripheral nerve, nerve root, spinal cord, bone, muscle, and disc.

  3. Basic Research Needs for Superconductivity. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Superconductivity, May 8-11, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrao, J.; Kwok, W-K; Bozovic, I.; Mazin, I.; Seamus, J. C.; Civale, L.; Christen, D.; Horwitz, J.; Kellogg, G.; Finnemore, D.; Crabtree, G.; Welp, U.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2006-05-11

    As an energy carrier, electricity has no rival with regard to its environmental cleanliness, flexibility in interfacing with multiple production sources and end uses, and efficiency of delivery. In fact, the electric power grid was named ?the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th century? by the National Academy of Engineering. This grid, a technological marvel ingeniously knitted together from local networks growing out from cities and rural centers, may be the biggest and most complex artificial system ever built. However, the growing demand for electricity will soon challenge the grid beyond its capability, compromising its reliability through voltage fluctuations that crash digital electronics, brownouts that disable industrial processes and harm electrical equipment, and power failures like the North American blackout in 2003 and subsequent blackouts in London, Scandinavia, and Italy in the same year. The North American blackout affected 50 million people and caused approximately $6 billion in economic damage over the four days of its duration. Superconductivity offers powerful new opportunities for restoring the reliability of the power grid and increasing its capacity and efficiency. Superconductors are capable of carrying current without loss, making the parts of the grid they replace dramatically more efficient. Superconducting wires carry up to five times the current carried by copper wires that have the same cross section, thereby providing ample capacity for future expansion while requiring no increase in the number of overhead access lines or underground conduits. Their use is especially attractive in urban areas, where replacing copper with superconductors in power-saturated underground conduits avoids expensive new underground construction. Superconducting transformers cut the volume, weight, and losses of conventional transformers by a factor of two and do not require the contaminating and flammable transformer oils that violate urban safety

  4. Basic Science and The NIH

    PubMed Central

    Varmus, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

  5. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  6. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  7. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  8. Basic Research Needs for Electrical Energy Storage. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Electrical Energy Storage, April 2-4, 2007

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Goodenough, J. B.; Abruna, H. D.; Buchanan, M. V.

    2007-04-04

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  9. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  10. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  11. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  12. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  13. Basic space science education in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuora, L. I.; Ubachukwu, A. A.; Asogwa, M. O.

    1995-01-01

    The role of basic space science in the present curriculum for primary and secondary schools is discussed as well as the future development of Space Science Education at all levels (Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary). The importance of educating teachers in basic space science is emphasized. Provision of Planetariums in the country could go a long way to help in the education process as well as in popularizing space science.

  14. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  16. Resource Handbook--Matter and Energy. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; matter and energy. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into the following six units: 1) Composition of Matter, with 27 concepts; 2) Light, with 20 concepts; 3) Heat, with 14 concepts; 4) Sound, with 12 concepts; 5) Electricity and Magnetism, with 17 concepts; and 6)…

  17. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  18. Science versus Basic Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    One goal of basic research in education is to identify the variables of effective instruction. As this pursuit has been conceived, however, its theoretical problems make it unlikely that the effort will provide a clear picture of instructional variables, their interactions, or the kind of teacher training that is implied by instructional variables.

  19. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  20. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  1. [Challenges of basical sciences in medical education].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo

    2014-12-01

    The relevance of basic sciences in medical education has been recognized for centuries, and the importance of exposing medical students to science was acknowledged and reinforced by the recommendations of Flexner in 1910. Since then, traditional medical education has been divided into preclinical and clinical subjects; within this scheme, the first terms of undergraduate medical education usually concentrate on basic sciences, while subsequent ones focus on clinical sciences and clinical training. Since 1956, this educational scheme has been questioned and, in some schools, the medical curriculum has undergone significant structural changes; some of these reforms, especially integrated curricula, are associated with important reductions in the time allotted to individual basic science courses or even with their removal. The removal of basic science subjects from the medical curriculum is paradoxical because nowadays the value of biomedical knowledge and the scientific reasoning to make medical decisions is more appreciated than ever. To maintain its relevance in medical education, basic sciences have to confront three challenges: a) increasing its presence in clinical education; b) developing nuclear programs; and c) renewing laboratory instruction. PMID:25643888

  2. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G; Buchanan, M; Mallouk, T; Mets, L; Taylor, K; Jena, P; DiSalvo, F; Zawodzinski, T; Kung, H; Anderson, I S; Britt, P; Curtiss, L; Keller, J; Kumar, R; Kwok, W; Taylor, J; Allgood, J; Campbell, B; Talamini, K

    2004-02-01

    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  3. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  4. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  5. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-05-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

  6. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  7. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Giulia; Dunning, Thom

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  8. SCIENCE INTERVIEW: China's Leader Commits to Basic Research, Global Science.

    PubMed

    2000-06-16

    SCIENCE INTERVIEW:China's Leader Commits to Basic Research, Global Science In an exclusive interview with Science, President Jiang Zemin offers a glimpse of a new China that is encouraging young scientists to use the Internet for their work--and reveals his secret past as a nuclear engineer. Alternately tough, charming, charismatic, and personally warm, Jiang makes clear in this interview that he is a pragmatist and is committed to major structural change. His comments are edited for brevity and include written answers to questions submitted prior to the interview. PMID:17835103

  9. Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.

    PubMed

    Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

    2012-08-01

    It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

  10. Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

    This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

  11. [Evolutionary medicine: an emergent basic science].

    PubMed

    Spotorno, Angel E

    2005-02-01

    Evolutionary Medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of human health. The application of classic evolutionary theories (descent with modification, and natural selection) to the human organism, to its pathogens, and their mutual co-evolution, provides new explanations about why we get sick, how we can prevent this, and how we can heal. Medicine has focused mainly on the proximate or immediate causes of diseases and the treatment of symptoms, and very little on its evolutionary or mediate causes. For instance, the present human genome and phenotypes are essentially paleolithic ones: they are not adapted to modern life style, thus favoring the so-called diseases of civilization (ie: ateroesclerosis, senescence, myopia, phobias, panic attacks, stress, reproductive cancers). With the evolutionary approach, post-modern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases, and its preventions.

  12. [Psychophysiology as a basic science in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Lolas, F

    1984-09-01

    A characterization of psychophysiology as a psychiatric basic science is presented. Based upon the methodical pluralism of an open anthropology, this discipline must provide a unifying framework of different methodological strategies and the patterns of thought needed for their armonic integration. Its aim is the generation of "neutral" constructs and theories with meaning in different discourses. This implies to recognize and accept the contextualism of every empirical knowledge and poses the problem of the complementary of different approaches. The different levels of analysis in which the relationships between the nervous system and behavior are studied allow the distinction between two forms of objectivity: the objectivity of the physiological processes and the objectivity of subjective functions. Among these, two are discussed; estesiologic subjectivity, based upon the perception of the own body, and dialogic interaction, derived from bodily expression and communication. The need for studies across different levels of analysis affords the opportunity to employ different models of thought to approach the same problems and to identify mechanisms and emergent properties in the systems studied. PMID:6524406

  13. Teaching of the basic sciences in medicine: Changing trends.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-01-01

    A number of medical schools throughout the world have tried to downsize the basic sciences, but studies have shown that teaching of basic sciences is of importance for the clinical years that lie ahead. While some students endorse this finding, others want instruction in these sciences to be limited in terms of content and time. With the increasing cost of medical education and healthcare, medical schools the world over are trying to contain expenditure on the teaching of the basic sciences. In India, too, instruction in these sciences has been curtailed. This trend may need to be reviewed and the new challenges in this area must be addressed.

  14. Science-based neurorehabilitation: recommendations for neurorehabilitation from basic science.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience has fundamentally changed the understanding of learning and memory within recent years. Here, the authors discuss a number of specific areas where they believe new understanding of the CNS from basic science is having a fundamental impact on neurorehabilitation and is leading to new therapeutic approaches. These areas have constituted a basis for development of some basic principles for neurorehabilitation: Optimal rehabilitation should involve (a) active (patient) participation in the training, (b) training that does not only involve many repetitions, but also continues to challenge the skill of the training person, (c) motivation and reward, (d) intensive training and practice over a long time, (e) careful organization of the training in relation to other activities, and (f) incorporation of other potentially beneficial parameters such as sleep and diet. It should in this relation also be pointed out that albeit neurorehabilitation may be predicted to have the most optimal effect early in life and as soon after injury as possible, there is no reason to believe that beneficial effects of training may not be obtained late in life or several years after injury.

  15. Horizontal integration of the basic sciences in the chiropractic curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Basic science curricula at most chiropractic colleges consist of courses (eg, general anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc) that are taught as stand-alone content domains. The lack of integration between basic science disciplines causes difficulties for students who need to understand how the parts function together as an integrated whole and apply this understanding to solving clinical problems. More horizontally integrated basic science curricula could be achieved by several means: integrated Part I National Board of Chiropractic Examiners questions, a broader education for future professors, an increased emphasis on integration within the current model, linked courses, and an integrated, thematic basic science curriculum. Horizontally integrating basic science curricula would require significant efforts from administrators, curriculum committees, and instructional faculty. Once in place this curriculum would promote more clinically relevant learning, improved learning outcomes, and superior vertical integration.

  16. Basic Research in Information Science in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambaud, S.; Le Coadic, Y. F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the goals of French academic research policy in the field of information science, emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Areas of research highlighted include communication, telecommunications, co-word analysis in scientific and technical documents, media, and statistical methods for the study of social sciences. (LRW)

  17. Populations. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of…

  18. Material Objects. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    Presented is a teacher's guide for an elementary science unit designed for use with first grade students in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to the curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of the SCIS…

  19. Environments. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    Presented is a teacher's guide to an elementary science unit designed for use with fourth grade, or higher, students in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaption or edition of…

  20. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotti, M. E.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  1. BASIC STEPS IN DESIGNING SCIENCE LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITNEY, FRANK L.

    PLANNERS OF CURRENT UNIVERSITY LABORATORIES OFTEN MAKE THE SAME MISTAKES MADE BY INDUSTRIAL LABORATORIES 20 YEARS AGO. THIS CAN BE REMEDIED BY INCREASED COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCIENTISTS AND DESIGNERS IN SEMINARS DEFINING THE BASIC NEEDS OF A PARTICULAR LABORATORY SITUATION. ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ACCOUNT FOR OVER 50 PER CENT OF TOTAL…

  2. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  3. Office of Basic Energy Sciences program to meet high priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy 1983 review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Larson, D.C.

    1983-11-01

    This review was prepared during a coordination meeting held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 28-29, 1983. Participants included research scientists working for this program, a representative from the OFE's Coordination of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Nuclear Data Needs Activities, and invited specialists.

  4. Parsesciencing: A Basic Science Mode of Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Parse, Rosemarie Rizzo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the language for the mode of inquiry, now known as Parsesciencing. The language for the Humanbecoming Hermeneutic Sciencing was introduced in an earlier volume of Nursing Science Quarterly. Language both reflects and cocreates meaning. The language of sciencing is everchanging; it is an evolutionary emergent, shifting as new ideas cocreate horizons beyond. The language set forth here is to articulate more explicitly meanings of the modes of inquiry consistent with the humanbecoming paradigm and distinct from modes of inquiry in other disciplines. In dwelling with the findings of published and unpublished studies that were guided by humanbecoming, new insights arose, and with creative conceptualizing these new insights gave birth to new meanings, thus different language. The language introduced here includes the following: Parsesciencing as coming to know the meanings of universal humanuniverse living experiences, horizon of inquiry, foreknowings, inquiry stance, mode of inquiry, historians, dialoging-engaging, scholar, distilling-fusing, discerning extant moment, transmogrifying, transsubstantiating, and newknowings. Note: an example of the new language with a Parsesciencing inquiry on the universal humanuniverse living experience of feeling unsure by Sandra Bunkers appears later in this issue. PMID:27641273

  5. Parsesciencing: A Basic Science Mode of Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Parse, Rosemarie Rizzo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the language for the mode of inquiry, now known as Parsesciencing. The language for the Humanbecoming Hermeneutic Sciencing was introduced in an earlier volume of Nursing Science Quarterly. Language both reflects and cocreates meaning. The language of sciencing is everchanging; it is an evolutionary emergent, shifting as new ideas cocreate horizons beyond. The language set forth here is to articulate more explicitly meanings of the modes of inquiry consistent with the humanbecoming paradigm and distinct from modes of inquiry in other disciplines. In dwelling with the findings of published and unpublished studies that were guided by humanbecoming, new insights arose, and with creative conceptualizing these new insights gave birth to new meanings, thus different language. The language introduced here includes the following: Parsesciencing as coming to know the meanings of universal humanuniverse living experiences, horizon of inquiry, foreknowings, inquiry stance, mode of inquiry, historians, dialoging-engaging, scholar, distilling-fusing, discerning extant moment, transmogrifying, transsubstantiating, and newknowings. Note: an example of the new language with a Parsesciencing inquiry on the universal humanuniverse living experience of feeling unsure by Sandra Bunkers appears later in this issue.

  6. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

  7. Family Science Activities for Adult Basic and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    A staff development project created a series of family science activities to be used in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) and family literacy programs and a training guide for staff and volunteers. The training guide provides background principles and concepts for science activities. The activities identify materials and indicate ways the…

  8. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  9. Basic space science in Africa: The Nigerian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, P. N.; Onuora, L. I.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of basic space science research in African countries is reviewed. The efforts being made to develop space science research at the University of Nigeria are discussed, as well as the proposed international collaboration on solar seismology. Such international collaborations appear to be the only way forward for African countries. It is emphasized that policy makers in African countries need to be made aware of the importance of space science and its various technological spin offs.

  10. Science Serving the Nation: The Impact of Basic Research

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-01-01

    Impacts: The BES program supports basic research that underpins a broad range of energy technologies. Research in materials sciences and engineering leads to the development of materials that improve the efficiency, economy, environmental acceptability, and safety of energy generation, conversion, transmission, storage, and use. For example, advances in superconductivity have been introduced commercially in a number of demonstration projects around the country. Improvements in alloy design for high temperature applications are used in commercial furnaces and in green technologies such as lead-free solder. Research in chemistry has led to advances such as efficient combustion systems with reduced emissions of pollutants; new solar photoconversion processes; improved catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals; and better separations and analytical methods for applications in energy processes, environmental remediation, and waste management. Research in geosciences results in advanced monitoring and measurement techniques for reservoir definition and an understanding of the fluid dynamics of complex fluids through porous and fractured subsurface rock. Research in the molecular and biochemical nature of photosynthesis aids the development of solar photo-energy conversion. The BES program also plays a major role in enabling the nanoscale revolution. The importance of nanoscience to future energy technologies is clearly reflected by the fact that all of the elementary steps of energy conversion (e.g., charge transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place on the nanoscale. The development of new nanoscale materials, as well as the methods to characterize, manipulate, and assemble them, create an entirely new paradigm for developing new and revolutionary energy technologies.

  11. Basic Science at the Extreme States of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, Johndale C.

    1996-05-01

    The scientific regime accessed by pulsed power is most succinctly described as the extreme states of matter. These include: high pressure, (2) high temperature, and (3) high magnetic fields. The opportunities for new and exciting basic research range through the disciplines of; (1) astrophysics, (2) planetary physics, (3) geophysics, (4) materials science, (5) plasma physics, (6) atomic physics, and (7) condensed-matter physics. Scientists of the High-Energy-Density Physics Program at Los Alamos currently utilize both explosive-driven generators and capacitor-driven systems to achieve space-time compression of energy. Explosive magnetocumulative generators of Russian design are being used to obtain isentropic compression at pressures near 700 Gpa and magnetic fields in excess of 1000 T. A 4-MJ versatile capacitor bank called Pegasus is now reliably delivering 12 MA to experimental targets with risetime of 6μs. Special z-pinch liners can convert this energy into shock pressures of several TPa and special designs may offer quasi-isentropic compressions at several 10s of GPa. A design to use a liner to compress a magnetic seed field may reach 500 T. A 36-MJ capacitor bank called Atlas is tentatively designed to deliver 20-25 MA in 2-3μs. This device may be capable of isentropic compressions in the 100s of Gpa, magnetic fields in the 1000-T range, and x-ray yield over 1MJ at temperatures over 100 eV. This lecture will review current collaborations to observe of (1) quantum-limit phenomena, (2) magnetic field induced superconductivity, (3) Zeeman-driven bond breaking, (4) exciton spectra, (5) unusual Faraday rotation, and (6) high-compression metalization of simple gases. Speculations on future basic research activities at extreme field, compression, and temperature will also be discussed.

  12. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,…

  13. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

  14. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate.

  15. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  16. Contributions of Basic Sciences to Science of Education. Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Bernard M.

    The science of education has been influenced by the basic sciences to the extent that educational research now has been able to modernize its approach by accepting and using the basic scientific methodology and experimental techniques. Using primarily the same steps of scientific investigations, education today holds a place of much greater esteem…

  17. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Domen, Kazunari (University of Tokyo)

    2016-07-12

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  18. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, Kazunari

    2011-05-26

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  19. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

  20. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102

  1. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  2. One Man's Approach to a Basic Course in Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents a twofold approach to teaching basic geology based on five principles to make science accessible to students who think they are bored with or afraid of the subject. The approach focuses on: appealing to the mind (to attack boredom) and appealing to the emotions (to attack fear). (BC)

  3. Curriculum Considerations for Correlating Basic and Clinical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1980-01-01

    Six ways a dentist can profit from the basic sciences are: (1) increased sensitivity to the environment, (2) improved judgment, (3) better explanations to patients, (4) enhanced ability to learn, (5) improved communication with health professionals, and (6) greater role diversity. Literature is reviewed related to mental processes. (Author/MLW)

  4. BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSEL, RICHARD

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

  5. Voluntary Election of Basic Science Courses by Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosse, Cornelius; Swanson, August G.

    1975-01-01

    The curriculum at the University of Washington places responsibility on the student in planning his education. Four entering classes elected a high number of credits in anatomy and pharmacology. A need for basic science courses is perceived by the medical student, and their voluntary election is bound to facilitate learning. (Editor/PG)

  6. Economics of New Faculty Hires in Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray; Van Wuyckhuyse, Brian C.; Beck, Christopher A.; Passalacqua, William P.; Guzick, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the streams of expenses and revenues associated with investment in a cohort of basic science investigators at the University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry over seven years. Method The authors evaluated a medical school's financial investment in 25 basic science faculty who were hired between 1999 and 2004 to expand basic science research. The authors compared direct and indirect costs with the extramural grant support generated by these investigators through 2006. To facilitate a comparison of investments made and grants generated, the authors calculated present value (in 2006 dollars) of revenues and expenses using the school's approximate cost of capital. Results Of the 25 faculty members hired, 24 (96%) remained at the school through 2006. From 1999 to 2006, the school invested a total of $69.0 million ($33.1 million in start-up costs and $35.9 million in indirect costs) to support the faculty members. Through 2006, these faculty members generated $99.7 million in extramural grant revenue ($70.7 million in direct grant revenue and $29.1 million in indirect grant revenue). While the faculty generated $1.45 in total grant revenue per dollar invested, start-up expenses and incomplete recovery of indirect costs required the school to add 40 cents to every grant dollar generated to achieve financial equilibrium. Conclusions Investments in basic science research, even when successful, may require significant financial subsidies from academic health centers. PMID:19116473

  7. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  8. Integration of basic sciences and clinical sciences in oral radiology education for dental students.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2013-06-01

    Educational research suggests that cognitive processing in diagnostic radiology requires a solid foundation in the basic sciences and knowledge of the radiological changes associated with disease. Although it is generally assumed that dental students must acquire both sets of knowledge, little is known about the most effective way to teach them. Currently, the basic and clinical sciences are taught separately. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of students when taught basic sciences segregated or integrated with clinical features. Predoctoral dental students (n=51) were taught four confusable intrabony abnormalities using basic science descriptions integrated with the radiographic features or taught segregated from the radiographic features. The students were tested with diagnostic images, and memory tests were performed immediately after learning and one week later. On immediate and delayed testing, participants in the integrated basic science group outperformed those from the segregated group. A main effect of learning condition was found to be significant (p<0.05). The results of this study support the critical role of integrating biomedical knowledge in diagnostic radiology and shows that teaching basic sciences integrated with clinical features produces higher diagnostic accuracy in novices than teaching basic sciences segregated from clinical features.

  9. Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

  10. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, "Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems"

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, James B; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This article is reproduced from excerpts from the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2006, www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/ANES_rpt.pdf.

  11. Energy Sciences Network

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    ESnet is a high-speed network serving thousands of Department of Energy scientists at over 40 institutions, as well as connecting to more than 100 other networks. ESnet is a pioneer in providing high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link researchers at national laboratories, universities and other research institutions, enabling them to collaborate on some of the world's most important scientific research challenges including energy, climate science, and the origins of the universe. Funded by the DOE Office of Science, and managed and operated by the ESnet team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides scientists access to unique DOE research facilities and computing resources.

  12. Interprofessional education and the basic sciences: Rationale and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to improve patient outcomes and the quality of care. Interprofessional learning outcomes and interprofessional competencies are now included in many countries' health and social care professions' accreditation standards. While IPE may take place at any time in health professions curricula it tends to focus on professionalism and clinical topics rather than basic science activities. However generic interprofessional competencies could be included in basic science courses that are offered to at least two different professional groups. In developing interprofessional activities at the preclinical level, it is important to define explicit interprofessional learning outcomes plus the content and process of the learning. Interprofessional education must involve interactive learning processes and integration of theory and practice. This paper provides examples of IPE in anatomy and makes recommendations for course development and evaluation.

  13. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  14. Future Energy Technology. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Recommended for grades 7-12 language arts, science, and social studies classes, this 5-7 day unit encourages students to investigate alternative energy sources through research. Focusing on geothermal energy, tide and ocean, fusion, wind, biomass, and solar energy as possible areas of consideration, the unit attempts to create an awareness of the…

  15. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  16. ESNET (Energy Sciences Network)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This document describes the Energy Sciences Network (ESNET) project which was undertaken by the Scientific Computing Staff during fiscal year (FY) 1986 at the direction of the Director, Office of Energy Research (ER). This document serves as the program plan for the ESNET project and is the result of the effort of the cross program Energy Sciences Network Steering Committee. The ESNET Steering Committee has been charged to codify the overall ER computer network requirements, to document and set priorities for computer networking requirements including performance objectives. Further, this committee has been asked to identify future ESNET functional characteristics, to identify research and development needs for the ESNET, to establish ESNET performance objectives and to define the intrastructure necessary to manage and operate the ESNET facilities.

  17. Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

    2010-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240

  18. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  19. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    PubMed

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system. PMID:26584807

  20. Energy, information science, and systems science

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Terry C; Mercer - Smith, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    This presentation will discuss global trends in population, energy consumption, temperature changes, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy security programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL's capabilities support vital national security missions and plans for the future. LANL science supports the energy security focus areas of impacts of Energy Demand Growth, Sustainable Nuclear Energy, and Concepts and Materials for Clean Energy. The innovation pipeline at LANL spans discovery research through technology maturation and deployment. The Lab's climate science capabilities address major issues. Examples of modeling and simulation for the Coupled Ocean and Sea Ice Model (COSIM) and interactions of turbine wind blades and turbulence will be given.

  1. A straightforward guide to the basic science behind arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumotier, Berengere M

    2014-12-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (eg, heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (ie, diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (ie, channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmias may indeed share common basic mechanisms, while elements and substrates perpetuating these may be different and ultimately manifest as various ECG abnormalities. This article lists cellular and subcellular iatrogenic disorders responsible for abnormal impulse generation, or conduction disturbances, including the latest development in theories and biological research, for a better understanding of cellular disorders behind arrhythmogenesis.

  2. Republished: A straightforward guide to the basic science behind arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumotier, Berengere M

    2015-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (e.g., heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (i.e., diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (i.e., channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmias may indeed share common basic mechanisms, while elements and substrates perpetuating these may be different and ultimately manifest as various ECG abnormalities. This article lists cellular and subcellular iatrogenic disorders responsible for abnormal impulse generation, or conduction disturbances, including the latest development in theories and biological research, for a better understanding of cellular disorders behind arrhythmogenesis.

  3. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative for IHY 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Haubold, H.

    2006-08-01

    The United Nations, in cooperation with national and international space-related agencies and organizations, has been organizing annual workshops since 1990 on basic space science, particularly for the benefit of scientists and engineers from developing nations. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) will assist scientists and engineers from all over the world in participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007. A major thrust of the IHY/UNBSSI program is to deploy arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio telescopes, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The small instrument program is envisioned as a partnership between instrument providers, and instrument hosts in developing countries. The lead scientist will provide the instruments (or fabrication plans for instruments) in the array; the host country will provide manpower, facilities, and operational support to obtain data with the instrument typically at a local university. Funds are not available through the IHY to build the instruments; these must be obtained through the normal proposal channels. However all instrument operational support for local scientists, facilities, data acquisition, etc will be provided by the host nation. It is our hope that the IHY/UNBSSI program can facilitate the deployment of several of these networks world wide. Existing data bases and relevant software tools that can will be identified to promote space science activities in developing countries. Extensive data on space science have been accumulated by a number of space missions. Similarly, long-term data bases are available from ground based observations. These data can be utilized in ways different from originally intended for understanding the heliophysical processes. This paper provides an

  4. Integrating the teaching of basic sciences, clinical sciences, and biopsychosocial issues.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H

    1998-09-01

    In this chapter, the author describes integrating the teaching of the basic sciences, clinical sciences, and biopsychosocial issues in medical education as part of the curricular reform efforts initiated by schools that participated in The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's project "Preparing: Physicians for the Future: Program in Medical Education." The author focuses on the approaches the eight schools adopted, the challenges they encountered, and the lessons they learned in attempting to implement more integrated curricula. Integration was promoted both within and among various components of medical education. For example, in some cases discipline-based courses in the basic sciences were replaced with interdisciplinary courses. Further, efforts were made both to bring clinical relevance to the basic sciences and to strengthen basic science in the clinical years. All the schools also promoted the study of the humanities and biopsychosocial sciences throughout the curriculum. The author describes problems encountered in these endeavors, resources needed to support interdisciplinary courses, the benefits of integration, and common lessons learned by the eight schools. PMID:9759115

  5. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR). OppNet prioritizes activities and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)...

  6. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons.

  7. Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, P. N.

    Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

  8. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons. PMID:16428683

  9. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  10. Basic Energy Sciences 2011 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    This report describes how BES is organized and operates to accomplish our mission and presents selected accomplishments to illustrate some exciting new scientific advances that resulted from BES-supported research. Also included are references to supplementary resources that provide additional information about BES strategic planning, research, and user facilities.

  11. Basic Energy Sciences 2014 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    This report describes how BES is organized and operates to accomplish our mission and presents selected accomplishments to illustrate some exciting new scientific advances that resulted from BES-supported research. Also included are references to supplementary resources that provide additional information about BES strategic planning, research, and user facilities.

  12. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  13. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  14. Corneal Gene Therapy: Basic Science and Translational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rajiv R.; Rodier, Jason T.; Sharma, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

  15. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Basic science faculty in surgical departments: advantages, disadvantages and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chinoy, Mala R; Moskowitz, Jay; Wilmore, Douglas W; Souba, Wiley W

    2005-01-01

    The number of Ph.D. faculty in clinical departments now exceeds the number of Ph.D. faculty in basic science departments. Given the escalating pressures on academic surgeons to produce in the clinical arena, the recruitment and retention of high-quality Ph.D.s will become critical to the success of an academic surgical department. This success will be as dependent on the surgical faculty understanding the importance of the partnership as the success of the Ph.D. investigator. Tighter alignment among the various clinical and research programs and between surgeons and basic scientists will facilitate the generation of new knowledge that can be translated into useful products and services (thus improving care). To capitalize on what Ph.D.s bring to the table, surgery departments may need to establish a more formal research infrastructure that encourages the ongoing exchange of ideas and resources. Physically removing barriers between the research groups, encouraging the open exchange of techniques and observations and sharing core laboratories is characteristic of successful research teams. These strategies can meaningfully contribute to developing successful training program grants, program projects and bringing greater research recognition to the department of surgery.

  17. Exploring Magnetism: Bringing The Sun-Earth Connection into the Classroom via Basic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, B. J.; Peticolas, L. M.; Craig, N.; Holman, G.

    2005-05-01

    The E/PO programs of NASA missions often face the challenge of making complex science investigations relevant for the classroom. Magnetism is one of the basic topics taught in classrooms throughout the nation. It also has profound importance within a great variety of astrophysical systems. We have used the topic of magnetism to form the basis of a series of teacher's lesson guides that connect the basic science concepts to the more complex systems being studied by scientists today. These guides use hands-on, inquiry based activities to teach concepts of magnetism for students of grades 6-9. The primary guide, Exploring Magnetism, examines the fundamental properties of magnetism and electromagnetism. Supplemental guides teach about current NASA investigations by connecting the basic science to the science being studied by these space missions. Currently, there are two supplemental guides: Exploring Magnetism in the Solar Wind, which explores how the STEREO mission uses a spacecraft boom to measure the magnetic field of the solar wind free from contamination of the spacecraft itself; and Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares, which uses RHESSI observations to demonstrate how rapidly changing magnetic fields can unleash enormous amounts of energy.

  18. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  19. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  20. The HelCat basic plasma science device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

  1. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-05-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:25911667

  2. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

  3. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥ 6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

  4. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-05-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

  5. Pharmacology of heart failure: From basic science to novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz

    2016-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is one of the leading causes for hospitalization in the United States and Europe, and is accompanied by high mortality. Current pharmacological therapy of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is largely based on compounds that inhibit the detrimental action of the adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems on the heart. More than one decade after spironolactone, two novel therapeutic principles have been added to the very recently released guidelines on heart failure therapy: the HCN-channel inhibitor ivabradine and the combined angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitor valsartan/sacubitril. New compounds that are in phase II or III clinical evaluation include novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, guanylate cyclase activators or myosine activators. A variety of novel candidate targets have been identified and the availability of gene transfer has just begun to accelerate translation from basic science to clinical application. This review provides an overview of current pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure at three stages: the updated clinical guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, new drugs which are in clinical development, and finally innovative drug targets and their mechanisms in heart failure which are emerging from preclinical studies will be discussed.

  6. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  7. In defense of basic science funding: today's scientific discovery is tomorrow's medical advance.

    PubMed

    Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2013-06-01

    In this address, I will discuss the importance of basic science in tackling our health problems. I will also describe how the funding cuts are damaging our economic competitiveness and turning our young people away from science.

  8. Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2007-08-04

    The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State

  9. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  10. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  11. The Science of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This unit of study for secondary students focuses on energy uses, energy sources, energy forms, and energy conversion. The unit is designed to take five 45-minute class sessions. In the first class session, the teacher conducts several energy conversion experiments. In subsequent sessions, students are divided into seven groups and each is…

  12. Back to Basics for Science Teachers in Rural India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Nick

    1998-01-01

    Describes how practical science can be taught using locally-collected junk materials and encourages a new approach to science teaching in rural India. Emphasizes science relevant to the villages to which children will return to when they leave school. (DDR)

  13. The Committee on Basic Research in Education: A Four Year Tryout of Basic Science Funding Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Suppes, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Describes a Committee on Basic Research in Education that was formed in 1968 and that worked for four years in cooperation with the U. S. Office of Education to identify problems to be attacked by basic research in education and to develop and try out plans and procedures for stimulating and supporting such research. (Author/JM)

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  15. Progress in the utilization of high-fidelity simulation in basic science education.

    PubMed

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  16. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  17. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  18. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  20. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  1. Exploring cognitive integration of basic science and its effect on diagnostic reasoning in novices.

    PubMed

    Lisk, Kristina; Agur, Anne M R; Woods, Nicole N

    2016-06-01

    Integration of basic and clinical science knowledge is increasingly being recognized as important for practice in the health professions. The concept of 'cognitive integration' places emphasis on the value of basic science in providing critical connections to clinical signs and symptoms while accounting for the fact that clinicians may not spontaneously articulate their use of basic science knowledge in clinical reasoning. In this study we used a diagnostic justification test to explore the impact of integrated basic science instruction on novices' diagnostic reasoning process. Participants were allocated to an integrated basic science or clinical science training group. The integrated basic science group was taught the clinical features along with the underlying causal mechanisms of four musculoskeletal pathologies while the clinical science group was taught only the clinical features. Participants completed a diagnostic accuracy test immediately after initial learning, and one week later a diagnostic accuracy and justification test. The results showed that novices who learned the integrated causal mechanisms had superior diagnostic accuracy and better understanding of the relative importance of key clinical features. These findings further our understanding of cognitive integration by providing evidence of the specific changes in clinical reasoning when basic and clinical sciences are integrated during learning.

  2. Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to known needs, Jeffersonian science is the quest for the unknown in the service of a known social need. It is research in an identified area of basic scientific ignorance that lies at the heart of a social problem. The talk discusses the conceptual foundations and then provides some case examples of Jeffersonian-type science initiatives, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, initiated by Thomas Jefferson (which led us to call this mode of research Jeffersonian), research conducted under the auspices of the National Institutes of Health, and a science policy project by President Jimmy Carter and his Science Adviser, Frank Press, in the late 1970s. Because the concept of Jeffersonian science explicitly ties basic research to the social good, one of the potential benefits of adding a Jeffersonian dimension to our thinking about science is that it might make science careers more attractive to women and underrepresented minorities.

  3. Teachers' Involvement in Implementing the Basic Science and Technology Curriculum of the Nine-Year Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odili, John Nwanibeze; Ebisine, Sele Sylvester; Ajuar, Helen Nwakaife

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated teachers' involvement in implementing the basic science and technology curriculum in primary schools in WSLGA (Warri South Local Government Area) of Delta State. It sought to identify the availability of the document in primary schools and teachers' knowledge of the objectives and activities specified in the curriculum.…

  4. Basic science research in pediatric radiology - how to empower the leading edge of our field.

    PubMed

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2014-08-01

    Basic science research aims to explore, understand and predict phenomena in the natural world. It spurs the discovery of fundamentally new principles and leads to new knowledge and new concepts. By comparison, applied research employs basic science knowledge toward practical applications. In the clinical realm, basic science research and applied research should be closely connected. Basic science discoveries can build the foundation for a broad range of practical applications and thereby bring major benefits to human health, education, environment and economy. This article explains how basic science research impacts our field, it describes examples of new research directions in pediatric imaging and it outlines current challenges that we need to overcome in order to enable the next groundbreaking discovery.

  5. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  6. Growth in Turkish Positive Basic Sciences, 1933-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozinonu, A. Kemal

    This study collected data on the measurable qualities of Turkish science in terms of high level scientific manpower, scientific productivity, and scientific fertility from 1933 to 1966 and analyzed the data collected with the goal of providing a deeper understanding of the nature of Turkish science. Scientific personnel, including Turkish…

  7. Systems and Variables. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the schools of the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation…

  8. The Impact of Hands-On-Approach on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwueme, Cecilia O.; Ekon, Esther E.; Ezenwa-Nebife, Dorothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Children can learn mathematics and sciences effectively even before being exposed to formal school curriculum if basic Mathematics and Sciences concepts are communicated to them early using activity oriented (Hands-on) method of teaching. Mathematics and Science are practical and activity oriented and can best be learnt through inquiry (Okebukola…

  9. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  10. Basic space science for the benefit of developing countries. Proceedings. Conference, Lagos (Nigeria), 18 - 22 Oct 1993.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following topics were dealt with: international cooperation in basic space science, education for space science, atmospheric science, planetary science, the Sun, binary stars, ground-based and space-based astronomical observations, and astrophysics and cosmology.

  11. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  12. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.

  13. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  14. Basic Research: Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

    This is the second annual report of the Army Research Institute's (ARI) basic research program. It describes the current focus of the program and the individual research efforts sponsored within each of the four principal thrust areas: ability assessment; instructional technology; cognitive processing limitations; and intelligent systems. In…

  15. The Integration of Nutrition Education in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Isaias

    1977-01-01

    At the Center for Biomedical Education at the City University of New York, nutrition is integrated into the chemistry-biochemistry sequence of a six-year B.S.-M.D. program. Students perform an actual analysis of a sample of their own food, learning basic techniques and concepts, and also carry on experiments with rats on other diets. (Editor/LBH)

  16. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  17. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  18. Science for Sustainable Energy: Recommendations of the 2010 BESAC Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, Alexis

    2012-02-01

    In August 2010, DOE's Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee issued a major report on Science for Energy Technology. The report identified opportunities for science to help overcome roadblocks to progress in emerging clean energy technologies and thus to have much needed near-term impact on our energy infrastructure. The report covered diverse areas including solar electricity from photovoltaics, advanced nuclear energy, carbon sequestration, electrochemical energy storage, power grid technologies including power electronics and superconductors, solid state lighting, biofuels, building efficiency, fuel cells and wind power. In addition, mechanisms were suggested to facilitate progress, in particular, by strengthening the link between basic research and industry. The talk will review the highlights of this report.

  19. Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

  20. New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    Over the past five years, the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences has engaged thousands of scientists around the world to study the current status, limiting factors and specific fundamental scientific bottlenecks blocking the widespread implementation of alternate energy technologies. The reports from the foundational BESAC workshop, the ten 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and the panel on Grand Challenge science detail the necessary research steps (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html). This report responds to a charge from the Director of the Office of Science to the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee to conduct a study with two primary goals: (1) to assimilate the scientific research directions that emerged from these workshop reports into a comprehensive set of science themes, and (2) to identify the new implementation strategies and tools required to accomplish the science. From these efforts it becomes clear that the magnitude of the challenge is so immense that existing approaches - even with improvements from advanced engineering and improved technology based on known concepts - will not be enough to secure our energy future. Instead, meeting the challenge will require fundamental understanding and scientific breakthroughs in new materials and chemical processes to make possible new energy technologies and performance levels far beyond what is now possible.

  1. Why our patients (and we) need basic science research.

    PubMed

    Schor, Nina F

    2013-05-28

    In times of fiscal austerity, the tendency is to seek instant, inexpensive gratification. In the case of biomedical research, this means the shortest path to practical clinical implementation. But fueling the translational pipeline with discovery depends critically on allowing the biomedical research community to follow their science where it takes them. Fiscal constraints carry with them the risk of squelching creativity and forfeiting the power of serendipity to provide the substrate for the translational engine in the future. PMID:23713087

  2. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  3. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

    Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant…

  4. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond. PMID:27606600

  5. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  6. Downsizing of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools: Perceptions of Their Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, H. George

    1997-01-01

    The National Caucus of Biomedical Science Chairs administered a 35-item questionnaire concerning department downsizing to medical school basic science department heads (n=400). Results indicate significant loss of faculty positions in one-third of the schools, with a 10% overall reduction from 1985-95. Department restructuring, with merging of…

  7. Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2007-01-01

    A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

  8. Development and Validation of a Project Package for Junior Secondary School Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udofia, Nsikak-Abasi

    2014-01-01

    This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…

  9. Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

    2010-02-01

    A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of cardiac arrhythmias--basic science for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Shu, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Patel, Chinmay; Yan, Gan-Xin

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias occur in approximately 5.3% of the population and contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological therapy still remains the major approach in management of patients with nearly every form of cardiac arrhythmia. Effective and safe management of cardiac arrhythmias with antiarrhythmic drugs requires understanding of basic mechanisms for various cardiac arrhythmias, clinical diagnosis of an arrhythmia and identification of underlying cardiac diseases, pharmacokinetics, and antiarrhythmic properties of each individual antiarrhythmic drug. Most cardiac arrhythmias occur via one of the two mechanisms: abnormal impulse formation and reentry or both. Antiarrhythmic drugs primarily work via influencing cardiac automaticity or triggered activity or by their effects on effective refractoriness of cardiac cells. Proarrhythmic effects of antiarrhythmic drugs are also briefly discussed in this review article.

  11. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine.

  12. Japanese representation in leading general medicine and basic science journals: a comparison of two decades.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tsuguya; Takahashi, Osamu; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    During 1991-2000, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals was very small although the contribution to the top basic science journals was sizeable. However, it has not been examined whether the contribution to the top general medicine and basic science journals has changed during the last decade (2001-2010). The objective of this study was to compare Japan representation in high-impact general medicine and basic science journals between the years 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. We used PubMed database to examine the frequency of articles originated from Japan and published in 7 high-impact general medicine and 6 high-impact basic science journals. Several Boolean operators were used to connect name of the journal, year of publication and corresponding authors' affiliation in Japan. Compared to the 1991-2000 decade, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals did not increase over the 2001-2010 period (0.66% vs. 0.74%, P = 0.255). However, compared to the same period, its contribution to the top basic science journals increased during 2001-2010 (2.51% vs. 3.60%, P < 0.001). Japan representation in basic science journals showed an upward trend over the 1991-2000 period (P < 0.001) but remained flat during 2001-2010 (P = 0.177). In contrast, the trend of Japan representation in general medicine journals remained flat both during 1991-2000 (P = 0.273) and 2001-2010 (P = 0.073). Overall, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals has remained small and unchanged over the last two decades. However, top basic science journals had higher Japan representation during 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000.

  13. The basic science of peri-implant bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Kuzyk, Paul RT; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-01-01

    Given the popularity of cementless orthopedic implants, it is imperative for orthopedic surgeons to have a basic understanding of the process of peri-implant bone healing. Contact and distance osteogenesis have been used to explain peri-implant bone healing. In contact osteogenesis, de novo bone forms on the implant surface, while in distance osteogenesis, the bone grows from the old bone surface toward the implant surface in an appositional manner. Contact osteogenesis may lead to bone bonding if the surface of the implant displays the appropriate surface topography. The early stage of peri-implant bone healing is very important and involves the body’s initial response to a foreign material: protein adsorption, platelet activation, coagulation, and inflammation. This results in the formation of a stable fibrin clot that is a depot for growth factors and allows for osteoconduction. Osteoconduction is the migration and differentiation of osteogenic cells, such as pericytes, into osteoblasts. Osteoconduction allows for contact osteogenesis to occur at the implant surface. The late stage of healing involves the remodeling of this woven bone. In many respects, this process is similar to the bone healing occurring at a fracture site. PMID:21430864

  14. What's hot, what's new at WTC--basic science.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, J S

    2015-02-01

    The World Transplant Congress of 2014 presented a broad swath of science that touched on many disparate aspects of cell and organ transplantation, molecular and cellular immunology, systems biology, development, technology and translation into humans. A number of themes emerged this year. B cell biology and antibody chemistry were prominent, as they have been for several years. T cells, co-stimulatory blockade and regulatory T cells continue to dominate many aspects of immune research. Many new aspects of monocyte, macrophage, NK cell and NK T cell development, biology and regulation are now being explored. Diverse aspects of organ injury and the acute and chronic responses to injury are being investigated with new techniques, new targets and a resurgent vigor. Novel advances in xenotransplantation and experimental tolerance garnered much attention. Newer investigations in microbiota and nanotechnology promise significant gains in the near future. Lastly the 'omics of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, bacteria and enzyme actions promise new understanding in biological systems and how to control those systems.

  15. Basic ingredients of free energy calculations: a review.

    PubMed

    Christ, Clara D; Mark, Alan E; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-06-01

    Methods to compute free energy differences between different states of a molecular system are reviewed with the aim of identifying their basic ingredients and their utility when applied in practice to biomolecular systems. A free energy calculation is comprised of three basic components: (i) a suitable model or Hamiltonian, (ii) a sampling protocol with which one can generate a representative ensemble of molecular configurations, and (iii) an estimator of the free energy difference itself. Alternative sampling protocols can be distinguished according to whether one or more states are to be sampled. In cases where only a single state is considered, six alternative techniques could be distinguished: (i) changing the dynamics, (ii) deforming the energy surface, (iii) extending the dimensionality, (iv) perturbing the forces, (v) reducing the number of degrees of freedom, and (vi) multi-copy approaches. In cases where multiple states are to be sampled, the three primary techniques are staging, importance sampling, and adiabatic decoupling. Estimators of the free energy can be classified as global methods that either count the number of times a given state is sampled or use energy differences. Or, they can be classified as local methods that either make use of the force or are based on transition probabilities. Finally, this overview of the available techniques and how they can be best used in a practical context is aimed at helping the reader choose the most appropriate combination of approaches for the biomolecular system, Hamiltonian and free energy difference of interest.

  16. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  17. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  18. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Laura L.; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. Results: The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Conclusions: Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository. PMID:20098658

  19. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

    2010-03-31

    Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

  20. The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

    The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

  1. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part I: background and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.

  2. The Basic Science of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Chondral Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James; Imam, Mohamed; Ward, Jonathan; Snow, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration. PMID:27761221

  3. Basic Teaching Units, BTU's on Energy. Nebraska Energy Conservation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Gary A., Ed.; McCurdy, Donald, Ed.

    This collection of 21 teaching units is designed for use in energy education within various disciplines of the secondary curriculum. Each unit is designed to stand alone. Suggested teaching times range from five to fifteen days. No particular order of presentation is implied. Each unit is organized as follows: abstract, recommended level, time…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  5. Undergraduate Student Researchers, Preferred Learning Styles, and Basic Science Research: A Winning Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woeste, Lori A.; Barham, Beverly J.

    2007-01-01

    In basic science research, student researchers are often challenged with not only the technical portion of the research design but also the team dynamic. Understanding how a student prefers to learn can provide an advantage for mentors to better meet these challenges. In this article, the authors describe the experience of working with student…

  6. A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

  7. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  8. The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in the Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Wamsteker, W.

    The origin and evolution of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science (BSS) is discussed. We highlight here the motivation and results in global terms. The various new insights in the role of BSS in a sustainable development are indicated.

  9. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  10. Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

  11. Pair Comparison Study of the Relevance of Nine Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilman, Edra L.; Spilman, Helen W.

    1975-01-01

    Reports a survey study in which basic science courses were rated according to relevance. Notes approaches for making the anatomy disciplines more relevant because results showed them of lowest relevancy compared with physiology, pathology, and pharmacology which were rated of highest relevance and with biochemistry and microbiology which fell…

  12. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…

  13. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  14. A Role for Clinical Case Simulations in Basic Medical Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchaer, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations can help students apply basic science knowledge (which they are acquiring concurrently) to the identification and management of the physiological, metabolic, and/or anatomic problem(s) underlying the signs and the symptoms of a specific "simulated patient." The design, development, and production of these simulations are described. (JN)

  15. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  16. Improving College Faculty Instruction in the Basic and Allied Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washton, Nathan S.

    A project to improve college instruction in the basic and allied health sciences at New York Chiropractic College and the New York Institute of Technology is described. Attention was directed to: the kinds of resources colleges and professional schools provide to improve instruction; motivation of faculty to explore innovative or strategic…

  17. A First-Year, Student-Managed Course to Correlate Basic Sciences with Clinical Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Murray; Yeasting, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A course, designed to illustrate the correlation of the biochemistry and physiology content of the curriculum with clinical applications, is described. The entire presentation, from introduction and interview of the patient to the correlation of the clinical application with the basic sciences, was managed by the students. (Author/MLW)

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lipogems, a Reverse Story: from Clinical Practice to Basic Science.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Carlo; Ricordi, Camillo; Caplan, Arnold I; Ventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The idea that basic science should be the starting point for modern clinical approaches has been consolidated over the years, and emerged as the cornerstone of Molecular Medicine. Nevertheless, there is increasing concern over the low efficiency and inherent costs related to the translation of achievements from the bench to the bedside. These burdens are also perceived with respect to the effectiveness of translating basic discoveries in stem cell biology to the newly developing field of advanced cell therapy or Regenerative Medicine. As an alternative paradigm, past and recent history in Medical Science provides remarkable reverse stories in which clinical observations at the patient's bedside have fed major advances in basic research which, in turn, led to consistent progression in clinical practice. Within this context, we discuss our recently developed method and device, which forms the core of a system (Lipogems) for processing of human adipose tissue solely with the aid of mild mechanical forces to yield a microfractured tissue product.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lipogems, a Reverse Story: from Clinical Practice to Basic Science.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Carlo; Ricordi, Camillo; Caplan, Arnold I; Ventura, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The idea that basic science should be the starting point for modern clinical approaches has been consolidated over the years, and emerged as the cornerstone of Molecular Medicine. Nevertheless, there is increasing concern over the low efficiency and inherent costs related to the translation of achievements from the bench to the bedside. These burdens are also perceived with respect to the effectiveness of translating basic discoveries in stem cell biology to the newly developing field of advanced cell therapy or Regenerative Medicine. As an alternative paradigm, past and recent history in Medical Science provides remarkable reverse stories in which clinical observations at the patient's bedside have fed major advances in basic research which, in turn, led to consistent progression in clinical practice. Within this context, we discuss our recently developed method and device, which forms the core of a system (Lipogems) for processing of human adipose tissue solely with the aid of mild mechanical forces to yield a microfractured tissue product. PMID:27236668

  20. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-02-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica and Colombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  1. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  2. Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

  3. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume II. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, J S; Roessner, D

    1980-01-01

    Priorities for basic research important to the future developments of solar energy are idenified, described, and recommended. SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas-and, within each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the description of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  4. Fragility and basic process energies in vitrifying systems.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, Julio Cesar; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Starzonek, Szymon; Mauro, John C

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'fragility' constitutes a central point of the glass transition science serving as the 'universal' metric linking previtreous dynamics of qualitatively distinct systems. Finding the fundamental meaning of fragility is the 'condicio sine qua' for reaching the long expected conceptual breakthrough in this domain. This report shows that fragility is determined by the ratio between two fundamental process energies, viz. the activation enthalpy and activation energy. The reasoning, avoiding any underlying physical model, is supported by the experimental evidence ranging from low molecular weight liquids and polymers to plastic crystals and liquid crystals. All these lead to the new general scaling plot for dynamics of arbitrary glass former. The limited adequacy of broadly used so far semi-empirical relationships between fragility and the activation energy is shown. Results presented remain valid for an arbitrary complex system and collective phenomena if their dynamics is described by the general super-Arrhenius relation. PMID:25660971

  5. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    PubMed

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  6. Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2012-06-01

    Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

  7. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970's as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs. PMID:24672441

  8. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  9. Evaluation of Some Approved Basic Science and Technology Textbooks in Use in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, C. E.; Umoke, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the content adequacy and readability of approved basic science and technology textbooks in use in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. Eight research questions guided the study. The sample of the study consisted of six (6) approved basic science and technology textbooks, 30 Junior Secondary Schools randomly…

  10. U.S. National Science Foundation Budget Proposal Focuses on Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2008-03-01

    The budget request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 focuses attention on basic research, establishes and supports several cross-foundation investment projects designed to have a transformative impact across science and engineering, and puts foundation activities back on track to double their research budgets by the next decade. The foundation's total proposed budget is US$6.85 billion, an increase of 13% over that enacted for FY 2008. Most of this funding increase goes to NSF's Research and Related Activities (R&RA) account, which, at $5.59 billion, is $772.5 million above the FY 2008 enacted amount.

  11. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP's anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy.

  12. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP's anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy. PMID:27610386

  13. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiqin; Wang, James H-C

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP's anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy. PMID:27610386

  14. Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, A.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becker, J. A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Erikson, L.; Gaddis, A.; Harlin, C.; Hatarik, R.; Howard, J.; Jandel, M.; Johnson, M. S.; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, F.; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Matei, C.; Matthews, C.; Moazen, B.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, D.; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Shriner, J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, M. S.; Swan, T.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, G. L.

    2009-03-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on 130,132Sn, 134Te and 75As are discussed.

  15. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, Steven D; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Allen, J.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Becker, J.; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Jandel, M.; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Matthews, C.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  16. A Portfolio of Energy Ideas: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C., Ed.

    Presented are 10 science energy education units designed to help students learn how to turn science questions and problems about energy into experiments. Each unit focuses on subject-matter knowledge and on the logic and strategy of scientific problem solving. These teacher-oriented materials include an overview of each unit, background…

  17. Necessity of Accreditation Standards for Quality Assurance of Medical Basic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, M; Jalili, Z; Nakhaee, N; Shirazi, J Jahroomi; Jafari, AR

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present article reviews the significance of accreditation standards while emphasizing the necessity of implementation of such standards by basic medical science council, with an eye on such international standards as those published by WFME. This review article had to decide on the key words and expressions, data bases, to review relevant literature, review higher and medical education journals at GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED, and such web sites as those of WFME and WMA’s. Accreditation is a powerful leverage for institutional change and improvement and must be actively supported by academic and national health authorities worldwide. Considering the mission of the Basic Medical Science, Health and Post grad. Education, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran as accountable medical education, all specialists of the spectrum of disciplines agreed on the necessity of formulating the medical education standards for all disciplines of their interest. It is important that all efforts be joined in the endeavor to create effective and reliable instruments for quality assurance of Basic Medical Sciences Education. PMID:23865033

  18. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

  19. Energy Education in Elementary Science: Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Jackie; Premo, Joe

    This looseleaf teacher's manual is designed to facilitate using Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) for energy education in elementary schools. It is intended to be used with the SCIS Teacher's Guide as a supplement. The format of this manual matches a main SCIS concept with a closely related energy concept. Matrices show matched concepts…

  20. Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

  1. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear

  2. Energy science and technology database (on the internet). Online data

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) is a multidisciplinary file containing worldwide references to basic and applied scientific and technical research literature. The information is collected for use by government managers, researchers at the national laboratories, and other research efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and the results of this research are transferred to the public. Abstracts are included for records from 1976 to the present. The EDB also contains the Nuclear Science Abstracts which is a comprehensive abstract and index collection to the international nuclear science and technology literature for the period 1948 through 1976. Included are scientific and technical reports of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and its contractors, other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations. Approximately 25% of the records in the file contain abstracts. Nuclear Science Abstracts contains over 900,000 bibliographic records. The entire Energy Science and Technology Database contains over 3 million bibliographic records. This database is now available for searching through the GOV. Research-Center (GRC) service. GRC is a single online web-based search service to well known Government databases. Featuring powerful search and retrieval software, GRC is an important research tool. The GRC web site is at http://grc.ntis.gov.

  3. A study to examine whether the basic sciences are appropriately organized to meet the future needs of medical education.

    PubMed

    Crown, V

    1991-04-01

    There is a growing divergence between the content of research activities in the basic sciences and that of the traditional preclinical courses for medical students. A 1977 study at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Penn) examined the organization of the school's basic sciences, including surveying the research interests and departmental affiliations of 101 basic science faculty at Penn and interviewing the basic science departments chairmen there and at five other research-intensive schools of medicine. The findings demonstrated overlapping interests among basic science investigators, significant blurring of departmental boundaries, and a divergence between the faculty members' research interests and the disciplines represented by the departments in which these faculty held appointments. A second study a decade later documented that this divergence had increased. This paper also addresses the mounting concern among medical educators in response to these kinds of developments, the effect of such developments on medical education, and issues concerning the teaching of basic sciences, course content, the responsibility of schools of medicine for effecting change, and a possible model for basic science instruction. PMID:2012655

  4. Energy Convertors. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  5. Science of Energy. Elementary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This unit of study for elementary students focuses on energy uses, energy sources, energy forms, and energy conversion. The unit is designed to take five 45-minute class sessions. In the first class session, the teacher conducts several energy conversion experiments. In subsequent sessions, students are divided into seven groups and each is…

  6. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience was the basic science behind Freud's psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud's original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan's (2011) description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or “phantoms.” Results of adopting the “dual aspect monism” approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud's original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the twenty-first century as a core contemporary science (Kandel, 1999). Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status. PMID:27790160

  7. Science, Volume 184 Number 4134. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This entire issue of the "Science" journal is devoted to the topic of energy and issues relating to the energy crisis. Its content was chosen to present material relevant to important public decisions of the next few years. Twenty-six articles cover a wide range of topics, including the impact of the energy crisis on people and institutions, state…

  8. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  9. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  10. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  11. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  12. Peer-assisted learning: filling the gaps in basic science education for preclinical medical students.

    PubMed

    Sammaraiee, Yezen; Mistry, Ravi D; Lim, Julian; Wittner, Liora; Deepak, Shantal; Lim, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to peer-assisted learning (PAL) in clinical training, there is scant literature on the efficacy of PAL during basic medical sciences teaching for preclinical students. A group of senior medical students aimed to design and deliver clinically oriented small-group tutorials after every module in the preclinical curriculum at a United Kingdom medical school. Twenty tutorials were delivered by senior students throughout the year to first- and second-year students. A baseline questionnaire was delivered to inform the development of the program followed by an end-point questionnaire the next year (n = 122). Quizzes were administered before and after five separate tutorials to assess changes in mean student scores. Additionally, each tutorial was evaluated via a questionnaire for participants (n = 949). All five posttutorial quizzes showed a significant improvement in mean student score (P < 0.05). Questionnaires showed students found the program to be relevant and useful for revision purposes and appreciated how tutorials contextualized basic science to clinical medicine. Students appreciated the interactive nature of the sessions and found receiving personalized feedback about their learning and consolidating information with someone familiar with the material to be useful. With the inclusion of the program, students felt there were now an adequate number of tutorials during the year. In conclusion, this study shows that senior medical students can design and deliver a program that adds value to the mostly lecture-based formal preclinical curriculum. We hope that our study can prompt further work to explore the effect of PAL on the teaching of basic sciences during preclinical studies.

  13. Peer-assisted learning: filling the gaps in basic science education for preclinical medical students.

    PubMed

    Sammaraiee, Yezen; Mistry, Ravi D; Lim, Julian; Wittner, Liora; Deepak, Shantal; Lim, Gareth

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to peer-assisted learning (PAL) in clinical training, there is scant literature on the efficacy of PAL during basic medical sciences teaching for preclinical students. A group of senior medical students aimed to design and deliver clinically oriented small-group tutorials after every module in the preclinical curriculum at a United Kingdom medical school. Twenty tutorials were delivered by senior students throughout the year to first- and second-year students. A baseline questionnaire was delivered to inform the development of the program followed by an end-point questionnaire the next year (n = 122). Quizzes were administered before and after five separate tutorials to assess changes in mean student scores. Additionally, each tutorial was evaluated via a questionnaire for participants (n = 949). All five posttutorial quizzes showed a significant improvement in mean student score (P < 0.05). Questionnaires showed students found the program to be relevant and useful for revision purposes and appreciated how tutorials contextualized basic science to clinical medicine. Students appreciated the interactive nature of the sessions and found receiving personalized feedback about their learning and consolidating information with someone familiar with the material to be useful. With the inclusion of the program, students felt there were now an adequate number of tutorials during the year. In conclusion, this study shows that senior medical students can design and deliver a program that adds value to the mostly lecture-based formal preclinical curriculum. We hope that our study can prompt further work to explore the effect of PAL on the teaching of basic sciences during preclinical studies. PMID:27445276

  14. Vertical integration of basic science in final year of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sudha Jasmine; Jacob, Tripti Meriel; Sathyendra, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of health professionals with ability to integrate, synthesize, and apply knowledge gained through medical college is greatly hampered by the system of delivery that is compartmentalized and piecemeal. There is a need to integrate basic sciences with clinical teaching to enable application in clinical care. Aim: To study the benefit and acceptance of vertical integration of basic science in final year MBBS undergraduate curriculum. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Ethics Clearance, neuroanatomy refresher classes with clinical application to neurological diseases were held as part of the final year posting in two medical units. Feedback was collected. Pre- and post-tests which tested application and synthesis were conducted. Summative assessment was compared with the control group of students who had standard teaching in other two medical units. In-depth interview was conducted on 2 willing participants and 2 teachers who did neurology bedside teaching. Results: Majority (>80%) found the classes useful and interesting. There was statistically significant improvement in the post-test scores. There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups' scores during summative assessment (76.2 vs. 61.8 P < 0.01). Students felt that it reinforced, motivated self-directed learning, enabled correlations, improved understanding, put things in perspective, gave confidence, aided application, and enabled them to follow discussions during clinical teaching. Conclusion: Vertical integration of basic science in final year was beneficial and resulted in knowledge gain and improved summative scores. The classes were found to be useful, interesting and thought to help in clinical care and application by majority of students. PMID:27563584

  15. Astronomical Archives and Their Importance for Knowledge Transfer in Basic Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Griffin, R. E. M.

    1995-06-01

    We summarize the nature of modern astronomical archives with special reference to spectroscopic data archives and illustrate in which ways archives can play a role in the accelerated development of Basic Space Sciences in the developing countries. Some of the conflicting issues in the current planning of archives are addressed. Astronomical spectroscopic archives constitute a tool to progress towards an intellectual environment which is required to stimulate the sociological evolution which can support the peaceful and harmonious development of states. This is especially true under the conditions generated by the rapid evolution of technology in the industrialized countries.

  16. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

  17. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume I. Executive summary. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T S; Roessner, D

    1980-01-01

    This report identifies, describes, and recommends priorities for basic research important to the future development of solar energy. In response to a request from the US Department of Energy, SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. SERI scientists relied heavily on the opinions of scientists polled, but weighted their own recommendations and opinions equally. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The Scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas and, wintin each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: Crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the descripton of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  18. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  19. 77 FR 485 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee.... Synakowski, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy;...

  20. 78 FR 15937 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; 1000...

  1. Proceedings of the seventeenth symposium on energy engineering sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-13

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Seventeenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 13-14, 1999, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was structured into seven technical sessions, which included 25 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. A list of participants is appended to this volume. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term, mission-oriented research in the Department. The Office has prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation's future energy options will be identified, developed, and built. BES is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary to solve present and future problems regarding energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, while maintaining respect for the environment. Consistent with DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, prolonging the useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing. The program emphasis is on reducing costs through improved industrial production and performance and expanding the nation's store of fundamental knowledge for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in energy technologies. To achieve these goals, the Engineering Research Program supports approximately 130 research projects covering a broad spectrum of topics that cut across traditional engineering disciplines. The program focuses on

  2. What's hot, what's new in basic science: report from the American Transplant Congress 2015.

    PubMed

    Heeger, P S

    2015-11-01

    Research reports presented at the American Transplant Congress 2015 provided an array of basic science findings of relevance to the transplant community. Among key themes is the concept that ischemia-reperfusion injury and early posttransplantation inflammation is linked to adaptive alloimmunity and transplant injury. Molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to these interactions were highlighted. The relevance of understanding how blocking costimulation, including CD40/CD154 interactions, affects various aspects of the alloimmune response was enhanced by the description of preclinical studies demonstrating efficacy of a unique, blocking anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody that could potentially be used in humans. The identification of mechanisms underlying interactions among T cell subsets and B cells, including follicular helper T cells, regulatory T cells, effector B cells, and regulatory B cells, provides multiple previously unrecognized targets for future therapeutic interventions. Additional reports of interest include novel insights into effects of the gut microbiome on graft survival and the ability to differentiate insulin-secreting, islet-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Overall, the reported basic science findings from American Transplant Congress 2015 add to the fundamental understanding of innate and adaptive alloimmunity and provide novel and testable hypotheses that have the potential to be translated into improved clinical care of transplant patients.

  3. Using WebCt to Implement a Basic Science Competency Education Course

    PubMed Central

    Gaasch, Julie A.; Borges, Karin; Ehlo, Alan; Smith, Quentin R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To implement a model of competency-based education in a basic science competency course using WebCT to improve doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' understanding and long-term retention of course materials. Methods An anatomy-cell biology course was broken down into 23 modules, and worksheets and mirrored examinations were created for each module. Students were allowed to take the proctored examinations using WebCT as many times as they wanted, with each subsequent test containing a new random subset of questions. Examination scores and the number of attempts required to obtain a passing score were analyzed. Results Student performance improved with the number of times a module examination was taken. Students who initially had low scores achieved final competency levels similar to those of students who initially had high scores. Score on module scores (didactic work) correlated with scores on practical work Conclusions Using WebCT to implement a model of competency-based education was effective in teaching foundational anatomy and cell biology to pharmacy students and could potentially be applied to other basic science courses. PMID:18483605

  4. Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future. PMID:22252239

  5. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  6. Establishing a successful basic science research program in colon and rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-01

    Although at first glance, the surgeon-scientist appears to be a rare breed in today's clinical revenue-driven world, with careful planning and mentorship this is still a vibrant career path. If one is considering this avenue, it is important to seize even small opportunities to pursue laboratory work during training-summers in college and medical school, rotation blocks, and dedicated time in the middle of residency. Publications and small grants during these times will lay the ground work for future success. When considering a faculty position, it is essential to identify a mentorship environment that has a track record for success-either in the department of surgery or anywhere in the university. Ensuring adequate support from the department of surgery chair and division leader is essential. Basic science careers take years for the return in investment to be manifested! Also critical is to secure extramural funding early in the faculty stint-first foundation grants and then National Institutes of Health-mentored scientist funding. Surgeons provide a unique perspective in basic science work and it is critical that we continue to support young surgeons in this career path.

  7. An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

  8. Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi

    2011-01-01

    KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools.

  9. Proceedings of the fifteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Fifteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 14-15, 1997, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was organized into eight technical sessions, which included 32 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. The topics of the eight sessions are: multiphase flows 1; multiphase flows 2; mostly optics; fluid mechanics; nonlinear fields; welding and cracks; materials; and controls. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. It has the prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation`s future energy options will have to be identified, developed, and built. It is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary for the solution of present and future problems of energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, consistent with respect for the environment. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for contributions to this Symposium.

  10. 76 FR 49757 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period beginning on...-range plans, priorities, and strategies for advancing plasma science, fusion science, and...

  11. A Sustainable Energy Laboratory Course for Non-Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred

    2016-10-01

    Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable for high school and undergraduate students, especially non-science majors. Thirteen hands-on exercises provide an overview of sustainable energy by demonstrating the basic principles of wind power, photovoltaics, electric cars, lighting, heating/cooling, insulation, electric circuits, and solar collectors. The order of content presentation and instructional level (secondary education or college) can easily be modified to suit instructor needs and/or academic programs (e.g., engineering, physics, renewable and/or sustainable energy).

  12. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries

  13. Obstacles of Implementing the Science Curricula of the Basic Stage as Perceived by the Teachers in a Jordanian Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayasra, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate obstacles that prevent implementation of science curriculum which was developed within the Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy project (ErfKE). To achieve this, a purposeful sample consisted of four teachers of science for the basic stage in the town located in the north of Jordan in the first semester of the…

  14. The Views of Science Pre-Service Teachers about the Usage of Basic Information Technologies (BIT) in Education and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    In this study aiming to present a description based on science pre-service teachers' views related to use of Basic Information Technologies (BIT) in education and training, an interview is carried out with 21 pre-service science teachers who study in different classes in Faculty of Education, Nigde University. For this aim, improved interview form…

  15. National Library of Energy Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Karen J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the establishment of a digital National Library of Energy Science and Technology, a key initiative that the Department of Energy is pursuing to make its program and research and development information accessible to the public. Describes the program objectives, features of the National Library, potential performance measures, benefits,…

  16. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    PubMed

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  17. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    PubMed

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  18. 75 FR 8685 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; 1000 Independence Avenue, SW.; Washington, DC 20585-1290;...

  19. 76 FR 40714 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory... CONTACT: Albert L. Opdenaker, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences;...

  20. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  1. Energy Conservation in the Home. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Recommended for grades 7-9 science and/or social studies classes, this 8-10 day unit provides students with experiences in conserving energy through small conservation activities and practices. The unit consists of 11 activities with rationale, objectives, and instructional strategies provided for each activity. Students are given information on…

  2. Energy from the Atom. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Recommended for grades 9-12 social studies and/or physical science classes, this 4-8 day unit focuses on four topics: (1) the background and history of atomic development; (2) two common types of nuclear reactors (boiling water and pressurized water reactors); (3) disposal of radioactive waste; and (4) the future of nuclear energy. Each topic…

  3. The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2007-03-01

    The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. Edmund K Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in press (2006). Also see: http://www.lenr-canr.org/StudentsGuide.htm .

  4. Exploratory basic energy research conducted at Standord University in the period September, 1979-August, 1983. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    In September, 1978, the Department of Energy awarded a contract to Stanford for Exploratory Basic Research. Projects to be supported were to be chosen by Stanford, with emphasis being placed on exploratory research likely to lead to full-scale research programs under support of appropriate agencies. Funding was provided for three years, as follows: FY 1979, $150K; FY 1980, 200K; and FY 1981, 250K for a total of $600K. The DOE funds provided through this contract were used, in combination with the IES industrial funds, to support exploratory basic energy research in three ways: (1) Funding of faculty members for the initial phases of research. Most of the funding was used in this manner. (2) Support of the Energy Information Center, a small special document center that holds information pertinent to energy research, both as related to energy policy and energy technology and to the supporting basic sciences. Approximately 12% of the funding was used in this manner. (3) Through support for seminars, occasional visitors, and program administration. Approximately 6% of the funding was used for this general support of the energy ambiance at Stanford.

  5. A prescription that addresses the decline of basic science education in medical school.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel; Thornton, Christina S; Keough, Michael B; Roberts, Jodie I; Yipp, Bryan; Hollenberg, Morley; Bau, Jason T; Peplowski, Michael A; Beck, Paul L

    2014-10-04

    Over 30 years ago a cry rang out through the proverbial halls of academia; "The clinician scientist is an endangered species." These prophetic words have been reverberated in the ears of every specialty and every general medical organization in deafening tones. Why is the role of the clinician scientist or clinician investigator so important that this phrase has been repeated subsequently in medical and educational journals? Simply put, the clinician scientist bridges the ravine between the ever-growing mountain of scientific knowledge and the demanding patient centered clinical care. Here, we describe the current educational model established by the University of Calgary, Leaders in Medicine Program. Our program seeks to train future physicians and clinician scientists by incorporating training in basic science, translational and clinical research with clinical and medical education in a longitudinal program to students of traditional MD/PhD, MD/MSc or MD/MBA stream as well as interested Doctor of Medicine students.

  6. [Evolution of the number of authors in clinical and basic science journals in the Spanish language].

    PubMed

    Soteras, F; Blanco, J R; García Pineda, A F; Rupérez, H; Córdova, A; Escanero, J F

    1990-01-01

    The number of signing authors in Revista Clínica Española. Revista Española de Fisiología and Revista Española de Oncología have been analyzed from their first to the last received issue. The results obtained show an increasing number of authors in all journals specially during the 70s. The results also point out a relative decrease in the number of authors in basic sciences in relation to clinical publications. The increase in the number of authors in The Revista Española de Oncología has started somewhat later than the others. The environmental and professional stress as well as the interrelations between different hospital members have been suggested, amongst others, as the possible cause of these events. PMID:2320767

  7. [Evolution of the number of authors in clinical and basic science journals in the Spanish language].

    PubMed

    Soteras, F; Blanco, J R; García Pineda, A F; Rupérez, H; Córdova, A; Escanero, J F

    1990-01-01

    The number of signing authors in Revista Clínica Española. Revista Española de Fisiología and Revista Española de Oncología have been analyzed from their first to the last received issue. The results obtained show an increasing number of authors in all journals specially during the 70s. The results also point out a relative decrease in the number of authors in basic sciences in relation to clinical publications. The increase in the number of authors in The Revista Española de Oncología has started somewhat later than the others. The environmental and professional stress as well as the interrelations between different hospital members have been suggested, amongst others, as the possible cause of these events.

  8. Development of Radio Astronomy at Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, Nsukka Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyu, Nasiru; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Lanre, Daniyan O.; Ezechi, Nwachukwu E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio telescopes for research, teaching and learning at Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) observatory are currently in place of development. A small parabolic radio telescope with diameter of 3.0 m working at 1420 MHz is already available for general purpose of radio astronomical observations. In addition, a Radio Jove telescope with dual dipole antenna working at 20 MHz and Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitor working at 24 KHz are also available. It is suitable to monitor daily solar burst, solar flares as well as Jupiter decametric emission. More over, CBSS radio interferometers are now under construction. It consists of non-tracking Radio Jove array and SID monitor as well as two radio telescope tracking interferometers. The latter is planned to utilize up to 4 antennas. Multi frequency receivers are made available at 24 KHz, 20 and 1420 MHz and will be used for VLBI in the near future.

  9. Systematic Review: The Association and Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Basic Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Charles L.; Boyle, Simone N.; Kuykendal, Adam; Fisher, Matthew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Barnato, Sara E.; Wagner, Robin L.; Goldstein, Carolyn E.; Tallman, Jacob; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Henke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background No prior study has evaluated financial relationships of investigators with pharmaceutical manufacturers for basic science. An example of the importance and impact of such relationships is in the evaluation of erythropoietin receptors’(EpoRs) effects on cancer cell lines, since studies have reported increased mortality when cancer patients receive erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Purpose To assess the disclosed association that exist between pharmaceutical industry support and EpoRs effects on solid cancer cell lines. Data Sources MEDLINE and EMBASE (1988- July 2008) and two EpoR conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. Study Selection All publications investigating EpoRs that met inclusion criteria were identified and included. Data Extraction Data were extracted on detection of EpoRs, presence of erythropoietin-induced signaling events, presence of erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function, nature of qualitative conclusions, and sources of funding for all 74 studies. Data Synthesis In comparison to studies of academic investigators with no disclosed funding support from ESA manufacturers (n=64), the studies from academic investigators with funding support from ESA manufacturers (n= 7) and the laboratories directed by investigators employed by ESA manufacturers (n=3) were both less likely to identify: EpoR presence on solid tumor cells; erythropoietin-induced signaling events; erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function; and less likely to conclude that their research had identified potentially harmful effects of erythropoietin on cancer cells. Additionally, presentations from industry-based investigator teams at NIH conferences were less likely to report EpoRs on cancer cell lines, downstream effects of erythropoietin, and cell proliferation and migration effects following EpoR administration. Conclusion Financial conflicts of interest impact the outcomes and presentation of basic science research data as

  10. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  11. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  12. Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and…

  13. Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he…

  14. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  15. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  16. Strengthening Faculty Recruitment for Health Professions Training in Basic Sciences in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-01-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health (HRH), with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools—two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master’s programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  17. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region.

  18. 78 FR 48863 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period beginning on August 2, 2013. The Committee will provide advice to the Office of Science (DOE), on long-range...

  19. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  20. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  1. A Portfolio of Energy Ideas: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C., Ed.

    Ten units which focus on subject-matter knowledge about energy and on the logic and strategy of problem-solving within science are provided in this user's guide. Each unit includes: a detailed summary of unit problems and activities; recommended grade levels and subject areas; possible learner outcomes and general goals; teacher background…

  2. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  3. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

    This booklet, part of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's series of information booklets, lists selected commerically published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. It includes annotated bibliographies for children (grade level indicated) and adults. The books are arranged by subject, alphabetized by…

  4. Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

  5. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  6. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

  7. 78 FR 2259 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory...

  8. Motivating medical students to learn basic science concepts using chronic myeloid leukemia as an integration theme

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla; Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report on the use of chronic myeloid leukemia as a theme of basic clinical integration for first year medical students to motivate and enable in-depth understanding of the basic sciences of the future physician. Methods During the past thirteen years we have reviewed and updated the curriculum of the medical school of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The main objective of the new curriculum is to teach the students how to learn to learn. Since then, a case of chronic myeloid leukemia has been introduced to first year medical students and discussed in horizontal integration with all themes taught during a molecular and cell biology course. Cell structure and components, protein, chromosomes, gene organization, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling and so on are all themes approached during this course. At the end of every topic approached, the students prepare in advance the corresponding topic of clinical cases chosen randomly during the class, which are then presented by them. During the final class, a paper regarding mutations in the abl gene that cause resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is discussed. After each class, three tests are solved in an interactive evaluation. Results The course has been successful since its beginning, 13 years ago. Great motivation of those who participated in the course was observed. There were less than 20% absences in the classes. At least three (and as many as nine) students every year were interested in starting research training in the field of hematology. At the end of each class, an interactive evaluation was performed and more than 70% of the answers were correct in each evaluation. Moreover, for the final evaluation, the students summarized, in a written report, the molecular and therapeutic basis of chronic myeloid leukemia, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering all 13 years, a median of 78% of the class scored above 5 (min 74%–max 85%), and a median of 67% scored above 7

  9. Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  10. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  11. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Methods Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. Results There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Conclusions Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences. PMID:27233041

  12. Arthroscopic contact Nd:YAG laser meniscectomy: basic science, surgical technique, and clinical follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Stephen J.; Fealy, Stephen V.; Gibney, Mary A.; Miller, Drew V.; Kelly, Anne M.

    1990-06-01

    Recent basic science studies (5) have provided a scientific foundation for the use of the Contact Nd:YAG Laser as an arthroscopic tool for xneniscal resection and acroxnioplasty of the shoulder in a saline medium. This study prospectively evaluates the results of a three stage laboratory investigation as well as the clinical results of arthroscopic xneniscal resection. Fifteen patients with meniscal tears underwent subtotal meniscectomies utilizing a Contact Nd:YAG Laser (Surgical Laser Technologies; Malvern, Pennsylvania) . This was done in a saline medium with an average laser wattage of 25 W, (range 20 W to 30 W). Patients were evaluated postoperatively with reference to subjective and objective parameters at one week and four weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated with regard to wound healing, intraarticular swelling and pain. Assessment of technical parameters such as ease of resection, time of resection and instrument access were compared to conventional instruments. All fifteen patients were rated as having clinically excellent results based on pain relief, wound healing and swelling. In addition, although there was increased time with setting up the laser and calibrating it, there was not an increase in time for meniscal resection. Little, or no, secondary "trimmuning" was necessary with the laser. Increased accessibility was noted due to the small size of the laser. Arthroscopic Contact Nd:YAG Laser surgery is a safe and effective tool for menisca]. resection and coagulation in arthroscopic acromioplasties. It provides significant advantages over conventional cutting instruments with regard to accessibility and reduced need for secondary instruments.

  13. A Pilot Common Reading Experience to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Policastri, Anne; Garces, Helen; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Romanelli, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To use a common reading experience that engages students in academic discourse both before and during a PharmD degree program and introduces students to basic science and ethical foundations in health care. Design. First-year (P1) pharmacy students were assigned a nonfiction text to read during the summer prior to admission to be followed by facilitated discussions. Activities using the text were integrated into the first-year curriculum. Pre-experience and post-experience student and faculty survey instruments were administered. Assessment. Students and faculty members reported that 3 first-year courses used the text. Students noted that the text's historical perspective enhanced their understanding of both healthcare delivery and clinical research. Most students (78%) recommended continuation of the common reading experience activity. Conclusion. Students and participating faculty members found the common reading experience, which provided a hub for discussion around issues such as health literacy and ethical treatment of patients, to be a positive addition to the curriculum. Future intentions for this project include expansion across all healthcare colleges at the university. PMID:22438597

  14. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course.

  15. Key steps for integrating a basic science throughout a medical school curriculum using an e-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Eline Agnès; Franson, Kari Lanette

    2009-09-01

    Basic sciences can be integrated into the medical school curriculum via e-learning. The process of integrating a basic science in this manner resembles a curricular change. The change usually begins with an idea for using e-learning to teach a basic science and establishing the need for the innovation. In the planning phase, learning outcomes are formulated and a prototype of the program is developed based on the desired requirements. A realistic concept is formed after considering the limitations of the current institute. Next, a project team is assembled to develop the program and plan its integration. Incorporation of the e-learning program is facilitated by a well-developed and communicated integration plan. Various course coordinators are contacted to determine content of the e-learning program as well as establish assessment. Linking the e-learning program to existing course activities and thereby applying the basic science into the clinical context enhances the degree of integration. The success of the integration is demonstrated by a positive assessment of the program including favourable cost-benefit analysis and improved student performance. Lastly, when the program becomes institutionalised, continuously updating content and technology (when appropriate), and evaluating the integration contribute to the prolonged survival of the e-learning program.

  16. Coherent Teaching and Need-Based Learning in Science: An Approach to Teach Engineering Students in Basic Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki-Suonio, T.; Hakola, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose an alternative, based on constructivism, to the conventional way of teaching basic physics courses at the university level. We call this approach "coherent teaching" and the underlying philosophy of teaching science and engineering "need-based learning". We have been applying this philosophy in practice in a basic…

  17. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about Science in Terms of the Basic Elements of the Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengul, Ozge Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the pre-service teachers' opinions about science within the context of the basic elements of the education program, such as objectives, content, learning-teaching process and evaluation. The study was designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the study…

  18. The Unexpected Evolution of Basic Science Studies about Cyclic Nucleotide Action into a Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

  19. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  20. The Buffalo Approach to Changing the Basic Science Curriculum, or Toiling and Dreaming in the Vineyards of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo dental school's reform of basic science curriculum is discussed. The paper first outlines the curriculum review/development process, focusing on incorporation of specific competencies, computer-based curriculum analysis, and the role of a dental schools consortium. The paper then looks at future…

  1. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  2. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Department of Energy Nanoscale Science Research Centers: Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-05-12

    The following non-mandatory guidance is intended for the Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) funded by the Basic Energy Sciences program office under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. It describes practices thought appropriate to the management of environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with laboratory-scale operations involving the design, synthesis, or characterization of engineered nanomaterials, In general, it is intended to apply to precursors, intermediates, and wastes used during, or resulting from synthesizing such nanomaterials. In general, it is not intended to apply to materials for which an occupational exposure limit has been established.

  4. Perspective on Department of Energy Geospatial Science: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    For many decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in basic scientific and engineering research that utilizes geospatial science to advance the state of knowledge in disciplines impacting national security, energy sustainability, and environmental stewardship. DOE recently established a comprehensive Geospatial Science Program that will provide an enterprise geographic information system infrastructure connecting all elements of DOE to critical geospatial data and associated geographic information services (GIServices). The Geospatial Science Program will provide a common platform for enhanced scientific and technical collaboration across DOE's national laboratories and facilities.

  5. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  6. Energy from biomass — Some basic physical and related considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloyne, R. W.

    1983-09-01

    The production of vegetable matter (biomass) by photosynthesis is determined by species and by meteorological factors (especially, but not exclusively, solar radiation). Annual net primary production of land-based biomass corresponds to only about 1/1000 of the intercepted irradiation at ground level, but even so, is 10 times the world's estimated energy needs. The exploitation of this energy potential at any one place is critically influenced by the economic, political and social factors, amongst which are the competition from agriculture (especially food crops), forestry, industrial and urban (including leisure) needs for land and resources. Social factors (e.g. population and population density) also constitute prime influences. Strategies for utilisation range from the cultivation of special energy crops (readily conceivable on the American/ Australasian continents); to the more efficient manipulation of current land-use patterns (including “opportunity” cropping); to the more effective exploitation of biologi cal wastes (e.g. methane from sewage), probably the only immediately practical possibility in any densely populated and highly industrialised country. The spatial pattern of solar irradiation at ground level is complex. In the summer, total daily irradiation in continental high latitudes can exceed that in maritime temperate regions; and this combined with species differences and the almost infinite variety of shape and orientation of plant parts, result in a photosynthetic production of biomass which does not conform completely to a zonal pattern, but in broad terms annual dry matter production varies from a few kg/ha in Arctic Tundra to tens of tonnes in temperate latitudes rising to nearly 100 t/ha for perennial tropical crops. If a species could be developed to grow throughout the year at the current seasonal rate, a yield of 150 t/yr, ha) seems possible.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  8. LSST Dark Energy Science Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S

    2007-02-15

    Three decadal surveys recommend a large-aperture synoptic survey telescope (LSST) to allow time-domain and cosmological studies of distant objects. LLNL designed the optical system and also is expected to play a significant role in the engineering associated with the camera. Precision cosmology from ground-based instruments is in a sense terra incognita. Numerous systematic effects occur that would be minimal or absent in their space-based counterparts. We proposed developing some basic tools and techniques for investigating ''dark sector'' cosmological science with such next-generation, large-aperture, real-time telescopes. The critical research involved determining whether systematic effects might dominate the extremely small distortions (''shears'') in images of faint background galaxies. To address these issues we carried out a comprehensive data campaign and developed detailed computer simulations.

  9. Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ≥ 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade

  10. Energy Frontier Research Center Materials Science of Actinides (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Burns, Peter (Director, Materials Science of Actinides); MSA Staff

    2016-07-12

    'Energy Frontier Research Center Materials Science of Actinides' was submitted by the EFRC for Materials Science of Actinides (MSA) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. MSA is directed by Peter Burns at the University of Notre Dame, and is a partnership of scientists from ten institutions.The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  11. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over time and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  12. Interdisciplinary research in climate and energy sciences

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Goswami, Santonu; Gulledge, Jay; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-09-12

    Due to the complex nature of climate change, interdisciplinary research approaches involving knowledge and skills from a broad range of disciplines have been adopted for studying changes in the climate system as well as strategies for mitigating climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions reductions) and adapting to its impacts on society and natural systems. Harnessing of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels is widely regarded as a long-term mitigation strategy that requires the synthesis of knowledge from engineering, technology, and natural and social sciences. In this study, we examine how the adoption of interdisciplinary approaches has evolved over timemore » and in different geographic regions. We conducted a comprehensive literature survey using an evaluation matrix of keywords, in combination with a word cloud analysis, to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of scholarly discourse about interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy research and development (R&D). Publications that discuss interdisciplinary approaches to climate change and renewable energy have substantially increased over the last 60 years; it appears, however, that the nature, timing, and focus of these publications vary across countries and through time. Over the most recent three decades, the country-level contribution to interdisciplinary research for climate change has become more evenly distributed, but this was not true for renewable energy research, which remained dominated by the United Sates and a few other major economies. The research topics have also evolved: Water resource management was emphasized from 1990s to 2000s, policy and adaptation were emphasized from the 2000s to 2010 – 2013, while vulnerability became prominent during the most recent years (2010 – 2013). Lastly, our analysis indicates that the rate of growth of interdisciplinary research for renewable energy lags behind that for climate change, possibly because knowledge

  13. Renewable energy and the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T. Y.; Takenaka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takamura, T.; Kurino, T.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for renewable energy in social energy systems has grown in recent years. In the atmospheric sciences, the energy balances and dynamics in the atmosphere are studied on both local and global scales, and thus estimation of renewable energy is an important practical application. For instance, shortwave solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface is an essential quantity for evaluating the photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Indeed, shortwave solar radiation can be calculated by a radiative transfer solver and an accurate electromagnetic wave scattering theory. A beneficial application of atmospheric sciences is obtaining of solar radiation on the basis of geostationary satellite measurements. Such satellites provide data covering most parts of the Earth every 30 min to 1 h. Geo-parameters such as cloud and aerosol properties are needed for calculating the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. Multispectral images acquired by geostationary satellites allow for such geo-parameters to be evaluated. Additionally, polar-orbiting Earth observation satellites are also needed for improving data analysis techniques. For instance, multispectral imagers (e.g., MODIS) and cloud radars (e.g., CloudSat) aboard polar-orbiting satellites can be used to reveal the relationship between multispectral imaging results and the vertical structure of clouds. The EarthCARE (JAXA, ESA, NICT) and the GCOM-C (JAXA) satellites that will be launched in the middle of 2010-era are also used for improving cloud and aerosol process. This paper presents a method using satellite data to evaluate the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds that affect solar radiation. Also presented is a method for evaluating solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. A new research project in Japan, JST-CREST-EMS (Energy Management System)-TEEDDA (Terrestrial Energy Estimation by Diurnal Data Analyses), which was started in October 2012, is also introduced.

  14. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  15. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  16. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  17. UN/ESA workshops on basic space science: an initiative in the world-wide development of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.

    1998-12-01

    In 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of seven of these Workshops and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the world-wide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavour.

  18. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  19. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  20. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    :329-336, 2008). It is believed that these stem cells serve as cell source to maintain tissue and organ mass during normal cell turnover in adult individuals. Therefore, the focus of attention in veterinary science is currently drawn to adult stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Also experience gained from the treatment of animal patients provides valuable information for human medicine and serves as precursor to future stem cell use in human medicine.Compared to human medicine, haematopoietic stem cells only play a minor role in veterinary medicine because medical conditions requiring myeloablative chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell induced recovery of the immune system are relatively rare and usually not being treated for monetary as well as animal welfare reasons.In contrast, regenerative medicine utilising MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. Therefore, MSCs from either extra embryonic or adult tissues are in the focus of attention in veterinary medicine and research. Hence the purpose of this chapter is to offer an overview on basic science and clinical application of MSCs in veterinary medicine. PMID:20309674

  1. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of SLMs in an integrated basic science curriculum has the potential to individualize the teaching and improve the learning of basic sciences.

  2. The fate of medical students with different levels of knowledge: Are the basic medical sciences relevant to physician competence?

    PubMed

    Hojat, M; Gonnella, J S; Erdmann, J B; Veloski, J J

    1996-01-01

    Purpose - This study was designed to test the hypothesis that an early gap in knowledge of sciences basic to medicine could have a sustained negative effect throughout medical school and beyond.Method - A longitudinal prospective study of 4,437 students who entered Jefferson Medical College between 1972 and 1991 was conducted in which the students were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 392 who failed at least one of the basic sciences courses in the first year of medical school, Group II was comprised of 398 who did not fail but had low first-year grade-point averages; and 3,647 of the remaining sample were included in Group III. The groups were compared on retention and dismissal rates, medical school assessment measures, scores on medical licensing examinations, ratings of clinical competency in residency, board certification rates, and faculty appointments.Results - Significant differences were observed among the three groups confirming the hypothesis that students' level of knowledge in sciences basic to medicine early in medical school could predict later performance during medical school and beyond. Implications for early diagnosis of academic deficiencies, in better preparation of medical students, and in the assessment of clinical competency are discussed. PMID:24179018

  3. Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: basic science for public health.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Carol Hopkins

    2014-07-01

    The worlds of basic scientists and those involved in treating patients and making public health decisions do not always intersect. Yet, assuring that when patients are treated, they are efficiently and completely cured, and that public health decisions are based on solid evidence requires a broad foundation of up to date basic research. Research on the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum provides a useful illustration of the role that basic scientific studies have played in the very long relationship between humans and this deadly parasite. Drugs have always been a principal tool in malaria treatment. The ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses is used here as an illustration of the key contributions of basic scientists to this long history.

  4. Multi-Database Searching in the Behavioral Sciences--Part I: Basic Techniques and Core Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines practical searching techniques in seven core behavioral science databases accessing psychological literature: Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Biosis, Medline, Excerpta Medica, Sociological Abstracts, ERIC. Use of individual files is discussed and their relative strengths/weaknesses are compared. Appended is a list…

  5. Science: A Practical View. Volume III. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific principles of…

  6. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

  7. Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

  8. Basic Concepts of the Educational Science Sub-Discipline of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kaethe

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual system is outlined for the educational science sub-discipline of adult education. Adults' attending instruction or not attending instruction is conceptually specified. Focusing as it does on a cardinal event of adult education, this represents a first step toward a system for the educational science sub-discipline of…

  9. Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul; And Others

    A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

  10. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  11. Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

    2005-01-01

    Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

  12. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research.

  13. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial.

  14. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  15. Science and the Energy Security Challenge: The Example of Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Philips, Julia [Sandia

    2016-07-12

    Securing a viable, carbon neutral energy future for humankind will require an effort of gargantuan proportions. As outlined clearly in a series of workshops sponsored by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html), fundamental advances in scientific understanding are needed to broadly implement many of the technologies that are held out as promising options to meet future energy needs, ranging from solar energy, to nuclear energy, to approaches to clean combustion. Using solid state lighting based on inorganic materials as an example, I will discuss some recent results and new directions, emphasizing the multidisciplinary, team nature of the endeavor. I will also offer some thoughts about how to encourage translation of the science into attractive, widely available products – a significant challenge that cannot be ignored. This case study offers insight into approaches that are likely to be beneficial for addressing other aspects of the energy security challenge.

  16. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy. PMID:19653516

  17. 75 FR 27547 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... the Secretary of Energy on matters concerning the Department's management, basic science, research... areas relating to quality management, basic science, renewable energy, energy policy, environmental science, economics, and broad public policy interests. Membership of the Board will continue to...

  18. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  19. A New PhD Training Track: A Proposal To Improve Basic Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that a basic scientist with a background of integrative physiology, pharmacology, anatomy, and pathology, with a special emphasis on pathophysiology, would be very well qualified to practice medicine of the future. Proposes a Ph.D. training track with this objective and lists some advantages and disadvantages of such a program. (AIM)

  20. Basic science with pulsed power & some off-the-wall ideas

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses aspects of pulsed power for use in basic research, with a principal emphasis on ATLAS, a planned 36-MJ pulsed-power machine with a circular architechture designed primarily for z-pinch implosion of cylindrical foils. The objective of the paper is to give an overview and touch on subjects which might test the limits of this technology.

  1. A brief history of geospatial science in the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a rich history of significant contributions to geospatial science spanning the past four decades. In the early years, work focused on basic research, such as development of algorithms for processing geographic data and early use of LANDSAT imagery. The emphasis shifted in the mid-1970s to development of geographic information system (GIS) applications to support programs such as the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), and later to issue-oriented GIS applications supporting programs such as environmental restoration and management (mid-1980s through present). Throughout this period, the DOE national laboratories represented a strong chorus of voices advocating the importance of geospatial science and technology in the decades to come. The establishment of a Geospatial Science Program by the DOE Office of the Chief Information Officer in 2005 reflects the continued potential of geospatial science to enhance DOE's science, projects, and operations, as is well demonstrated by historical analysis.

  2. How We Make Energy Work: Grades 4, 5, 6 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of units is designed to focus on the technological aspects of energy. Four units are presented, with from 1-4 lessons included in each unit. Units include: (1) basic concepts and applications of energy; (2) steps and processes of energy production and transmission; (3) fuel acquisition; and (4) energy futures and application of…

  3. Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Dehmer, Patricia M. (Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE)

    2016-07-12

    Patricia Dehmer, Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE, opened the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research,' with the talk, 'Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science.' In her presentation, Dr. Dehmer gave a tutorial on the energy challenges facing our Nation and showed how the DOE research portfolio addresses those issues. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  4. Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science (2011 EFRC Forum)

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmer, Patricia M.

    2011-05-26

    Patricia Dehmer, Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE, opened the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research,' with the talk, 'Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science.' In her presentation, Dr. Dehmer gave a tutorial on the energy challenges facing our Nation and showed how the DOE research portfolio addresses those issues. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  5. Basic sleep and circadian science as building blocks for behavioral interventions: a translational approach for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, Lauren D; Soehner, Adriane M; Harvey, Allison G

    2014-06-01

    Sleep and circadian functioning has been of particular interest to researchers focused on improving treatments for psychiatric illness. The goal of the present paper is to highlight the exciting research that utilizes basic sleep and circadian science as building blocks for intervention in the mood disorders. The reviewed evidence suggests that the sleep and circadian systems are a) disrupted in the mood disorders and linked to symptoms, b) open systems that can be modified, c) the focus of interventions which have been developed to effectively treat sleep disturbance within mood disorders, and d) intimately linked with mood, such that improvements in sleep are associated with improvements in mood. Although significant positive treatment effects are evident, more research is needed to fill the gap in our basic understanding of the relationship between sleep and mood.

  6. Basic Sleep and Circadian Science as Building Blocks for Behavioral Interventions: A Translational Approach for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian functioning has been of particular interest to researchers focused on improving treatments for psychiatric illness. The goal of the present paper is to highlight the exciting research that utilizes basic sleep and circadian science as building blocks for intervention in the mood disorders. The reviewed evidence suggests that the sleep and circadian systems are 1) disrupted in the mood disorders and linked to symptoms, 2) open systems that can be modified, 3) the focus of interventions which have been developed to effectively treat sleep disturbance within mood disorders, and 4) intimately linked with mood, such that improvements in sleep are associated with improvements in mood. Although, significant positive treatment effects are evident, more research is needed to fill the gap in our basic understanding of the relationship between sleep and mood. PMID:24773429

  7. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite

  8. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  9. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  10. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  11. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  12. Review of second law analysis techniques applicable to the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Thermal Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Zaworski, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    This report describes a review of second law analysis emphasizing techniques applicable to basic research in the thermal sciences. Second law analysis is a class of thermodynamic analysis techniques that has become increasingly popular in the design of thermal systems. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in l987 for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program. The primary goal is to determine whether second law techniques can be used in guiding or contributing to basic research in the thermal sciences. 35 refs.

  13. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved.

  14. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  15. Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Donald R.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

  16. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  17. Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

  18. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  19. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  20. Resource Handbook: The Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; the earth. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in three main parts: 1) atmosphere; 2) lithosphere; and 3) hydrosphere. Each section is subdivided into initiatory activities, developmental activities, evaluations, vocabulary, children's books, and films. The guide is mimeographed…

  1. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  2. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  3. Colloquium on Selected Topics in Behavioral Science Basic Research. (Alexandria, Virginia, April 23-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Glenda Y., Ed.; And Others

    The 21 summaries of research programs, funded by the United States Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences which are presented are grouped in five broad topic areas: computer-based systems; information processing; learning, memory and transfer; human relations; and related issues and trends. Papers presented include:…

  4. Resource Handbook--Plants. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; plants. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide is divided into the following sections: initiatory activities, developmental activities with 36 concepts, evaluation, vocabulary, children's books, and films. The guide is mimeographed and spiral-bound with a soft cover. OBJECTIVES AND…

  5. Learning Environments as Basis for Cognitive Achievements of Students in Basic Science Classrooms in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…

  6. Evaluation of Students' Energy Conception in Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…

  7. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  8. Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Ellen C

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using technology in incremental ways for instruction and research presentations. In July 2004, to raise awareness of self-service multimedia resources for instructional and professional development needs, the Library conducted a "Multimedia Bootcamp" for nine Health Sciences faculty and fellows. Methods Case study. Results Program stewardship by a single Library faculty member contributed to the delivery of an integrated learning experience. The amount of time required to attend the sessions and complete homework was the maximum fellows had to devote to such pursuits. The benefit of introducing technology unfamiliar to most fellows allowed program instructors to start everyone at the same baseline while not appearing to pass judgment on the technology literacy skills of faculty. The combination of wrapping the program in the trappings of a fellowship and selecting fellows who could commit to a majority of scheduled sessions yielded strong commitment from participants as evidenced by high attendance and a 100% rate of assignment completion. Response rates to follow-up evaluation requests, as well as continued use of Media Studio resources and Library expertise for projects begun or conceived during Bootcamp, bode well for the long-term success of this program. Conclusion An incremental approach to integrating technology with current practices in instruction and presentation provided a supportive yet energizing environment for Health Sciences faculty. Keys to this program were its faculty focus, traditional

  9. Energy and Agriculture. A Basic Core Curriculum for Teaching Energy to Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James; French, Byron

    This core curriculum contains five units of material for teaching energy to vocational agriculture students. Energy uses and the benefits of energy conservation are covered in a unit on the impact of energy on agriculture. Discussed next are tractor performance and Nebraska tractor test data for selecting and evaluating tractors for maximum fuel…

  10. The basic science of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what clinicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Arnoczky, Steven P; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Shebani-Rad, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been advocated for the biological augmentation of tissue healing and regeneration through the local introduction of increased levels (above baseline) of platelets and their associated bioactive molecules. In theory, the increased levels of autologous growth factors and secretory proteins provided by the concentrated platelets may enhance the wound healing process, especially in degenerative tissues or biologically compromised individuals. Although PRP has been increasingly utilized in the treatment of a variety of sports-related injuries, improvements in healing and clinical outcomes have not been universally reported. One reason for this may be the fact that all PRP preparations are not the same. Variations in the volume of whole blood taken, the platelet recovery efficacy, the final volume of plasma in which the platelets are suspended, and the presence or absence of white blood cells, and the addition of exogenous thrombin to activate the platelets or calcium chloride to induce fibrin formation, can all affect the character and potential efficacy of the final PRP product. This article will review the basic principles involved in creating PRP and examine the potential basic scientific significance of the individual blood components contained in the various forms of PRP currently used in sports medicine.

  11. Sir James Black and propranolol. The role of the basic sciences in the history of cardiovascular pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M P

    1997-01-01

    The history of cardiology encompasses some of the most revered names in medical history, many belonging to physicians who have advanced knowledge beyond their time. However, there have been countless others whose work in the basic sciences has paid large dividends to clinical cardiology. The original example of such an individual is William Harvey, whose reasoned experimentation led to the understanding of the circulation of blood. Another such man, Sir James Black, has contributed to basic scientific and clinical knowledge in cardiology, both as a physician and as a basic scientist. His invention of propranolol, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris, is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century. His method of research, his discoveries about adrenergic pharmacology, and his clarification of the mechanisms of cardiac action are all strengths of his work. In 1988, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Sir James's conclusions and method of research have continued to influence work in clinical pharmacology and cardiovascular medicine. Thus, the development of propranolol runs parallel to most other great achievements in medicine: the genius of a few builds on the accomplishments of many, and the discovery influences thinking long after the breakthrough has occurred. Images PMID:9456487

  12. The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Louise Brandes Moura

    This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders with regard to the basic science process skills of classification, observation, and inference? To answer the question, I collected qualitative data as I carried out a participatory study in which I taught science to fifth graders at an international, bilingual private religious school in Brasilia, Brazil for a period of one semester. Twenty-one (n = 21) children participated in the study, 10 females and 11 males, who came from a predominantly middle and upper class social background. Data were collected through student interviews, student class reflection sheets, written learning assessments, audiotapes of all class sessions, including whole-class and small-class group discussions, and a videotape of one class session. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children's learning in a number of ways. The story modeled the performance of classification, observation and inference skills for the children as well as reflection on the meaning of inference. The majority of the students identified with the fictional characters, particularly regarding traits such as cleverness and inquisitiveness, and with the learning context of the story. The multi-sensorial activities helped children learn observation and inference skills as well as dialogue. Dialogue also helped children self-correct and build upon each other's ideas. Some students developed theories about how ideal dialogue should work. In spite of the inherent limitations of qualitative and teacher research studies, as well as the limitations of this particular study

  13. Zeolite thermodynamics and kinetics. Final report for June 15, 1996 to June 15, 2000 to the U.S. Department of Energy, Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences on Grant No. DE-FG02-96ER14634

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, H.L.; Wilkin, R.T.; Benning, L.G.

    2000-06-15

    This report summarizes results obtained on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of zeolites. DOE funding supported the development of techniques of material preparation as well as experimental strategies and methods for measuring solubilities, hydration states, and rates of zeolite dissolution, precipitation, and nucleation. The hydrothermal experiments provided temperature-dependent solubility products, hydration states, and a set of standard free energies of formation for end-member Na-, K-, and Ca-clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime. Flow-through experimental methods were used to measure the rates of Na-clinoptilolite and analcime dissolution and precipitation as a function of reaction affinity to 250C. Finally, the experimental system was modified so that the clinoptilolite-to-analcime transformation was monitored, and its rates and mechanisms were evaluated.

  14. Cognitive Factors and Residual Speech Errors: Basic Science, Translational Research, and Some Clinical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Catherine Torrington

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the theoretical and empirical relationships between cognitive factors and residual speech errors (RSEs). Definitions of relevant cognitive domains are provided, as well as examples of formal and informal tasks that may be appropriate in assessment. Although studies to date have been limited in number and scope, basic research suggests that cognitive flexibility, short- and long-term memory, and self-monitoring may be areas of weakness in this population. Preliminary evidence has not supported a relationship between inhibitory control, attention, and RSEs; however, further studies that control variables such as language ability and temperament are warranted. Previous translational research has examined the effects of self-monitoring training on residual speech errors. Although results have been mixed, some findings suggest that children with RSEs may benefit from the inclusion of this training. The article closes with a discussion of clinical frameworks that target cognitive skills, including self-monitoring and attention, as a means of facilitating speech sound change.

  15. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs between the poles of basic science and clinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Weil, Patrick P; Hensel, Kai O; Weber, David; Postberg, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer', Keystone, CO, USA, 7-12 June 2015 Since the discovery of RNAi, great efforts have been undertaken to unleash the potential biomedical applicability of small noncoding RNAs, mainly miRNAs, involving their use as biomarkers for personalized diagnostics or their usability as active agents or therapy targets. The research's focus on the noncoding RNA world is now slowly moving from a phase of basic discoveries into a new phase, where every single molecule out of many hundreds of cataloged noncoding RNAs becomes dissected in order to investigate these molecules' biomedical relevance. In addition, RNA classes neglected before, such as long noncoding RNAs or circular RNAs attract more attention. Numerous timely results and hypotheses were presented at the 2015 Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer'.

  16. ERBB receptors: from oncogene discovery to basic science to mechanism-based cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L; Engelman, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-17

    ERBB receptors were linked to human cancer pathogenesis approximately three decades ago. Biomedical investigators have since developed substantial understanding of the biology underlying the dependence of cancers on aberrant ERBB receptor signaling. An array of cancer-associated genetic alterations in ERBB receptors has also been identified. These findings have led to the discovery and development of mechanism-based therapies targeting ERBB receptors that have improved outcome for many cancer patients. In this Perspective, we discuss current paradigms of targeting ERBB receptors with cancer therapeutics and our understanding of mechanisms of action and resistance to these drugs. As current strategies still have limitations, we also discuss challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as basic scientists and clinical investigators work toward more breakthroughs.

  17. Basic Science B.D. (before Drosophila): Cytology at Warsaw University (Poland).

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    The majority of modern research in cell and developmental biology is based almost exclusively on seven model organisms: mouse, zebra fish, Xenopus laevis frog, Drosophila fly, Caenorabditis elegans worm, Arabidopsis plant and yeast. Although the validity and practicality of these model systems and their impact on scientific progress are undeniable, the combination of goal-oriented science and the use of the model systems introduces, a priori, a dangerous limitation to scientific discovery. Consequently, many astonishing phenomena occurring in non-model organisms are either never studied or, disappear from scientific consciousness. A perfect example is the fate of the important studies by Professor Zygmunt Kraczkiewicz on chromatin diminution in Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) conducted before World War II and continued by his team until early 1990 in the Department of Cytology at Warsaw University in Poland. These light and electron microscopy studies have not been elevated to the molecular level, and although they deserve to be extensively studied and cited by researchers working in the field of soma and germ cell differentiation and specification, they have been, within the past 40 years, nearly completely wiped out of scientific memory. This article presents a short summary of this important research in the historical context of pre- and post-war science at Warsaw University in Poland.

  18. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.; Graham, J.; Hoggan, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  19. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  20. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  1. Equatorial Energy Accumulation and Emanation Regions: Impacts of a Zonally Varying Basic State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.; Chang, Hai-Ru

    1988-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the regions of mean anomalous perturbation kinetic energy which exist in the vicinity of the equatorial upper-tropospheric westerlies are the result of the propagation of extratropical synoptic and low frequency waves through the equatorial `westerly duet' where a subsequent wave energy convergence occurs. The proposition that these perturbed equatorial regions may arise from remote equatorial energy sources is investigated. It is shown that three criteria must be met. The first two, the existence of wave energy sources along the equator and a mechanism to transport that energy longitudinally, are accounted for relatively easily with existing theory of divergent, trapped equatorial modes. The third criterion, the requirement of a mechanism for an accumulation of transient energy in the equatorial stretch flow (i.e., nonzero x), is not immediately obvious and requires exploration to develop new concepts.Using simple WKBJ arguments it is shown that within a realistic parameter range, a combination of longitudinal stretch in the basic state along the equator and the characteristics of the equatorial trapped waves satisfy the third criterion. The equatorial waves must possess a divergent structure which insists on equatorial trapping. It is shown that purely barotropic modes, which cannot be equatorially trapped, do not represent the real atmospheric structure at low latitudes. Regions of negative longitudinal stretch along the equator (i.e., westerlies decreasing, or easterlies increasing, towards the cast) are shown to be wave energy accumulation regions. Regions with positive stretch, on the other hand, are wave energy depletion regions. A free-surface barotropic model with fully nonlinear basic states, containing both stretch and shear, confirm the results of the simpler model, i.e., regardless of the position of the energy source within the tropical atmosphere the wave energy accumulates in the same region; namely, on the

  2. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 4, Harnessing Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Edgar

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools but are adaptable to other countries. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440…

  3. Understanding Engagement: Science Demonstrations and Emotional Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Catherine; Otieno, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Although beloved of some chemists and physicists, science demonstrations have been criticized for stifling inquiry and assisting teachers to maintain a power differential between themselves and students in the classroom. This interpretive study reports the unexpected positive learning outcomes for urban science students in two chemistry classes…

  4. Historical Roots of the Energy Crisis: A Basic Bibliography of Energy History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Intended for nonspecialists, discusses various aspects of energy in historical terms. Areas addressed include brevity of the cheap energy era, exponential growth, and ideology/controversey (suggesting relationships between power plants and economic power). Examines general literature providing a framework for qualitative thinking about energy and…

  5. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  6. Rho Kinases in Health and Disease: From Basic Science to Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise

    2015-10-01

    Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are key regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics downstream of Rho GTPases that participate in the control of important physiologic functions, S including cell contraction, migration, proliferation, adhesion, and inflammation. Several excellent review articles dealing with ROCK function and regulation have been published over the past few years. Although a brief overview of general molecular, biochemical, and functional properties of ROCKs is included, an effort has been made to produce an original work by collecting and synthesizing recent studies aimed at translating basic discoveries from cell and experimental models into knowledge of human physiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and medical therapeutics. This review points out the specificity and distinct roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms highlighted in the last few years. Results obtained from genetically modified mice and genetic analysis in humans are discussed. This review also addresses the involvement of ROCKs in human diseases and the potential use of ROCK activity as a biomarker or a pharmacological target for specific inhibitors. PMID:26419448

  7. Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

  8. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-López, José Manuel; Díaz-Mancha, Juan Antonio; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera, Pedro V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students' basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n = 247) correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n = 7) incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. PMID:25110712

  9. Europa Science Platforms and Kinetic Energy Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, C. C.; Klein, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will outline a proposed mission for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The mission outlined will concentrate on an examination of Europa. Some of the primary science goals for the JIMO mission are: 1) to answer broad science questions, 2) improved knowledge of Jovian system; specifically, lunar geological and geophysical properties, 3) chemical composition of Jovian lunar surfaces and subterranean matter, and 4) the search for life. In order to address these issues, the experiment proposed here will deploy orbiting, surface, and subterranean science platforms.

  10. Conducting Sustainable Energy Projects in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toolin, Regina; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how sixth through twelfth grade science teachers can engage their students in the design and implementation of sustainable energy projects as part of a unit of study on energy. The project challenges students to engage in an energy project that gives them the opportunity to make a difference in their local community and the…

  11. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  12. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  13. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2011-11-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

  14. A SERLINE-based union list of serials for basic health sciences libraries: a detailed protocol.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C L

    1982-01-01

    In March 1981 the Consortium for Information Resources (CIR) was chosen by the Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network to develop and automate a statewide biomedical union list of serials. Employing a commercial processor, ANSI standard Z39.42-1980, and SERLINE, CIR consolidated the journal holdings of six Massachusetts health-related library consortia. SERLINE, with its unique identifier as the single control element, governed the form of entry and bibliographic data for each journal. Additionally, SERLINE enhanced the union list by providing "see references" and general notations to map users to main titles or special information. An original feature of this union list is the "rolled" holdings and location statements intended to encourage even distribution of interlibrary loan transactions. The resulting union list of serials includes the holdings of 116 Massachusetts libraries, 94 of which are hospital libraries. The list includes nearly 3,000 unique titles and 15,000 holdings statements; production costs averaged $1.35 per unique title and 27 per holdings statement. PMID:6758891

  15. Energy--Structure--Life, A Learning System for Understanding Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Louis W.; And Others

    Material for the first year of Energy/Structure/Life, a two-year high school program in integrated science, is contained in this learning guide. The program, a sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology, presents the physical science phase during the first year with these 13 chapters: (1) distance/time/velocity; (2) velocity/change/acceleration;…

  16. Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

    2015-02-01

    Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743

  17. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n = 20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research.

  18. Proceedings of the Tenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences: Synergism of Analysis, Modeling, and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    The Tenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 11-13, 1992, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the seven technical sessions held at this meeting. This was the tenth annual symposium sponsored by the Engineering Research Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy. The central theme of this year's meeting was synergism of analysis, modeling, and experiment and related topics. Each year a group of selected researchers in the DOE/BES Engineering Research Program are invited to present their research findings in such an open forum. This Symposium was organized into seven technical sessions: fluid mechanics (two sessions); solid mechanics; analysis, nonlinear systems (two sessions); chemical processing; and instrumentation and diagnostics. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers in this report.

  19. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, J.

    1996-11-01

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

  20. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students.

  1. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

  2. Inverse Design: Playing "Jeopardy" in Materials Science (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Zunger; Tumas, Bill; CID Staff

    2011-05-01

    'Inverse Design: Playing 'Jeopardy' in Materials Science' was submitted by the Center for Inverse Design (CID) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CID, an EFRC directed by Bill Tumas at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: NREL (lead), Northwestern University, University of Colorado, Stanford University, and Oregon State University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Inverse Design is 'to replace trial-and-error methods used in the development of materials for solar energy conversion with an inverse design approach powered by theory and computation.' Research topics are: solar photovoltaic, photonic, metamaterial, defects, spin dynamics, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, and defect tolerant materials.

  3. Inverse Design: Playing "Jeopardy" in Materials Science (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Alex Zunger (former Director, Center for Inverse Design); Tumas, Bill (Director, Center for Inverse Design); CID Staff

    2016-07-12

    'Inverse Design: Playing 'Jeopardy' in Materials Science' was submitted by the Center for Inverse Design (CID) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CID, an EFRC directed by Bill Tumas at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: NREL (lead), Northwestern University, University of Colorado, Stanford University, and Oregon State University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Inverse Design is 'to replace trial-and-error methods used in the development of materials for solar energy conversion with an inverse design approach powered by theory and computation.' Research topics are: solar photovoltaic, photonic, metamaterial, defects, spin dynamics, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, and defect tolerant materials.

  4. Trends of Students of the College of Basic Science towards Teaching the Course of Athletics and Health by Using Computer Technology in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University (WISE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim Abdul Ghani; Khawaldeh, Mohammad Falah Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Study aimed at identifying the trends of the students of basic sciences College in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University towards teaching health and sport course by using computer technology as a teaching method, and to identify also the impact of the variables of academic level and the gender on the students' trends. The study…

  5. Climate and energy challenges for materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Dolf; Boshell, Francisco; Saygin, Deger

    2016-02-01

    The Paris agreement on climate change represents an important step in the design of a new global framework for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are keys for the success of this ambitious agreement.

  6. The water-energy nexus: an earth science perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Alley, William M.; Engle, Mark A.; McMahon, Peter B.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2015-01-01

    Relevant earth science issues analyzed and discussed herein include freshwater availability; water use; ecosystems health; assessment of saline water resources; assessment of fossil-fuel, uranium, and geothermal resources; subsurface injection of wastewater and carbon dioxide and related induced seismicity; climate change and its effect on water availability and energy production; byproducts and waste streams of energy development; emerging energy-development technologies; and energy for water treatment and delivery.

  7. Proc. of the sixteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences, May 13-15, 1998, Argonne, IL.

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-13

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Sixteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 13--15, 1998, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was structured into eight technical sessions, which included 30 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. A list of participants is appended to this volume. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term, mission-oriented research in the Department. The Office has prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation's future energy options will be identified, developed, and built. BES is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary to solve present and future problems regarding energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, while maintaining respect for the environment. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, prolonging the useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing. The program emphasis is on reducing costs through improved industrial production and performance and expanding the nation's store of fundamental knowledge for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in energy technologies. To achieve these goals, the Engineering Research Program supports approximately 130 research projects covering a broad spectrum of topics that cut across traditional engineering disciplines. The program focuses on

  8. 32 CFR 2400.5 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic policy. 2400.5 Section 2400.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS... Original Classification § 2400.5 Basic policy. Except as provided in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  9. 32 CFR 2400.5 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic policy. 2400.5 Section 2400.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS... Original Classification § 2400.5 Basic policy. Except as provided in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  10. 32 CFR 2400.5 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic policy. 2400.5 Section 2400.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS... Original Classification § 2400.5 Basic policy. Except as provided in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  11. 32 CFR 2400.5 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic policy. 2400.5 Section 2400.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS... Original Classification § 2400.5 Basic policy. Except as provided in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  12. Basic Research on a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage by Direct Contact Melting and Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akihiro; Saito, Akio; Utaka, Yoshio; Okuda, Kenichi; Katayama, Kozo

    A basic experimental research on a latent heat thermal energy storage system, utilizing a simple and effective heat exchange mechanism by a direct contact between the phase change material (PCM) and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) , was shown. In this report, authors proposed the direct contact latent heat thermal energy storage system using industrial paraffin and n-Eicosane as the PCM, and using water as the HTF. The observations were performed concerning the HTF separation from the solid PCM in the solidification process (heat discharging process), and concerning the water pass formation within the solid PCM. Then, it was confirmed that the system worked effectively by using n-Eicosane as the PCM. And authors discussed the mechanism of direct contact solidification process from experimental results.

  13. Basic Research on a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage by Direct Contact Melting and Soldification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akihiro; Saito, Akio; Utaka, Yoshio; Okuda, Kenichi; Katayama, Kozo

    A basic experimental research on a latent heat thermal energy storage system , utilizing a simple and effective heat exchange mechanism by a direct contact between the phase change material (PCM) and the heat transfer fluid (HTF), was shown. Discharging experiments on direct contact latent heat thermal energy reservoir using n-Eicosane as the PCM and water as the HTF, were performed, based on the conditions obtained in previous report. Then, operating conditions for suitable discharging process were searched from the experimental results (outlet water temperature response and local temperature response in the reservoir). Moreover, solidification mechanisms of PCM, which had been presumed in previous report, were confirmed from these experimental results, and the simple physical model on direct contact heat exchange in the reservoir was proposed. Then, the outlet water temperature response by this model was compared with the experimental results.

  14. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  15. Gasohol: An Energy Alternative. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    This 2-3 week high school chemistry unit is designed to provide students with an awareness of Gasohol as an energy alternative. Gasohol is a blend of 10 percent pure ethanol and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. The unit consists of nine activities (five laboratory experiments, three informational readings, and a sample problem activity). The five…

  16. History of United States Energy. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended as a supplement to the units "Oil: Fuel of the Past" and "Coal: Fuel of the Past, Hope of the Future," this 3-4 day unit contains three activities which briefly explain the chronological development of energy resources and the formation and development of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The first activity…

  17. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  18. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  19. Science for Energy Technology: The Industry Perspective (2011 EFRC Summit, panel session)

    ScienceCinema

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey (Battelle Memorial Institute); Carlson, David E. (BP Solar); Chiang, Yet-Ming (MIT and A123 Systems); Hunt, Catherine T. (Dow Chemical)

    2016-07-12

    A distinguished panel of industry leaders discussed how basic science impacts energy technology at the 2011 EFRC Summit. Panel members are Jeffrey Wadworth, President and CEO of Battelle Memorial Institute; David E. Carlson, the Chief Scientist for BP Solar; Yet-Ming Chiang, Professor at MIT and the founder of A123 Systems; and Catherine T. Hunt, the R&D Director of Innovation Sourcing and Sustainable Technologies at the Dow Chemical Company. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  20. Science for Energy Technology: The Industry Perspective (2011 EFRC Summit, panel session)

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey; Carlson, David E.; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Hunt, Catherine T.

    2011-05-25

    A distinguished panel of industry leaders discussed how basic science impacts energy technology at the 2011 EFRC Summit. Panel members are Jeffrey Wadworth, President and CEO of Battelle Memorial Institute; David E. Carlson, the Chief Scientist for BP Solar; Yet-Ming Chiang, Professor at MIT and the founder of A123 Systems; and Catherine T. Hunt, the R&D Director of Innovation Sourcing and Sustainable Technologies at the Dow Chemical Company. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  1. Progress report to the Department of Energy in support of basic energy and policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Research areas include: light path of carbon reduction in photosynthesis: heat transfer in coal-ash slags; mechanism of plant cell enlargement in Gymnosperms; emulsion stability in enhanced oil recovery; selective transfer phenomenon in friction and wear; conceptual design of the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Fusion Reactor; integration of farm level alcohol production consistent with the economic and labor constraints of a farming operation, and newsmedia coverage of selected energy policy proposals.

  2. Energy: A Bibliography of Social Science and Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Denton E.; And Others

    This bibliography contains 2,124 listings pertaining primarily to the social factors involved with energy. Some entries report physical energy information as it relates to social science analysis. Entries are listed by author with a subject index for cross reference. Subject categories include: aesthetic, humanistic, and literary; agriculture;…

  3. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  4. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

  5. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Majid I.; Gansterer, Wilfried N.; Haring, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    than the choice of the mobility radius of the sink. Moreover, for small values of the duty cycle, a static sink turns out to be optimal in terms of both Emax and Ebar. For larger values of the duty cycle, a mobile sink has advantages over a static sink, especially in terms of Emax. These insights into the basic interrelationship between duty cycle value and mobility radius of a mobile sink are relevant for energy efficient operation of homogeneous WSNs beyond our model scenario. PMID:23805013

  6. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Majid I; Gansterer, Wilfried N; Haring, Guenter

    2013-05-15

    than the choice of the mobility radius of the sink. Moreover, for small values of the duty cycle, a static sink turns out to be optimal in terms of both Emax and Ebar. For larger values of the duty cycle, a mobile sink has advantages over a static sink, especially in terms of Emax. These insights into the basic interrelationship between duty cycle value and mobility radius of a mobile sink are relevant for energy efficient operation of homogeneous WSNs beyond our model scenario.

  7. Rossby wave energy dispersion from tropical cyclone in zonal basic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Liu, Yudi; Ma, Zhanhong; Yang, Lu

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates tropical cyclone energy dispersion under horizontally sheared flows using a nonlinear barotropic model. In addition to common patterns, unusual features of Rossby wave trains are also found in flows with constant vorticity and vorticity gradients. In terms of the direction of the energy dispersion, the wave train can rotate clockwise and elongate southwestward under anticyclonic circulation (ASH), which contributes to the reenhancement of the tropical cyclone (TC). The wave train even splits into two obvious wavelike trains in flows with a southward vorticity gradient (WSH). Energy dispersed from TCs varies over time, and variations in the intensity of the wave train components typically occur in two stages. Wave-activity flux diagnosis and ray tracing calculations are extended to the frame that moves along with the TC to reveal the concrete progress of wave propagation. The direction of the wave-activity flux is primarily determined by the combination of the basic flow and the TC velocity. Along the flux, the distribution of pseudomomentum effectively illustrates the development of wave trains, particularly the rotation and split of wave propagation. Ray tracing involves the quantitative tracing of wave features along rays, which effectively coincide with the wave train regimes. Flows of a constant shear (parabolic meridional variation) produce linear (nonlinear) wave number variations. For the split wave trains, the real and complex wave number waves move along divergent trajectories and are responsible for different energy dispersion ducts.

  8. 76 FR 4645 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Fusion Nuclear Sciences Pathways Assessment Activities Public Comments Public Participation: The meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion... Science. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee....

  9. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals.

  10. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  11. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1986-01-01

    Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

  12. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1984-01-01

    Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

  13. Science projects in renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    First, the book is written for teachers and other adults who educate children in grades K-12. This allows us to include projects with a variety of levels of difficulty, leaving it to the teacher to adapt them to the appropriate skill level. Second, the book generally focuses on experimental projects that demonstrate the scientific method. We believe that learning the experimental process is most beneficial for students and prepares them for further endeavors in science and for life itself by developing skills in making decisions and solving problems. Although this may appear to limit the book's application to more advanced students and more experienced science teachers, we hope that some of the ideas can be applied to beginning science classes. In addition, we recognize that there are numerous sources of nonexperimental science activities in the field and we hope this book will fill a gap in the available material. Third, we've tried to address the difficulties many teachers face in helping their students get started on science projects. By explaining the process and including extensive suggestions of resources -- both nationally and locally -- we hope to make the science projects more approachable and enjoyable. We hope the book will provide direction for teachers who are new to experimental projects. And finally, in each section of ideas, we've tried to include a broad sampling of projects that cover most of the important concepts related to each technology. Additional topics are listed as one-liners'' following each group of projects.

  14. Earth Science Week 2010 - Hurricane Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the ch...

  15. JPRS report, science technology, China: Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-31

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts about energy issues in China. Topics include: national developments, hydropower, thermal power, oil, gas, nuclear power and wind power.

  16. JPRS report, science technology, China: Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-17

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts about energy issues in China. Topics include: national developments, power networks, hydropower, thermal power, coal, oil, gas and supplemental sources.

  17. Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

  18. Science and society test VI: Energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-01-01

    Simple numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of energy economics issues. The Verhulst equation, which considers the effect of finite resources on petroleum production, is modified to take into account supply and demand economics. Numerical and analytical solutions to these differential equations are presented in terms of supply and demand elasticity functions, various finite resources, and the rate of increase in fuel costs. The indirect cost per barrel of imported oil from OPEC is shown to be about the same as the direct cost. These effects, as well as those of discounted benefits and deregulation, are used in a calculation of payback periods for various energy conserving devices. A phenomenological model for market penetration is developed along with the factors for future energy growth rates. A brief analysis of the economic returns of the ''house doctor'' program to reprofit houses for energy conservation is presented.

  19. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  20. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

  1. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age.

  2. Science of Nanofluidics and Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing

    The emerging subject of nanofluidics, where solids and fluids interact closely at the nanoscale, has exhibited radically different from their macroscopic counterparts (and sometimes counterintuitive), and yet relatively less explored. On the other hand, the resulting unique properties may contribute to a number of innovative functions with fascinating applications. Among various exciting potential applications, an important and ever expanding one is to provide alternative solutions to energy conversion with high efficiency, including energy absorption, actuation and harvesting. In this dissertation, we first report a novel protection mechanism of energy capture through which an intensive impact or blast energy can be effectively mitigated based on a nonwetting liquid-nanoporous material system. The captured energy is stored in nanopores in the form of potential energy of intercalated water molecules for a while, and not necessarily converted to other forms of energy (e.g. heat). At unloading stage, the captured energy will be released gradually due to the hydrophobic inner surfaces of nanopores through the diffusion of water molecules out of nanopores, thus making this system reusable. Several key controlling factors including impacting velocity, nanopore size, nanopore structure, and liquid phase have been investigated on the capacity of energy capture. The molecular mechanism is elucidated through the study of water molecular distributions inside nanpores. These molecular dynamic (MD) findings are quantitatively verified by a parallel blast experiment on a zeolite/water system. During the transport of confined liquid molecules, the friction resistance exerted by solid atoms of nanopores to liquid molecules will dissipate part of energy, and is highly dependent of temperature of liquid molecules and wall morphology of nanopores. Using MD simulations, the effects of temperature and wall roughness on the transport resistance of water molecules inside nanopores are

  3. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

  4. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  5. Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

  6. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  7. Science and society test X: Energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David

    1987-04-01

    United States energy consumption has remained essentially constant at about 80 exajoules/year (75 quads/year) since the oil embargo of 1973-1974, while the GNP in constant dollars has increased by about 30%. This article will discuss the physics behind some of these improvements in end-use efficiency in such areas as: (i) buildings (scaling laws, ``free-heat,'' superinsulated houses, thermal storage in large buildings, off-peak cooling), (ii) solar energy (passive, photovoltaics), (iii) utility load management (``smart meters,'' capital recovery fees, voltage control), (iv) appliances (life-cycle costs, refrigerators), and (v) lighting (isotopic enhancement).

  8. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  9. Report on the decade of un/esa workshops on basic space science: the international perspective from small astronomical telescopes to the world space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.; Wamsteker, W.

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observational programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). Elements of the Workshops, focusing on teaching, observing programmes, and the Japanese donation programme for small astronomical telescopes are briefly summarized in the first part of this paper. A report on the recent UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science, held at CONAE of Argentina in 2002, and a full report on achievements of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science for the period of time from 1991 to 2002 is contained in the second part of this paper. Since 1991, similar reports, issued for each of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science, have been brought to the attention of UN Member States on an annual basis with the objective to gain more support for the world wide development of astronomy. WWW: http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/

  10. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  11. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs. PMID:24045354

  12. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  13. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  14. Students talk about energy in project-based inquiry science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the types of emergent language eighth grade students in rural Maine middle schools use when they discuss energy in their first experiences with Project-Based Inquiry Science: Energy, a research-based curriculum that uses a specific language for talking about energy. By comparative analysis of the language used by the curriculum materials to students' language, we find that students' talk is at times more aligned with a Stores and Transfer model of energy than the Forms model supported by the curriculum.

  15. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  16. The e-Science for High Energy Physics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Hyunwoo

    In this paper, we report the experiences and results of the integration and utilization of e-Science for high-energy physics in Korea. The e-Science for high-energy physics is to study high-energy physics any time and anywhere even if we are not on-site of accelerator laboratories. The contents are 1) data production, 2) data processing and 3) data analysis anytime and anywhere. The data production is to do remote control and take shifts remotely. The data processing is to run jobs anytime, anywhere using grid farms. The data analysis is to work together to publish papers using collaborative environment such as EVO (Enabling Virtual Organization) system. We apply this concept to high energy physics experiments, especially, ALICE experiment at CERN in Europe and CDF experiment at Fermi-lab. And we show the results.

  17. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Standardized Patient’s Views About their Role in the Teaching-Learning Process of Undergraduate Basic Science Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neelam Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Standardized Patients (SPs) are widely used in medical education. SPs have a number of advantages but also have certain limitations. At the institution, SPs have been used since January 2013 for both teaching-learning and assessment during the basic science years of the undergraduate medical program. Aim The present study was conducted to investigate the perception of SPs about various aspects of the program and obtain suggestions for further improvement. Materials and Methods A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted with a group of five SPs during the second week of November 2015. Respondents were explained the aims and objectives of the study and invited to participate. Written informed consent was obtained. The FGD was conducted using a discussion guide and was audio recorded. Various aspects of the SP program at the institution were discussed. Motivation/s for joining the program and suggestions for further improvement were obtained. Transcripts were created after listening to the recordings and were read through multiple times. Similar responses were coded. Items with similar codes were grouped together into themes. Results Three respondents were female while two were male. The major advantage of SPs was their flexibility and ability to present a standardized response to the student. Students become familiar and comfortable with SPs. However, as a SP is simulating an illness s/he may not always be able to do complete justice to the role. The process used by SPs to prepare themselves to portray various diseases was highlighted. The use of SPs both during teaching-learning and assessment was also discussed. Some SPs are trained to provide feedback to students. Most SPs joined the program based on invitations from their friends who were already SPs. Challenges in recruiting SPs in a small island were discussed. Suggestions for further improvement were obtained. Conclusion The present study obtained the perception of SPs regarding various aspects

  19. Youth As Community Science Experts in Green Energy Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Birmingham, Daniel; Sato, Takumi; Tan, Edna; Calabrese Barton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine what it means to become a community science expert (CSE) and why this goal is important for youth in afterschool environments. Using "Green Energy Technology in the City" (GET City) as a case study, they describe how this afterschool program nurtures youth as CSEs. They draw on data gathered in…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  1. Carter Budget Tilts "Back to Basics" for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the proposed 1979 federal budget for basic research for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Defense, and Department of Energy. (SL)

  2. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Carl R; Grimes, Steven M

    2006-03-30

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 and supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG03-03NA00074. Cross sections measured with high resolution have been subjected to an Ericson theory analysis to infer information about the nuclear level density. Other measurements were made of the spectral shape of particles produced in evaporation processes; these also yield level density information. A major project was the development of a new Hauser-Feshbach code for analyzing such spectra. Other measurements produced information on the spectra of gamma rays emitted in reactions on heavy nuclei and gave a means of refining our understanding of gamma-ray strength functions. Finally,reactions on light nuclei were studied and subjected to an R-matrix analysis. Cross sections fora network of nuclear reactions proceedingthrough a given compound nucleus shouldgreatly constrain the family of allowed parameters. Modifications to the formalism andcomputer code are also discussed.

  3. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  4. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  5. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  6. Towards a science of climate and energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Dietz, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The linked problems of energy sustainability and climate change are among the most complex and daunting facing humanity at the start of the twenty-first century. This joint Nature Energy and Nature Climate Change Collection illustrates how understanding and addressing these problems will require an integrated science of coupled human and natural systems; including technological systems, but also extending well beyond the domain of engineering or even economics. It demonstrates the value of replacing the stylized assumptions about human behaviour that are common in policy analysis, with ones based on data-driven science. We draw from and engage articles in the Collection to identify key contributions to understanding non-technological factors connecting economic activity and greenhouse gas emissions, describe a multi-dimensional space of human action on climate and energy issues, and illustrate key themes, dimensions and contributions towards fundamental understanding and informed decision making.

  7. Center for Renewable Energy Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, Richard; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    The CREST research team conducted research that optimized catalysts used for the conversion of southwestern lignite into synthetic crude oil that can be shipped to nearby Texas refineries and power plants for development of transportation fuels and power generation. Research was also undertaken to convert any potential by-products of this process such as CO2 to useful chemicals and gases which could be recycled and used as feedstock to the synthetic fuel process. These CO2 conversion processes used light energy to drive the endogonic reduction reactions involved. The project was divided into two tasks: A CO2 Conversion Task, and a Catalyst Optimization Task. The CO2 Conversion task was aimed at developing molecular and solid state catalysts for the thermal, electro- and photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to reduced products such as simple feedstock compounds (e.g. CO, H2, CHOOH, CH2O, CH3OH and CH4). For example, the research team recycled CO that was developed from this Task and used it as a feedstock for the production of synthetic crude in the Catalyst Optimization Task. In the Catalyst Optimization Task, the research team conducted bench-scale experiments with the goal of reducing overall catalyst cost in support of several synthetic crude processes that had earlier been developed. This was accomplished by increasing the catalyst reactivity thus reducing required concentrations or by using less expensive metals. In this task the team performed parametric experiments in small scale batch reactors in an effort to improve catalyst reactivity and to lower cost. They also investigated catalyst robustness by testing lignite feedstocks that vary in moisture, h, and volatile content.

  8. Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Energy Technologies II

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Dr Josef; Ohji, Tatsuki; Liu, Xingbo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Devanathan, Ram; Fox, Kevin; Singh, Mrityunjay; Wong-ng, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science and Technology 2012 Conference and Exhibition (MS&T'12) was held October 7-11, 2012, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of the major themes of the conference was Environmental and Energy Issues. Papers from five of the symposia held under that theme are invluded in this volume. These symposia included Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management for the 21st Century; Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing IV; Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications; Energy Conversion-Photovoltaic, Concentraing Solar Power and Thermoelectric; and Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments.

  9. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  10. A decision science approach for integrating social science in climate and energy solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2016-06-01

    The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.

  11. Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Harold E., Ed.

    This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in their…

  12. Science K-12, Conservation of Energy. Utica City School District Articulated Curriculum: Project SEARCH, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utica City School District, NY.

    Two-column objectives are listed for an integrated science curriculum (Grades K-12), often subheaded according to science area (physical sciences, physics, biology, chemistry, general science) and grade level. Objectives that relate characteristics and forms of energy to energy conservation are stressed in the primary grades (K-6). In grade 7, the…

  13. Advances in materials science, metals and ceramics division. Triannual progress report, June-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Truhan, J.J.; Hopper, R.W.; Gordon, K.M.

    1980-10-28

    Information is presented concerning the magnetic fusion energy program; the laser fusion energy program; geothermal research; nuclear waste management; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) research; diffusion in silicate minerals; chemistry research resources; and chemistry and materials science research.

  14. Advances in materials science, Metals and Ceramics Division. Triannual progress report, February-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Truhan, J.J.; Gordon, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    Research is reported in the magnetic fusion energy and laser fusion energy programs, aluminium-air battery and vehicle research, geothermal research, nuclear waste management, basic energy science, and chemistry and materials science. (FS)

  15. Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

  16. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-01-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science…

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM RESEARCH PROJECTS TO IMPROVE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISIONING OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Ann Marie

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes fourteen basic science projects aimed at solving decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) problems within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Funded by the Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP), these research projects address D&D problems where basic science is needed to expand knowledge and develop solutions to help DOE meet its cleanup milestones. EMSP uses directed solicitations targeted at identified Environmental Management (EM) needs to ensure that research results are directly applicable to DOE's EM problems. The program then helps transition the projects from basic to applied research by identifying end-users and coordinating proof-of-principle field tests. EMSP recently funded fourteen D&D research projects through the directed solicitation process. These research projects will be discussed, including description, current status, and potential impact. Through targeted research and proof-of-principle tests, it is hoped that EMSP's fourteen D&D basic research projects will directly impact and provide solutions to DOE's D&D problems.

  18. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  19. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  20. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.