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Sample records for basic helix-loop-helix protein-mediated

  1. A triple helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix cascade controls cell elongation downstream of multiple hormonal and environmental signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Fan, Min; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Environmental and endogenous signals, including light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin (GA), regulate cell elongation largely by influencing the expression of the paclobutrazol-resistant (PRE) family helix-loop-helix (HLH) factors, which promote cell elongation by interacting antagonistically with another HLH factor, IBH1. However, the molecular mechanism by which PREs and IBH1 regulate gene expression has remained unknown. Here, we show that IBH1 interacts with and inhibits a DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, HBI1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of HBI1 increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation, whereas dominant inactivation of HBI1 and its homologs caused a dwarf phenotype, indicating that HBI1 is a positive regulator of cell elongation. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that HBI1 directly bound to the promoters and activated two EXPANSIN genes encoding cell wall-loosening enzymes; HBI1's DNA binding and transcriptional activities were inhibited by IBH1, but the inhibitory effects of IBH1 were abolished by PRE1. The results indicate that PREs activate the DNA binding bHLH factor HBI1 by sequestering its inhibitor IBH1. Altering each of the three factors affected plant sensitivities to BR, GA, temperature, and light. Our study demonstrates that PREs, IBH1, and HBI1 form a chain of antagonistic switches that regulates cell elongation downstream of multiple external and endogenous signals.

  2. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor PIF5 Acts on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Phytochrome Signaling by Distinct Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, interacts specifically with the photoactivated form of phytochrome B (phyB). Here, we report that dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings overexpressing PIF5 (PIF5-OX) exhibit exaggerated apical hooks and short h...

  3. Challenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda L; Meijer, Dimphna H; Guerra, Rachel M; Molenaar, Remco J; Alberta, John A; Bernal, Federico; Bird, Gregory H; Stiles, Charles D; Walensky, Loren D

    2016-11-18

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in organism development and disease by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional activity, whether by bHLH homo- or heterodimerization, is dependent on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions mediated by α-helices. Thus, α-helical decoys have been proposed as potential targeted therapies for pathologic bHLH transcription. Here, we developed a library of stabilized α-helices of OLIG2 (SAH-OLIG2) to test the capacity of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides to disrupt OLIG2 homodimerization, which drives the development and chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme, one of the deadliest forms of human brain cancer. Although stapling successfully reinforced the α-helical structure of bHLH constructs of varying length, sequence-specific dissociation of OLIG2 dimers from DNA was not achieved. Re-evaluation of the binding determinants for OLIG2 self-association and stability revealed an unanticipated role of the C-terminal domain. These data highlight potential pitfalls in peptide-based targeting of bHLH transcription factors given the liabilities of their positively charged amino acid sequences and multifactorial binding determinants.

  4. Identification and Bioinformatics Analyses of the Basic Helix-loop-helix Transcription Factors in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuyi; Li, Fengmei

    2015-04-01

    Xenopus laevis is a long established model organism for developmental, behavioral and neurological studies. Herein, an updated genome-wide survey was conducted using the ongoing genome project of Xenopus laevis and 106 non-redundant Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) genes were identified in the Xenopus laevis genome databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 significant GO annotations of biological processes and molecular functions and 5 significant KEGG pathways and a number of Xenopus laevis bHLH genes play significant role in specific development or special physiology processes like the development processes of muscle and eye and other organs. Furthermore, each sub-group of the bHLH family has its special gene functions except for the common GO term categories. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that among these identified bHLH proteins, 105 sequences could classified into 39 families with 46, 25, 10, 5, 16 and 3 members in the corresponding high-order groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively with an addition bHLH member categorized as an orphan. The present study provides much useful information for further researches on Xenopus laevis.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the human basic helix-loop-helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large and complex multigene family of transcription factors with important roles in animal development, including that of fruitflies, nematodes and vertebrates. The identification of orthologous relationships among the bHLH genes from these widely divergent taxa allows reconstruction of the putative complement of bHLH genes present in the genome of their last common ancestor. Results We identified 39 different bHLH genes in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, 58 in the fly Drosophila melanogaster and 125 in human (Homo sapiens). We defined 44 orthologous families that include most of these bHLH genes. Of these, 43 include both human and fly and/or worm genes, indicating that genes from these families were already present in the last common ancestor of worm, fly and human. Only two families contain both yeast and animal genes, and no family contains both plant and animal bHLH genes. We suggest that the diversification of bHLH genes is directly linked to the acquisition of multicellularity, and that important diversification of the bHLH repertoire occurred independently in animals and plants. Conclusions As the last common ancestor of worm, fly and human is also that of all bilaterian animals, our analysis indicates that this ancient ancestor must have possessed at least 43 different types of bHLH, highlighting its genomic complexity. PMID:12093377

  6. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family: Comparative Genomics and Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ledent, Valérie; Vervoort, Michel

    2001-01-01

    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins are transcription factors that play important roles during the development of various metazoans including fly, nematode, and vertebrates. They are also involved in human diseases, particularly in cancerogenesis. We made an extensive search for bHLH sequences in the completely sequenced genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and of Drosophila melanogaster. We found 35 and 56 different genes, respectively, which may represent the complete set of bHLH of these organisms. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes, together with a large number (>350) of bHLH from other sources, led us to define 44 orthologous families among which 36 include bHLH from animals only, and two have representatives in both yeasts and animals. In addition, we identified two bHLH motifs present only in yeast, and four that are present only in plants; however, the latter number is certainly an underestimate. Most animal families (35/38) comprise fly, nematode, and vertebrate genes, suggesting that their common ancestor, which lived in pre-Cambrian times (600 million years ago) already owned as many as 35 different bHLH genes. PMID:11337472

  7. Possible roles of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in adaptation to drought.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Graciela; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Spagnolo-Fonini, Leila; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

    2014-06-01

    Water deficiency decreases plant growth and productivity. Several mechanisms are activated in response to dehydration that allows plants to cope with stress, including factors controlling stomatal aperture and ramified root system development. In addition, ABA metabolism is also implicated in the regulation of drought responses. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, a large family of conserved transcription factors that regulates many cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms, are also involved in several responses that are important for plants to cope with drought stress. This review discusses distinct mechanisms related to drought-adaptive responses, especially the possible involvement of the bHLH transcription factors such as MUTE, implicated in stomatal development; RD22, [corrected] an ABA-responsive gene; EGL3 and GL3, involved in thichome and root hair development; and SPT, which play roles in repressing leaf expansion. Transcription factors are potential targets for new strategies to increase the tolerance of cultivars to drought stress. Recognition of gene regulatory networks in crops is challenging, and the manipulation of bHLH genes as well as components that mediate bHLH transcription factor responses in different pathways could be essential to achieve abiotic stress tolerance in plants through genetic manipulation.

  8. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  9. A genome-wide survey on basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chunwang; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Debao; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2011-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a critically endangered mammalian species. Studies on functions of regulatory proteins involved in developmental processes would facilitate understanding of specific behavior in giant panda. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse and human. Our present study identified 107 bHLH family members being encoded in giant panda genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they belong to 44 bHLH families with 46, 25, 15, 4, 11 and 3 members in group A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively, while the remaining 3 members were assigned into "orphan". Compared to mouse, the giant panda does not encode seven bHLH proteins namely Beta3a, Mesp2, Sclerax, S-Myc, Hes5 (or Hes6), EBF4 and Orphan 1. These results provide useful background information for future studies on structure and function of bHLH proteins in the regulation of giant panda development.

  10. Iron-binding E3 ligase mediates iron response in plants by targeting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W; Long, Terri A

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response.

  11. Specific Protein-Protein Interaction between Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors and Homeoproteins of the Pitx Family

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Gino; Lebel, Mélanie; Chamberland, Michel; Paradis, Francois W.; Drouin, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Homeoproteins and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are known for their critical role in development and cellular differentiation. The pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is a target for factors of both families. Indeed, pituitary-specific transcription of POMC depends on the action of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Pitx1 and of bHLH heterodimers containing NeuroD1. We now show lineage-restricted expression of NeuroD1 in pituitary corticotroph cells and a direct physical interaction between bHLH heterodimers and Pitx1 that results in transcriptional synergism. The interaction between the bHLH and homeodomains is restricted to ubiquitous (class A) bHLH and to the Pitx subfamily. Since bHLH heterodimers interact with Pitx factors through their ubiquitous moiety, this mechanism may be implicated in other developmental processes involving bHLH factors, such as neurogenesis and myogenesis. PMID:10848608

  12. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during...

  13. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF21 is a downstream target of the male sex determining gene SRY.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Clement, Tracy M; Skinner, Michael K

    2011-01-01

    The cascade of molecular events involved in mammalian sex determination has been shown to involve the SRY gene, but specific downstream events have eluded researchers for decades. The current study identifies one of the first direct downstream targets of the male sex determining factor SRY as the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor TCF21. SRY was found to bind to the Tcf21 promoter and activate gene expression. Mutagenesis of SRY/SOX9 response elements in the Tcf21 promoter eliminated the actions of SRY. SRY was found to directly associate with the Tcf21 promoter SRY/SOX9 response elements in vivo during fetal rat testis development. TCF21 was found to promote an in vitro sex reversal of embryonic ovarian cells to induce precursor Sertoli cell differentiation. TCF21 and SRY had similar effects on the in vitro sex reversal gonadal cell transcriptomes. Therefore, SRY acts directly on the Tcf21 promoter to in part initiate a cascade of events associated with Sertoli cell differentiation and embryonic testis development.

  14. Caught red-handed: Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein conditioning red pericarp in rice.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Megan T; Thomson, Michael J; Pfeil, Bernard E; McCouch, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Rc is a domestication-related gene required for red pericarp in rice (Oryza sativa). The red grain color is ubiquitous among the wild ancestors of O. sativa, in which it is closely associated with seed shattering and dormancy. Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that was fine-mapped to an 18.5-kb region on rice chromosome 7 using a cross between Oryza rufipogon (red pericarp) and O. sativa cv Jefferson (white pericarp). Sequencing of the alleles from both mapping parents as well as from two independent genetic stocks of Rc revealed that the dominant red allele differed from the recessive white allele by a 14-bp deletion within exon 6 that knocked out the bHLH domain of the protein. A premature stop codon was identified in the second mutant stock that had a light red pericarp. RT-PCR experiments confirmed that the Rc gene was expressed in both red- and white-grained rice but that a shortened transcript was present in white varieties. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by comparative mapping in rice and maize (Zea mays), showed that Rc, a positive regulator of proanthocyanidin, is orthologous with INTENSIFIER1, a negative regulator of anthocyanin production in maize, and is not in the same clade as rice bHLH anthocyanin regulators.

  15. GLABRA2 Directly Suppresses Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Genes with Diverse Functions in Root Hair Development

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yohei; Kato, Mariko; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana GLABRA2 (GL2) gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the cell differentiation of various epidermal tissues. During root hair pattern formation, GL2 suppresses root hair development in non-hair cells, acting as a node between the gene regulatory networks for cell fate determination and cell differentiation. Despite the importance of GL2 function, its molecular basis remains obscure because the GL2 target genes leading to the network for cell differentiation are unknown. We identified five basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 [RHD6], RHD6-LIKE1 [RSL1], RSL2, Lj-RHL1-LIKE1 [LRL1], and LRL2) as GL2 direct targets using transcriptional and posttranslational induction systems. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed GL2 binding to upstream regions of these genes in planta. Reporter gene analyses showed that these genes are expressed in various stages of root hair development and are suppressed by GL2 in non-hair cells. GL2 promoter-driven GFP fusions of LRL1 and LRL2, but not those of the other bHLH proteins, conferred root hair development on non-hair cells. These results indicate that GL2 directly suppresses bHLH genes with diverse functions in root hair development. PMID:26486447

  16. The basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor Mitf is conserved in Drosophila and functions in eye development.

    PubMed Central

    Hallsson, Jón H; Haflidadóttir, Benedikta S; Stivers, Chad; Odenwald, Ward; Arnheiter, Heinz; Pignoni, Francesca; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur

    2004-01-01

    The MITF protein is a member of the MYC family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors and is most closely related to the TFE3, TFEC, and TFEB proteins. In the mouse, MITF is required for the development of several different cell types, including the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye. In Mitf mutant mice, the presumptive RPE cells hyperproliferate, abnormally express the retinal transcriptional regulator Pax6, and form an ectopic neural retina. Here we report the structure of the Mitf gene in Drosophila and demonstrate expression during embryonic development and in the eye-antennal imaginal disc. In vitro, transcriptional regulation by Drosophila Mitf, like its mouse counterpart, is modified by the Eyeless (Drosophila Pax6) transcription factor. In vivo, targeted expression of wild-type or dominant-negative Drosophila Mitf results in developmental abnormalities reminiscent of Mitf function in mouse eye development. Our results suggest that the Mitf gene is the original member of the Mitf-Tfe subfamily of bHLH-Zip proteins and that its developmental function is at least partially conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. These findings further support the common origin of the vertebrate and invertebrate eyes. PMID:15166150

  17. Neuronal basic helix-loop-helix proteins Neurod2/6 regulate cortical commissure formation before midline interactions.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Ingo; Yan, Kuo; Yonemasu, Tomoko; Gummert, Maike; Zhang, Mingyue; Wichert, Sven; Grishina, Olga; Pieper, Alexander; Zhang, Weiqi; Goebbels, Sandra; Tarabykin, Victor; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H

    2013-01-09

    Establishment of long-range fiber tracts by neocortical projection neurons is fundamental for higher brain functions. The molecular control of axon tract formation, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we have identified basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Neurod2 and Neurod6 as key regulators of fasciculation and targeted axogenesis in the mouse neocortex. In Neurod2/6 double-mutant mice, callosal axons lack expression of the cell adhesion molecule Contactin2, defasciculate in the subventricular zone, and fail to grow toward the midline without forming Probst bundles. Instead, mutant axons overexpress Robo1 and follow random trajectories into the ipsilateral cortex. In contrast to long-range axogenesis, generation and maintenance of pyramidal neurons and initial axon outgrowth are grossly normal, suggesting that these processes are under distinct transcriptional control. Our findings define a new stage in corpus callosum development and demonstrate that neocortical projection neurons require transcriptional specification by neuronal bHLH proteins to execute an intrinsic program of remote connectivity.

  18. A genome-wide survey on basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zheng, X; Wang, Yong; Wang, Y; Yao, Qin; Yao, Q; Yang, Zhe; Yang, Z; Chen, Keping; Chen, K

    2009-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including nematode, fruit fly, and human. Our study identified 114 rat and 14 additional mouse bHLH members in rat and mouse genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both rat and mouse had 49, 26, 15, 4, 12, and 4 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Only the rat Mxi1 gene has two copies in the genome. All other rat bHLH genes and all mouse bHLH genes are single-copy genes. The chromosomal distribution pattern of mouse, rat, and human bHLH genes suggests the emergence of some bHLH genes through gene duplication, which probably happened at least before the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. The present study provides useful information for future studies using rat as a model animal for mammalian development.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in the genome of a typical human-disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Yun; Dong, Ying; Chang, Rui-Xue; Ang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Ran; Wu, Yan-Yan; Xu, Yi-Hui; Lu, Wen-Sheng; Zheng, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, is one of the most common human-disease vectors and transmits Borrelia species, such as B. burgdorferi, as well as Theileria microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etc. As basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been recognized for many years as important regulators of various developmental processes, we performed phylogenetic analysis of the black-legged tick genome in order to identify the number and family of bHLH transcription factors. Because bHLH family members have been identified in many organisms, including silkworm and fruit fly, we were able to conduct this survey and identify 58 putative bHLH transcription factors. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the black-legged tick has 26, 10, 9, 1, 9, and 1 member in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, whereas two were orphan genes. This analysis also revealed that unlike silkworm and fruit fly, the black-legged tick has no Mesp, Mlx, or TF4 family members, but has one more MyoRb family member. The present study provides useful background information for future studies of the black-legged tick as a disease vector with the goal of prevention and treatment. PMID:27904685

  20. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick S.; Watson, Carey L.; Ingram, Cameron; Helmrath, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenin3 (NEUROG3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for development of the endocrine pancreas in mice. In contrast, humans with NEUROG3 mutations are born with endocrine pancreas function, calling into question whether NEUROG3 is required for human endocrine pancreas development. To test this directly, we generated human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines where both alleles of NEUROG3 were disrupted using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting. NEUROG3−/− hESC lines efficiently formed pancreatic progenitors but lacked detectible NEUROG3 protein and did not form endocrine cells in vitro. Moreover, NEUROG3−/− hESC lines were unable to form mature pancreatic endocrine cells after engraftment of PDX1+/NKX6.1+ pancreatic progenitors into mice. In contrast, a 75–90% knockdown of NEUROG3 caused a reduction, but not a loss, of pancreatic endocrine cell development. We conclude that NEUROG3 is essential for endocrine pancreas development in humans and that as little as 10% NEUROG3 is sufficient for formation of pancreatic endocrine cells. PMID:25650326

  1. The grape berry-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor VvCEB1 affects cell size.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Philippe; Lecourieux, David; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, Fatma

    2013-02-01

    The development of fleshy fruits involves complex physiological and biochemical changes. After fertilization, fruit growth usually begins with cell division, continues with both cell division and expansion, allowing fruit set to occur, and ends with cell expansion only. In spite of the economical importance of grapevine, the molecular mechanisms controlling berry growth are not fully understood. The present work identified and characterized Vitis vinifera cell elongation bHLH protein (VvCEB1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor controlling cell expansion in grape. VvCEB1 was expressed specifically in berry-expanding tissues with a maximum around veraison. The study of VvCEB1 promoter activity in tomato confirmed its specific fruit expression during the expansion phase. Overexpression of VvCEB1 in grape embryos showed that this protein stimulates cell expansion and affects the expression of genes involved in cell expansion, including genes of auxin metabolism and signalling. Taken together, these data show that VvCEB1 is a fruit-specific bHLH transcription factor involved in grape berry development.

  2. Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J D; Zhang, W; Rudnick, A; Rutter, W J; German, M S

    1997-01-01

    LIM-homeodomain proteins direct cellular differentiation by activating transcription of cell-type-specific genes, but this activation requires cooperation with other nuclear factors. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1 cooperates with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein E47/Pan-1 to activate the insulin promoter in transfected fibroblasts. In this study, we show that two proteins originally called Lmx1 are the closely related products of two distinct vertebrate genes, Lmx1.1 and Lmx1.2. We have used yeast genetic systems to delineate the functional domains of the Lmx1 proteins and to characterize the physical interactions between Lmx1 proteins and E47/Pan-1 that produce synergistic transcriptional activation. The LIM domains of the Lmx1 proteins, and particularly the second LIM domain, mediate both specific physical interactions and transcriptional synergy with E47/Pan-1. The LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Isl-1, which cannot mediate transcriptional synergy with E47/Pan-1, do not interact with E47/Pan-1. In vitro studies demonstrate that the Lmx1.1 LIM2 domain interacts specifically with the bHLH domain of E47/Pan-1. These studies provide the basis for a model of the assembly of LIM-homeodomain-containing complexes on DNA elements that direct cell-type-restricted transcription in differentiated tissues. PMID:9199284

  3. Iron-Binding E3 Ligase Mediates Iron Response in Plants by Targeting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W.; Long, Terri A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response. PMID:25452667

  4. The activation domain of a basic helix-loop-helix protein is masked by repressor interaction with domains distinct from that required for transcription regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, P S; Hirst, K; Goding, C R

    1994-01-01

    While there are many examples of protein-protein interactions modulating the DNA-binding activity of transcription factors, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the transcription activation function. Using a two-hybrid system we show here that transcription repression of the basic domain/helix-loop-helix factor PHO4 is mediated by complex formation with the PHO80 repressor. In contrast to other systems, such as inhibition of GAL4 by GAL80 or of p53 by MDM2, where repression is mediated by direct interaction at regions overlapping the transcription activation domain, interaction with PHO80 involves two regions of PHO4 distinct from those involved in transcription activation or DNA-binding and dimerization. The possibility that repression of PHO4 by PHO80 may represent a general mechanism of transcription control, including regulation of the cell-type-specific transcription activation domain of c-Jun, is discussed. Images PMID:8187772

  5. Dynamic Antagonism between Phytochromes and PIF Family Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factors Induces Selective Reciprocal Responses to Light and Shade in a Rapidly Responsive Transcriptional Network in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to shade-modulated light signals via phytochrome (phy)-induced adaptive changes, termed shade avoidance. To examine the roles of Phytochrome-Interacting basic helix-loop-helix Factors, PIF1, 3, 4, and 5, in relaying such signals to the transcriptional network, we compared the shade-re...

  6. A genome-wide identification and classification of basic helix-loop-helix genes in the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xu-Hua; Tao, Xia-Fang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are highly conserved DNA-binding transcription factors of a large superfamily. Animal bHLH proteins play important regulatory roles in various developmental processes such as neurogenesis, myogenesis, heart development, and hematopoiesis. The jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis) is a good model organism of hymenoptera insects for studies of developmental and evolutionary genetics. In this study, we identified 48 bHLH genes in the genome of N. vitripennis. According to phylogenetic analysis, based on N. vitripennis bHLH (NvbHLH) motif sequences and structural domain distribution in their full-length protein sequences, the identified NvbHLH genes were classified into 36 bHLH families with 19, 12, 9, 1, 6, and 1 member(s) in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Our classification to the identified NvbHLH family members confirms GenBank annotations for 21 of the 48 NvbHLH proteins and provides useful information for further characterization and annotation of the remaining 27 NvbHLH proteins. Compared to other insect species, N. vitripennis has the lowest number of bHLH family members. No NvbHLH members have been found in the families Net, MyoRa, and PTFa, while all other insect species have at least one member in each of the families. These data constitute a solid basis for further investigations into the functions of bHLH proteins in developmental regulation of N. vitripennis.

  7. A Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors in Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Yuan, San-Yue; Wang, Wei-Xia; Chen, Xu; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in insects play essential roles in multiple developmental processes including neurogenesis, sterol metabolism, circadian rhythms, organogenesis and formation of olfactory sensory neurons. The identification and function analysis of bHLH family members of the most destructive insect pest of rice, Nilaparvata lugens, may provide novel tools for pest management. Here, a genome-wide survey for bHLH sequences identified 60 bHLH sequences (NlbHLHs) encoded in the draft genome of N. lugens. Phylogenetic analysis of the bHLH domains successfully classified these genes into 40 bHLH families in group A (25), B (14), C (10), D (1), E (8) and F (2). The number of NlbHLHs with introns is higher than many other insect species, and the average intron length is shorter than those of Acyrthosiphon pisum. High number of ortholog families of NlbHLHs was found suggesting functional conversation for these proteins. Compared to other insect species studied, N. lugens has the highest number of bHLH members. Furthermore, gene duplication events of SREBP, Kn(col), Tap, Delilah, Sim, Ato and Crp were found in N. lugens. In addition, a putative full set of NlbHLH genes is defined and compared with another insect species. Thus, our classification of these NlbHLH members provides a platform for further investigations of bHLH protein functions in the regulation of N. lugens, and of insects in general. PMID:27869716

  8. Transcriptome-wide analysis of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in Isatis indigotica and their methyl jasmonate responsive expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Junfeng; Li, Qing; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) act as conserved elicitors of plant secondary metabolism. JAs perception triggers extensive transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the entire metabolic pathways. The family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) has essential roles in JA signaling; however, little is known about their roles in regulation of secondary metabolites in Isatis indigotica. In this study, we identified 78 putative IibHLH sequences using the annotation of I. indigotica transcriptome. The identified proteins were characterized based on phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses. Using RNA sequencing, 16 IibHLHs showed significant positive response to MeJA (methyl jasmonate) at 1h, indicating their roles as early signaling events of JA-mediated transcriptional reprogramming. Ten IibHLHs presented co-expression pattern with biosynthetic pathway genes, suggesting their regulating role in secondary metabolite synthesis. These gene expression profiling data indicate that bHLHs can be used as candidate genes in molecular breeding programs to improve metabolite production in I. indigotica.

  9. Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis, insect performance, and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Fabian; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Zander, Mark; Diez-Diaz, Monica; Fonseca, Sandra; Glauser, Gaétan; Lewsey, Mathew G; Ecker, Joseph R; Solano, Roberto; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants fend off insect attack by constitutive and inducible production of toxic metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSs). A triple mutant lacking MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are known to additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, was shown to have a highly reduced expression of GS biosynthesis genes. The myc2 myc3 myc4 (myc234) triple mutant was almost completely devoid of GS and was extremely susceptible to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. On the contrary, the specialist Pieris brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and preferred to feed on wild-type plants. In addition, lack of GS in myc234 drastically modified S. littoralis feeding behavior. Surprisingly, the expression of MYB factors known to regulate GS biosynthesis genes was not altered in myc234, suggesting that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 are necessary for direct transcriptional activation of GS biosynthesis genes. To support this, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MYC2 binds directly to the promoter of several GS biosynthesis genes in vivo. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments indicated that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 interact directly with GS-related MYBs. This specific MYC-MYB interaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of defense secondary metabolite production and underlines the importance of GS in shaping plant interactions with adapted and nonadapted herbivores.

  10. Targeted disruption of NeuroD, a proneural basic helix-loop-helix factor, impairs distal lung formation and neuroendocrine morphology in the neonatal lung.

    PubMed

    Neptune, Enid R; Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Cho, Jang-Hyeon; Garcia, Joe G N; Tuder, Rubin; Linnoila, R Ilona; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Dietz, Harry C

    2008-07-25

    Despite the importance of airspace integrity in vertebrate gas exchange, the molecular pathways that instruct distal lung formation are poorly understood. Recently, we found that fibrillin-1 deficiency in mice impairs alveolar formation and recapitulates the pulmonary features of human Marfan syndrome. To further elucidate effectors involved in distal lung formation, we performed expression profiling analysis comparing the fibrillin-1-deficient and wild-type developing lung. NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, fulfilled the expression criteria for a candidate mediator of distal lung development. We investigated its role in murine lung development using genetically targeted NeuroD-deficient mice. We found that NeuroD deficiency results in both impaired alveolar septation and altered morphology of the pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. NeuroD-deficient mice had enlarged alveoli associated with reduced epithelial proliferation in the airway and airspace compartments during development. Additionally, the neuroendocrine compartment in these mice manifested an increased number of neuroepithelial bodies but a reduced number of solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in the neonatal lung. Overexpression of NeuroD in a murine lung epithelial cell line conferred a neuroendocrine phenotype characterized by the induction of neuroendocrine markers as well as increased proliferation. These results support an unanticipated role for NeuroD in the regulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine and alveolar morphogenesis and suggest an intimate connection between the neuroendocrine compartment and distal lung development.

  11. Tracheophytes Contain Conserved Orthologs of a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor That Modulate ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC Genes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Min

    2017-01-01

    ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC (RHS) genes, which contain the root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) in their regulatory regions, function in root hair morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that an Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ROOT HAIR DEFECTVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4), directly binds to the RHE in vitro and in vivo, upregulates RHS genes, and stimulates root hair formation in Arabidopsis. Orthologs of RSL4 from a eudicot (poplar [Populus trichocarpa]), a monocot (rice [Oryza sativa]), and a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) each restored root hair growth in the Arabidopsis rsl4 mutant. In addition, the rice and S. moellendorffii RSL4 orthologs bound to the RHE in in vitro and in vivo assays. The RSL4 orthologous genes contain RHEs in their promoter regions, and RSL4 was able to bind to its own RHEs in vivo and amplify its own expression. This process likely provides a positive feedback loop for sustainable root hair growth. When RSL4 and its orthologs were expressed in cells in non-root-hair positions, they induced ectopic root hair growth, indicating that these genes are sufficient to specify root hair formation. Our results suggest that RSL4 mediates root hair formation by regulating RHS genes and that this mechanism is conserved throughout the tracheophyte (vascular plant) lineage. PMID:28087829

  12. HEN1 and HEN2: a subgroup of basic helix-loop-helix genes that are coexpressed in a human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L; Espinosa, R; Le Beau, M M; Siciliano, M J; Baer, R

    1992-01-01

    An important family of regulatory molecules is made up of proteins that possess the DNA-binding and dimerization motif known as the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. The bHLH family includes subgroups of closely related proteins that share common functional properties and overlapping patterns of expression (e.g., the MyoD1 and achaete-scute subgroups). In this report we describe HEN1 and HEN2, mammalian genes that encode a distinct subgroup of bHLH proteins. The HEN1 gene was identified on the basis of cross-hybridization with TAL1, a known bHLH gene implicated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In situ fluorescence hybridization was used to localize the human HEN1 gene to chromosome band 1q22. HEN1 and HEN2 are coexpressed in the IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line, and they encode highly related proteins of 133 and 135 residues, respectively, that share 98% amino acid identity in their hHLH domains. These data imply that the bHLH protein subgroup encoded by HEN1 and HEN2 may serve important regulatory functions in the developing nervous system. Images PMID:1528853

  13. Drosophila CK2 phosphorylates Deadpan, a member of the HES family of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) repressors.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Umesh C; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bishop, Clifton P; Bidwai, Ashok P

    2005-06-01

    In Drosophila, protein kinase CK2 regulates a diverse array of developmental processes. One of these is cell-fate specification (neurogenesis) wherein CK2 regulates basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) repressors encoded by the Enhancer of Split Complex (E(spl)C). Specifically, CK2 phosphorylates and activates repressor functions of E(spl)M8 during eye development. In this study we describe the interaction of CK2 with an E(spl)-related bHLH repressor, Deadpan (Dpn). Unlike E(spl)-repressors which are expressed in cells destined for a non-neural cell fate, Dpn is expressed in the neuronal cells and is thought to control the activity of proneural genes. Dpn also regulates sex-determination by repressing sxl, the primary gene involved in sex differentiation. We demonstrate that Dpn is weakly phosphorylated by monomeric CK2alpha, whereas it is robustly phosphorylated by the embryo-holoenzyme, suggesting a positive role for CK2beta. The weak phosphorylation by CK2alpha is markedly stimulated by the activator polylysine to levels comparable to those with the holoenzyme. In addition, pull down assays indicate a direct interaction between Dpn and CK2. This is the first demonstration that Dpn is a partner and target of CK2, and raises the possibility that its repressor functions might also be regulated by phosphorylation.

  14. Molecular characterization of cold-responsive basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MabHLHs that interact with MaICE1 in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-Huan; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2013-11-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are ubiquitously involved in the response of higher plants to various abiotic stresses. However, little is known about bHLH TFs involved in the cold stress response in economically important fruits. Here, five novel full-length bHLH genes, designated as MabHLH1-MabHLH5, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Gene expression profiles revealed that MabHLH1/2/4 were induced by cold stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient assays in tobacco BY2 protoplasts showed that MabHLH1/2/4 promoters were activated by cold stress and MeJA treatments. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MabHLH1/2/4 not only physically interacted with each other to form hetero-dimers in the nucleus, but also interacted with an important upstream component of cold signaling MaICE1, with different interaction domains at their N-terminus. These results indicate that banana fruit cold-responsive MabHLHs may form a big protein complex in the nucleus with MaICE1. Taken together, our findings advance our understanding of the possible involvement of bHLH TFs in the regulatory network of ICE-CBF cold signaling pathway.

  15. Clade IVa Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Form Part of a Conserved Jasmonate Signaling Circuit for the Regulation of Bioactive Plant Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Jan; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Plants produce many bioactive, specialized metabolites to defend themselves when facing various stress situations. Their biosynthesis is directed by a tightly controlled regulatory circuit that is elicited by phytohormones such as jasmonate (JA). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species. In this study, we report that promoters of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the specific terpenoid pathway of one of these species can be transactivated by the orthologous bHLH factor from the other species through recognition of the same cis-regulatory elements. Accordingly, ectopic expression of CrBIS1 in M. truncatula hairy roots up-regulated the expression of all genes required for soyasaponin production, resulting in strongly increased levels of soyasaponins in the transformed roots. Likewise, transient expression of MtTSAR1 and MtTSAR2 in C. roseus petals led to up-regulation of the genes involved in the iridoid branch of the MIA pathway. Together, our data illustrate the functional similarity of these JA-inducible TFs and indicate that recruitment of defined cis-regulatory elements constitutes an important aspect of the evolution of conserved regulatory modules for the activation of species-specific terpenoid biosynthesis pathways by common signals such as the JA phytohormones.

  16. The grapevine basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor positively modulates CBF-pathway and confers tolerance to cold-stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weirong; Zhang, Ningbo; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; Xiao, Dongming; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-08-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors play diverse roles in plant physiological response and stress-adaptive regulation network. Here, we identified one grapevine bHLH transcription factor from a cold-tolerant accession 'Heilongjiang seedling' of Chinese wild Vitis amurensis (VabHLH1) as a transcriptional activator involved in cold stress. We also compared with its counterpart from a cold-sensitive Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (VvbHLH1). These two putative proteins are characterized by the presence of the identically conserved regions of 54 amino acid residues of bHLH signature domain, and shared 99.1% amino acid identity, whereas several stress-related cis-regulatory elements located in both promoter regions differed in types and positions. Expressions of two bHLHs in grapevine leaves were induced by cold stress, but evidently differ between two grapevine genotypes upon cold exposure. Two grapevine bHLH proteins were exclusively localized to the nucleus and exhibited strong transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells. Overexpression of either VabHLH1 or VvbHLH1 transcription factor did not affect the growth and development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants, but enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The improved tolerance in VabHLH1- or VvbHLH1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants is associated with multiple physiological and biochemical changes that occurred during the time-course cold stress. These most common changes include the evaluated levels of proline, decreased amounts of malondialdehyde and reduced membrane injury as reflected by electrolyte leakage. VabHLH1 and VvbHLH1 displayed overlapping, but not identical, roles in activating the corresponding CBF cold signaling pathway, especially in regulating the expression of CBF3 and RD29A. Our findings demonstrated that two grapevine bHLHs act as positive regulators of the cold stress response, modulating the level of COR gene expression, which in turn confer tolerance to cold

  17. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bmsage is involved in regulation of fibroin H-chain gene via interaction with SGF1 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Chun; Li, Qiong-Yan; Hu, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Meng-Ting; Nie, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Yin-Xia; Peng, Zhang-Chuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qing-You

    2014-01-01

    Silk glands are specialized in the synthesis of several secretory proteins. Expression of genes encoding the silk proteins in Bombyx mori silk glands with strict territorial and developmental specificities is regulated by many transcription factors. In this study, we have characterized B. mori sage, which is closely related to sage in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. It is termed Bmsage; it encodes transcription factor Bmsage, which belongs to the Mesp subfamily, containing a basic helix-loop-helix motif. Bmsage transcripts were detected specifically in the silk glands of B. mori larvae through RT-PCR analysis. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed the Bmsage protein existed exclusively in B. mori middle and posterior silk gland cells. Bmsage has a low level of expression in the 4th instar molting stages, which increases gradually in the 5th instar feeding stages and then declines from the wandering to the pupation stages. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested the expression level of Bmsage in a high silk strain was higher compared to a lower silk strain on day 3 of the larval 5th instar. Furthermore, far western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the Bmsage protein interacted with the fork head transcription factor silk gland factor 1 (SGF1). An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the complex of Bmsage and SGF1 proteins bound to the A and B elements in the promoter of fibroin H-chain gene(fib-H), respectively. Luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the complex of Bmsage and SGF1 proteins increased the expression of fib-H. Together, these results suggest Bmsage is involved in the regulation of the expression of fib-H by being together with SGF1 in B. mori PSG cells.

  18. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 - Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar.

    PubMed

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems.

  19. Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac alpha-myosin heavy-chain gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M P; Amin, C S; Gupta, M; Hay, N; Zak, R

    1997-01-01

    The M-CAT binding factor transcription enhancer factor 1 (TEF-1) has been implicated in the regulation of several cardiac and skeletal muscle genes. Previously, we identified an E-box-M-CAT hybrid (EM) motif that is responsible for the basal and cyclic AMP-inducible expression of the rat cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) gene in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we report that two factors, TEF-1 and a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein, Max, bind to the alpha-MHC EM motif. We also found that Max was a part of the cardiac troponin T M-CAT-TEF-1 complex even when the DNA template did not contain an apparent E-box binding site. In the protein-protein interaction assay, a stable association of Max with TEF-1 was observed when glutathione S-transferase (GST)-TEF-1 or GST-Max was used to pull down in vitro-translated Max or TEF-1, respectively. In addition, Max was coimmunoprecipitated with TEF-1, thus documenting an in vivo TEF-1-Max interaction. In the transient transcription assay, overexpression of either Max or TEF-1 resulted a mild activation of the alpha-MHC-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene at lower concentrations and repression of this gene at higher concentrations. However, when Max and TEF-1 expression plasmids were transfected together, the repression mediated by a single expression plasmid was alleviated and a three- to fourfold transactivation of the alpha-MHC-CAT reporter gene was observed. This effect was abolished once the EM motif in the promoter-reporter construct was mutated, thus suggesting that the synergistic transactivation function of the TEF-1-Max heterotypic complex is mediated through binding of the complex to the EM motif. These results demonstrate a novel association between Max and TEF-1 and indicate a positive cooperation between these two factors in alpha-MHC gene regulation. PMID:9199327

  20. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Seol Ah Choi, Young-Im Cho, Jin-Seong Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  1. Proprotein convertase PACE4 is down-regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor hASH-1 and MASH-1.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Koide, S; Hasegawa, S I; Nakagawara, A; Tsuji, A; Matsuda, Y

    2001-12-15

    PACE4 is a mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase that activates transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-related proteins such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), BMP4 and Nodal and exhibits a dynamic expression pattern during embryogenesis. We recently determined that the 1 kb 5'-upstream region of the PACE4 gene contains 12 E-box (E1-E12) elements and that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) acts as a negative regulator [Tsuji, Yoshida, Hasegawa, Bando, Yoshida, Koide, Mori and Matsuda (1999) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 126, 494-502]. It is known that the mammalian achaete-scute homologue 1 (MASH-1) binds specifically to an E-box (CACCTG) sequence in collaboration with E47, a ubiquitously expressed basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor. To identify the roles of the bHLH factor and E-box elements in regulating PACE4 gene expression in neural development, we analysed the effects of human achaete-scute homologue 1 (hASH-1) on PACE4 gene expression with various neuroblastoma cell lines. The expressions of PACE4 and hASH-1 are correlated inversely in these cell lines. The overexpression of hASH-1 or MASH-1 causes a marked decrease in endogenous PACE4 gene expression but has no effect on the expression of other subtilisin-like proprotein convertases such as furin, PC5/6 and PC7/8. In contrast, other neural bHLH factors (MATH-1, MATH-2, neurogenin 1, neurogenin 2, neurogenin 3 and E47) did not affect PACE4 gene expression. Furthermore, an E-box cluster was a negative regulatory element for the promoter activity in NBL-S cells expressing hASH-1 at high level as determined by a luciferase assay. Binding of hASH-1 to the E-box cluster was confirmed by gel mobility-shift assay. In the present study we identified the PACE4 gene as one of the targets of hASH-1, which is a key factor in the initiation of neural differentiation. These results suggest that the alteration of PACE4 gene expression by hASH-1 causes rapid changes in the biological activities of TGF-beta-related proteins via

  2. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  3. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  4. Ectopic Expression of a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Gene Transactivates Parallel Pathways of Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis. Structure, Expression Analysis, and Genetic Control of Leucoanthocyanidin 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Genes in Lotus corniculatus1[W

    PubMed Central

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P.; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis. PMID:17098849

  5. mTFE3, an X-linked transcriptional activator containing basic helix-loop-helix and zipper domains, utilizes the zipper to stabilize both DNA binding and multimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Roman, C; Matera, A G; Cooper, C; Artandi, S; Blain, S; Ward, D C; Calame, K

    1992-01-01

    Southwestern (DNA-protein) screening of a murine L-cell cDNA library by using a probe for the microE3 site in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer yielded a clone, mTFE3, which is a member of the subset of basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) proteins that also contain a leucine zipper (ZIP). Since the individual contribution of these domains is not well understood for proteins which contain them both, mutational analyses were performed to assess the functional roles of the HLH and ZIP regions for DNA binding and multimerization. The HLH region is stringently required for DNA binding but not for multimerization. The ZIP region is not stringently required for binding or multimerization, but stabilizes both multimer formation and DNA binding. A high degree of conservation at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels between the human transcription factor TFE3 and mTFE3 suggests that mTFE3 is the murine homolog of human TFE3. By using fluorescent in situ hybridization, mTFE3 was mapped to mouse chromosome X in band A2, which is just below the centromere. We show that in addition to the immunoglobulin heavy-chain microE3 site, mTFE3 binds to transcriptional elements important for lymphoid-specific, muscle-specific, and ubiquitously expressed genes. Binding of mTFE3 to DNA induces DNA bending. Images PMID:1732746

  6. Ectopic expression of a basic helix-loop-helix gene transactivates parallel pathways of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. structure, expression analysis, and genetic control of leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis.

  7. Specificity for the hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S R; Turner, D L; Weintraub, H; Parkhurst, S M

    1995-12-01

    The Hairy/Enhancer of split/Deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins function as transcriptional repressors. We have examined the mechanisms of repression used by the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins by assaying the antagonism between wild-type or altered Hairy/E(SPL) and Scute bHLH proteins during sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Domain swapping and mutagenesis of the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins show that three evolutionarily conserved domains are required for their function: the bHLH, Orange, and WRPW domains. However, the suppression of Scute activity by Hairy does not require the WRPW domain. We show that the Orange domain is an important functional domain that confers specificity among members of the Hairy/E(SPL) family. In addition, we show that a Xenopus Hairy homology conserves not only Hairy's structure but also its biological activity in our assays. We propose that transcriptional repression by the Hairy/E(SPL) family of bHLH proteins involves two separable mechanisms: repression of specific transcriptional activators, such as Scute, through the bHLH and Orange domains and repression of other activators via interaction of the C-terminal WRPW motif with corepressors, such as the Groucho protein.

  8. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as an inhibitor of ID-1, -2 and -3 and promotes basic helix loop helix (bHLH) E47 DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Chinaranagari, Swathi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-05-01

    The four known ID proteins (ID1-4, Inhibitor of Differentiation) share a homologous helix loop helix (HLH) domain and act as dominant negative regulators of basic-HLH transcription factors. ID proteins also interact with many non-bHLH proteins in complex networks. The expression of ID proteins is increasingly observed in many cancers. Whereas ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3, are generally considered as tumor promoters, ID4 on the contrary has emerged as a tumor suppressor. In this study we demonstrate that ID4 heterodimerizes with ID-1, -2 and -3 and promote bHLH DNA binding, essentially acting as an inhibitor of inhibitors of differentiation proteins. Interaction of ID4 was observed with ID1, ID2 and ID3 that was dependent on intact HLH domain of ID4. Interaction with bHLH protein E47 required almost 3 fold higher concentration of ID4 as compared to ID1. Furthermore, inhibition of E47 DNA binding by ID1 was restored by ID4 in an EMSA binding assay. ID4 and ID1 were also colocalized in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The alpha helix forming alanine stretch N-terminal, unique to HLH ID4 domain was required for optimum interaction. Ectopic expression of ID4 in DU145 prostate cancer line promoted E47 dependent expression of CDKNI p21. Thus counteracting the biological activities of ID-1, -2 and -3 by forming inactive heterodimers appears to be a novel mechanism of action of ID4. These results could have far reaching consequences in developing strategies to target ID proteins for cancer therapy and understanding biologically relevant ID-interactions.

  9. A Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, PtrbHLH, of Poncirus trifoliata Confers Cold Tolerance and Modulates Peroxidase-Mediated Scavenging of Hydrogen Peroxide1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-San; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in a variety of physiological processes. However, plant bHLHs functioning in cold tolerance and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PtrbHLH isolated from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata). The transcript levels of PtrbHLH were up-regulated under various abiotic stresses, particularly cold. PtrbHLH was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. Overexpression of PtrbHLH in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) or lemon (Citrus limon) conferred enhanced tolerance to cold under chilling or freezing temperatures, whereas down-regulation of PtrbHLH in trifoliate orange by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in elevated cold sensitivity. A range of stress-responsive genes was up-regulated or down-regulated in the transgenic lemon. Of special note, several peroxidase (POD) genes were induced after cold treatment. Compared with the wild type, POD activity was increased in the overexpression plants but decreased in the RNAi plants, which was inversely correlated with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the tested lines. Treatment of the transgenic tobacco plants with POD inhibitors elevated the H2O2 levels and greatly compromised their cold tolerance, while exogenous replenishment of POD enhanced cold tolerance of the RNAi line. In addition, transgenic tobacco and lemon plants were more tolerant to oxidative stresses. Yeast one-hybrid assay and transient expression analysis demonstrated that PtrbHLH could bind to the E-box elements in the promoter region of a POD gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrbHLH plays an important role in cold tolerance, at least in part, by positively regulating POD-mediated reactive oxygen species removal. PMID:23624854

  10. The neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to confer tolerance of neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells to the mitochondrial stressor rotenone

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Kristin Kathleen; Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2012-10-15

    The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 induces mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroprogenitor-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic reserve of the neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 confers tolerance to rotenone via an adaptive

  11. Backbone dynamics of a symmetric calmodulin dimer in complex with the calmodulin-binding domain of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF2-1/E2-2: a highly dynamic complex.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Göran; Schleucher, Jürgen; Onions, Jacqueline; Hermann, Stefan; Grundström, Thomas; Wijmenga, Sybren S

    2005-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) interacts specifically as a dimer with some dimeric basic-Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors via a novel high affinity binding mode. Here we report a study of the backbone dynamics by (15)N-spin relaxation on the CaM dimer in complex with a dimeric peptide that mimics the CaM binding region of the bHLH transcription factor SEF2-1. The relaxation data were measured at multiple magnetic fields, and analyzed in a model-free manner using in-house written software designed to detect nanosecond internal motion. Besides picosecond motions, all residues also experience internal motion with an effective correlation time of approximately 2.5 ns with squared order parameter (S(2)) of approximately 0.75. Hydrodynamic calculations suggest that this can be attributed to motions of the N- and C-terminal domains of the CaM dimer in the complex. Moreover, residues with significant exchange broadening are found. They are clustered in the CaM:SEF2-1mp binding interface, the CaM:CaM dimer interface, and in the flexible helix connecting the CaM N- and C-terminal domains, and have similar exchange times (approximately 50 micros), suggesting a cooperative mechanism probably caused by protein:protein interactions. The dynamic features presented here support the conclusion that the conformationally heterogeneous bHLH mimicking peptide trapped inside the CaM dimer exchanges between different binding sites on both nanosecond and microsecond timescales. Nature has thus found a way to specifically recognize a relatively ill-fitting target. This novel mode of target-specific binding, which neither belongs to lock-and-key nor induced-fit binding, is characterized by dimerization and continuous exchange between multiple flexible binding alternatives.

  12. Dynamic antagonism between phytochromes and PIF family basic helix-loop-helix factors induces selective reciprocal responses to light and shade in a rapidly responsive transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Leivar, Pablo; Tepperman, James M; Cohn, Megan M; Monte, Elena; Al-Sady, Bassem; Erickson, Erika; Quail, Peter H

    2012-04-01

    Plants respond to shade-modulated light signals via phytochrome (phy)-induced adaptive changes, termed shade avoidance. To examine the roles of Phytochrome-Interacting basic helix-loop-helix Factors, PIF1, 3, 4, and 5, in relaying such signals to the transcriptional network, we compared the shade-responsive transcriptome profiles of wild-type and quadruple pif (pifq) mutants. We identify a subset of genes, enriched in transcription factor-encoding loci, that respond rapidly to shade, in a PIF-dependent manner, and contain promoter G-box motifs, known to bind PIFs. These genes are potential direct targets of phy-PIF signaling that regulate the primary downstream transcriptional circuitry. A second subset of PIF-dependent, early response genes, lacking G-box motifs, are enriched for auxin-responsive loci, and are thus potentially indirect targets of phy-PIF signaling, mediating the rapid cell expansion induced by shade. Comparing deetiolation- and shade-responsive transcriptomes identifies another subset of G-box-containing genes that reciprocally display rapid repression and induction in response to light and shade signals. These data define a core set of transcriptional and hormonal processes that appear to be dynamically poised to react rapidly to light-environment changes via perturbations in the mutually antagonistic actions of the phys and PIFs. Comparing the responsiveness of the pifq and triple pif mutants to light and shade confirms that the PIFs act with overlapping redundancy on seedling morphogenesis and transcriptional regulation but that each PIF contributes differentially to these responses.

  13. Myc/Max and other helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper proteins bend DNA toward the minor groove.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D E; Parent, L A; Sharp, P A

    1992-01-01

    A distinct family of DNA-binding proteins is characterized by the presence of adjacent "basic," helix-loop-helix, and leucine zipper domains. Members of this family include the Myc oncoproteins, their binding partner Max, and the mammalian transcription factors USF, TFE3, and TFEB. Consistent with their homologous domains, these proteins bind to DNA containing the same core hexanucleotide sequence CACGTG. Analysis of the conformation of DNA in protein-DNA complexes has been undertaken with a circular permutation assay. Large mobility anomalies were detected for all basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper proteins tested, suggesting that each protein induced a similar degree of bending. Phasing analysis revealed that basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper proteins orient the DNA bend toward the minor groove. The presence of in-phase spacing between adjacent binding sites for this family of proteins in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer suggests the possible formation of an unusual triple-bended structure and may have implications for the activities of Myc. Images PMID:1465398

  14. E-proteins and ID-proteins: Helix-loop-helix partners in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins represent a well-known class of transcriptional regulators. Many bHLH proteins act as heterodimers with members of a class of ubiquitous partners, the E-proteins. A widely-expressed class of inhibitory heterodimer partners- the Inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) proteins- also exists. Genetic and molecular analyses in humans and in knockout mice implicate E-proteins and ID-proteins in a wide variety of diseases, belying the notion that they are non-specific partner proteins. Here, we explore relationships of E-proteins and ID-proteins to a variety of disease processes and highlight gaps in knowledge of disease mechanisms. PMID:26555048

  15. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, P.; Hara, E.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses {beta}-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). The authors show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. The authors suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  16. The helix-loop-helix Id-1 inhibits PSA expression in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Anne J; Fong, Sylvia; Allison, Juanita; Kawahara, Misako; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Feiler, Heidi; Lee, Nancy M; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2010-05-15

    The inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, Id-1, is an important gene whose expression increases during prostate cancer progression and that upregulates proliferation, migration and invasion. We used microarray analysis to identify the downstream genes whose transcriptional expression is modulated by Id-1 protein. We compared gene expression in control LNCaP cells and Id-1-transduced LNCaP cells, which become significantly more aggressive after Id-1 overexpression, thus mimicking the high levels of Id-1 detected in metastatic cell lines. We used the Affy HTA U133A Expression Arrays with 45,000 probe sets representing more than 39,000 transcripts. We found that one of the most significantly downregulated genes on Id-1 expression was kallikrein 3 [also called prostate specific antigen (PSA)], the most commonly used biomarker of prostate cancer. Here, we show that the reduction in PSA mRNA and protein expression associated with high-grade prostate cancers, which generally express high levels of Id-1, could be the consequence of Id-1 overexpression.

  17. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  18. Preferred sequences for DNA recognition by the TAL1 helix-loop-helix proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hai-Ling Hsu; Lan Huang; Julia Tsou Tsan

    1994-02-01

    Tumor-specific activation of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic alteration seen in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The TAL1 gene products contain the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain, a protein dimerization and DNA-binding motif common to several known transcription factors. A binding-site selection procedure has now been used to evaluate the DNA recognition properties of TAL1. These studies demonstrate that TAL1 polypeptides do not have intrinsic DNA-binding activity, presumably because of their inability to form bHLH homodimers. However, TAL1 readily interacts with any of the known class A bHLH proteins (E12, E47, E2-2, and HEB) to form heterodimers that bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The TAL1 heterodimers preferentially recognize a subset of E-box elements (CANNTG) that can be represented by the consensus sequence AACAGATGGT. This consensus is composed of half-sites for recognition by the participating class A bHLH polypeptide (AACAG) and the TAL1 polypeptide (ATGGT). TAL1 heterodimers with DNA-binding activity are readily detected in nuclear extracts of Jurkat, a leukemic cell line derived from a patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hence, TAL1 is likely to bind and regulate the transcription of a unique subset of subordinate target genes, some of which may mediate the malignant function of TAL1 during T-cell leukemogenesis. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Characterization of a helix-loop-helix (EF hand) motif of silver hake parvalbumin isoform B.

    PubMed

    Revett, S P; King, G; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Hartman, K L; Laue, T M; Nelson, D J

    1997-11-01

    Parvalbumins are a class of calcium-binding proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix (EF-hand) motifs. It is suspected that these proteins evolved via intragene duplication from a single EF-hand. Silver hake parvalbumin (SHPV) consists of three EF-type helix-loop-helix regions, two of which have the ability to bind calcium. The three helix-loop-helix motifs are designated AB, CD, and EF, respectively. In this study, native silver hake parvalbumin isoform B (SHPV-B) has been sequenced by mass spectrometry. The sequence indicates that this parvalbumin is a beta-lineage parvalbumin. SHPV-B was cleaved into two major fragments, consisting of the ABCD and EF regions of the native protein. The 33-amino acid EF fragment (residues 76-108), containing one of the calcium ion binding sites in native SHPV-B, has been isolated and studied for its structural characteristics, ability to bind divalent and trivalent cations, and for its propensity to undergo metal ion-induced self-association. The presence of Ca2+ does not induce significant secondary structure in the EF fragment. However, NMR and CD results indicate significant secondary structure promotion in the EF fragment in the presence of the higher charge-density trivalent cations. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis results show that the EF fragment exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium when complexed with La3+.

  20. Molecular consequences of Ds insertion into and excision from the helix-loop-helix domain of the maize R gene.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Wang, L; Kermicle, J L; Wessler, S R

    1998-01-01

    The R and B proteins of maize are required to activate the transcription of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. To determine the structural requirements for R function in vivo, we are exploiting its sensitive mutant phenotype to identify transposon (Ds) insertions that disrupt critical domains. Here we report that the ability of the r-m1 allele to activate transcription of at least three structural genes is reduced to only 2% of wild-type activity because of a 396-bp Ds element in helix 2 of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif. Residual activity likely results from the synthesis of a mutant protein that contains seven additional amino acids in helix 2. This protein is encoded by a transcript where most of the Ds sequence has been spliced from pre-mRNA. Two phenotypic classes of stable derivative alleles, very pale and extremely pale, condition <1% of wild-type activity as a result of the presence of two- and three-amino-acid insertions, respectively, at the site of Ds excision. Localization of these mutant proteins to the nucleus indicates a requirement for an intact bHLH domain after nuclear import. The fact that deletion of the entire bHLH domain has only a minor effect on R protein activity while these small insertions virtually abolish activity suggests that deletion of the bHLH domain may bypass a requirement for bHLH-mediated protein-protein interactions in the activation of the structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9832539

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the Sex-lethal gene by helix-loop-helix proteins.

    PubMed

    Hoshijima, K; Kohyama, A; Watakabe, I; Inoue, K; Sakamoto, H; Shimura, Y

    1995-09-11

    Somatic sex determination in Drosophila depends on the expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl), whose level is determined by the relative number of X chromosomes and sets of autosomes (X:A ratio). The first step in regulation of Sxl expression is transcriptional control from its early promoter and several genes encoding transcription factors of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family such as daughterless (da), sisterless-b (sis-b), deadpan (dpn) and extramacrochaetae (emc) have been implicated. By the use of transfection assays and in vitro binding experiments, here we show that da/sis-b heterodimers bind several sites on the Sxl early promoter with different affinities and consequently tune the level of active transcription from this promoter. Interestingly, our data indicate that repression by the dpn product of da/sis-b dependent activation results from specific binding of dpn protein to a unique site within the promoter. This contrasts with the mode of emc repression, which inhibits the formation of the da/sis-b heterodimers. These results reveal the molecular mechanisms by which Sxl gene transcription is positively or negatively regulated to control somatic sex determination.

  2. BuD, a helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification.

    PubMed

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein-DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing `toolkits' for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix-loop-helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  3. Molecular cloning of ID4, a novel dominant negative helix-loop-helix human gene on chromosome 6p21.3-p22

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliuca, A.; Bartoli, P.C.; Saccone, S.

    1995-05-01

    Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate the expression of tissue-specific genes in a number of mammalian and insect systems. DNA-binding activity of the bHLH proteins is dependent upon formation of homo- and/or heterodimers. Dominant negative HLH proteins (Id-related genes) also contain the HLH-dimerization domain but lack the DNA-binding basic domain. Consequently, Id proteins inhibit binding to DNA and transcriptional transactivation by heterodimerization with bHLH proteins. The authors report here the cDNA sequence of a novel human HLH gene (HGMW-approved symbol ID4) that lacks the basic domain. ID4 is differentially expressed in adult organs in four mRNA molecules, which are presumably a result of differential splicing and/or alternative usage of the polyadenylation sites. Transfection experiments indicated that enforced expression of Id-4H protein inhibits the trans-activation of the muscle creatine kinase E-box enhancer by MyoD. Finally, the authors localized the ID4 gene to the chromosome 6p21-p22 region. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Disruption of alpha beta but not of gamma delta T cell development by overexpression of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 in committed T cell progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    Blom, B; Heemskerk, M H; Verschuren, M C; van Dongen, J J; Stegmann, A P; Bakker, A Q; Couwenberg, F; Res, P C; Spits, H

    1999-01-01

    Enforced expression of Id3, which has the capacity to inhibit many basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells that have not undergone T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements inhibits development of the transduced cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells in a fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC). Here we document that overexpression of Id3, in progenitors that have initiated TCR gene rearrangements (pre-T cells), inhibits development into TCRalpha beta but not into TCRgamma delta T cells. Furthermore, Id3 impedes expression of recombination activating genes and downregulates pre-Talpha mRNA. These observations suggest possible mechanisms by which Id3 overexpression can differentially affect development of pre-T cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells. We also observed that cell surface CD4(-)CD8(-)CD3(-) cells with rearranged TCR genes developed from Id3-transduced but not from control-transduced pre-T cells in an FTOC. These cells had properties of both natural killer (NK) and pre-T cells. These findings suggest that bHLH factors are required to control T cell development after the T/NK developmental checkpoint. PMID:10329625

  5. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus) is a basal eudicot with exceptional physiological and metabolic properties including seed longevity, adaptations for an aquatic habit, and floral thermiogenesis. It also occupies a unique position in the phylogeny of land plants and can be a useful species for studies...

  6. Seven Genes of the Enhancer of Split Complex of Drosophila Melanogaster Encode Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Knust, E.; Schrons, H.; Grawe, F.; Campos-Ortega, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancer of split [E(spl)] is one of the neurogenic loci of Drosophila and, as such, is required for normal segregation of neural and epidermal cell progenitors. Genetic observations indicate that the E(spl) locus is in fact a gene complex comprising a cluster of related genes and that other genes of the region are also required for normal early neurogenesis. Three of the genes of the complex were known to encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins and to be transcribed in nearly identical patterns. Here, we show that four other genes in the vicinity also encode HLH proteins and, during neuroblast segregation, three of them are expressed in the same pattern. We show by germ-line transformation that these three genes are also necessary to allow epidermal development of the neuroectodermal cells. PMID:1427040

  7. Enhanced complexity and catalytic efficiency in the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters by rationally designed helix-loop-helix motifs.

    PubMed

    Razkin, Jesus; Lindgren, Johan; Nilsson, Helena; Baltzer, Lars

    2008-08-11

    HJ1, a 42-residue peptide that folds into a helix-loop-helix motif and dimerizes to form a four-helix bundle, successfully catalyzes the cleavage of "early stage" DNA model substrates in an aqueous solution at pH 7.0, with a rate enhancement in the hydrolysis of heptyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate of over three orders of magnitude over that of the imidazole-catalyzed reaction, k(2)(HJ1)/k(2)(Im) = 3135. The second-order rate constant, k(2)(HJ1) was determined to be 1.58x10(-4) M(-1) s(-1). The catalyst successfully assembles residues that in a single elementary reaction step are capable of general-acid and general-base catalysis as well as transition state stabilization and proximity effects. The reactivity achieved with the HJ1 polypeptide, rationally designed to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters, is based on two histidine residues flanked by four arginines and two adjacent tyrosine residues, all located on the surface of a helix-loop-helix motif. The introduction of Tyr residues close to the catalytic site improves efficiency, in the cleavage of activated aryl alkyl phosphates as well as less activated dialkyl phosphates. HJ1 is also effective in the cleavage of an RNA-mimic substrate, uridine-3'-2,2,2-trichloroethyl phosphate (leaving group pK(a) = 12.3) with a second-order rate constant of 8.23x10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) in aqueous solution at pH 7.0, some 500 times faster than the reaction catalyzed by imidazole, k(2)(HJ1)/k(2)(Im) = 496.

  8. Protein conformational changes studied by diffusion NMR spectroscopy: Application to helix-loop-helix calcium binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weljie, Aalim M.; Yamniuk, Aaron P.; Yoshino, Hidenori; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Vogel, Hans J.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR spectroscopy studies were conducted with several helix-loop-helix regulatory Ca2+-binding proteins to characterize the conformational changes associated with Ca2+-saturation and/or binding targets. The calmodulin (CaM) system was used as a basis for evaluation, with similar hydrodynamic radii (Rh) obtained for apo- and Ca2+-CaM, consistent with previously reported Rh data. In addition, conformational changes associated with CaM binding to target peptides from myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), phosphodiesterase (PDE), and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were accurately determined compared with small-angle X-ray scattering results. Both sets of data demonstrate the well-established collapse of the extended Ca2+-CaM molecule into a globular complex upon peptide binding. The Rh of CaM complexes with target peptides from CaM-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) and an N-terminal portion of the SIV peptide (SIV-N), as well as the anticancer drug cisplatin were also determined. The CaMKI complex demonstrates a collapse analogous to that observed for MLCK, PDE, and SIV, while the SIV-N shows only a partial collapse. Interestingly, the covalent CaM–cisplatin complex shows a near complete collapse, not expected from previous studies. The method was extended to related calcium binding proteins to show that the Rh of calcium and integrin binding protein (CIB), calbrain, and the calcium-binding region from soybean calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) decrease on Ca2+-binding to various extents. Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy suggests that for CIB and calbrain this is likely because of shifting the equilibrium from unfolded to folded conformations, with calbrain forming a dimer structure. These results demonstrate the utility of PFG-diffusion NMR to rapidly and accurately screen for molecular size changes on protein–ligand and protein–protein interactions for this class of proteins. PMID:12538886

  9. TAL2, a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Y; Brown, L; Yang, C Y; Tsan, J T; Siciliano, M J; Espinosa, R; Le Beau, M M; Baer, R J

    1991-01-01

    Tumor-specific alteration of the TAL1 gene occurs in almost 25% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We now report the identification of TAL2, a distinct gene that was isolated on the basis of its sequence homology with TAL1. The TAL2 gene is located 33 kilobase pairs from the chromosome 9 breakpoint of t(7;9)(q34;q32), a recurring translocation specifically associated with T-ALL. As a consequence of t(7;9)(q34;q32), TAL2 is juxtaposed with sequences from the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene on chromosome 7. TAL2 sequences are actively transcribed in SUP-T3, a T-ALL cell line that harbors the t(7;9)(q34;q32). The TAL2 gene product includes a helix-loop-helix protein dimerization and DNA binding domain that is especially homologous to those encoded by the TAL1 and LYL1 protooncogenes. Hence, TAL2, TAL1, and LYL1 constitute a discrete subgroup of helix-loop-helix proteins, each of which can potentially contribute to the development of T-ALL. Images PMID:1763056

  10. TAL2, a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7; 9)(q34; q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Xia; Brown, L.; Yang, C.Y.; Tsan, J.T.; Baer, R.J. ); Siciliano, M.J. ); Espinosa, R. III; Le Beau, M.M. )

    1991-12-15

    Tumor-specific alteration of the TAL1 gene occurs in almost 25% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The authors now report the identification of TAL2, a distinct gene that was isolated on the basis of its sequence homology with TAL1. The TAL2 gene is located 33 kilobase pairs from the chromosome 9 breakpoint of t(7;9)(q34;q32), a recurring translocation specifically associated with T-ALL. As a consequence of t(7;9)(q34;q32), TAL2 is juxtaposed with sequences from the T-cell receptor {beta}-chain gene on chromosome 7. TAL2 sequences are actively transcribed in SUP-T3, a T-ALL cell line that harbors the t(7;9)(q34;q32). The TAL2 gene product includes a helix-loop-helix protein dimerization and DNA binding domain that is especially homologous to those encoded by the TAL1 and LYL1 protooncogenes. Hence, TAL2, TAL1, and LYL1 constitute a discrete subgroup of helix-loop-helix proteins, each of which can potentially contribute to the development of T-ALL.

  11. deadpan, an essential pan-neural gene in Drosophila, encodes a helix-loop-helix protein similar to the hairy gene product.

    PubMed

    Bier, E; Vaessin, H; Younger-Shepherd, S; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1992-11-01

    Neural precursor cells in Drosophila acquire their identity early during their formation. In an attempt to determine whether all neural precursors share a set of genetic machinery, perhaps to control properties of differentiation common to all neurons, we used the enhancer-trap method to identify several genes (pan-neural genes) that are expressed in all neurons and/or their precursors. One of the pan-neural genes is deadpan, which encodes a helix-loop-helix protein closely related to the product of the segmentation gene hairy. The function of deadpan is essential for viability and is likely to be involved in the functional rather than the morphological differentiation of neurons.

  12. The essential basic helix-loop-helix protein FIT1 is required for the iron deficiency response.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Elizabeth P; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2004-12-01

    Regulation of iron uptake is critical for plant survival. Although the activities responsible for reduction and transport of iron at the plant root surface have been described, the genes controlling these activities are largely unknown. We report the identification of the essential gene Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription Factor 1 (FIT1), which encodes a putative transcription factor that regulates iron uptake responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Like the Fe(III) chelate reductase FRO2 and high affinity Fe(II) transporter IRT1, FIT1 mRNA is detected in the outer cell layers of the root and accumulates in response to iron deficiency. fit1 mutant plants are chlorotic and die as seedlings but can be rescued by the addition of supplemental iron, pointing to a defect in iron uptake. fit1 mutant plants accumulate less iron than wild-type plants in root and shoot tissues. Microarray analysis shows that expression of many (72 of 179) iron-regulated genes is dependent on FIT1. We demonstrate that FIT1 regulates FRO2 at the level of mRNA accumulation and IRT1 at the level of protein accumulation. We propose a new model for iron uptake in Arabidopsis where FRO2 and IRT1 are differentially regulated by FIT1.

  13. The myostatin gene is a downstream target gene of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MyoD.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Michael P; Kambadur, Ravi; Jeanplong, Ferenc; Thomas, Mark; Martyn, Julie K; Bass, John J; Sharma, Mridula

    2002-10-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis, and inactivation of myostatin leads to heavy muscle growth. Here we have cloned and characterized the bovine myostatin gene promoter. Alignment of the upstream sequences shows that the myostatin promoter is highly conserved during evolution. Sequence analysis of 1.6 kb of the bovine myostatin gene upstream region revealed that it contains 10 E-box motifs (E1 to E10), arranged in three clusters, and a single MEF2 site. Deletion and mutation analysis of the myostatin gene promoter showed that out of three important E boxes (E3, E4, and E6) of the proximal cluster, E6 plays a significant role in the regulation of a reporter gene in C(2)C(12) cells. We also demonstrate by band shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay that the E6 E-box motif binds to MyoD in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cotransfection experiments indicate that among the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD preferentially up-regulates myostatin promoter activity. Since MyoD expression varies during the myoblast cell cycle, we analyzed the myostatin promoter activity in synchronized myoblasts and quiescent "reserve" cells. Our results suggest that myostatin promoter activity is relatively higher during the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, when MyoD expression levels are maximal. However, in the reserve cells, which lack MyoD expression, a significant reduction in the myostatin promoter activity is observed. Taken together, these results suggest that the myostatin gene is a downstream target gene of MyoD. Since the myostatin gene is implicated in controlling G(1)-to-S progression of myoblasts, MyoD could be triggering myoblast withdrawal from the cell cycle by regulating myostatin gene expression.

  14. A divalent ion is crucial in the structure and dominant-negative function of ID proteins, a class of helix-loop-helix transcription regulators.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marie Vivian; Jiang, Sizun; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors of DNA binding and differentiation (ID) proteins, a dominant-negative group of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription regulators, are well-characterized key players in cellular fate determination during development in mammals as well as Drosophila. Although not oncogenes themselves, their upregulation by various oncogenic proteins (such as Ras, Myc) and their inhibitory effects on cell cycle proteins (such as pRb) hint at their possible roles in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, their potency as inhibitors of cellular differentiation, through their heterodimerization with subsequent inactivation of the ubiquitous E proteins, suggest possible novel roles in engineering induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We present the high-resolution 2.1Å crystal structure of ID2 (HLH domain), coupled with novel biochemical insights in the presence of a divalent ion, possibly calcium (Ca2+), in the loop of ID proteins, which appear to be crucial for the structure and activity of ID proteins. These new insights will pave the way for new rational drug designs, in addition to current synthetic peptide options, against this potent player in tumorigenesis as well as more efficient ways for stem cells reprogramming.

  15. Helix-loop-helix transcription factors E12 and E47 are not essential for skeletal or cardiac myogenesis, erythropoiesis, chondrogenesis, or neurogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Y; Kim, C G; Bartelmez, S; Cheng, P; Groudine, M; Weintraub, H

    1992-01-01

    E12 and E47 are two non-tissue-specific helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors encoded by the E2A gene. Previous studies suggested that they are involved in regulation of differentiation in many tissue types including muscle, blood, and nerve through direct heterodimer interactions with tissue-specific HLH proteins. To gain further genetic insight into the functions of E12 and E47 during cell differentiation, we mutated both copies of the E2A gene in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and then tested the effect on differentiation in vitro. We find that the ES cells lacking functional E12 and E47 are capable of differentiating into both skeletal and cardiac muscle, erythrocytes, neurons, and cartilage that the same extent as wild-type cells. These results indicate that the E2A gene is not essential for differentiation of these cell types and suggest that redundant genes may control these developmental pathways. Images PMID:1465450

  16. Involvement of the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 in the glucocorticoid regulation of tight junctions in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woo, P L; Cercek, A; Desprez, P Y; Firestone, G L

    2000-09-15

    Mammary epithelial cell-cell junctions undergo morphological and structural differentiation during pregnancy and lactation, but little is known about the transcriptional regulators that are involved in this process. In Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cells, we have previously documented that the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, induces the reorganization of the tight junction and adherens junction and stimulates the monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), a reliable in vitro measurement of tight junction sealing. Western blots demonstrated that dexamethasone treatment rapidly and strongly stimulated the level of the Id-1 protein, which is a serum-inducible helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor. The steroid induction of Id-1 was robust by 4 h of treatment and maintained over a 24-h period. Isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactopyranoside-inducible expression of exogenous Id-1 in Con8 cells was shown to strongly facilitate the dexamethasone induction of TER in the absence of serum without altering the dexamethasone-dependent reorganization of ZO-1, beta-catenin, or F-actin. Ectopic overexpression of Id-1 in the SCp2 nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, which does not undergo complete dexamethasone-dependent tight junction reorganization, enhanced the dexamethasone-induced ZO-1 tight junction localization and stimulated the monolayer TER. Moreover, antisense reduction of Id-1 protein in SCp2 cells prevented the apical junction reorganization and dexamethasone-stimulated TER. Our results implicate Id-1 as acting as a critical regulator of mammary epithelial cell-cell interactions at an early step in the glucocorticoid-dependent signaling pathway that controls tight junction integrity.

  17. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Clancy, Eileen K; Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N; Parmar, Hiren B; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K; Duncan, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation.

  18. Functional Isoforms of IκB Kinase α (IKKα) Lacking Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix Domains Reveal that IKKα and IKKβ Have Different Activation Requirements

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fergus R.; Connelly, Margery A.; Balzarano, Darlene; Müller, Jurgen R.; Geleziunas, Romas; Marcu, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the NF-κB family of transcription factors is regulated principally by phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of their inhibitory IκB subunits. Site-specific serine phosphorylation of IκBs by two IκB kinases (IKKα [also known as CHUK] and IKKβ) targets them for proteolysis. IKKα and -β have a unique structure, with an amino-terminal serine-threonine kinase catalytic domain and carboxy-proximal helix-loop-helix (HLH) and leucine zipper-like (LZip) amphipathic α-helical domains. Here, we describe the properties of two novel cellular isoforms of IKKα: IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH. IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH are differentially spliced isoforms of the IKKα mRNA lacking its HLH domain and both its LZip and HLH domains, respectively. IKKα is the major RNA species in most murine cells and tissues, except for activated T lymphocytes and the brain, where the alternatively spliced isoforms predominate. Remarkably, IKKα-ΔH and IKKα-ΔLH, like IKKα, respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation to potentiate NF-κB activation in HEK293 cells. A mutant, catalytically inactive form of IKKα blocked IKKα-, IKKα-ΔH-, and IKKα-ΔLH-mediated NF-κB activation. Akin to IKKα, its carboxy-terminally truncated isoforms associated with the upstream activator NIK (NF-κB-inducing kinase). In contrast to IKKα, IKKα-ΔLH failed to associate with either itself, IKKα, IKKβ, or NEMO-IKKγ-IKKAP1, while IKKα-ΔH complexed with IKKβ and IKKα but not with NEMO. Interestingly, each IKKα isoform rescued HEK293 cells from the inhibitory effects of a dominant-negative NEMO mutant, while IKKα could not. IKKα-ΔCm, a recombinant mutant of IKKα structurally akin to IKKα-ΔLH, was equally functional in these assays, but in sharp contrast, IKKβ-ΔCm, a structurally analogous mutant of IKKβ, was inactive. Our results demonstrate that the functional roles of seemingly analogous domains in IKKα and IKKβ need not be equivalent and can also exhibit

  19. HRF, a putative basic helix-loop-helix-PAS-domain transcription factor is closely related to hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and developmentally expressed in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Flamme, I; Fröhlich, T; von Reutern, M; Kappel, A; Damert, A; Risau, W

    1997-04-01

    Transcription factors of the bHLH-PAS protein family are important regulators of developmental processes such as neurogenesis and tracheal development in invertebrates. Recently a bHLH-PAS protein, named trachealess (trl) was identified as a master regulator of tracheogenesis. Hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1 alpha, is a vertebrate relative of trl which is likely to be involved in growth of blood vessels by the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to hypoxia. In the present study we describe mRNA cloning and mRNA expression pattern of mouse HIF-related factor (HRF), a novel close relative of HIF-1 alpha which is expressed most prominently in brain capillary endothelial cells and other blood vessels as well as in bronchial epithelium in the embryo and the adult. In addition, smooth muscle cells of the uterus, neurons, brown adipose tissue and various epithelial tissues express HRF mRNA as well. High expression levels of HRF mRNA in embryonic choroid plexus and kidney glomeruli, places where VEGF is highly expressed, suggest a role of this factor in VEGF gene activation similar to that of HIF-1 alpha. Given the similarity between morphogenesis of the tracheal system and the vertebrate vascular system, the expression pattern of HRF in the vasculature and the bronchial tree raises the possibility that this family of transcription factors may be involved in tubulogenesis.

  20. Functional characterization of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor GhDEL65 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2016-10-01

    Cotton fiber is proposed to share some similarity with the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichome, which is regulated by the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex. Although several MYB transcription factors and WD40 family proteins in cotton have been characterized, little is known about the role of bHLH family proteins in cotton. Here, we report that GhDEL65, a bHLH protein from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) in regulating trichome development. Transcripts of GhDEL65 were detected in 0 ∼ 1 days post-anthesis (DPA) ovules and abundant in 3-DPA fibers, implying that GhDEL65 may act in early fiber development. Ectopic expression of GhDEL65 in Arabidopsis gl3 egl3 double mutant partly rescued the trichome development, and constitutive expression of GhDEL65 in wild-type plants led to increased trichome density on rosette leaves and stems, mainly by activating the transcription of two key positive regulators of trichome development, GLABRA1 (GL1) and GLABRA2 (GL2), and suppressed the expression of a R3 single-repeat MYB factor TRIPTYCHON (TRY). GhDEL65 could interact with cotton R2R3 MYB transcription factors GhMYB2 and GhMYB3, as well as the WD40 protein GhTTG3, suggesting that the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex also exists in cotton fiber cell, though its function in cotton fiber development awaits further investigation.

  1. High AN1 variability and interaction with basic helix-loop-helix co-factors related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    D'Amelia, Vincenzo; Aversano, Riccardo; Batelli, Giorgia; Caruso, Immacolata; Castellano Moreno, Mar; Castro-Sanz, Ana Beatriz; Chiaiese, Pasquale; Fasano, Carlo; Palomba, Francesca; Carputo, Domenico

    2014-11-01

    AN1 is a regulatory gene that promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato tubers and encodes a R2R3 MYB transcription factor. However, no clear evidence implicates AN1 in anthocyanin production in leaves, where these pigments might enhance environmental stress tolerance. In our study we found that AN1 displays intraspecific sequence variability in both coding/non-coding regions and in the promoter, and that its expression is associated with high anthocyanin content in leaves of commercial potatoes. Expression analysis provided evidence that leaf pigmentation is associated to AN1 expression and that StJAF13 acts as putative AN1 co-regulator for anthocyanin gene expression in leaves of the red leaf variety 'Magenta Love,' while a concomitant expression of StbHLH1 may contribute to anthocyanin accumulation in leaves of 'Double Fun.' Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed that AN1 interacts with StbHLH1 and StJAF13 and the latter interaction was verified and localized in the cell nucleus by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. In addition, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) overexpressing a combination of either AN1 with StJAF13 or AN1 with StbHLH1 showed deeper purple pigmentation with respect to AN1 alone. This further confirmed AN1/StJAF13 and AN1/StbHLH1 interactions. Our findings demonstrate that the classical loci identified for potato leaf anthocyanin accumulation correspond to AN1 and may represent an important step to expand our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in different plant tissues.

  2. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  3. Responses of a triple mutant defective in three iron deficiency-induced Basic Helix-Loop-Helix genes of the subgroup Ib(2) to iron deficiency and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Felix; Naranjo Arcos, Maria Augusta; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2) BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant). We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2) transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves.

  4. The expression of proprotein convertase PACE4 is highly regulated by Hash-2 in placenta: possible role of placenta-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, human achaete-scute homologue-2.

    PubMed

    Koide, Shizuyo; Yoshida, Ichiro; Tsuji, Akihiko; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2003-09-01

    PACE4 is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, which contribute to the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta family proteins. We previously reported that PACE4 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts of human placenta [Tsuji et al. (2003) BIOCHIM: Biophys. Acta 1645, 95-104]. In this study, the regulatory mechanism for PACE4 expression in placenta was analyzed using a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. Promoter analysis indicated that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) in the 5'-flanking region of the PACE4 gene acts as a negative regulatory element. The binding of human achaete-scute homologue 2 (Hash-2) to the E-box cluster was shown by gel mobility-shift assay. The overexpression of Hash-2 caused a marked decrease in PACE4 gene expression. When BeWo cells were grown under low oxygen (2%) conditions, the expression of Hash-2 decreased, while that of PACE4 increased. In both cases, other SPCs, such as furin, PC5/6, and PC7/8, were not affected. Further, PACE4 expression was found to be developmentally regulated in rat placenta. By in situ hybridization, Mash-2 (mammalian achaete-scute homologue 2) mRNA was found to be expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer where PACE4 was not expressed. In contrast, the PACE4 mRNA was expressed mainly in the labyrinthine layer where Mash-2 was not detected. These results suggest that PACE4 expression is down-regulated by Hash-2/Mash-2 in both human and rat placenta and that many bioactive proteins might be regulated by PACE4 activity.

  5. Overexpression of a citrus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (CubHLH1), which is homologous to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 interacting factor genes, modulates carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Aiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Nakajima, Naoko; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that protein for CubHLH1 could interact with Arabidopsis and tomato ATBS1. Overexpression of CubHLH1 caused a dwarf phenotype in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), suggesting that CubHLH1 has a similar function to Arabidopsis AIF. In the transgenic tomato fruit at ripening stage, the lycopene content was reduced along with the changes in carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression. The abscisic acid (ABA) content of all the transgenic tomato fruit was higher than that of the wild type. These results implied that CubHLH1 is considered to have a similar function to Arabidopsis AIFs and might be directly involved in carotenoid metabolism in mature citrus fruit.

  6. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V.; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs, StMYBA1 and StMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions of StMYBA1 and StMYB113 can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception of StMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potato StbHLH1, and one StJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles of StbHLH1 from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three other StbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest that StbHLH1 and StJAF13 are key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variants StAN1, StMYBA1, and StMYB113 are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation. PMID:26884602

  7. Specificity for the Hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.R.; Turner, D.L.; Weintraub, H.; Parkhurst, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates transcriptional repressors in Drosophila melanogaster and their function in and effect on developmental processes such as sex determination. Details on the mechanism of function of these transcriptional repressors are also discussed. 50 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs,StMYBA1 and StMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions of StMYBA1 and StMYB113 can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception of StMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potato StbHLH1, and one StJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles of StbHLH1 from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three other StbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest that StbHLH1 and StJAF13a re key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variants StAN1,StMYBA1, and StMYB113 are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation.

  9. Identifying Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Genes in "Caenorhabditis elegans" through a Classroom Demonstration of Functional Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Vernetta; McMiller, Tracee; Jones, Erika; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2003-01-01

    A 14-week, undergraduate-level Genetics and Population Biology course at Morgan State University was modified to include a demonstration of functional genomics in the research laboratory. Students performed a rudimentary sequence analysis of the "Caenorhabditis elegans" genome and further characterized three sequences that were predicted to encode…

  10. Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Marchegiani, Shannon; Davis, Taylor; Tessadori, Federico; van Haaften, Gijs; Brancati, Francesco; Hoischen, Alexander; Huang, Haigen; Valkanas, Elise; Pusey, Barbara; Schanze, Denny; Venselaar, Hanka; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Wolfe, Lynne A; Tifft, Cynthia J; Zerfas, Patricia M; Zambruno, Giovanna; Kariminejad, Ariana; Sabbagh-Kermani, Farahnaz; Lee, Janice; Tsokos, Maria G; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ferraz, Victor; da Silva, Eduarda Morgana; Stevens, Cathy A; Roche, Nathalie; Bartsch, Oliver; Farndon, Peter; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Brooks, Brian P; Maduro, Valerie; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Ramos, Feliciano J; Chung, Hon-Yin Brian; Le Caignec, Cédric; Martins, Fabiana; Jacyk, Witold K; Mazzanti, Laura; Brunner, Han G; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lin, Shuo; Malicdan, May Christine V; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; de Vries, Bert B A; van Haelst, Mieke M; Zenker, Martin; Markello, Thomas C

    2015-07-02

    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome (AMS) and Barber-Say syndrome (BSS) are rare congenital ectodermal dysplasias characterized by similar clinical features. To establish the genetic basis of AMS and BSS, we performed extensive clinical phenotyping, whole exome and candidate gene sequencing, and functional validations. We identified a recurrent de novo mutation in TWIST2 in seven independent AMS-affected families, as well as another recurrent de novo mutation affecting the same amino acid in ten independent BSS-affected families. Moreover, a genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, because the two syndromes differed based solely upon the nature of the substituting amino acid: a lysine at TWIST2 residue 75 resulted in AMS, whereas a glutamine or alanine yielded BSS. TWIST2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the development of mesenchymal tissues. All identified mutations fell in the basic domain of TWIST2 and altered the DNA-binding pattern of Flag-TWIST2 in HeLa cells. Comparison of wild-type and mutant TWIST2 expressed in zebrafish identified abnormal developmental phenotypes and widespread transcriptome changes. Our results suggest that autosomal-dominant TWIST2 mutations cause AMS or BSS by inducing protean effects on the transcription factor's DNA binding.

  11. Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Marchegiani, Shannon; Davis, Taylor; Tessadori, Federico; van Haaften, Gijs; Brancati, Francesco; Hoischen, Alexander; Huang, Haigen; Valkanas, Elise; Pusey, Barbara; Schanze, Denny; Venselaar, Hanka; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Wolfe, Lynne A.; Tifft, Cynthia J.; Zerfas, Patricia M.; Zambruno, Giovanna; Kariminejad, Ariana; Sabbagh-Kermani, Farahnaz; Lee, Janice; Tsokos, Maria G.; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Ferraz, Victor; da Silva, Eduarda Morgana; Stevens, Cathy A.; Roche, Nathalie; Bartsch, Oliver; Farndon, Peter; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Brooks, Brian P.; Maduro, Valerie; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Ramos, Feliciano J.; Chung, Hon-Yin Brian; Le Caignec, Cédric; Martins, Fabiana; Jacyk, Witold K.; Mazzanti, Laura; Brunner, Han G.; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lin, Shuo; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Gahl, William A.; de Vries, Bert B.A.; van Haelst, Mieke M.; Zenker, Martin; Markello, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome (AMS) and Barber-Say syndrome (BSS) are rare congenital ectodermal dysplasias characterized by similar clinical features. To establish the genetic basis of AMS and BSS, we performed extensive clinical phenotyping, whole exome and candidate gene sequencing, and functional validations. We identified a recurrent de novo mutation in TWIST2 in seven independent AMS-affected families, as well as another recurrent de novo mutation affecting the same amino acid in ten independent BSS-affected families. Moreover, a genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, because the two syndromes differed based solely upon the nature of the substituting amino acid: a lysine at TWIST2 residue 75 resulted in AMS, whereas a glutamine or alanine yielded BSS. TWIST2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the development of mesenchymal tissues. All identified mutations fell in the basic domain of TWIST2 and altered the DNA-binding pattern of Flag-TWIST2 in HeLa cells. Comparison of wild-type and mutant TWIST2 expressed in zebrafish identified abnormal developmental phenotypes and widespread transcriptome changes. Our results suggest that autosomal-dominant TWIST2 mutations cause AMS or BSS by inducing protean effects on the transcription factor’s DNA binding. PMID:26119818

  12. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  13. A smallest 6 kda metalloprotease, mini-matrilysin, in living world: a revolutionary conserved zinc-dependent proteolytic domain- helix-loop-helix catalytic zinc binding domain (ZBD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Aim of this study is to study the minimum zinc dependent metalloprotease catalytic folding motif, helix B Met loop-helix C, with proteolytic catalytic activities in metzincin super family. The metzincin super family share a catalytic domain consisting of a twisted five-stranded β sheet and three long α helices (A, B and C). The catalytic zinc is at the bottom of the cleft and is ligated by three His residues in the consensus sequence motif, HEXXHXXGXXH, which is located in helix B and part of the adjacent Met turn region. An interesting question is - what is the minimum portion of the enzyme that still possesses catalytic and inhibitor recognition?” Methods We have expressed a 60-residue truncated form of matrilysin which retains only the helix B-Met turn-helix C region and deletes helix A and the five-stranded β sheet which form the upper portion of the active cleft. This is only 1/4 of the full catalytic domain. The E. coli derived 6 kDa MMP-7 ZBD fragments were purified and refolded. The proteolytic activities were analyzed by Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay and CM-transferrin zymography analysis. SC44463, BB94 and Phosphoramidon were computationally docked into the 3day structure of the human MMP7 ZBD and TAD and thermolysin using the docking program GOLD. Results This minimal 6 kDa matrilysin has been refolded and shown to have proteolytic activity in the Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay. Triton X-100 and heparin are important factors in the refolding environment for this mini-enzyme matrilysin. This minienzyme has the proteolytic activity towards peptide substrate, but the hexamer and octamer of the mini MMP-7 complex demonstrates the CM-transferrin proteolytic activities in zymographic analysis. Peptide digestion is inhibited by SC44463, specific MMP7 inhibitors, but not phosphorimadon. Interestingly, the mini MMP-7 can be processed by autolysis and producing ~ 6 ~ 7 kDa fragments. Thus, many of the functions of the enzyme are retained indicating that the helix B-Met loop-helix C is the minimal functional “domain” found to date for the matrixin family. Conclusions The helix B-Met loop-helix C folding conserved in metalloprotease metzincin super family is able to facilitate proteolytic catalysis for specific substrate and inhibitor recognition. The autolysis processing and producing 6 kDa mini MMP-7 is the smallest metalloprotease in living world. PMID:22642296

  14. An 'oligarchy' rules neural development.

    PubMed

    Rowitch, David H; Lu, Q Richard; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Richardson, William D

    2002-08-01

    Recent reports show that Olig genes, which encode the basic helix-loop-helix Olig transcription factors, are essential for development of oligodendrocytes. Surprisingly, Olig function is also required for formation of somatic motor neurons. These findings alter our views of how the oligodendrocyte lineage is generated and raise further questions about the underlying developmental relationships between neurons and glia.

  15. Phytochrome Induces Rapid PIF5 Phosphorylation and Degradation in Response to Red-Light Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochrome (phy) family of sensory photoreceptors (phyA–phyE in Arabidopsis thaliana) induces changes in target-gene expression upon light-induced translocation to the nucleus, where certain members interact with selected members of the constitutively nuclear basic helix-loop-helix transcriptio...

  16. The Arabidopsis Phytochrome-Interacting Factor PIF7, Together with PIF3 and PIF4, Regulates Responses to Prolonged Red Light by Modulating phyB Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We show that a previously uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) phytochrome interacting factor (PIF), designated PIF7, interacts specifically with the far-red light–absorbing Pfr form of phyB through a conserved domain called the active phyB binding motif. Similar to PIF...

  17. The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, R.; Dyer-Montgomery, K.; Hernandez, R.; Tapscott, S.J.

    1996-06-15

    The Neurod gene is a basic-helix-loop-helix gene that regulates neurogenesis and is identical to the hamster beta2 gene that was cloned as a regulator of insulin transcription. Here we report the cloning of human NEUROD and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 2q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  18. NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 genes map to human chromosomes 17q12 and 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosomes 11 and 13, respectively

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, R.M.; Montgomery-Dyer, K.; Tapscott, S.J.

    1997-03-01

    NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 are transcription factors involved in neurogenesis that are related to the basic helix-loop-helix protein NEUROD. NEUROD2 maps to human chromosome 17q12 and mouse chromosome 11. NEUROD3 maps to human chromosome 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosome 13. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Structure-Function Analysis of the v-Myc Oncoprotein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    transcription activation domain (TAD) and a carboxy-terminal basic helix-loop-helix/ leucine zipper (bHLH/LZ) motif (Henriksson and Luscher , 1996). Work by...U. (1996). Active repression mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription repressors. Trends in Genetics 12: 229-234. Henriksson, M. and Luscher , B. (1996

  20. Carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the CG dinucleotide in the E-box motif (CGCAG|GTG) increases binding of the Tcf3|Ascl1 helix-loop-helix heterodimer 10-fold.

    PubMed

    Golla, Jaya Prakash; Zhao, Jianfei; Mann, Ishminder K; Sayeed, Syed K; Mandal, Ajeet; Rose, Robert B; Vinson, Charles

    2014-06-27

    Three oxidative products of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) occur in mammalian genomes. We evaluated if these cytosine modifications in a CG dinucleotide altered DNA binding of four B-HLH homodimers and three heterodimers to the E-Box motif CGCAG|GTG. We examined 25 DNA probes containing all combinations of cytosine in a CG dinucleotide and none changed binding except for carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the strand CGCAG|GTG. 5caC enhanced binding of all examined B-HLH homodimers and heterodimers, particularly the Tcf3|Ascl1 heterodimer which increased binding ~10-fold. These results highlight a potential function of the oxidative products of 5mC, changing the DNA binding of sequence-specific transcription factors.

  1. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  2. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition.

  3. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  4. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

  5. Morphology, Biophysical Properties and Protein-Mediated Fusion of Archaeosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šuštar, Vid; Zelko, Jasna; Lopalco, Patrizia; Lobasso, Simona; Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Corcelli, Angela; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    As variance from standard phospholipids of eubacteria and eukaryotes, archaebacterial diether phospholipids contain branched alcohol chains (phytanol) linked to glycerol exclusively with ether bonds. Giant vesicles (GVs) constituted of different species of archaebacterial diether phospholipids and glycolipids (archaeosomes) were prepared by electroformation and observed under a phase contrast and/or fluorescence microscope. Archaebacterial lipids and different mixtures of archaebacterial and standard lipids formed GVs which were analysed for size, yield and ability to adhere to each other due to the mediating effects of certain plasma proteins. GVs constituted of different proportions of archaeal or standard phosphatidylcholine were compared. In nonarchaebacterial GVs (in form of multilamellar lipid vesicles, MLVs) the main transition was detected at Tm = 34. 2°C with an enthalpy of ΔH = 0.68 kcal/mol, whereas in archaebacterial GVs (MLVs) we did not observe the main phase transition in the range between 10 and 70°C. GVs constituted of archaebacterial lipids were subject to attractive interaction mediated by beta 2 glycoprotein I and by heparin. The adhesion constant of beta 2 glycoprotein I – mediated adhesion determined from adhesion angle between adhered GVs was in the range of 10−8 J/m2. In the course of protein mediated adhesion, lateral segregation of the membrane components and presence of thin tubular membranous structures were observed. The ability of archaebacterial diether lipids to combine with standard lipids in bilayers and their compatibility with adhesion-mediating molecules offer further evidence that archaebacterial lipids are appropriate for the design of drug carriers. PMID:22792173

  6. Identification of a human achaete-scute homolog highly expressed in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, D W; Azzoli, C G; Baylin, S B; Chi, D; Dou, S; Donis-Keller, H; Cumaraswamy, A; Borges, M; Nelkin, B D

    1993-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of the achaete-scute family are instrumental in Drosophila neurosensory development and are candidate regulators of development in the mammalian central nervous system and neural crest. We report the isolation and initial characterization of a human achaete-scute homolog that is highly expressed in two neuroendocrine cancers, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The human gene, which we have termed human achaete-scute homology 1 (hASH1), was cloned from a human MTC cDNA library. It encodes a predicted protein of 238 aa that is 95% homologous to mammalian achaete-scute homolog (MASH) 1, a rodent basic helix-loop-helix factor. The 57-residue basic helix-loop-helix domain is identical to that in the rodent gene, and the basic and helical regions, excluding the loop, are 72-80% identical to Drosophila achaete-scute family members. The proximal coding region of the hASH1 cDNA contains a striking 14-copy repeat of the triplet CAG that exhibits polymorphism in human genomic DNA. Thus, hASH1 is a candidate locus for disease-causing mutations via triplet repeat amplification. Analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids permitted assignment of hASH1 to human chromosome 12. Northern blots revealed hASH1 transcripts in RNA from a human MTC cell line, two fresh MTC tumors, fetal brain, and three lines of human SCLC. In contrast, cultured lines of non-SCLC lung cancers and a panel of normal adult human tissues showed no detectable hASH1 transcripts. Expression of hASH1 may provide a useful marker for cancers with neuroendocrine features and may contribute to the differentiation and growth regulation of these cells. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8390674

  7. Gene expression profiling of human neural progenitor cells following the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Kim, Seung U; Satoh, Jun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties could provide an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the majority of transplanted NSC and neural progenitor cells (NPC) differentiate into astrocytes in vivo under pathological environments in the central nervous system, which potentially cause reactive gliosis. Because the serum is a potent inducer of astrocyte differentiation of rodent NPC in culture, we studied the effect of the serum on gene expression profile of cultured human NPC to identify the gene signature of astrocyte differentiation of human NPC. Human NPC spheres maintained in the serum-free culture medium were exposed to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 72 h, and processed for analyzing on a Whole Human Genome Microarray of 41,000 genes, and the microarray data were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The serum elevated the levels of expression of 45 genes, including ID1, ID2, ID3, CTGF, TGFA, METRN, GFAP, CRYAB and CSPG3, whereas it reduced the expression of 23 genes, such as DLL1, DLL3, PDGFRA, SOX4, CSPG4, GAS1 and HES5. Thus, the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation of human NPC is characterized by a counteraction of ID family genes on Delta family genes. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis identified ID1 as a direct binding partner of a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor MASH1. Luciferase assay indicated that activation of the DLL1 promoter by MASH1 was counteracted by ID1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) elevated the levels of ID1 and GFAP expression in NPC under the serum-free culture conditions. Because the serum contains BMP4, these results suggest that the serum factor(s), most probably BMP4, induces astrocyte differentiation by upregulating the expression of ID family genes that repress the proneural bHLH protein-mediated Delta expression in human NPC.

  8. Myomaker is essential for muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Millay, Douglas P; Sutherland, Lillian B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-08-01

    Regeneration of injured adult skeletal muscle involves fusion of activated satellite cells to form new myofibers. Myomaker is a muscle-specific membrane protein required for fusion of embryonic myoblasts, but its potential involvement in adult muscle regeneration has not been explored. We show that myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors induce myomaker expression in satellite cells during acute and chronic muscle regeneration. Moreover, genetic deletion of myomaker in adult satellite cells completely abolishes muscle regeneration, resulting in severe muscle destruction after injury. Myomaker is the only muscle-specific protein known to be absolutely essential for fusion of embryonic and adult myoblasts.

  9. Experimental determination of the evolvability of a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Maerkl, Sebastian J; Quake, Stephen R

    2009-11-03

    Sequence-specific binding of a transcription factor to DNA is the central event in any transcriptional regulatory network. However, relatively little is known about the evolutionary plasticity of transcription factors. For example, the exact functional consequence of an amino acid substitution on the DNA-binding specificity of most transcription factors is currently not predictable. Furthermore, although the major structural families of transcription factors have been identified, the detailed DNA-binding repertoires within most families have not been characterized. We studied the sequence recognition code and evolvability of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family by creating all possible 95 single-point mutations of five DNA-contacting residues of Max, a human helix-loop-helix transcription factor and measured the detailed DNA-binding repertoire of each mutant. Our results show that the sequence-specific repertoire of Max accessible through single-point mutations is extremely limited, and we are able to predict 92% of the naturally occurring diversity at these positions. All naturally occurring basic regions were also found to be accessible through functional intermediates. Finally, we observed a set of amino acids that are functional in vitro but are not found to be used naturally, indicating that functionality alone is not sufficient for selection.

  10. The MYB182 Protein Down-Regulates Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Poplar by Repressing Both Structural and Regulatory Flavonoid Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. PMID:25624398

  11. Protein-mediated loops and phase transition in nonthermal denaturation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, Karen G.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2011-01-01

    We use a statistical mechanical model to study nonthermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of protein-mediated loops. We find that looping proteins which randomly link DNA bases located at a distance along the chain could cause a first-order phase transition. We estimate the denaturation transition time near the phase transition, which can be compared with experimental data. The model describes the formation of multiple loops via dynamical (fluctuational) linking between looping proteins, which is essential in many cellular biological processes.

  12. Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4) Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipose Tissue Formation in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Joana M.; Place, Chelsea S.; Ran, Cong; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K. N.; Watson, Nathan P.; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Israel, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) is a helix-loop-helix protein that heterodimerizes with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors inhibiting their function. ID4 expression is important for adipogenic differentiation of the 3T3-L1 cell line, and inhibition of ID4 is associated with a concomitant decrease in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein expression. Mice with a homozygous deletion of Id4 (Id4−/−) have reduced body fat and gain much less weight compared with wild-type littermates when placed on diets with high fat content. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from Id4−/− mice have reduced adipogenic potential when compared with wild-type MEFs. In agreement with changes in morphological differentiation, the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ were also reduced in MEFs from Id4−/− mice. Our results demonstrate the importance of ID4 in adipocyte differentiation and the implications of this regulation for adipose tissue formation. PMID:20460371

  13. Cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of Id2 modulates activity of E2A-related transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, E; Hall, M; Peters, G

    1997-01-01

    The helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein Id2 is thought to affect the balance between cell growth and differentiation by negatively regulating the function of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Id2 acts by forming heterodimers that are unable to bind to specific (E-box) DNA sequences. Here we show that this activity can be overcome by phosphorylation of a serine residue within a consensus target site for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In vitro, Id2 can be phosphorylated by either cyclin E-Cdk2 or cyclin A-Cdk2 but not by cyclin D-dependent kinases. Analogous phosphorylation occurs in serum-stimulated human diploid fibroblasts at a time in late G1 consistent with the appearance of active cyclin E-Cdk2. The phosphorylation of Id2 in these cells correlates with the restoration of a distinct E-box-dependent DNA-binding complex, suggesting that the levels of this complex are modulated by both the abundance and phosphorylation status of Id2. These data provide a link between cyclin-dependent kinases and bHLH transcription factors that may be critical for the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:9029153

  14. Anesthesia Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Anesthesia Basics Print A ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  15. Blood Group Antigen Recognition via the Group A Streptococcal M Protein Mediates Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, David M. P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Everest-Dass, Arun; Day, Christopher J.; Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Nizet, Victor; Packer, Nicolle H.; Walker, Mark J.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans. Preeminent among GAS virulence factors is the surface-expressed M protein. M1 protein showed high affinity for several terminal galactose blood group antigen structures. Deletion mutagenesis shows that M1 protein mediates glycan binding via its B repeat domains. Association of M1T1 GAS with oral epithelial cells varied significantly as a result of phenotypic differences in blood group antigen expression, with significantly higher adherence to those cells expressing H antigen structures compared to cells expressing A, B, or AB antigen structures. These data suggest a novel mechanism for GAS attachment to host cells and propose a link between host blood group antigen expression and M1T1 GAS colonization. PMID:28119471

  16. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  17. Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Noboru; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Yonekura, Hisashi; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-05-11

    Organelle movement is essential for efficient cellular function in eukaryotes. Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. Chloroplast movement generally is actin dependent and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins mediate chloroplast movement by regulating short actin filaments on chloroplasts (cp-actin filaments), and the chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is necessary for cp-actin filament accumulation. However, other factors involved in cp-actin filament regulation during chloroplast movement remain to be determined. Here, we report that two kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, are essential for chloroplasts to move and anchor to the plasma membrane. A kac1 mutant showed severely impaired chloroplast accumulation and slow avoidance movement. A kac1kac2 double mutant completely lacked chloroplast photorelocation movement and showed detachment of chloroplasts from the plasma membrane. KAC motor domains are similar to those of the kinesin-14 subfamily (such as Ncd and Kar3) but do not have detectable microtubule-binding activity. The C-terminal domain of KAC1 could interact with F-actin in vitro. Instead of regulating microtubules, KAC proteins mediate chloroplast movement via cp-actin filaments. We conclude that plants have evolved a unique mechanism to regulate actin-based organelle movement using kinesin-like proteins.

  18. Liposome reconstitution of a minimal protein-mediated membrane fusion machine

    PubMed Central

    Top, Deniz; de Antueno, Roberto; Salsman, Jayme; Corcoran, Jennifer; Mader, Jamie; Hoskin, David; Touhami, Ahmed; Jericho, Manfred H; Duncan, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Biological membrane fusion is dependent on protein catalysts to mediate localized restructuring of lipid bilayers. A central theme in current models of protein-mediated membrane fusion involves the sequential refolding of complex homomeric or heteromeric protein fusion machines. The structural features of a new family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins appear incompatible with existing models of membrane fusion protein function. While the FAST proteins function to induce efficient cell–cell fusion when expressed in transfected cells, it was unclear whether they function on their own to mediate membrane fusion or are dependent on cellular protein cofactors. Using proteoliposomes containing the purified p14 FAST protein of reptilian reovirus, we now show via liposome–cell and liposome–liposome fusion assays that p14 is both necessary and sufficient for membrane fusion. Stoichiometric and kinetic analyses suggest that the relative efficiency of p14-mediated membrane fusion rivals that of the more complex cellular and viral fusion proteins, making the FAST proteins the simplest known membrane fusion machines. PMID:16079913

  19. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  20. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  1. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  2. Protein Mediated Oxidative Stress in Patients with Diabetes and its Associated Neuropathy: Correlation with Protein Carbonylation and Disease Activity Markers

    PubMed Central

    Almogbel, Ebtehal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been implicated as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) contributors in type 2 DM and its associated Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathy (DMN). However, the potential for protein mediated oxidative stress to contribute disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Aim To investigate the status and contribution of protein mediated oxidative stress in patients with DM or DMN and to explore whether oxidative protein modification has a role in DM progression to DM associated neuropathy. Materials and Methods Sera from 42 DM and 37 DMN patients with varying levels of disease activities biomarkers (HbA1C, patients’ age or disease duration) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated for serum levels of protein mediated oxidative stress. Results Serum analysis showed significantly higher levels of protein carbonyl contents in both DM and DMN patients compared with healthy controls. Importantly, not only was there an increased number of subjects positive for protein carbonylation, but also the levels of protein carbonyl contents were significantly higher among DM and DMN patients, whose HbA1C were ≥8.8 as compared with patients with lower HbA1C (HbA1C<8.8). Similar pattern of protein carbonyls formation was also observed with patients’ ages or with patient’s disease durations, suggesting a possible relationship between protein oxidation and disease progression. Furthermore, sera from DMN patients had higher levels of protein carbonylation compared with non-neuropathic DM patients’ sera, suggesting an involvement of protein oxidation in the progression of diabetes to diabetes neuropathy. Conclusion These findings support an association between protein oxidation and DM or DMN progression. The stronger response observed in patients with higher HbA1C or patients’ ages or disease durations suggests, that protein mediated oxidative stress may be useful in evaluating the progression of DM and its associated DMN and in elucidating the

  3. Effect of Reactor Turbulence on the Binding-Protein-Mediated Aspartate Transport System in Thin Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Eighmy, T. Taylor; Bishop, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research documents an effect of reactor turbulence on the ability of gram-negative wastewater biofilm bacteria to actively transport l-aspartate via a binding-protein-mediated transport system. Biofilms which were not preadapted to turbulence and which possessed two separate and distinct aspartate transport systems (systems 1 and 2) were subjected to a turbulent flow condition in a hydrodynamically defined closed-loop reactor system. A shear stress treatment of 3.1 N · m−2 for 10 min at a turbulent Reynolds number (Re = 11,297) inactivated the low-affinity, high-capacity binding-protein-mediated transport system (system 2) and resolved the high-affinity, low-capacity membrane-bound proton symport system (system 1). The Kt and Vmax values for the resolved system were statistically similar to Kt and Vmax values for system 1 when system 2 was inactivated either by osmotic shock or arsenate, two treatments which are known to inactivate binding-protein-mediated transport systems. We hypothesize that shear stress disrupts system 2 by deforming the outer membranes of the firmly adhered gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16346830

  4. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  5. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  6. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  8. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  9. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  10. Poly(rC) binding proteins mediate poliovirus mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, K E; Roberts, A W; Barton, D J

    2001-01-01

    The 5'-terminal 88 nt of poliovirus RNA fold into a cloverleaf RNA structure and form ribonucleoprotein complexes with poly(rC) binding proteins (PCBPs; AV Gamarnik, R Andino, RNA, 1997, 3:882-892; TB Parsley, JS Towner, LB Blyn, E Ehrenfeld, BL Semler, RNA, 1997, 3:1124-1134). To determine the functional role of these ribonucleoprotein complexes in poliovirus replication, HeLa S10 translation-replication reactions were used to quantitatively assay poliovirus mRNA stability, poliovirus mRNA translation, and poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis. Ribohomopoly(C) RNA competitor rendered wild-type poliovirus mRNA unstable in these reactions. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap prevented the degradation of wild-type poliovirus mRNA in the presence of ribohomopoly(C) competitor. Ribohomopoly(A), -(G), and -(U) did not adversely affect poliovirus mRNA stability. Ribohomopoly(C) competitor RNA inhibited the translation of poliovirus mRNA but did not inhibit poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis when poliovirus replication proteins were provided in trans using a chimeric helper mRNA possessing the hepatitis C virus IRES. A C24A mutation prevented UV crosslinking of PCBPs to 5' cloverleaf RNA and rendered poliovirus mRNA unstable. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap blocked the degradation of C24A mutant poliovirus mRNA. The C24A mutation did not inhibit the translation of poliovirus mRNA nor diminish viral negative-strand RNA synthesis relative to wild-type RNA. These data support the conclusion that poly(rC) binding protein(s) mediate the stability of poliovirus mRNA by binding to the 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure of poliovirus mRNA. Because of the general conservation of 5' cloverleaf RNA sequences among picornaviruses, including C24 in loop b of the cloverleaf, we suggest that viral mRNA stability of polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses is mediated by interactions between PCBPs and 5' cloverleaf RNA. PMID:11497431

  11. Heterotrimeric G protein mediates ethylene-induced stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Min; Cai, Hong-Li; Lei, Xue; Zhou, Xue; Yue, Ming; He, Jun-Min

    2015-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins function as key players in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in plant cells, but whether G proteins mediate ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure are not clear. Here, evidences are provided to show the Gα subunit GPA1 as a missing link between ethylene and H2O2 in guard cell ethylene signalling. In wild-type leaves, ethylene-triggered H2O2 synthesis and stomatal closure were dependent on activation of Gα. GPA1 mutants showed the defect of ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure, whereas wGα and cGα overexpression lines showed faster stomatal closure and H2O2 production in response to ethylene. Ethylene-triggered H2O2 generation and stomatal closure were impaired in RAN1, ETR1, ERS1 and EIN4 mutants but not impaired in ETR2 and ERS2 mutants. Gα activator and H2O2 rescued the defect of RAN1 and EIN4 mutants or etr1-3 in ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure, but only rescued the defect of ERS1 mutants or etr1-1 and etr1-9 in ethylene-induced H2O2 production. Stomata of CTR1 mutants showed constitutive H2O2 production and stomatal closure, but which could be abolished by Gα inhibitor. Stomata of EIN2, EIN3 and ARR2 mutants did not close in responses to ethylene, Gα activator or H2O2, but do generate H2O2 following challenge of ethylene or Gα activator. The data indicate that Gα mediates ethylene-induced stomatal closure via H2O2 production, and acts downstream of RAN1, ETR1, ERS1, EIN4 and CTR1 and upstream of EIN2, EIN3 and ARR2. The data also show that ETR1 and ERS1 mediate both ethylene and H2O2 signalling in guard cells.

  12. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  13. Lipid transfer protein-mediated resistance to a trichothecene mycotoxin – Novel players in FHB resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid transfer proteins are a class of basic cysteine rich proteins characterized by an eight cysteine motif backbone with intrinsic antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Previously, we identified two type IV nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) genes (LTP4.4 and LTP...

  14. Direct Detection of Transcription Factors in Cotyledons during Seedling Development Using Sensitive Silicon-Substrate Photonic Crystal Protein Arrays1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah I.; Tan, Yafang; Shamimuzzaman, Md; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T.; Vodkin, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors control important gene networks, altering the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those of agronomic importance, despite often being expressed at low levels. Detecting transcription factor proteins is difficult, because current high-throughput methods may not be sensitive enough. One-dimensional, silicon-substrate photonic crystal (PC) arrays provide an alternative substrate for printing multiplexed protein microarrays that have greater sensitivity through an increased signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescent signal compared with performing the same assay upon a traditional aminosilanized glass surface. As a model system to test proof of concept of the silicon-substrate PC arrays to directly detect rare proteins in crude plant extracts, we selected representatives of four different transcription factor families (zinc finger GATA, basic helix-loop-helix, BTF3/NAC [for basic transcription factor of the NAC family], and YABBY) that have increasing transcript levels during the stages of seedling cotyledon development. Antibodies to synthetic peptides representing the transcription factors were printed on both glass slides and silicon-substrate PC slides along with antibodies to abundant cotyledon proteins, seed lectin, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The silicon-substrate PC arrays proved more sensitive than those performed on glass slides, detecting rare proteins that were below background on the glass slides. The zinc finger transcription factor was detected on the PC arrays in crude extracts of all stages of the seedling cotyledons, whereas YABBY seemed to be at the lower limit of their sensitivity. Interestingly, the basic helix-loop-helix and NAC proteins showed developmental profiles consistent with their transcript patterns, indicating proof of concept for detecting these low-abundance proteins in crude extracts. PMID:25635113

  15. Direct detection of transcription factors in cotyledons during seedling development using sensitive silicon-substrate photonic crystal protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah I; Tan, Yafang; Shamimuzzaman, Md; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T; Vodkin, Lila

    2015-03-01

    Transcription factors control important gene networks, altering the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those of agronomic importance, despite often being expressed at low levels. Detecting transcription factor proteins is difficult, because current high-throughput methods may not be sensitive enough. One-dimensional, silicon-substrate photonic crystal (PC) arrays provide an alternative substrate for printing multiplexed protein microarrays that have greater sensitivity through an increased signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescent signal compared with performing the same assay upon a traditional aminosilanized glass surface. As a model system to test proof of concept of the silicon-substrate PC arrays to directly detect rare proteins in crude plant extracts, we selected representatives of four different transcription factor families (zinc finger GATA, basic helix-loop-helix, BTF3/NAC [for basic transcription factor of the NAC family], and YABBY) that have increasing transcript levels during the stages of seedling cotyledon development. Antibodies to synthetic peptides representing the transcription factors were printed on both glass slides and silicon-substrate PC slides along with antibodies to abundant cotyledon proteins, seed lectin, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The silicon-substrate PC arrays proved more sensitive than those performed on glass slides, detecting rare proteins that were below background on the glass slides. The zinc finger transcription factor was detected on the PC arrays in crude extracts of all stages of the seedling cotyledons, whereas YABBY seemed to be at the lower limit of their sensitivity. Interestingly, the basic helix-loop-helix and NAC proteins showed developmental profiles consistent with their transcript patterns, indicating proof of concept for detecting these low-abundance proteins in crude extracts.

  16. Feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is required for progression of neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aaker, Joshua D; Patineau, Andrea L; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ewart, David T; Gong, Wuming; Li, Tongbin; Nakagawa, Yasushi; McLoon, Steven C; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko

    2009-12-01

    The sequential steps of neurogenesis are characterized by highly choreographed changes in transcription factor activity. In contrast to the well-studied mechanisms of transcription factor activation during neurogenesis, much less is understood regarding how such activity is terminated. We previously showed that MTGR1, a member of the MTG family of transcriptional repressors, is strongly induced by a proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NEUROG2 in developing nervous system. In this study, we describe a novel feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1. We show that MTGR1 physically interacts with NEUROG2 and represses transcriptional activity of NEUROG2. MTGR1 also prevents DNA binding of the NEUROG2/E47 complex. In addition, we provide evidence that proper termination of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is necessary for normal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord. These results highlight the importance of feedback regulation of proneural gene activity in neurodevelopment.

  17. Feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is required for progression of neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aaker, Joshua D.; Patineau, Andrea L.; Yang, Hyun-jin; Ewart, David T.; Gong, Wuming; Li, Tongbin; Nakagawa, Yasushi; McLoon, Steven C.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    The sequential steps of neurogenesis are characterized by highly choreographed changes in transcription factor activity. In contrast to the well-studied mechanisms of transcription factor activation during neurogenesis, much less is understood regarding how such activity is terminated. We previously showed that MTGR1, a member of the MTG family of transcriptional repressors, is strongly induced by a proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NEUROG2 in developing nervous system. In this study, we describe a novel feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1. We show that MTGR1 physically interacts with NEUROG2 and represses transcriptional activity of NEUROG2. MTGR1 also prevents DNA binding of the NEUROG2/E47 complex. In addition, we provide evidence that proper termination of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is necessary for normal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord. These results highlight the importance of feedback regulation of proneural gene activity in neurodevelopment. PMID:19646530

  18. Overexpression of Id-1 protein is a marker in colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeng-Ren; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Li; Wang, Ming-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2008-02-01

    The inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding 1 (Id-1), a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. We examined the Id-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 9 adenomas, 79 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas matched with 40 adjacent normal mucosa specimens and its relationship with clinicopathological factors. The Id-1 expression was increased in the carcinoma compared to the adjacent normal mucosa either in the unmatched and matched samples or to the adenoma. There was no significant difference in the Id-1 expression between normal mucosa and adenoma. The Id-1 expression of carcinoma was increased from Dukes' stages A to B, to C and to D. The cases with lymph node metastasis had a higher rate of a stronger Id-1 expression than those without lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, Id-1 overexpression plays an important role in colorectal cancer progression.

  19. Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) increases cell death of human osteosarcoma cells and binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, Hakan; Lindholm, Dan

    2008-02-08

    Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) is a recently identified gene expressed in mouse and human tissues particularly during embryonic development. Nulp1 belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that are important in development. The precise function of Nulp1 in cells is however not known. We observed that overexpression of Nulp1 induces a large increase in cell death of human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells with DNA fragmentation. In mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells Nulp1 affected cell proliferation and sensitized cells towards death induced by staurosporine. Staining using a novel antibody localized Nulp1 mainly to the cell nucleus and to some extent to the cytoplasm. Nulp1 binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and this interaction was increased during cell death. These results indicate that Nulp1 plays a role in cell death control and may influence tumor growth.

  20. A genomewide survey of bHLH transcription factors in the coral Acropora digitifera identifies three novel orthologous families, pearl, amber, and peridot.

    PubMed

    Gyoja, Fuki; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satoh, Nori

    2012-04-01

    Decoding the genome of the coral, Acropora digitifera, enabled us to characterize a nearly full set of 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in this organism. This number is comparable to 68 bHLH genes in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and larger than those in most other invertebrate metazoans. The 70 bHLH genes were assigned to 29 orthologous families previously reported. In addition, we identified three novel HLH orthologous families, which we designated pearl, amber, and peridot, increasing the number of orthologous families to 32. Pearl and amber orthologues were found in genomes and expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) of Mollusca and Annelida in addition to Cnidaria. Peridot orthologues were found in genomes and ESTs of Cephalochordata and Hemichordata in addition to Cnidaria. These three genes were likely lost in the clades of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens during animal evolution.

  1. Circadian transcription factor BMAL1 regulates innate immunity against select RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Patel, Sonal; Kondratov, Roman; Barik, Sailen

    2017-02-01

    BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1(-/-) mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls. These results were supported by animal studies whereby pulmonary infection of RSV produced a more severe disease and morbidity in Bmal1(-/-)mice. These results show that BMAL1 can regulate cellular innate immunity against specific RNA viruses.

  2. Network theory inspired analysis of time-resolved expression data reveals key players guiding P. patens stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Bao, Jie; Hanke, Sebastian T; Hiss, Manuel; Tiko, Theodhor; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems.

  3. Iron assimilation and transcription factor controlled synthesis of riboflavin in plants.

    PubMed

    Vorwieger, A; Gryczka, C; Czihal, A; Douchkov, D; Tiedemann, J; Mock, H-P; Jakoby, M; Weisshaar, B; Saalbach, I; Bäumlein, H

    2007-06-01

    Iron homeostasis is vital for many cellular processes and requires a precise regulation. Several iron efficient plants respond to iron starvation with the excretion of riboflavin and other flavins. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TF) are involved in the regulation of many developmental processes, including iron assimilation. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of two Arabidopsis bHLH TF genes, which are strongly induced under iron starvation. Their heterologous ectopic expression causes constitutive, iron starvation independent excretion of riboflavin. The results show that both bHLH TFs represent an essential component of the regulatory pathway connecting iron deficiency perception and riboflavin excretion and might act as integrators of various stress reactions.

  4. Relationship between brassinosteroids and genes controlling stomatal production in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sonia; Cañamero, Roberto C; Serna, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Stomata are excellent model systems for examining the mechanisms that regulate cell fate determination and pattern formation. It has recently been demonstrated that brassinosteroids control stomatal development by regulating both the MAPK kinase kinase YODA and the basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor SPEECHLESS. Here, we show that these plant regulators positively regulate stomatal formation in the hypocotyl and also accelerate their development. Hormone tests, reporter gene studies and mutant analyses revealed that brassinosteroids act upstream of the transcriptional factors CAPRICE and GLABRA2. These plant regulators control an earlier stage of stomatal production than those regulated by the membrane receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS. This work highlights differences in the genetic control of stomatal development between cotyledons or leaves and hypocotyls.

  5. Dlx1&2 and Mash1 Transcription Factors Control MGE and CGE Patterning and Differentiation through Parallel and Overlapping Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason E.; Cobos, Inma; Potter, Greg B.

    2009-01-01

    Here we define the expression of ∼100 transcription factors (TFs) in progenitors and neurons of the developing mouse medial and caudal ganglionic eminences, anlage of the basal ganglia and pallial interneurons. We have begun to elucidate the transcriptional hierarchy of these genes with respect to the Dlx homeodomain genes, which are essential for differentiation of most γ-aminobutyric acidergic projection neurons of the basal ganglia. This analysis identified Dlx-dependent and Dlx-independent pathways. The Dlx-independent pathway depends in part on the function of the Mash1 basic helix-loop-helix (b-HLH) TF. These analyses define core transcriptional components that differentially specify the identity and differentiation of the globus pallidus, basal telencephalon, and pallial interneurons. PMID:19386638

  6. Genetic regulation of vertebrate eye development.

    PubMed

    Zagozewski, J L; Zhang, Q; Eisenstat, D D

    2014-11-01

    Eye development is a complex and highly regulated process that consists of several overlapping stages: (i) specification then splitting of the eye field from the developing forebrain; (ii) genesis and patterning of the optic vesicle; (iii) regionalization of the optic cup into neural retina and retina pigment epithelium; and (iv) specification and differentiation of all seven retinal cell types that develop from a pool of retinal progenitor cells in a precise temporal and spatial manner: retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, cone photoreceptors, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, rod photoreceptors and Müller glia. Genetic regulation of the stages of eye development includes both extrinsic (such as morphogens, growth factors) and intrinsic factors (primarily transcription factors of the homeobox and basic helix-loop helix families). In the following review, we will provide an overview of the stages of eye development highlighting the role of several important transcription factors in both normal developmental processes and in inherited human eye diseases.

  7. Three redundant brassinosteroid early response genes encode putative bHLH transcription factors required for normal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichsen, Danielle M; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Muramitsu, Takamichi; Maloof, Julin N; Alonso, José; Ecker, Joseph R; Furuya, Masaki; Chory, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxylated steroids that are important regulators of plant growth and development. We have identified three closely related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3, as products of early response genes required for full BR response. Comparison of the phenotypes of plants that overexpress BEE1 with bee1 bee2 bee3 triple-knockout mutant plants suggests that BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3 are functionally redundant positive regulators of BR signaling. Expression of BEE1, BEE2, and BEE3 is also regulated by other hormones, notably abscisic acid (ABA), a known antagonist of BR signaling. Reduced ABA response in plants overexpressing BEE1 suggests that BEE proteins may function as signaling intermediates in multiple pathways. PMID:12454087

  8. Roles of the GLABROUS1 and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA Genes in Arabidopsis Trichome Development.

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, J. C.; Oppenheimer, D. G.; Lloyd, A. M.; Paparozzi, E. T.; Marks, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Arabidopsis trichomes are branched, single-celled epidermal hairs. These specialized cells provide a convenient model for investigating the specification of cell fate in plants. Two key genes regulating the initiation of trichome development are GLABROUS1 (GL1) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG). GL1 is a member of the myb gene family. The maize R gene, which can functionally complement the Arabidopsis ttg mutation, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein. We used constitutively expressed copies of the GL1 and R genes to test hypotheses about the roles of GL1 and TTG in trichome development. The results support the hypothesis that TTG and GL1 cooperate at the same point in the trichome developmental pathway. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of both GL1 and R in the same plant caused trichomes to develop on all shoot epidermal surfaces. Results were also obtained indicating that TTG plays an additional role in inhibiting neighboring cells from becoming trichomes. PMID:12244266

  9. Biophysical properties of regions flanking the bHLH-Zip motif in the p22 Max protein.

    PubMed

    Pursglove, Sharon E; Fladvad, Malin; Bellanda, Massimo; Moshref, Ahmad; Henriksson, Marie; Carey, Jannette; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2004-10-22

    The Max protein is the central dimerization partner in the Myc-Max-Mad network of transcriptional regulators, and a founding structural member of the family of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-leucine zipper (Zip) proteins. Biologically important regions flanking its bHLH-Zip motif have been disordered or absent in crystal structures. The present study shows that these regions are resistant to proteolysis in both the presence and absence of DNA, and that Max dimers containing both flanking regions have significantly higher helix content as measured by circular dichroism than that predicted from the crystal structures. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the absence of DNA also support the inferred structural order. Deletion of both flanking regions is required to achieve maximal DNA affinity as measured by EMSA. Thus, the previously observed functionalities of these Max regions in DNA binding, phosphorylation, and apoptosis are suggested to be linked to structural properties.

  10. The Stepwise Increase in the Number of Transcription Factor Families in the Precambrian Predated the Diversification of Plants On Land.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J; Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven; Dolan, Liam

    2016-11-01

    The colonization of the land by streptophytes and their subsequent radiation is a major event in Earth history. We report a stepwise increase in the number of transcription factor (TF) families and subfamilies in Archaeplastida before the colonization of the land. The subsequent increase in TF number on land was through duplication within existing TF families and subfamilies. Almost all subfamilies of the Homeodomain (HD) and basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) had evolved before the radiation of extant land plant lineages from a common ancestor. We demonstrate that the evolution of these TF families independently followed similar trends in both plants and metazoans; almost all extant HD and bHLH subfamilies were present in the first land plants and in the last common ancestor of bilaterians. These findings reveal that the majority of innovation in plant and metazoan TF families occurred in the Precambrian before the Phanerozoic radiation of land plants and metazoans.

  11. Time to pump iron: iron-deficiency-signaling mechanisms of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elsbeth L; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-10-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for plants, yet it often limits plant growth. On the contrary, overaccumulation of iron within plant cells leads to oxidative stress. As a consequence, iron-uptake systems are carefully regulated to ensure that iron homeostasis is maintained. In response to iron limitation, plants induce expression of sets of activities that function at the root-soil interface to solubilize iron and subsequently transfer it across the plasma membrane of root cells. Recent advances have revealed key players in the signaling pathways that function to induce these iron-uptake responses. Transcription factors belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix, ABI3/VP1(B3), and NAC families appear to function either directly or indirectly in the upregulation of iron deficiency responses.

  12. Potential for neural regeneration after neurotoxic injury in the adult mammalian retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooto, Sotaro; Akagi, Tadamichi; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Akita, Joe; Mandai, Michiko; Honda, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masayo

    2004-09-01

    It has long been believed that the retina of mature mammals is incapable of regeneration. In this study, using the N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity model of adult rat retina, we observed that some Müller glial cells were stimulated to proliferate in response to a toxic injury and produce bipolar cells and rod photoreceptors. Although these newly produced neurons were limited in number, retinoic acid treatment promoted the number of regenerated bipolar cells. Moreover, misexpression of basic helix-loop-helix and homeobox genes promoted the induction of amacrine, horizontal, and rod photoreceptor specific phenotypes. These findings demonstrated that retinal neurons regenerated even in adult mammalian retina after toxic injury. Furthermore, we could partially control the fate of the regenerated neurons with extrinsic factors or intrinsic genes. The Müller glial cells constitute a potential source for the regeneration of adult mammalian retina and can be a target for drug delivery and gene therapy in retinal degenerative diseases.

  13. Grasses use an alternatively wired bHLH transcription factor network to establish stomatal identity.

    PubMed

    Raissig, Michael T; Abrash, Emily; Bettadapur, Akhila; Vogel, John P; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-07-19

    Stomata, epidermal valves facilitating plant-atmosphere gas exchange, represent a powerful model for understanding cell fate and pattern in plants. Core basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulating stomatal development were identified in Arabidopsis, but this dicot's developmental pattern and stomatal morphology represent only one of many possibilities in nature. Here, using unbiased forward genetic screens, followed by analysis of reporters and engineered mutants, we show that stomatal initiation in the grass Brachypodium distachyon uses orthologs of stomatal regulators known from Arabidopsis but that the function and behavior of individual genes, the relationships among genes, and the regulation of their protein products have diverged. Our results highlight ways in which a kernel of conserved genes may be alternatively wired to produce diversity in patterning and morphology and suggest that the stomatal transcription factor module is a prime target for breeding or genome modification to improve plant productivity.

  14. Dynamic expression and essential functions of Hes7 in somite segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Y; Sakata, R; Komatsu, S; Shiota, K; Yamada, S; Kageyama, R

    2001-10-15

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Hes7, a putative Notch effector, encodes a transcriptional repressor. Here, we found that Hes7 expression oscillates in 2-h cycles in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). In Hes7-null mice, somites are not properly segmented and their anterior-posterior polarity is disrupted. As a result, the somite derivatives such as vertebrae and ribs are severely disorganized. Although expression of Notch and its ligands is not affected significantly, the oscillator and Notch modulator lunatic fringe is expressed continuously throughout the mutant PSM. These results indicate that Hes7 controls the cyclic expression of lunatic fringe and is essential for coordinated somite segmentation.

  15. Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins.

    PubMed

    Paroush, Z; Finley, R L; Kidd, T; Wainwright, S M; Ingham, P W; Brent, R; Ish-Horowicz, D

    1994-12-02

    We have used the interaction trap, a yeast two-hybrid system, to identify proteins interacting with hairy, a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that represses transcription during Drosophila embryonic segmentation. We find that the groucho (gro) protein binds specifically to hairy and also to hairy-related bHLH proteins encoded by deadpan and the Enhancer of split complex. The C-terminal WRPW motif present in all these bHLH proteins is essential for this interaction. We demonstrate that these associations reflect in vivo maternal requirements for gro during neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination, three processes regulated by the above bHLH proteins, and we propose that gro is a transcriptional corepressor recruited to specific target promoters by hairy-related bHLH proteins.

  16. Identification of a 120-kDa protein associated with aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A; Kikuchi, H; Ikawa, S; Sagami, I; Watanabe, M

    1995-07-06

    The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein which forms a heterodimer with aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), this heterodimer mediating the signal transduction in response to the various xenobiotics such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and directly interacting with target genes by binding to xenobiotic responsive elements. An anti-ARNT antibody was raised in rabbits against the bacterially expressed ARNT of amino acids 21-328 from the N-terminal. Using this antibody, besides ARNT itself, we detected at least one protein, 120 kDa, in the immunoprecipitate of anti-ARNT antibodies in HepG2 cells as well as in Hepa-1 cells. However, this protein is not present in the immunoprecipitate of the anti-AHR antisera nor in that of the preimmune sera of the rabbits used for the immunization.

  17. Transcriptional Control of Early T and B Cell Developmental Choices

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    T and B cells share a common somatic gene rearrangement mechanism for assembling the genes that code for their antigen receptors and developmental pathways with many parallels. Shared usage of basic helix-loop-helix E proteins as transcriptional drivers underlies these common features. However, the transcription factor networks in which these E proteins are embedded are different both in membership and in architecture for T and B cell gene regulatory programs. These differences permit lineage commitment decisions to be made in different hierarchical orders. Furthermore, in a contrast to B-cell gene networks, the T-cell gene network architecture for effector differentiation is sufficiently modular so that E protein inputs can be removed. Complete “T-cell-like” effector differentiation can proceed without T-cell receptor rearrangement or selection when E proteins are neutralized, yielding natural killer and other innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24471430

  18. Expression of ARNT, ARNT2, HIF1 alpha, HIF2 alpha and Ah receptor mRNAs in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Maltepe, E; Lu, M M; Simon, C; Bradfield, C A

    1998-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) protein ARNT is a dimeric partner of the Ah receptor (AHR) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha(HIF1 alpha). These dimers mediate biological responses to xenobiotic exposure and low oxygen tension. The recent cloning of ARNT and HIF1(homologues (ARNT2 and HIF2 alpha) indicates that at least six distinct bHLH-PAS heterodimeric combinations can occur in response to a number of environmental stimuli. In an effort to understand the biological relevance of this combinatorial complexity, we characterized their relative expression at a number of developmental time points by parallel in situ hybridization of adjacent tissue sections. Our results reveal that in general there is limited redundancy in the expression of these six transcription factors and that each of these bHLH-PAS members displays a unique pattern of developmental expression emerging as early as embryonic day 9.5.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Lamouille, Samy; Xu, Jian; Derynck, Rik

    2014-01-01

    The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is integral in development, wound healing and stem cell behaviour, and contributes pathologically to fibrosis and cancer progression. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour is mediated by key transcription factors, including SNAIL, zinc-finger E-box-binding (ZEB) and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the functions of which are finely regulated at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. The reprogramming of gene expression during EMT, as well as non-transcriptional changes, are initiated and controlled by signalling pathways that respond to extracellular cues. Among these, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signalling has a predominant role; however, the convergence of signalling pathways is essential for EMT. PMID:24556840

  20. TWIST and ovarian cancer stem cells: implications for chemoresistance and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sudhakar V.; Mor, Gil; Li, Peiyao; Yin, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TWIST1 is a highly evolutionally conserved basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of gastrulation and mesodermal development. Although TWIST1 was initially associated with embryo development, an increasing number of studies have shown TWIST1 role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, primarily as a regulator of inflammation. More recently, TWIST1 has been found to be involved in the process of tumor metastasis through the regulation of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). The objective of this review is to examine the normal functions of TWIST1 and its role in tumor development, with a particular focus on ovarian cancer. We discuss the potential role of TWIST1 in the context of ovarian cancer stem cells and its influence in the process of tumor formation. PMID:25238494

  1. Proprioceptor pathway development is dependent on Math1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermingham, N. A.; Hassan, B. A.; Wang, V. Y.; Fernandez, M.; Banfi, S.; Bellen, H. J.; Fritzsch, B.; Zoghbi, H. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The proprioceptive system provides continuous positional information on the limbs and body to the thalamus, cortex, pontine nucleus, and cerebellum. We showed previously that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Math1 is essential for the development of certain components of the proprioceptive pathway, including inner-ear hair cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and the pontine nuclei. Here, we demonstrate that Math1 null embryos lack the D1 interneurons and that these interneurons give rise to a subset of proprioceptor interneurons and the spinocerebellar and cuneocerebellar tracts. We also identify three downstream genes of Math1 (Lh2A, Lh2B, and Barhl1) and establish that Math1 governs the development of multiple components of the proprioceptive pathway.

  2. Sense organ identity in the Drosophila antenna is specified by the expression of the proneural gene atonal.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, D; Sen, A; Reddy, G V; Rodrigues, V

    2000-12-01

    We have shown that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atonal is sufficient for specification of one of the three subsets of olfactory sense organs on the Drosophila antenna. Misexpression of Atonal in all sensory precursors in the antennal disc results in their conversion to coeloconic sensilla. The mechanism by which specific sense organ fate is triggered remains unclear. We have shown that the homeodomain transcription factor Cut which acts in the chordotonal-external sense organ choice does not play a role in olfactory sense organ development. The expression of atonal in specific domains of the antennal disc is regulated by an interplay of the patterning genes, Hedgehog and Wingless, and Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

  3. The emerging role of Twist proteins in hematopoietic cells and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Merindol, N; Riquet, A; Szablewski, V; Eliaou, J-F; Puisieux, A; Bonnefoy, N

    2014-01-01

    Twist1 and Twist2 (Twist1–2) are two transcription factors, members of the basic helix-loop-helix family, that have been well established as master transcriptional regulators of embryogenesis and developmental programs of mesenchymal cell lineages. Their role in oncogenesis in epithelium-derived cancer and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has also been thoroughly characterized. Recently, emerging evidence also suggests a key role for Twist1–2 in the function and development of hematopoietic cells, as well as in survival and development of numerous hematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize the latest data that depict the role of Twist1–2 in monocytes, T cells and B lymphocyte activation, and in associated hematological malignancies. PMID:24769647

  4. Distinct DNA binding preferences for the c-Myc/Max and Max/Max dimers.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, D L; Amati, B; Land, H

    1993-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Myc and its dimerisation partner Max are members of the basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine-zipper (bHLH-Z) family and bind to the DNA core sequence CACGTG. Using a site-selection protocol, we determined the complete 12 base pair consensus binding sites of c-Myc/Max (RACCACGTGGTY) and Max/Max (RANCACGTGNTY) dimers. We find that the c-Myc/Max dimer fails to bind the core when it is flanked by a 5'T or a 3'A, while the Max/Max dimer readily binds such sequences. Furthermore we show that inappropriate flanking sequences preclude transactivation by c-Myc in vivo. In conclusion, Max/Max dimers are less discriminatory than c-Myc/Max and may regulate other genes in addition to c-Myc/Max targets. PMID:8265351

  5. Reciprocal interaction of the circadian clock with the iron homeostasis network in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunghyun; Kim, Sun A; Guerinot, Mary Lou; McClung, C Robertson

    2013-02-01

    In plants, iron (Fe) uptake and homeostasis are critical for survival, and these processes are tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillating mechanisms that allow an organism to anticipate environmental changes to coordinate biological processes both with one another and with the environmental day/night cycle. The plant circadian clock controls many physiological processes through rhythmic expression of transcripts. In this study, we examined the expression of three Fe homeostasis genes (IRON REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 [IRT1], BASIC HELIX LOOP HELIX39, and FERRITIN1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using promoter:LUCIFERASE transgenic lines. Each of these promoters showed circadian regulation of transcription. The circadian clock monitors a number of clock outputs and uses these outputs as inputs to modulate clock function. We show that this is also true for Fe status. Fe deficiency results in a lengthened circadian period. We interrogated mutants impaired in the Fe homeostasis response, including irt1-1, which lacks the major high-affinity Fe transporter, and fit-2, which lacks Fe deficiency-induced TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor necessary for induction of the Fe deficiency response. Both mutants exhibit symptoms of Fe deficiency, including lengthened circadian period. To determine which components are involved in this cross talk between the circadian and Fe homeostasis networks, we tested clock- or Fe homeostasis-related mutants. Mutants defective in specific clock gene components were resistant to the change in period length under different Fe conditions observed in the wild type, suggesting that these mutants are impaired in cross talk between Fe homeostasis and the circadian clock.

  6. Characterization of msim, a murine homologue of the Drosophila sim transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, P.; Reece, M.; Pelletier, J.

    1996-07-01

    Mutations in the Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene result in loss of precursor cells that give rise to midline cells of the embryonic central nervous system. During the course of an exon-trapping strategy aimed at identifying transcripts that contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of Down syndrome, we identified a human exon from the Down syndrome, we identified a human exon from the Down syndrome critical region showing significantly homology to the Drosophila sim gene. Using a cross-hybridization approach, we have isolated a murine homolog of Drosophila sim gene, which we designated msim. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence analyses of msim cDNA clones indicate the this gene encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix class of transcription factors. The murine and Drosophila proteins share 88% residues within the basic-helix-loop helix domain, with an overall homology of 92%. In addition, the N-terminal domain of MSIM contains two PAS dimerization motifs also featured in the Drosophila sim gene product, as well as a small number of other transcription factors. Northern blot analysis of adult murine tissues revealed that the msim gene produces a single mRNA species of {approximately}4 kb expressed in a small number of tissues, with the highest levels in the kidneys and lower levels present in skeletal muscle, lung, testis, brain, and heart. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that msim is also expressed in early fetal development in the central nervous system and in cartilage primordia. The characteristics of the msim gene are consistent with its putative function as a transcriptional regulator. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Npas4 Is Activated by Melatonin, and Drives the Clock Gene Cry1 in the Ovine Pars Tuberalis

    PubMed Central

    West, A.; Dupré, S.M.; Yu, L.; Paton, I.R.; Miedzinska, K.; McNeilly, A.S.; Davis, J.R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal mammals integrate changes in the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion to drive annual physiologic cycles. Melatonin receptors within the proximal pituitary region, the pars tuberalis (PT), are essential in regulating seasonal neuroendocrine responses. In the ovine PT, melatonin is known to influence acute changes in transcriptional dynamics coupled to the onset (dusk) and offset (dawn) of melatonin secretion, leading to a potential interval-timing mechanism capable of decoding changes in day length (photoperiod). Melatonin offset at dawn is linked to cAMP accumulation, which directly induces transcription of the clock gene Per1. The rise of melatonin at dusk induces a separate and distinct cohort, including the clock-regulated genes Cry1 and Nampt, but little is known of the up-stream mechanisms involved. Here, we used next-generation sequencing of the ovine PT transcriptome at melatonin onset and identified Npas4 as a rapidly induced basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim domain transcription factor. In vivo we show nuclear localization of NPAS4 protein in presumptive melatonin target cells of the PT (α-glycoprotein hormone-expressing cells), whereas in situ hybridization studies identified acute and transient expression in the PT of Npas4 in response to melatonin. In vitro, NPAS4 forms functional dimers with basic helix loop helix-PAS domain cofactors aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), ARNT2, and ARNTL, transactivating both Cry1 and Nampt ovine promoter reporters. Using a combination of 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we show NPAS4-ARNT transactivation to be codependent upon two conserved central midline elements within the Cry1 promoter. Our data thus reveal NPAS4 as a candidate immediate early-response gene in the ovine PT, driving molecular responses to melatonin. PMID:23598442

  8. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  9. Brassinosteroid-Induced Transcriptional Repression and Dephosphorylation-Dependent Protein Degradation Negatively Regulate BIN2-Interacting AIF2 (a BR Signaling-Negative Regulator) bHLH Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Seon-U; Jeong, You-Seung; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2017-01-09

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR signaling molecules. Overexpression of AIF2 down-regulated transcript expression of growth-promoting genes, thus resulting in retardation of growth. AIF2 renders plants hyposensitive to BR-induced root growth inhibition, but shows little effects on BR-promoted hypocotyl elongation. Notably, AIF2 was dephosphorylated by BR, and the dephosphorylated AIF2 was subject to proteasome-mediated degradation. AIF2 degradation was greatly induced by BR and ABA, but relatively slightly by other hormones such as auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene. Moreover, AIF2 transcription was significantly suppressed by a BRI1/BZR1-mediated BR signaling pathway through a direct binding of BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) to the BR response element (BRRE) region of the AIF2 promoter. In conclusion, our study suggests that BIN2-driven AIF2 phosphorylation could augment the BIN2/AIF2-mediated negative circuit of BR signaling pathways, and the BR-induced transcriptional repression and protein degradation negatively regulate AIF2 transcription factor, reinforcing the BZR1/BES1-mediated positive BR signaling pathway.

  10. Mutations affecting the BHLHA9 DNA-binding domain cause MSSD, mesoaxial synostotic syndactyly with phalangeal reduction, Malik-Percin type.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sajid; Percin, Ferda E; Bornholdt, Dorothea; Albrecht, Beate; Percesepe, Antonio; Koch, Manuela C; Landi, Antonio; Fritz, Barbara; Khan, Rizwan; Mumtaz, Sara; Akarsu, Nurten A; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

    2014-12-04

    Mesoaxial synostotic syndactyly, Malik-Percin type (MSSD) (syndactyly type IX) is a rare autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic digit anomaly with only two affected families reported so far. We previously showed that the trait is genetically distinct from other syndactyly types, and through autozygosity mapping we had identified a locus on chromosome 17p13.3 for this unique limb malformation. Here, we extend the number of independent pedigrees from various geographic regions segregating MSSD to a total of six. We demonstrate that three neighboring missense mutations affecting the highly conserved DNA-binding region of the basic helix-loop-helix A9 transcription factor (BHLHA9) are associated with this phenotype. Recombinant BHLHA9 generated by transient gene expression is shown to be located in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. Transcription factors 3, 4, and 12, members of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors, are highlighted in yeast two-hybrid analysis as potential dimerization partners for BHLHA9. In the presence of BHLHA9, the potential of these three proteins to activate expression of an E-box-regulated target gene is reduced considerably. BHLHA9 harboring one of the three substitutions detected in MSSD-affected individuals eliminates entirely the transcription activation by these class I bHLH proteins. We conclude that by dimerizing with other bHLH protein monomers, BHLHA9 could fine tune the expression of regulatory factors governing determination of central limb mesenchyme cells, a function made impossible by altering critical amino acids in the DNA binding domain. These findings identify BHLHA9 as an essential player in the regulatory network governing limb morphogenesis in humans.

  11. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  12. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  13. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics A ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  14. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  15. PASCAL vs BASIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  16. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  17. Climate Change: Basic Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Climate Change Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change is ...

  18. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  19. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  20. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  1. Romanian Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The "Romanian Basic Course," consisting of 89 lesson units in eight volumes, is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Romanian (based on a 1-5 scale in which Level 5 is native speaker proficiency). Volume 1, which introduces basic sentences in dialog form with…

  2. TOOLS AND BASIC MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

    THIS BASIC READER IS A PART OF AN EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE SPECIAL NEW TRAINING MATERIALS TO TEACH BASIC VOCATIONAL TALENT SKILLS TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH WERE TESTED ON APPROXIMATELY 2,500 EIGHTH AND NINTH GRADERS IN EIGHT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE NATION. THIS READER WAS…

  3. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  4. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  5. BASIC Beats PASCAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ever, Jacob

    1981-01-01

    Features of two versions of the BASIC programing language are compared with the features of the PASCAL programing language. The application chosen for comparison was a word processor. The conclusion was that PASCAL had the best language features, but BASIC had better systems capabilities. (MP)

  6. BASIC: Updating a Familiar Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses reasons for learning to program in BASIC, various versions of BASIC, BASIC compilers, and adherence to proposed standards. Brief reviews of six BASIC software packages are included. (12 references) (MES)

  7. Basics of Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide energy in the form of calories. Alcohol (beer, wine, ...

  8. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  9. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  10. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  11. Getting back to basics.

    PubMed

    Maricich, Stephen M; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2006-07-14

    Advances in understanding basic developmental and physiological processes often have direct relevance to human disease. They provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms and reveal new pathways that can be exploited in diagnosis and the development of therapeutics.

  12. Mussel inspired protein-mediated surface functionalization of electrospun nanofibers for pH-responsive drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiang; Xie, Jingwei; Ma, Bing; Bartlett, David E.; Xu, An; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    pH-responsive drug delivery systems could mediate drug releasing rate by changing pH values at specific time as per the pathophysiological need of the disease. Herein, we demonstrated a mussel inspired protein polydopamine coating can tune the loading and releasing rate of charged molecules from electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers in solutions with different pH values. In vitro release profiles showed that the positive charged molecules released significantly faster in acidic than those in neutral and basic environments within the same incubation time. The results of fluorescein diacetate staining and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays showed the viability of cancer cells after treatment with doxorubicin released media at different pH values qualitatively and quantitatively, indicating the media contained doxorubicin which was released in solutions at low pH values could kill significantly higher number of cells than that released in solutions at high pH values. Together, the pH-responsive drug delivery systems based on polydopamine-coated PCL nanofibers could have potential applications in oral delivery of anticancer drugs for treating gastric cancer and vaginal delivery of anti-viral drugs or anti-inflammatory drugs, which could raise their efficacy, deliver them to the specific target, and minimize their toxic side effects. PMID:24287161

  13. Heterogeneous basic catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Hideshi

    1995-05-01

    Heterogeneous acid catalysis attracted much attention primarily because heterogeneous acidic catalysts act as catalysts in petroleum refinery and are known as a main catalyst in the cracking process which is the largest process among the industrial chemical processes. In contrast to these extensive studies of heterogeneous acidic catalysts, fewer efforts have been given to the study of heterogeneous basic catalysts. The types of heterogeneous basic catalysts are listed in Table 1. Except for non-oxide catalysts, the basic sites are believed to be surface O atoms. The studies of heterogeneous catalysis have been continuous and progressed steadily. They have never been reviewed in the chemical Reviews before. It is more useful and informative to describe the studies of heterogeneous basic catalysis performed for a long period. In the present article, therefore, the cited papers are not restricted to those published recently, but include those published for the last 25 years. The paper first describes the generation of basic sites before describing methods used in the characterization of basic surfaces. These are indicator methods, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, UV absorption and luminescence spectroscopies, TPD of H{sub 2}, XPS, IR of CO{sub 2}, IR of pyrrole, and oxygen exchange between CO{sub 2} and the surface. The paper then discusses studies on the catalysis by heterogeneous basic catalysts. Some of these reactions are dehydration, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, amination, alkylation, ring transformation, and reactions of organosilanes. Catalysts discussed are single component metal oxides, zeolites, non-oxide types, and superbasic catalysts. 141 refs.

  14. Basic research championed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  15. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  16. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  17. Turkish Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 14 volumes of the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Turkish consist of 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing Turkish. (Native-speaker fluency is Level 5.) An introduction to the sound system, vowel harmony, and syllable division…

  18. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  19. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  20. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  1. Developing Basic Electronics Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeshore Technical Coll., Cleveland, WI.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for basic training in electrical and electronic theory to enable participants to analyze circuits and use test equipment to verify electrical operations and to succeed in the beginning electrical and electronic courses in the Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) electronics programs. The course includes…

  2. Basic Experiments in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, S. G.

    Presented is a set of laboratory experiments developed to provide students with demonstrations and hands-on experiences with a variety of basic communications methods. These experiments may be used with students who have training in engineering, as well as those with social sciences who have no engineering background. Detailed exercises dealing…

  3. Basic Soils. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  4. Focus on Basics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the four 1998 quarterly issues of this newsletter that present best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and information on how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policy makers. The following are among the major articles included: "Power,…

  5. Sara Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    The basic plan of this course in Sara is modeled after "An Experimental Course in Hausa" (FSI 1965). The course uses short cycles consisting of mimicry followed by conversations built on the same vocabulary and syntactic pattern. The format has been condensed and altered. The course contains 95 cycles and would require approximately 50 hours to…

  6. Baby Bath Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel more comfortable at bath time. Start by learning baby bath basics. There's no need to give your newborn a bath every day. Three times a week might be enough until your baby becomes more mobile. Bathing your baby too much can dry out ...

  7. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  8. Computer Programming: BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Patience; And Others

    This guide was prepared to help teachers of the Lincoln Public School's introductory computer programming course in BASIC to make the necessary adjustments for changes made in the course since the purchase of microcomputers and such peripheral devices as television monitors and disk drives, and the addition of graphics. Intended to teach a…

  9. Basic Publication Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savedge, Charles E., Ed.

    Designed for students who produce newspapers and newsmagazines in junior high, middle, and elementary schools, this booklet is both a scorebook and a fundamentals text. The scorebook provides realistic criteria for judging publication excellence at these educational levels. All the basics for good publications are included in the text of the…

  10. Basic Writing: Progressive Proofreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette C.

    Writing problems in the basic college freshman writing course result from the students' misconception that once they get the required number of words down on paper their compositions are unalterable, and teachers' misconception that serving as an editor, correcting errors and rewriting sentences, is an effective teaching tool. Students'…

  11. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  12. Basic Structure Content Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Helmes, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A basic structure approach is proposed for obtaining multidimensional scale values for attitude, achievement, or personality items from response data. The technique permits the unconfounding of scale values due to response bias and content and partitions item indices of popularity or difficulty among a number of relevant dimensions. (Author/BH)

  13. Internet Training: The Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This paper outlines the basic information teachers need to know to use the World Wide Web for research and communication, using Netscape 3.04. Topics covered include the following: what is the World Wide Web?; what is a browser?; accessing the Web; moving around a web document; the Uniform Resource Locator (URL); Bookmarks; saving and printing a…

  14. Basic Electronics II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, Neal A.; Shelton, James K.

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of 15 units of instruction. Unit titles are Review of the Nature of Matter and the P-N Junction, Rectifiers, Filters, Special Semiconductor Diodes, Bipolar-Junction Diodes, Bipolar Transistor Circuits, Transistor Amplifiers, Operational Amplifiers, Logic Devices,…

  15. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  16. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  17. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  18. Hindi Basic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati."…

  19. Basic Blueprint Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deieso, Angie; Meier, Jean

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a basic course in blueprint reading. The course provides a review of mathematics, information about using measuring tools to read blueprints, an explanation of the principles of blueprint drawing, and instructions on interpreting blueprint specifications. Introductory…

  20. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  1. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  2. Reading for Basic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…

  3. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  4. Basic Internet Software Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…

  5. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  6. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  9. Expression dynamics and functions of Hes factors in development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Taeko; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Hes genes, encoding basic helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors, are mammalian homologues of Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split genes, both of which are required for normal neurogenesis in Drosophila. There are seven members in the human Hes family, Hes1-7, which are expressed in many tissues and play various roles mainly in development. All Hes proteins have three conserved domains: basic HLH (bHLH), Orange, and WRPW domains. The basic region binds to target DNA sequences, while the HLH region forms homo- and heterodimers with other bHLH proteins, the Orange domain is responsible for the selection of partners during heterodimer formation, and the WRPW domain recruits corepressors. Hes1, Hes5, and Hes7 are known as downstream effectors of canonical Notch signaling, which regulates cell differentiation via cell-cell interaction. Hes factors regulate many events in development by repressing the expression of target genes, many of which encode transcriptional activators that promote cell differentiation. For example, Hes1, Hes3, and Hes5 are highly expressed by neural stem cells, and inactivation of these genes results in insufficient maintenance of stem cell proliferation and prematurely promotes neuronal differentiation. Recently, it was shown that the expression dynamics of Hes1 plays crucial roles in proper developmental timings and fate-determination steps of embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells. Here, we discuss some key features of Hes factors in development and diseases.

  10. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  11. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  12. Basic Research Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) more than twenty years ago led to the evolution of the Internet. Likewise, molecular...for detection/classification Acoustic imaging in shallow water Ray chaos models Acoustic holography 4 -6 4.2 Chemistry Chemistry research directly...strength, high-ductility structural materials. 4 -38 Table 4.8.1. Basic Research Funding for Terrestrial Sciences ($ Mllions ) Program Element Service

  13. Basics of Biosafety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Willy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the basics of biosafety and the importance of assuring proper biosafety practices. The objectives of the presentation are to review regulations about biosafety, and the different biosafety levels; the biosafety facilities at Johnson Space Center; the usage and maintenance of the biosafety cabinet, the proper methods to handle biologically hazardous materials upon exposure, and the methods of cleanup in the event of a spill, and the training requirements that are mandated for personnel handling biologically hazardous materials.

  14. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  15. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  16. Protein-mediated layer-by-layer synthesis of TiO₂(B)/anatase/carbon coating on nickel foam as negative electrode material for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2013-05-01

    Through an aqueous, protein-mediated layer-by-layer titania deposition process, we have fabricated a protamine/titania composite layer on nickel foam. The coating was composed of amorphous carbon and TiO2(B)/anatase nanoparticles and formed upon organic pyrolysis under a reducing atmosphere (5% H2-Ar mixture). X-ray diffraction analyses, Auger electron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained coatings contained fine monoclinic TiO2(B) and anatase nanocrystals, along with amorphous carbon. Moreover, the coating can be used as a binder-free negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries and exhibits high reversible capacity and fast charge-discharge properties; a reversible capacity of 245 mAh g(-1) was obtained at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), and capacities of 167 and 143 mAh g(-1) were obtained at current densities of 1 and 2 A g(-1), respectively.

  17. DNA Topoisomerase I Affects Polycomb Group Protein-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation and Plant Development by Altering Nucleosome Distribution in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xigang; Gao, Lei; Dinh, Thanh Theresa; Shi, Ting; Li, Dongming; Wang, Ruozhong; Guo, Lin; Xiao, Langtao; Chen, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    It has been perplexing that DNA topoisomerases, enzymes that release DNA supercoils, play specific roles in development. In this study, using a floral stem cell model in Arabidopsis thaliana, we uncovered a role for TOPOISOMERASE1α (TOP1α) in Polycomb Group (PcG) protein-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at, and transcriptional repression of, the stem cell maintenance gene WUSCHEL (WUS). We demonstrated that H3K27me3 deposition at other PcG targets also requires TOP1α. Intriguingly, the repression of some, as well as the expression of many, PcG target genes requires TOP1α. The mechanism that unifies the opposing effects of TOP1α appears to lie in its role in decreasing nucleosome density, which probably allows the binding of factors that either recruit PcG, as we demonstrated for AGAMOUS at the WUS locus, or counteract PcG-mediated regulation. Although TOP1α reduces nucleosome density at all genes, the lack of a 5′ nucleosome-free region is a feature that distinguishes PcG targets from nontargets and may condition the requirement for TOP1α for their expression. This study uncovers a connection between TOP1α and PcG, which explains the specific developmental functions of TOP1α. PMID:25070639

  18. Gq protein mediates UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by stimulating HB-EGF secretion from HaCaT human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, MiRan; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2010-03-05

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression to produce cellular responses including aging and carcinogenesis in skin. We hypothesised that heterotrimeric G proteins mediate UV-induced COX-2 expression by stimulating secretion of soluble HB-EGF (sHB-EGF). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of the {alpha} subunit of Gq protein (G{alpha}q) in UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion and COX-2 induction. We found that expression of constitutively active G{alpha}q (G{alpha}qQL) augmented UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion, which was abolished by knockdown of G{alpha}q with shRNA in HaCaT human keratinocytes. G{alpha}q was found to mediate the UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion by sequential activation of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), and matrix metaloprotease-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, G{alpha}qQL mediated UVB-induced COX-2 expression in an HB-EGF-, EGFR-, and p38-dependent manner. From these results, we concluded that G{alpha}q mediates UV-induced COX-2 expression through activation of EGFR by HB-EGF, of which ectodomain shedding was stimulated through sequential activation of PLC, PKC{delta} and MMP-2 in HaCaT cells.

  19. DEC1 negatively regulates AMPK activity via LKB1

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC1 (bHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) is one of the clock genes that show a circadian rhythm in various tissues. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity plays important roles in the metabolic process and in cell death induced by glucose depletion. Recent reports have shown that AMPK activity exhibited a circadian rhythm. However, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanisms involved in the circadian rhythm of AMPK activity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a direct correlation between DEC1 expression and AMPK activity. DEC1 protein and AMPK activity showed a circadian rhythm in the mouse liver with different peak levels. Knocking down DEC1 expression increased AMPK activity, whereas overexpression of DEC1 decreased it. Overexpressing the DEC1 basic mutants had little effect on the AMPK activity. DEC1 bound to the E-box of the LKB1 promoter, decreased LKB1 activity and total protein levels. There was an inverse relationship between DEC1 expression and AMPK activity. Our results suggest that DEC1 negatively regulates AMPK activity via LKB1. PMID:26498531

  20. Arabidopsis bZIP16 Transcription Factor Integrates Light and Hormone Signaling Pathways to Regulate Early Seedling Development[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomic adjustment plays an important role in Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and deetiolation in response to environmental light signals. The G-box cis-element is commonly present in promoters of genes that respond positively or negatively to the light signal. In pursuing additional transcriptional regulators that modulate light-mediated transcriptome changes, we identified bZIP16, a basic region/Leu zipper motif transcription factor, by G-box DNA affinity chromatography. We confirmed that bZIP16 has G-box–specific binding activity. Analysis of bzip16 mutants revealed that bZIP16 is a negative regulator in light-mediated inhibition of cell elongation but a positive regulator in light-regulated seed germination. Transcriptome analysis supported that bZIP16 is primarily a transcriptional repressor regulating light-, gibberellic acid (GA)–, and abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that bZIP16 could directly target ABA-responsive genes and RGA-LIKE2, a DELLA gene in the GA signaling pathway. bZIP16 could also indirectly repress the expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein coordinating hormone responses during seed germination. By repressing the expression of these genes, bZIP16 functions to promote seed germination and hypocotyl elongation during the early stages of Arabidopsis seedling development. PMID:23104829

  1. DNA binding and transcriptional regulatory activity of mammalian achaete-scute homologous (MASH) proteins revealed by interaction with a muscle-specific enhancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Birren, S J; Saito, T; Anderson, D J

    1992-04-15

    The MASH genes are vertebrate homologues of achaete-scute, genes required for neuronal determination in Drosophila. The sequence of MASH1 and MASH2 contains a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif that is present in other transcriptional regulators such as MyoD and E12. In the absence of an authentic target for the MASH proteins, we examined their DNA binding and transcriptional regulatory activity by using a binding site (the E box) from the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene, a target of MyoD. Like myogenic bHLH proteins, the MASH proteins form heterooligomers with E12 that bind the MCK E box with high affinity in vitro. Unexpectedly, however, MASH1 and MASH2 also activate transcription of both exogenous and endogenous MCK in transfected C3H/10T1/2 fibroblasts. However, they do not induce myogenesis. Myogenic activity is not exclusively a property of the MyoD basic region, as substitution of this domain fails to confer myogenic activity on MASH1. These data suggest that different bHLH proteins may activate overlapping but distinct sets of target genes in the same cell type.

  2. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    SciTech Connect

    Kewley, Robyn J. . E-mail: rkewley@csu.edu.au; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-12-09

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer.

  3. The mouse Kreisler (Krml1/MafB) segmentation gene is required for differentiation of glomerular visceral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sadl, Virginia; Jin, Fuzi; Yu, Joanna; Cui, Shiying; Holmyard, Douglas; Quaggin, Susan; Barsh, Greg; Cordes, Sabine

    2002-09-01

    Molecular components of the glomerular filtration mechanism play critical roles in renal diseases. Many of these components are produced during the final stages of differentiation of glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes. While basic domain leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors of the Maf subfamily have been implicated in cellular differentiation processes, Kreisler (Krml1/MafB), the gene affected in the mouse kreisler (kr) mutation, is known for its role in hindbrain patterning. Here we show that mice homozygous for the kr(enu) mutation develop renal disease and that Kreisler is essential for cellular differentiation of podocytes. Consistent with abnormal podocyte differentiation, kr(enu) homozygotes show proteinuria, and fusion and effacement of podocyte foot processes, which are also observed in the nephrotic syndrome. Kreisler acts during the final stages of glomerular development-the transition between the capillary loop and mature stages-and downstream of the Pod1 basic domain helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The levels of Podocin, the gene mutated in autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NPHS2), and Nephrin, the gene mutated in congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (NPHS1), are slightly reduced in kr(enu)/kr(enu) podocytes. However, these observations alone are unlikely to account for the aberrant podocyte foot process formation. Thus, Kreisler must regulate other unknown genes required for podocyte function and with possible roles in kidney disease.

  4. Mbh 1: a novel gelsolin/severin-related protein which binds actin in vitro and exhibits nuclear localization in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, G C; Ziff, E B

    1991-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a novel cDNA, mbh1 (myc basic motif homolog-1), which was found during a search for candidate factors which might interact with the c-Myc oncoprotein. Embedded within the amino acid sequence encoded by mbh1 is a region distantly related to the basic/helix-loop-helix (B/HLH) DNA-binding motif and a potential nuclear localization signal. Mbh1 encodes a polypeptide structurally similar to the actin-severing proteins gelsolin and severin. Translation of mbh1 RNA in rabbit reticulocyte extracts produces an approximately 45 kd protein capable of binding actin-coupled agarose beads in vitro in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner. Antiserum raised to a trpE/mbh1 bacterial fusion protein recognizes an approximately 45 kb protein in murine 3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting that the cDNA encodes the complete Mbh1 protein. Examination of Mbh1 localization in 3T3 fibroblasts by indirect immunofluorescence reveals a larger cell population showing diffuse staining, and a smaller population exhibiting a distinct nuclear stain. Western analysis corroborates this intracellular localization and indicates that total cellular levels and localization of Mbh1 are not affected by the cell growth state. The data suggest that Mbh1 may play a role in regulating cytoplasmic and/or nuclear architecture through potential interactions with actin. Images PMID:1849072

  5. Association Between Seed Dormancy and Pericarp Color Is Controlled by a Pleiotropic Gene That Regulates Abscisic Acid and Flavonoid Synthesis in Weedy Red Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Foley, Michael E.; Horvath, David P.; Anderson, James V.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Mowry, Chase R.; Ye, Heng; Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Chen, Zongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been associated with red grain color in cereal crops for a century. The association was linked to qSD7-1/qPC7, a cluster of quantitative trait loci for seed dormancy/pericarp color in weedy red rice. This research delimited qSD7-1/qPC7 to the Os07g11020 or Rc locus encoding a basic helix-loop-helix family transcription factor by intragenic recombinants and provided unambiguous evidence that the association arises from pleiotropy. The pleiotropic gene expressed in early developing seeds promoted expression of key genes for biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), resulting in an increase in accumulation of the dormancy-inducing hormone; activated a conserved network of eight genes for flavonoid biosynthesis to produce the pigments in the lower epidermal cells of the pericarp tissue; and enhanced seed weight. Thus, the pleiotropic locus most likely controls the dormancy and pigment traits by regulating ABA and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, respectively. The dormancy effect could be eliminated by a heat treatment, but could not be completely overcome by gibberellic acid or physical removal of the seed maternal tissues. The dormancy-enhancing alleles differentiated into two groups basically associated with tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice. Of the pleiotropic effects, seed dormancy could contribute most to the weed adaptation. Pleiotropy prevents the use of the dormancy gene to improve resistance of white pericarp cultivars against pre-harvest sprouting through conventional breeding approaches. PMID:21954164

  6. Crystal Structure of the Minimalist Max-E47 Protein Chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadpour, Faraz; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; De Jong, Antonia T.; Gloyd, Melanie; Shin, Jumi A.; Guarné, Alba

    2012-02-28

    Max-E47 is a protein chimera generated from the fusion of the DNA-binding basic region of Max and the dimerization region of E47, both members of the basic region/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors. Like native Max, Max-E47 binds with high affinity and specificity to the E-box site, 5'-CACGTG, both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the crystal structure of Max-E47 at 1.7 Å resolution, and found that it associates to form a well-structured dimer even in the absence of its cognate DNA. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms that Max-E47 is dimeric even at low micromolar concentrations, indicating that the Max-E47 dimer is stable in the absence of DNA. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrates that both non-specific DNA and the E-box site induce similar levels of helical secondary structure in Max-E47. These results suggest that Max-E47 may bind to the E-box following the two-step mechanism proposed for other bHLH proteins. In this mechanism, a rapid step where protein binds to DNA without sequence specificity is followed by a slow step where specific protein:DNA interactions are fine-tuned, leading to sequence-specific recognition. Collectively, these results show that the designed Max-E47 protein chimera behaves both structurally and functionally like its native counterparts.

  7. Developmental expression of COE across the Metazoa supports a conserved role in neuronal cell-type specification and mesodermal development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel J; Meyer, Néva P; Seaver, Elaine; Pang, Kevin; McDougall, Carmel; Moy, Vanessa N; Gordon, Kacy; Degnan, Bernard M; Martindale, Mark Q; Burke, Robert D; Peterson, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    The transcription factor COE (collier/olfactory-1/early B cell factor) is an unusual basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor as it lacks a basic domain and is maintained as a single copy gene in the genomes of all currently analysed non-vertebrate Metazoan genomes. Given the unique features of the COE gene, its proposed ancestral role in the specification of chemosensory neurons and the wealth of functional data from vertebrates and Drosophila, the evolutionary history of the COE gene can be readily investigated. We have examined the ways in which COE expression has diversified among the Metazoa by analysing its expression from representatives of four disparate invertebrate phyla: Ctenophora (Mnemiopsis leidyi); Mollusca (Haliotis asinina); Annelida (Capitella teleta and Chaetopterus) and Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). In addition, we have studied COE function with knockdown experiments in S. purpuratus, which indicate that COE is likely to be involved in repressing serotonergic cell fate in the apical ganglion of dipleurula larvae. These analyses suggest that COE has played an important role in the evolution of ectodermally derived tissues (likely primarily nervous tissues) and mesodermally derived tissues. Our results provide a broad evolutionary foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterisation and evolution of COE can be investigated.

  8. Twist-ing cell fate: mechanistic insights into the role of twist in lineage specification/differentiation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Cakouros, D; Raices, R M; Gronthos, S; Glackin, C A

    2010-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), are multipotent cells that give rise to multiple lineages including osteoblasts, adipocytes, muscle, and fibroblasts. MSCs are useful for clinical applications such as cell therapy because they can be isolated from an individual and expanded for use in tissue repair, as well as other therapeutic applications, without immune rejection. However, one of the key problems in the use of MSCs for these applications is the efficiency of these cells to engraft and fully regenerate damaged tissues. Therefore, to optimize this process, a comprehensive understanding of the key regulators of MSCs self-renewal and maintenance are critical to the success of future cell therapy as well as other clinical applications. The basic helix loop helix transcription factor, Twist, plays a master regulatory role in all of these processes and, therefore, a thorough understanding of the mechanistic insights in the role of Twist in lineage specification/differentiation and tumorigenesis is vital to the success of future clinical applications for the therapeutic use of MSCs. In this article, we highlight the basic mechanisms and signaling pathways that are important to MSC fate, maintenance, and differentiation, as well as the critical role that Twist plays in these processes. In addition, we review the known literature suggesting a critical role for Twist in the generation of cancer stem cells, as this information may contribute to a broader understanding of stem cell biology and stem-cell-based therapeutics.

  9. Study design: the basics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Hoffmann, Raymond G

    2007-01-01

    In biomedical research, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn based on data collected from a valid scientific design using appropriate statistical methods. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate study design is important in order to provide an unbiased and scientific evaluation of the research questions. In this chapter, the different kinds of experimental studies commonly used in biology and medicine are introduced. A brief survey of basic experimental study designs, randomization, blinding, possible biases, issues in data analysis, and interpretation of the study results are mainly provided.

  10. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  11. Basic and clinical immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  12. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  13. Attenuation of G protein-mediated inhibition of N-type calcium currents by expression of caveolins in mammalian NG108–15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Toselli, M; Taglietti, V; Parente, V; Flati, S; Pavan, A; Guzzi, F; Parenti, M

    2001-01-01

    Caveolins are integral proteins of glycolipid/cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal caveolae domains, where, they may function as a plasma membrane scaffold onto which many classes of signalling molecules, including receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins, can assemble. To ascertain whether caveolins influence G protein-mediated signal transduction, we stably expressed caveolin-1 and −3 isoforms in the neuroblastoma × glioma NG108–15 hybrid cell line, lacking endogenous caveolins. Subsequently, using whole-cell voltage clamp methods, we examined whether the modulation of N-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by Go protein-coupled, δ-type opioid receptors might be affected by recombinant caveolin expression. In transfected NG108–15 cells, caveolins localized at the plasma membrane and, upon subcellular fractionation on sucrose density gradients, they co-localized in Triton-resistant, low buoyancy fractions, with endogenous Go protein α-subunits. The voltage-dependent inhibition of ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ba2+ currents following either activation of δ-opioid receptors by the agonist [o-pen2,o-pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE), or direct stimulation of G proteins with guanosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) was significantly attenuated in caveolin-expressing cells. The kinetics of Ca2+ channel inhibition were also modified by caveolins. Overall, these results suggest that caveolins may negatively affect G protein-dependent regulation of voltage-gated N-type Ca2+ channels, presumably by causing a reduction of the available pool of activated G proteins. PMID:11600672

  14. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  15. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  16. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Basic Blood Chemistry Tests KidsHealth > For Parents > Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Print A A A en español Química sanguínea básica Doctors order basic blood chemistry tests to assess many conditions and learn how ...

  17. "New Voices": Enduring Basic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of basic writing, demonstrating how one university's basic writing program acts as a steward of writing. The assumption that basic writers only consume resources rather than contribute to academic excellence is rejected. What links the author responses to this issue is a publication of student writing entitled…

  18. ABA Suppresses Root Hair Growth via the OBP4 Transcriptional Regulator1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ayako; Schäfer, Sabine; Breuer, Christian; Shibata, Michitaro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Matsui, Minami

    2017-01-01

    Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6-LIKE2 (RSL2) promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of OBP4 is associated with the reduced expression of RSL2. Furthermore, ectopic expression of OBP4 or loss of RSL2 function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of RSL2 contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:28167701

  19. Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, L; Lyons, I; Li, R; Hartley, L; Köntgen, F; Harvey, R P; Metcalf, D; Begley, C G

    1995-01-01

    The scl gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor which was identified through its involvement in chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. To elucidate its physiological role, scl was targeted in embryonic stem cells. Mice heterozygous for the scl null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring were genotyped. Homozygous mutant (scl-/-) pups were not detected in newborn litters, and analysis at earlier time points demonstrated that scl-/- embryos were dying around embryonic day 9.5. The scl-/- embryos were pale, edematous, and markedly growth retarded after embryonic day 8.75. Histological studies showed complete absence of recognizable hematopoiesis in the yolk sac of these embryos. Early organogenesis appeared to be otherwise normal. Culture of yolk sac cells of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous littermates confirmed the absence of hematopoietic cells in scl-/- yolk sacs. Reverse transcription PCR was used to examine the transcripts of several genes implicated in early hematopoiesis. Transcripts of GATA-1 and PU.1 transcription factors were absent from RNA from scl-/- yolk sacs and embryos. These results implicate scl as a crucial regulator of early hematopoiesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624372

  20. Molecular characterization of maize bHLH transcription factor (ZmKS), a new ZmOST1 kinase substrate.

    PubMed

    Rabissi, Agnese; Vilela, Belmiro; Lumbreras, Victoria; Ludevid, Dolors; Culiáñez-Macià, Francisco A; Pagés, Montserrat

    2016-12-01

    In order to identify potential substrates of the maize kinase in the ABA signalling network, ZmOST1 was used as bait against a library of cDNAs from dehydrated young leaves. A ZmOST1-interactive polypeptide ZmKS (gene locus tag: GRMZM2G114873), showing homology with the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding transcription factor was identified. Using a comparative genomic approach, the ZmKS corresponding protein was identified as conceptual translated bHLH transcription factor ABA-responsive kinase substrate. ZmKS is localized in the nucleus, shows a potential binding specificity preferentially detectable on cis-acting E-box like heptameric motifs CCACTTG and CAAGTTG, and is phosphorylated by maize protein kinase ZmOST1. ZmKS is expressed in embryo, leaf and root, expression being affected by ABA and osmotic stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants, with gain of ZmKS function, show a delay in germination and a transcriptional stomatal opening-facilitator activity, switchover upon ZmKS phosphorylation, suggesting that ZmKS is an ABA-repressed trans-acting activator.

  1. Two bHLH Transcription Factors, bHLH34 and bHLH104, Regulate Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huimin; Ai, Qin; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis is critical for plant survival. Although the systems responsible for the reduction, uptake, and translocation of Fe have been described, the molecular mechanism by which plants sense Fe status and coordinate the expression of Fe deficiency-responsive genes is largely unknown. Here, we report that two basic helix-loop-helix-type transcription factors, bHLH34 and bHLH104, positively regulate Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Loss of function of bHLH34 and bHLH104 causes disruption of the Fe deficiency response and the reduction of Fe content, whereas overexpression plants constitutively promote the expression of Fe deficiency-responsive genes and Fe accumulation. Further analysis indicates that bHLH34 and bHLH104 directly activate the transcription of the Ib subgroup bHLH genes, bHLH38/39/100/101. Moreover, overexpression of bHLH101 partially rescues the Fe deficiency phenotypes of bhlh34bhlh104 double mutants. Further investigation suggests that bHLH34, bHLH104, and bHLH105 (IAA-LEUCINE RESISTANT3) function as homodimers or heterodimers to nonredundantly regulate Fe homeostasis. This work reveals that plants have evolved complex molecular mechanisms to regulate Fe deficiency response genes to adapt to Fe deficiency conditions. PMID:26921305

  2. Ubiquitination-Related MdBT Scaffold Proteins Target a bHLH Transcription Factor for Iron Homeostasis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Fei; You, Chun-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for plant growth and development. A network of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors positively regulates Fe uptake during iron deficiency. However, their up-regulation or overexpression leads to Fe overload and reactive oxygen species generation, thereby damaging the plants. Here, we found that two BTB/TAZ proteins, MdBT1 and MdBT2, interact with the MbHLH104 protein in apple. In addition, the function of MdBT2 was characterized as a regulator of MdbHLH104 degradation via ubiquitination and the 26S proteasome pathway, thereby controlling the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases and the acquisition of iron. Furthermore, MdBT2 interacted with MdCUL3 proteins, which were required for the MdBT2-mediated ubiquitination modification of MdbHLH104 and its degradation. In sum, our findings demonstrate that MdBT proteins interact with MdCUL3 to bridge the formation of the MdBTsMdCUL3 complex, which negatively modulates the degradation of the MdbHLH104 protein in response to changes in Fe status to maintain iron homeostasis in plants. PMID:27660166

  3. CD26-mediated regulation of periostin expression contributes to migration and invasion of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Eriko; Ohnuma, Kei; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Hatano, Ryo; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Dang, Nam H.; Morimoto, Chikao

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • CD26-expressing MPM cells upregulate production of periostin. • The intracytoplasmic region of CD26 mediates the upregulation of periostin. • CD26 expression leads to nuclear translocation of Twist1 via phosphorylation of Src. • Secreted periostin enhances migration and invasion of MPM cells. - Abstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy arising from mesothelial lining of pleura. It is generally associated with a history of asbestos exposure and has a very poor prognosis, partly due to the lack of a precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with its malignant behavior. In the present study, we expanded on our previous studies on the enhanced motility and increased CD26 expression in MPM cells, with a particular focus on integrin adhesion molecules. We found that expression of CD26 upregulates periostin secretion by MPM cells, leading to enhanced MPM cell migratory and invasive activity. Moreover, we showed that upregulation of periostin expression results from the nuclear translocation of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1, a process that is mediated by CD26-associated activation of Src phosphorylation. While providing new and profound insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in MPM biology, these findings may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for MPM.

  4. Combinatorial transcriptional interaction within the Cardiac Neural Crest: a pair of HANDs in heart formation

    PubMed Central

    Firulli, Anthony B.; Conway, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac neural crest migrate from rostral dorsal neural folds and populate the branchial arches, which directly contribute to cardiac-outflow structures. Although neural crest cell specification is associated with a number of morphogenic factors, little is understood about the mechanisms by which transcription factors actually implement the transcriptional programs that dictate cell migration and later the differentiation into the proper cell types within the heart. It is clear from genetic evidence that members of the paired box family and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors from the twist family of proteins are expressed in and play an important function in cardiac neural crest specification and differentiation. Interestingly, both paired box and bHLH factors can function as dimers and in the case of twist family bHLH factors partner choice can clearly dictate a change in transcriptional program. The focus of this review is to consider the role that the protein-protein interactions of these transcription factors may play determining cardiac neural crest specification and differentiation and how genetic alteration of transcription factor stoichiometry within the cell may reflect more than a simple null event. PMID:15269889

  5. SHARP1/DEC2 inhibits adipogenic differentiation by regulating the activity of C/EBP.

    PubMed

    Gulbagci, Neriman Tuba; Li, Li; Ling, Belinda; Gopinadhan, Suma; Walsh, Martin; Rossner, Moritz; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Taneja, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    SHARP1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is expressed in many cell types; however, the mechanisms by which it regulates cellular differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that SHARP1 negatively regulates adipogenesis. Although expression of the early marker CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) is not altered, its crucial downstream targets C/EBPalpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are downregulated by SHARP1. Protein interaction studies confirm that SHARP1 interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional activity of both C/EBPbeta and C/EBPalpha, and enhances the association of C/EBPbeta with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Consistently, in SHARP1-expressing cells, HDAC1 and the histone methyltransferase G9a are retained at the C/EBP regulatory sites on the C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma2 promoters during differentiation, resulting in inhibition of their expression. Interestingly, treatment with troglitazone results in displacement of HDAC1 and G9a, and rescues the differentiation defect of SHARP1-overexpressing cells. Our data indicate that SHARP1 inhibits adipogenesis through the regulation of C/EBP activity, which is essential for PPARgamma-ligand-dependent displacement of co-repressors from adipogenic promoters.

  6. Drosophila Hey is a target of Notch in asymmetric divisions during embryonic and larval neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Monastirioti, Maria; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Deligiannaki, Myrto; Wech, Irmgard; Almeida, Mara; Preiss, Anette; Bray, Sarah; Delidakis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    bHLH-O proteins are a subfamily of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors characterized by an 'Orange' protein-protein interaction domain. Typical members are the Hairy/E(spl), or Hes, proteins, well studied in their ability, among others, to suppress neuronal differentiation in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Hes proteins are often effectors of Notch signalling. In vertebrates, another bHLH-O protein group, the Hey proteins, have also been shown to be Notch targets and to interact with Hes. We have studied the single Drosophila Hey orthologue. We show that it is primarily expressed in a subset of newly born neurons, which receive Notch signalling during their birth. Unlike in vertebrates, however, Hey is not expressed in precursor cells and does not block neuronal differentiation. It rather promotes one of two alternative fates that sibling neurons adopt at birth. Although in the majority of cases Hey is a Notch target, it is also expressed independently of Notch in some lineages, most notably the larval mushroom body. The availability of Hey as a Notch readout has allowed us to study Notch signalling during the genesis of secondary neurons in the larval central nervous system.

  7. Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Galstyan, Anahit; Gallemí, Marçal; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Molina-Contreras, Maria José; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Martínez-García, Jaime F

    2014-06-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.

  8. Virulence Factors of Geminivirus Interact with MYC2 to Subvert Plant Resistance and Promote Vector Performance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Li, Jie; Jung, Choonkyun; Qu, Jing; Sun, Yanwei; Qian, Hongmei; Tee, ChuanSia; van Loon, Joop J.A.; Dicke, Marcel; Chua, Nam-Hai; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A pathogen may cause infected plants to promote the performance of its transmitting vector, which accelerates the spread of the pathogen. This positive effect of a pathogen on its vector via their shared host plant is termed indirect mutualism. For example, terpene biosynthesis is suppressed in begomovirus-infected plants, leading to reduced plant resistance and enhanced performance of the whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that transmit these viruses. Although begomovirus-whitefly mutualism has been known, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we identified βC1 of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus, a monopartite begomovirus, as the viral genetic factor that suppresses plant terpene biosynthesis. βC1 directly interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2 to compromise the activation of MYC2-regulated terpene synthase genes, thereby reducing whitefly resistance. MYC2 associates with the bipartite begomoviral protein BV1, suggesting that MYC2 is an evolutionarily conserved target of begomoviruses for the suppression of terpene-based resistance and the promotion of vector performance. Our findings describe how this viral pathogen regulates host plant metabolism to establish mutualism with its insect vector. PMID:25490915

  9. Id-1 and Id-2 are markers for metastasis and prognosis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuen, H-F; Chan, Y-P; Chan, K-K; Chu, Y-Y; Wong, M L-Y; Law, S Y-K; Srivastava, G; Wong, Y-C; Wang, X; Chan, K-W

    2007-11-19

    Id protein family consists of four members namely Id-1 to Id-4. Different from other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, they lack the DNA binding domain. Id proteins have been shown to be dysregulated in many different cancer types and their prognostic value has also been demonstrated. Recently, Id-1 has been shown to be upregulated in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the prognostic implications of Id proteins in ESCC have not been reported. We examined the expression of the Id proteins in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC specimens and found that Id protein expressions were dysregulated in both the ESCC cell lines and specimens. By correlating the expression levels of Id proteins and the clinicopathological data of our patient cohort, we found that M1 stage tumours had significantly higher nuclear Id-1 expression (P=0.012) while high nuclear Id-1 expression could predict development of distant metastasis within 1 year of oesophagectomy (P=0.005). In addition, high levels of Id-2 expression in both cytoplasmic and nuclear regions predicted longer patient survival (P=0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that high-level expression of Id-2 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear regions and lower level of nuclear Id-1 expression were independent favourable predictors of survival in our ESCC patients. Our results suggest that Id-1 may promote distant metastasis in ESCC, and both Id-1 and Id-2 may be used for prognostication for ESCC patients.

  10. Expression of the inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID)-1 protein as an angiogenic mediator in tumour advancement of uterine cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Maw, M K; Fujimoto, J; Tamaya, T

    2008-11-18

    The ID protein, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, has been involved in multiple cellular processes. To investigate the association between tumour advancement and ID expressions of uterine cervical cancers, the levels of ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 mRNAs were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the histoscore with the localisation of ID-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry and patient survival in 60 patients. ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels both significantly (P<0.05) increased in uterine cervical cancers according to clinical stage regardless of histopathological type or lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, the 36-month survival rate of the 30 patients with high ID-1 was poor (60%), whereas that of the other 30 patients with low ID-1 was significantly higher (83%). ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with microvessel counts in uterine cervical cancers. Tumour cells show mostly diffuse to strong cytoplasmic expression of ID-1 and also very faint expression in endothelial cells. Moreover, ID-1 expression not only correlated with microvessel counts but also correlated significantly with histoscore. Therefore, ID-1 might work on tumour advancement through angiogenic activity and is considered to be a candidate for a prognostic indicator in uterine cervical cancers.

  11. Id4 functions downstream of Bmp signaling to restrict TCF function in endocardial cells during atrioventricular valve development.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Suchit; Dogra, Deepika; Stainier, Didier Y R; Reischauer, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The atrioventricular canal (AVC) connects the atrial and ventricular chambers of the heart and its formation is critical for the development of the cardiac valves, chamber septation and formation of the cardiac conduction system. Consequently, problems in AVC formation can lead to congenital defects ranging from cardiac arrhythmia to incomplete cardiac septation. While our knowledge about early heart tube formation is relatively comprehensive, much remains to be investigated about the genes that regulate AVC formation. Here we identify a new role for the basic helix-loop-helix factor Id4 in zebrafish AVC valve development and function. id4 is first expressed in the AVC endocardium and later becomes more highly expressed in the atrial chamber. TALEN induced inactivation of id4 causes retrograde blood flow at the AV canal under heat induced stress conditions, indicating defects in AV valve function. At the molecular level, we found that id4 inactivation causes misexpression of several genes important for AVC and AV valve formation including bmp4 and spp1. We further show that id4 appears to control the number of endocardial cells that contribute to the AV valves by regulating Wnt signaling in the developing AVC endocardium.

  12. Brassinosteroids participate in the control of basal and acquired freezing tolerance of plants.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Marina; Unterholzner, Simon J; Rathnayake, Ajith I; Castellanos, Marcos; Khan, Mamoona; Kugler, Karl G; May, Sean T; Mayer, Klaus F X; Rozhon, Wilfried; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a role in abiotic stress responses, but molecular modes that enable this activity remain largely unknown. Here we show that BRs participate in the regulation of freezing tolerance. BR signaling-defective mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were hypersensitive to freezing before and after cold acclimation. The constitutive activation of BR signaling, in contrast, enhanced freezing resistance. Evidence is provided that the BR-controlled basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor CESTA (CES) can contribute to the constitutive expression of the C-REPEAT/DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) transcriptional regulators that control cold responsive (COR) gene expression. In addition, CBF-independent classes of BR-regulated COR genes are identified that are regulated in a BR- and CES-dependent manner during cold acclimation. A model is presented in which BRs govern different cold-responsive transcriptional cascades through the posttranslational modification of CES and redundantly acting factors. This contributes to the basal resistance against freezing stress, but also to the further improvement of this resistance through cold acclimation.

  13. SRY induced TCF21 genome-wide targets and cascade of bHLH factors during Sertoli cell differentiation and male sex determination in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Schinke, Ellyn N; Haque, Md M; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-06-01

    Male sex determination is initiated through the testis-determining factor SRY that promotes Sertoli cell differentiation and subsequent gonadal development. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Tcf21 was identified as one of the direct downstream targets of SRY. The current study was designed to identify the downstream targets of TCF21 and the potential cascade of bHLH genes that promote Sertoli cell differentiation. A modified ChIP-Chip comparative hybridization analysis identified 121 direct downstream binding targets for TCF21. The gene networks and cellular pathways potentially regulated by these TCF21 targets were identified. One of the main bHLH targets for TCF21 was the bHLH gene scleraxis (Scx). An embryonic ovarian gonadal cell culture was used to examine the functional role of Sry, Tcf21, and Scx to promote an in vitro sex reversal and induction of Sertoli cell differentiation. SRY and TCF21 were found to induce the initial stages of Sertoli cell differentiation, whereas SCX was found to induce the later stages of Sertoli cell differentiation associated with pubertal development using transferrin gene expression as a marker. Therefore, a cascade of SRY followed by TCF21 followed by SCX appears to promote, in part, Sertoli cell fate determination and subsequent differentiation. The current observations help elucidate the initial molecular events involved in the induction of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development.

  14. Tubular cell dedifferentiation and peritubular inflammation are coupled by the transcription regulator Id1 in renal fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjian; Wen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Youhua

    2011-01-01

    During renal fibrogenesis, tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition is closely associated with peritubular inflammation; however, it is not clear whether these two processes are connected. We previously identified the inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1), a dominant negative antagonist of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, as a major trigger of tubular cell dedifferentiation after injury. Id1 was induced selectively in degenerated proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia after injury and was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, suggesting shuttling between these two compartments. Interestingly, the upregulation of Id1 was associated with peritubular inflammation in mouse and human nephropathies. In vitro, Id1 potentiated NF-κB signaling and augmented RANTES expression in kidney epithelial cells, which led to an enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells. Id1 also induced Snail1 expression and triggered tubular epithelial dedifferentiation. In vivo, genetic ablation of Id1 in mice reduced peritubular inflammation and decreased tubular expression of RANTES following ureteral obstruction. Mice lacking Id1 were also protected against myofibroblast activation and matrix expression, leading to a reduced total collagen deposition in obstructive nephropathy. Thus, these results indicate that Id1 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm and promotes peritubular inflammation and tubular epithelial dedifferentiation, suggesting that these two events are intrinsically coupled during renal fibrogenesis. PMID:22278018

  15. Achaete-Scute Homolog 1 Expression Controls Cellular Differentiation of Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Mumtaz; Heß, Vicky; Scholz, Holger; Persson, Pontus B.; Fähling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the major cause of infant cancer deaths, results from fast proliferation of undifferentiated neuroblasts. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma includes differentiation with retinoic acid (RA); however, the resistance of many of these tumors to RA-induced differentiation poses a considerable challenge. Human achaete-scute homolog 1 (hASH1) is a proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for neurogenesis and is often upregulated in neuroblastoma. Here, we identified a novel function for hASH1 in regulating the differentiation phenotype of neuroblastoma cells. Global analysis of 986 human neuroblastoma datasets revealed a negative correlation between hASH1 and neuron differentiation that was independent of the N-myc (MYCN) oncogene. Using RA to induce neuron differentiation in two neuroblastoma cell lines displaying high and low levels of hASH1 expression, we confirmed the link between hASH1 expression and the differentiation defective phenotype, which was reversed by silencing hASH1 or by hypoxic preconditioning. We further show that hASH1 suppresses neuronal differentiation by inhibiting transcription at the RA receptor element. Collectively, our data indicate hASH1 to be key for understanding neuroblastoma resistance to differentiation therapy and pave the way for hASH1-targeted therapies for augmenting the response of neuroblastoma to differentiation therapy. PMID:28066180

  16. A Light-Regulated Genetic Module Was Recruited to Carpel Development in Arabidopsis following a Structural Change to SPATULA[W

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, Mathieu C.; Brunoud, Géraldine; Chauvet, Aurélie; Martínez-Garcia, Jaime F.; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Monéger, Françoise; Scutt, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    A key innovation of flowering plants is the female reproductive organ, the carpel. Here, we show that a mechanism that regulates carpel margin development in the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana was recruited from light-regulated processes. This recruitment followed the loss from the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) of a domain previously responsible for its negative regulation by phytochrome. We propose that the loss of this domain was a prerequisite for the light-independent expression in female reproductive tissues of a genetic module that also promotes shade avoidance responses in vegetative organs. Striking evidence for this proposition is provided by the restoration of wild-type carpel development to spt mutants by low red/far-red light ratios, simulating vegetation shade, which we show to occur via phytochrome B, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4), and PIF5. Our data illustrate the potential of modular evolutionary events to generate rapid morphological change and thereby provide a molecular basis for neo-Darwinian theories that describe this nongradualist phenomenon. Furthermore, the effects shown here of light quality perception on carpel development lead us to speculate on the potential role of light-regulated mechanisms in plant organs that, like the carpel, form within the shade of surrounding tissues. PMID:22851763

  17. p21 and Notch signalings in the persistently altered vagina induced by neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Mizutani, Takeshi; Sato, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Iguchi, Taisen; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Female reproductive organs show organ-specific morphological changes during estrous cycles. Perinatal exposure to natural and synthetic estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) or estrogenic chemicals induces estrogen-independent persistent proliferation of vaginal epithelium in mice. To understand the underlying mechanism of the estrogen-independent persistent vaginal changes induced by perinatal DES exposure, we examined global gene expressions in the vaginae of ovariectomized adult mice exposed neonatally to DES using a microarray. The cell cycle-related gene, p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, showed upregulation in the vagina, and p21 protein was localized in the basal layer of the vaginal epithelium in mice exposed neonatally to DES and an estrogen receptor α agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT). The expressions of Notch receptors and Notch ligands were unchanged; however, the mRNAs of hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes, Hes1, Hey1 and Heyl were persistently downregulated in the vagina, indicating estrogen-independent epithelial cell proliferation in mice exposed neonatally to DES and PPT.

  18. The window period of NEUROGENIN3 during human gestation.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Rachel J; Blaylock, Jennifer; Berry, Andrew A; Jennings, Rachel E; De Krijger, Ronald; Piper Hanley, Karen; Hanley, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NEUROG3, is critical in causing endocrine commitment from a progenitor cell population in the developing pancreas. In human, NEUROG3 has been detected from 8 weeks post-conception (wpc). However, the profile of its production and when it ceases to be detected is unknown. In this study we have defined the profile of NEUROG3 detection in the developing pancreas to give insight into when NEUROG3-dependent endocrine commitment is possible in the human fetus. Immunohistochemistry allowed counting of cells with positively stained nuclei from 7 wpc through to term. mRNA was also isolated from sections of human fetal pancreas and NEUROG3 transcription analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. NEUROG3 was detected as expected at 8 wpc. The number of NEUROG3-positive cells increased to peak levels between 10 wpc and 14 wpc. It declined at and after 18 wpc such that it was not detected in human fetal pancreas at 35-41 wpc. Analysis of NEUROG3 transcription corroborated this profile by demonstrating very low levels of transcript at 35-41 wpc, more than 10-fold lower than levels at 12-16 wpc. These data define the appearance, peak and subsequent disappearance of the critical transcription factor, NEUROG3, in human fetal pancreas for the first time. By inference, the window for pancreatic endocrine differentiation via NEUROG3 action opens at 8 wpc and closes between 21 and 35 wpc.

  19. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein AN1 activate, together with the MYB protein AN2, anthocyanin biosynthesis and, together with the MYB protein PH4, distinct genes, such as PH1 and PH5, that acidify the vacuole. To understand how AN1 and AN11 activate anthocyanin biosynthetic and PH genes independently, we isolated PH3. We found that PH3 is a target gene of the AN11-AN1-PH4 complex and encodes a WRKY protein that can bind to AN11 and is required, in a feed-forward loop, together with AN11-AN1-PH4 for transcription of PH5. PH3 is highly similar to TTG2, which regulates hair development, tannin accumulation, and mucilage production in Arabidopsis. Like PH3, TTG2 can bind to petunia AN11 and the Arabidopsis homolog TTG1, complement ph3 in petunia, and reactivate the PH3 target gene PH5. Our findings show that the specificity of WD40-bHLH-MYB complexes is in part determined by interacting proteins, such as PH3 and TTG2, and reveal an unanticipated similarity in the regulatory circuitry that controls petunia vacuolar acidification and Arabidopsis hair development. PMID:26977085

  20. Genetic Factors for Enhancement of Nicotine Levels in Cultivated Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingwu; Lewis, Ramsey S.; Shi, Junli; Song, Zhongbang; Gao, Yulong; Li, Wenzheng; Chen, Hongxia; Qu, Rongda

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine has practical applications relating to smoking cessation devices and alternative nicotine products. Genetic manipulation for increasing nicotine content in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) may be of value for industrial purposes, including the possibility of enhancing the efficiency of nicotine extraction. Biotechnological approaches have been evaluated in connection with this objective, but field-based results are few. Here, we report characterization of two genes encoding basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs), NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b from tobacco. Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased leaf nicotine levels in T1 transgenic lines approximately 2.3-fold in greenhouse-grown plants of tobacco cultivar ‘NC 95′. Subsequent field testing of T2 and T3 generations of transgenic NtMYC2a overexpression lines showed nicotine concentrations were 76% and 58% higher than control lines, respectively. These results demonstrated that the increased nicotine trait was stably inherited to the T2 and T3 generations, indicating the important role that NtMYC2a plays in regulating nicotine accumulation in N. tabacum and the great potential of NtMYC2a overexpression in tobacco plants for industrial nicotine production. Collected data in this study also indicated a negative feedback inhibition of nicotine biosynthesis. Further enhancement of nicotine accumulation in tobacco leaf may require modification of the processes of nicotine transport and deposition. PMID:26626731

  1. A Twist in fate: evolutionary comparison of Twist structure and function.

    PubMed

    Castanon, Irinka; Baylies, Mary K

    2002-04-03

    The general requirement to induce mesoderm and allocate cells into different mesodermal tissues such as body muscle or heart is common in many animal embryos. Since the discovery of the twist gene, there has been great progress toward unraveling the molecular mechanisms that control mesoderm specification and differentiation. Twist was first identified in Drosophila as a gene crucial for proper gastrulation and mesoderm formation. In the fly embryo, Twist continues to play additional roles, allocating mesodermal cells into the body wall muscle fate and patterning a subset of these muscles. Twist is also required for proper differentiation of the adult musculature. Twist homologues have been identified in a great variety of organisms, which span the phylogenetic tree. These organisms include other invertebrates such as jellyfish, nematode, leech and lancelet as well as vertebrates such as frog, chick, fish, mouse and human. The Twist family shares both homology in structure across the basic helix-loop-helix domain and in expression during mesoderm and muscle development in most species. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the Twist family and consider how Twist functions during development. Moreover, we highlight experimental evidence that shows common themes that Twist employs during specification and patterning of the mesoderm among evolutionarily distant organisms. Conserved principles and the molecular mechanisms underlying them are discussed.

  2. Distinct and Shared Transcriptomes Are Regulated by Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor Isoforms in Mast Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Shahlaee, Amir H.; Brandal, Stephanie; Lee, Youl-Nam; Jie, Chunfa; Takemoto, Clifford M.

    2008-01-01

    The Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is an essential basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor for mast cell development. Mice deficient in Mitf harbor a severe mast cell deficiency, and Mitf-mutant mast cells cultured ex vivo display a number of functional defects. Therefore, an understanding of the genetic program regulated by Mitf may provide important insights into mast cell differentiation. Multiple, distinct isoforms of Mitf have been identified in a variety of cell types; we found that Mitf-a, Mitf-e, and Mitf-mc were the major isoforms expressed in mast cells. To determine the physiologic function of Mitf in mast cells, we restored expression of these isoforms in primary mast cells from Mitf−/−mice. We found that these isoforms restored granular morphology and integrin-mediated migration. By microarray analysis, proteases, signaling molecules, cell surface receptor, and transporters comprised the largest groups of genes up-regulated by all isoforms. Furthermore, we found that isoforms also regulated distinct genes sets, suggesting separable biological activities. This work defines the transcriptome regulated by Mitf in mast cells and supports its role as master regulator of mast cell differentiation. Expression of multiple isoforms of this transcription factor may provide for redundancy of biological activities while also allowing diversity of function. PMID:17182576

  3. Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Das Gupta, Mainak; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Srinivasan, N.; Nath, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    The TCP transcription factors control multiple developmental traits in diverse plant species. Members of this family share an ∼60-residue-long TCP domain that binds to DNA. The TCP domain is predicted to form a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) structure but shares little sequence similarity with canonical bHLH domain. This classifies the TCP domain as a novel class of DNA binding domain specific to the plant kingdom. Little is known about how the TCP domain interacts with its target DNA. We report biochemical characterization and DNA binding properties of a TCP member in Arabidopsis thaliana, TCP4. We have shown that the 58-residue domain of TCP4 is essential and sufficient for binding to DNA and possesses DNA binding parameters comparable to canonical bHLH proteins. Using a yeast-based random mutagenesis screen and site-directed mutants, we identified the residues important for DNA binding and dimer formation. Mutants defective in binding and dimerization failed to rescue the phenotype of an Arabidopsis line lacking the endogenous TCP4 activity. By combining structure prediction, functional characterization of the mutants, and molecular modeling, we suggest a possible DNA binding mechanism for this class of transcription factors. PMID:20363772

  4. HES1 Is a Master Regulator of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Revollo, Javier R.; Oakley, Robert H.; Lu, Nick Z.; Kadmiel, Mahita; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Cidlowski, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is a key regulator of development and organogenesis. However, little is known about the role of HES1 after birth. Glucocorticoids, primary stress hormones that are essential for life, regulate numerous homeostatic processes that permit vertebrates to cope with physiological challenges. The molecular actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by glucocorticoid receptor-dependent regulation of nearly 25% of the genome. We now establish a genome wide molecular link between HES1 and glucocorticoid receptors that controls the ability of cells and animals to respond to stress. Glucocorticoid signaling rapidly and robustly silenced HES1 expression. This glucocorticoid-dependent repression of HES1 was necessary for the glucocorticoid receptor to regulate many of its target genes. Mice with conditional knockout of HES1 in the liver exhibited an expanded glucocorticoid receptor signaling profile and aberrant metabolic phenotype. Our results indicate that HES1 acts as a master repressor, the silencing of which is required for proper glucocorticoid signaling. PMID:24300895

  5. Generation of induced neurons by direct reprogramming in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Weichert, R M; Liu, W; Davis, R L; Dabdoub, A

    2014-09-05

    Primary auditory neurons (ANs) in the mammalian cochlea play a critical role in hearing as they transmit auditory information in the form of electrical signals from mechanosensory cochlear hair cells in the inner ear to the brainstem. Their progressive degeneration is associated with disease conditions, excessive noise exposure and aging. Replacement of ANs, which lack the ability to regenerate spontaneously, would have a significant impact on research and advancement in cochlear implants in addition to the amelioration of hearing impairment. The aim of this study was to induce a neuronal phenotype in endogenous non-neural cells in the cochlea, which is the essential organ of hearing. Overexpression of a neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Ascl1, in the cochlear non-sensory epithelial cells induced neurons at high efficiency at embryonic, postnatal and juvenile stages. Moreover, induced neurons showed typical properties of neuron morphology, gene expression and electrophysiology. Our data indicate that Ascl1 alone or Ascl1 and NeuroD1 is sufficient to reprogram cochlear non-sensory epithelial cells into functional neurons. Generation of neurons from non-neural cells in the cochlea is an important step for the regeneration of ANs in the mature mammalian cochlea.

  6. Wnt9a deficiency discloses a repressive role of Tcf7l2 on endocrine differentiation in the embryonic pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, G.; Cervantes, S.; Tutusaus, A.; Ejarque, M.; Sanchez, L.; García, A.; Esteban, Y.; Fargas, L.; Alsina, B.; Hartmann, C.; Gomis, R.; Gasa, R.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional and signaling networks establish complex cross-regulatory interactions that drive cellular differentiation during development. Using microarrays we identified the gene encoding the ligand Wnt9a as a candidate target of Neurogenin3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of pancreatic endocrine differentiation. Here we show that Wnt9a is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and that its deficiency enhances activation of the endocrine transcriptional program and increases the number of endocrine cells at birth. We identify the gene encoding the endocrine transcription factor Nkx2-2 as one of the most upregulated genes in Wnt9a-ablated pancreases and associate its activation to reduced expression of the Wnt effector Tcf7l2. Accordingly, in vitro studies confirm that Tcf7l2 represses activation of Nkx2-2 by Neurogenin3 and inhibits Nkx2-2 expression in differentiated β-cells. Further, we report that Tcf7l2 protein levels decline upon initiation of endocrine differentiation in vivo, disclosing the downregulation of this factor in the developing endocrine compartment. These findings highlight the notion that modulation of signalling cues by lineage-promoting factors is pivotal for controlling differentiation programs. PMID:26771085

  7. Early thyroid hormone-induced gene expression changes in N2a-β neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bedó, Gabriela; Pascual, Angel; Aranda, Ana

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormone has long been known to regulate neural development. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences including even mental retardation. The purpose of this study was to characterize gene expression pattern during thyroid hormone-induced differentiation of neuro-2a β cells in order to select "direct response genes" for further analysis. In this neuroblastoma cell line, thyroid hormone blocks proliferation and induces differentiation. Changes in gene expression level were examined after a T3 treatment of 3 and 24 h using cDNA arrays. Sixteen genes were significantly up-regulated and 79 down-regulated by T3 treatment. Five up-regulated genes not previously described as regulated by thyroid hormone and selected for their putative significance to understand T3 action on cell differentiation, were verified by RT-PCR analysis. The transcription factors Phox2a and basic helix-loop-helix domain containing, class B2 mRNAs exhibited a clear increase after 3- and 24-h treatment. The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor RalGDS was greatly up-regulated after 3-h treatment but not 24 h after. The results suggest an early involvement of these genes in T3 action during neuroblastoma cell differentiation probably mediating later changes in gene expression pattern.

  8. MDL-1, a growth- and tumor-suppressor, slows aging and prevents germline hyperplasia and hypertrophy in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Michèle; Feyst, Inna; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Ezcurra, Marina; Tullet, Jennifer M A; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Au, Catherine; Gilliat, Ann F; Hellberg, Josephine; Thornton, Janet M; Gems, David

    2014-02-01

    In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes. During aging, unfertilized oocytes in the uterus develop into tumors, whose development was accelerated by mdl-1(tm311). Opposite phenotypes were seen in daf-2 mutants, i.e. mdl-1 and daf-2 mutant germlines are hyperplastic and hypoplastic, respectively. Thus, MDL-1, like its mammalian orthologs, is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and growth that slows progression of an age-related pathology in C. elegans (uterine tumors). In addition, intestine-limited rescue of mdl-1 increased lifespan but not to wild type levels. Thus, mdl-1 likely acts both in the intestine and the germline to influence age-related mortality.

  9. The SCL gene specifies haemangioblast development from early mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Gering, M; Rodaway, A R; Göttgens, B; Patient, R K; Green, A R

    1998-01-01

    The SCL gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the development of all haematopoietic lineages. SCL is also expressed in endothelial cells, but its function is not essential for specification of endothelial progenitors and the role of SCL in endothelial development is obscure. We isolated the zebrafish SCL homologue and show that it was co-expressed in early mesoderm with markers of haematopoietic, endothelial and pronephric progenitors. Ectopic expression of SCL mRNA in zebrafish embryos resulted in overproduction of common haematopoietic and endothelial precursors, perturbation of vasculogenesis and concomitant loss of pronephric duct and somitic tissue. Notochord and neural tube formation were unaffected. These results provide the first evidence that SCL specifies formation of haemangioblasts, the proposed common precursor of blood and endothelial lineages. Our data also underline the striking similarities between the role of SCL in haematopoiesis/vasculogenesis and the function of other bHLH proteins in muscle and neural development. PMID:9670018

  10. Regulation of Sterol Biosynthesis in the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Opportunities for Therapeutic Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Sourabh; Cramer, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Sterols are a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes. For human fungal infections caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, antifungal drugs that target sterol biosynthesis and/or function remain the standard of care. Yet, an understanding of A. fumigatus sterol biosynthesis regulatory mechanisms remains an under developed therapeutic target. The critical role of sterol biosynthesis regulation and its interactions with clinically relevant azole drugs is highlighted by the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) class of transcription factors known as Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs). SREBPs regulate transcription of key ergosterol biosynthesis genes in fungi including A. fumigatus. In addition, other emerging regulatory pathways and target genes involved in sterol biosynthesis and drug interactions provide additional opportunities including the unfolded protein response, iron responsive transcriptional networks, and chaperone proteins such as Hsp90. Thus, targeting molecular pathways critical for sterol biosynthesis regulation presents an opportunity to improve therapeutic options for the collection of diseases termed aspergillosis. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of sterol biosynthesis regulation with a focus on mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by the SREBP family of transcription factors. PMID:28203225

  11. The Role of GH/IGF-I Axis in Muscle Homeostasis During Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to reduced gravity during space travel profoundly alters the loads placed on bone and muscle. Astronauts suffer significant losses of muscle and bone strength during weightlessness. Exercise as a countermeasure is only partially effective in remedying severe muscle atrophy and bone demineralization. Similar wasting of muscles and bones affects people on Earth during prolonged bed rest or immobilization due to injury. In the absence of weight bearing activity, atrophy occurs primarily in the muscles that act in low power, routine movements and in maintaining posture. Hormonal disfunction could contribute in part to the loss of muscle and bone during spaceflight. Reduced levels of human Growth Hormone (hGH) were found in astronauts during space flight, as well as reduced GH secretory activity was observed from the anterior pituitary in 7-day space flight rats. Growth hormone has been shown to be required for maintenance of muscle mass and bone mineralization, in part by mediating the biosynthesis IGF-I, a small polypeptide growth factor. IGF biosynthesis and secretion plays an important role in potentiating muscle cell differentiation and has been shown to drive the expression of myogenin, a myogenic specific basic helix-loop-helix factor. IGF-I has also been shown to have an important role in potentiating muscle regeneration, repair and adult muscle hypertrophy.

  12. CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated endocrine differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.

  13. Chromatin immunoselection defines a TAL-1 target gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Maouche-Chrétien, L; Vitelli, L; Vinit, M A; Blanchard, I; Yamamoto, M; Peschle, C; Roméo, P H

    1998-01-01

    Despite the major functions of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TAL-1 in hematopoiesis and T-cell leukemogenesis, no TAL-1 target gene has been identified. Using immunoprecipitation of genomic fragments bound to TAL-1 in the chromatin of murine erythro-leukemia (MEL) cells, we found that 10% of the immunoselected fragments contained a CAGATG or a CAGGTG E-box, followed by a GATA site. We studied one of these fragments containing two E-boxes, CAGATG and CAGGTC, followed by a GATA motif, and showed that TAL-1 binds to the CAGGTG E-box with an affinity modulated by the CAGATG or the GATA site, and that the CAGGTG-GATA motif exhibits positive transcriptional activity in MEL but not in HeLa cells. This immunoselected sequence is located within an intron of a new gene co-expressed with TAL-1 in endothelial and erythroid cells, but not expressed in fibroblasts or adult liver where no TAL-1 mRNA was detected. Finally, in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards the erythro/megakaryocytic pathways showed that the TAL-1 target gene expression followed TAL-1 and GATA-1 expression. These results establish that TAL-1 is likely to activate its target genes through a complex that binds an E-box-GATA motif and define the first gene regulated by TAL-1. PMID:9724651

  14. Specification of jaw identity by the Hand2 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of the lower jaw (mandible) was evolutionarily important for jawed vertebrates. In humans, syndromic craniofacial malformations often accompany jaw anomalies. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2, which is conserved among jawed vertebrates, is expressed in the neural crest in the mandibular process but not in the maxillary process of the first branchial arch. Here, we provide evidence that Hand2 is sufficient for upper jaw (maxilla)-to-mandible transformation by regulating the expression of homeobox transcription factors in mice. Altered Hand2 expression in the neural crest transformed the maxillae into mandibles with duplicated Meckel’s cartilage, which resulted in an absence of the secondary palate. In Hand2-overexpressing mutants, non-Hox homeobox transcription factors were dysregulated. These results suggest that Hand2 regulates mandibular development through downstream genes of Hand2 and is therefore a major determinant of jaw identity. Hand2 may have influenced the evolutionary acquisition of the mandible and secondary palate. PMID:27329940

  15. Auxin promotes the transition from chloronema to caulonema in moss protonema by positively regulating PpRSL1and PpRSL2 in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Dolan, Liam

    2011-10-01

    Protonemata are multicellular filamentous networks that develop following the germination of a haploid moss spore and comprise two different cell types - chloronema and caulonema. The ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1 (PpRSL1) and PpRSL2 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and auxin promote the development of caulonema in Physcomitrella patens but the mechanism by which these regulators interact during development is unknown. We characterized the role of auxin in regulating the function of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the chloronema-to-caulonema transition during protonema development. Here, we showed that a gradient of cell identity developed along protonemal filaments; cells were chloronemal in proximal regions near the site of spore germination becoming progressively more caulonemal distally as filaments elongated. Auxin controlled this transition by positively regulating the expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 genes. Auxin did not induce caulonemal development in Pprsl1 Pprsl2 double mutants that lack PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 gene activity while constitutive co-expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 in the absence of auxin was sufficient to program constitutive caulonema development. Together, these data indicate that auxin positively regulates PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 whose expression is sufficient to promote caulonema differentiation in moss protonema.

  16. c/EBPbeta is a major regulatory element driving transcriptional activation of the CXCL12 promoter.

    PubMed

    Calonge, E; Alonso-Lobo, J M; Escandón, C; González, N; Bermejo, M; Santiago, B; Mestre, L; Pablos, J L; Caruz, A; Alcamí, J

    2010-02-26

    CXCL12 is considered a constitutively expressed chemokine with homeostatic functions. However, induction of CXCL12 expression and its potential role in several pathologic conditions have been reported, suggesting that CXCL12 gene expression can be induced by different stimuli. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of CXCL12 gene expression, we aim to define the molecular factors that operate at the transcriptional level. Basal, constitutive expression of CXCL12 was dependent on basic helix-loop-helix factors. Transcriptional up-regulation of the CXCL12 gene was induced by cellular confluence or inflammatory stimuli such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, in a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (c/EBPbeta)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed c/EBPbeta binding to a specific response element located at -1171 of the promoter region of CXCL12. Our data show that c/EBPbeta is a major regulatory element driving transcription of the CXCL12 gene in response to cytokines and cell confluence.

  17. Phylogenetics of lophotrochozoan bHLH genes and the evolution of lineage-specific gene duplicates.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yongbo; Xu, Fei; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2017-03-11

    The gain and loss of genes encoding transcription factors is of importance to understanding the evolution of gene regulatory complexity. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes encode a large superfamily of transcription factors. We systematically classify the bHLH genes from five mollusc, two annelid and one brachiopod genomes, tracing the pattern of bHLH gene evolution across these poorly-studied Phyla. 56 to 88 bHLH genes were identified in each genome, with most identifiable as members of previously described bilaterian families, or of new families we define. Of such families only one, Mesp, appears lost by all these species. Additional duplications have also played a role in the evolution of the bHLH gene repertoire, with many new lophotrochozoan-, mollusc-, bivalve- or gastropod-specific genes defined. Using a combination of transcriptome mining, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization we compared the expression of several of these novel genes in tissues and embryos of the molluscs Crassostrea gigas and Patella vulgata, finding both conserved expression and evidence for neofunctionalisation. We also map the positions of the genes across these genomes, identifying numerous gene linkages. Some reflect recent paralogue divergence by tandem duplication, others are remnants of ancient tandem duplications dating to the lophotrochozoan or bilaterian common ancestors. These data are built into a model of the evolution of bHLH genes in molluscs, showing formidable evolutionary stasis at the family level but considerable within-family diversification by tandem gene duplication.

  18. Setleis syndrome: clinical, molecular and structural studies of the first TWIST2 missense mutation.

    PubMed

    Rosti, R O; Uyguner, Z O; Nazarenko, I; Bekerecioglu, M; Cadilla, C L; Ozgur, H; Lee, B H; Aggarwal, A K; Pehlivan, S; Desnick, R J

    2015-11-01

    Setleis syndrome is characterized by bitemporal scar-like lesions and other characteristic facial features. It results from recessive mutations that truncate critical functional domains in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, TWIST2, which regulates expression of genes for facial development. To date, only four nonsense or small deletion mutations have been reported. In the current report, the clinical findings in a consanguineous Turkish family were characterized. Three affected siblings had the characteristic features of Setleis syndrome. Homozygosity for the first TWIST2 missense mutation, c.326T>C (p.Leu109Pro), was identified in the patients. In silico analyses predicted that the secondary structure of the mutant protein was sustained, but the empirical force field energy increased to an unfavorable level with the proline substitution (p.Leu109Pro). On a crystallographically generated dimer, p.Leu109 lies near the dimer interface, and the proline substitution is predicted to hinder dimer formation. Therefore, p.Leu109Pro-TWIST2 alters the three dimensional structure and is unable to dimerize, thereby hindering the binding of TWIST2 to its target genes involved in facial development.

  19. MYB115 and MYB134 transcription factors regulate proanthocyanidin synthesis and structure.

    PubMed

    James, Amy Midori; Ma, Dawei; Mellway, Robin D; Gesell, Andreas; Yoshida, Kazuko; Walker, Vincent; Tran, Lan T; Stewart, Don; Reichelt, Michael; Suvanto, Jussi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Seguin, Armand; Constabel, C Peter

    2017-03-27

    The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD-40 proteins which activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar, MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression. Transcriptomic analysis of MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar plants identified a set of common upregulated genes encoding proanthocyanidin biosynthetic enzymes and several novel uncharacterized MYB transcriptional repressors. Transient expression experiments demonstrated the capacity of both MYB134 and MYB115 to activate flavonoid promoters, but only in the presence of a bHLH cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the direct interaction of these transcription factors. The unexpected identification of dihydromyricetin in leaf extracts of both MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplars led to the discovery of enhanced flavonoid B-ring hydroxylation and increased proportion of prodelphinidins in proanthocyanidin of the transgenics. The dramatic hydroxylation phenotype of MYB115 overexpressors is likely due to upregulation of both flavonoid 3,'5'- hydroxylases and cytochrome b5. Overall, this work provides new insight into the complexity of the gene regulatory network for proanthocyanidin synthesis in poplar.

  20. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  1. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Regulation of hematopoiesis and involvement in the progression of blood diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Fanny L.; Singh, Kameshwar P.; Gasiewicz, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that belongs to the superfamily of environment-sensing PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) proteins. A large number of ligands have been described to bind AhR and promote its nuclear translocation. In the nucleus, the AhR and its dimerization partner the AhR nuclear translocase (ARNT), also known as HIF1β, form a DNA-binding complex that acts as a transcriptional regulator. Animal and human data suggest that, beyond its mediating responses to xenobiotic and/or unknown endogenous ligands, the AhR has a role, although as yet undefined, in the regulation of cell cycle and inflammation. The AhR also appears to regulate the hematopoietic and immune systems during development and adult life in a cell-specific manner. While accidental exposure to xenobiotic AhR ligands has been associated with leukemia in humans, the specific mechanisms of AhR involvement are still not completely understood. However, recent data are consistent with a functional role of the AhR in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). Studies highlighting AhR-regulation of HSCs/HPCs provide a rational framework to understand their biology, a role of the AhR in hematopoietic diseases, and a means to develop interventions for these diseases. PMID:20171126

  2. Auxin signaling modules regulate maize inflorescence architecture

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Mary; Liu, Qiujie; Moss, Britney L.; Malcomber, Simon; Li, Wei; Gaines, Craig; Federici, Silvia; Roshkovan, Jessica; Meeley, Robert; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In plants, small groups of pluripotent stem cells called axillary meristems are required for the formation of the branches and flowers that eventually establish shoot architecture and drive reproductive success. To ensure the proper formation of new axillary meristems, the specification of boundary regions is required for coordinating their development. We have identified two maize genes, BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and BARREN INFLORESCENCE4 (BIF1 and BIF4), that regulate the early steps required for inflorescence formation. BIF1 and BIF4 encode AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins, which are key components of the auxin hormone signaling pathway that is essential for organogenesis. Here we show that BIF1 and BIF4 are integral to auxin signaling modules that dynamically regulate the expression of BARREN STALK1 (BA1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulator necessary for axillary meristem formation that shows a striking boundary expression pattern. These findings suggest that auxin signaling directly controls boundary domains during axillary meristem formation and define a fundamental mechanism that regulates inflorescence architecture in one of the most widely grown crop species. PMID:26464512

  3. Phosphatidic acid and phosphoinositides facilitate liposome association of Yas3p and potentiate derepression of ARE1 (alkane-responsive element one)-mediated transcription control.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Kiyoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2013-12-01

    In the n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the expression of ALK1, encoding a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes terminal mono-oxygenation of n-alkanes, is induced by n-alkanes. The transcription of ALK1 is regulated by a heterocomplex that comprises the basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators, Yas1p and Yas2p, and binds to alkane-responsive element 1 (ARE1) in the ALK1 promoter. An Opi1 family transcription repressor, Yas3p, represses transcription by binding to Yas2p. Yas3p localizes in the nucleus when Y. lipolytica is grown on glucose but localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon the addition of n-alkanes. In this study, we showed that recombinant Yas3p binds to the acidic phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphoinositides (PIPs), in vitro. The ARE1-mediated transcription was enhanced in vivo in mutants defective in an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PAH1, encoding PA phosphatase, and in an ortholog of SAC1, encoding PIP phosphatase in the ER. Truncation mutation analyses for Yas3p revealed two regions that bound to PA and PIPs. These results suggest that the interaction with acidic phospholipids is important for the n-alkane-induced association of Yas3p with the ER membrane.

  4. Fruit growth in Arabidopsis occurs via DELLA-dependent and DELLA-independent gibberellin responses.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1-mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction.

  5. Intrinsic Disorder of the C-Terminal Domain of Drosophila Methoprene-Tolerant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolonko, Marta; Ożga, Katarzyna; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Greb-Markiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Methoprene tolerant protein (Met) has recently been confirmed as the long-sought juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. This protein plays a significant role in the cross-talk of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and JH signalling pathways, which are important for control of insect development and maturation. Met belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. In these proteins, bHLH domains are typically responsible for DNA binding and dimerization, whereas the PAS domains are crucial for the choice of dimerization partner and the specificity of target gene activation. The C-terminal region is usually responsible for the regulation of protein complex activity. The sequence of the Met C-terminal region (MetC) is not homologous to any sequence deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and has not been structurally characterized to date. In this study, we show that the MetC exhibits properties typical for an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). The final averaged structure obtained with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments indicates that intrinsically disordered MetC exists in an extended conformation. This extended shape and the long unfolded regions characterise proteins with high flexibility and dynamics. Therefore, we suggest that the multiplicity of conformations adopted by the disordered MetC is crucial for its activity as a biological switch modulating the cross-talk of different signalling pathways in insects. PMID:27657508

  6. A proteomic study showing differential regulation of stress, redox regulation and peroxidase proteins by iron supply and the transcription factor FER.

    PubMed

    Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Bauer, Petra

    2008-04-01

    Plants need to mobilize iron in the soil, and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER is a central regulator of iron acquisition in tomato roots. FER activity is controlled by iron supply. To analyse to what extent FER influences Fe-regulated protein expression, we investigated the root proteome of wild-type tomato, the fer mutant and a transgenic FER overexpression line under low-iron conditions versus sufficient and generous iron supply. The root proteomes were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with three technical and three biological replicates. Statistical analysis identified 39 protein spots that were differentially regulated in selected pairwise comparisons of experimental conditions. Of these, 24 were correlated with expression clusters revealed by principal component analysis. The 39 protein spots were analysed by MALDI-TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS to deduce their possible functions. We investigated the functional representation in the identified expression clusters, and found that loss of FER function in iron-cultured plants mimicked an iron-deficiency status. The largest identified protein expression cluster was upregulated by iron deficiency and in the fer mutant. Two iron-regulated proteins required FER activity for induction by iron deficiency. Few proteins were suppressed by iron deficiency. The differentially expressed proteins belonged predominantly to the functional categories 'stress', 'redox regulation' and 'miscellaneous peroxidases'. Hence, we were able to identify distinct expression clusters of proteins with distinct functions.

  7. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Walter; Spelt, Cornelis E; Bliek, Mattijs; de Vries, Michel; Wit, Niek; Faraco, Marianna; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-03-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein AN1 activate, together with the MYB protein AN2, anthocyanin biosynthesis and, together with the MYB protein PH4, distinct genes, such as PH1 and PH5, that acidify the vacuole. To understand how AN1 and AN11 activate anthocyanin biosynthetic and PH genes independently, we isolated PH3. We found that PH3 is a target gene of the AN11-AN1-PH4 complex and encodes a WRKY protein that can bind to AN11 and is required, in a feed-forward loop, together with AN11-AN1-PH4 for transcription of PH5. PH3 is highly similar to TTG2, which regulates hair development, tannin accumulation, and mucilage production in Arabidopsis. Like PH3, TTG2 can bind to petunia AN11 and the Arabidopsis homolog TTG1, complement ph3 in petunia, and reactivate the PH3 target gene PH5. Our findings show that the specificity of WD40-bHLH-MYB complexes is in part determined by interacting proteins, such as PH3 and TTG2, and reveal an unanticipated similarity in the regulatory circuitry that controls petunia vacuolar acidification and Arabidopsis hair development.

  8. Auxin signaling modules regulate maize inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Galli, Mary; Liu, Qiujie; Moss, Britney L; Malcomber, Simon; Li, Wei; Gaines, Craig; Federici, Silvia; Roshkovan, Jessica; Meeley, Robert; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2015-10-27

    In plants, small groups of pluripotent stem cells called axillary meristems are required for the formation of the branches and flowers that eventually establish shoot architecture and drive reproductive success. To ensure the proper formation of new axillary meristems, the specification of boundary regions is required for coordinating their development. We have identified two maize genes, BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and BARREN INFLORESCENCE4 (BIF1 and BIF4), that regulate the early steps required for inflorescence formation. BIF1 and BIF4 encode AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins, which are key components of the auxin hormone signaling pathway that is essential for organogenesis. Here we show that BIF1 and BIF4 are integral to auxin signaling modules that dynamically regulate the expression of BARREN STALK1 (BA1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulator necessary for axillary meristem formation that shows a striking boundary expression pattern. These findings suggest that auxin signaling directly controls boundary domains during axillary meristem formation and define a fundamental mechanism that regulates inflorescence architecture in one of the most widely grown crop species.

  9. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 Is an AT-Hook Protein Required for the Formation of Maize Ears[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein–protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche. PMID:21540434

  10. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein-protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche.

  11. The role of barren stalk1 in the architecture of maize.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Zhao, Qiong; Kyozuka, Junko; Meeley, Robert B; Ritter, Matthew K; Doebley, John F; Pè, M Enrico; Schmidt, Robert J

    2004-12-02

    The architecture of higher plants is established through the activity of lateral meristems--small groups of stem cells formed during vegetative and reproductive development. Lateral meristems generate branches and inflorescence structures, which define the overall form of a plant, and are largely responsible for the evolution of different plant architectures. Here, we report the isolation of the barren stalk1 gene, which encodes a non-canonical basic helix-loop-helix protein required for the initiation of all aerial lateral meristems in maize. barren stalk1 represents one of the earliest genes involved in the patterning of maize inflorescences, and, together with the teosinte branched1 gene, it regulates vegetative lateral meristem development. The architecture of maize has been a major target of selection for early agriculturalists and modern farmers, because it influences harvesting, breeding strategies and mechanization. By sampling nucleotide diversity in the barren stalk1 region, we show that two haplotypes entered the maize gene pool from its wild progenitor, teosinte, and that only one was incorporated throughout modern inbreds, suggesting that barren stalk1 was selected for agronomic purposes.

  12. MDL-1, a growth- and tumor-suppressor, slows aging and prevents germline hyperplasia and hypertrophy in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Riesen, Michèle; Feyst, Inna; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Ezcurra, Marina; Tullet, Jennifer M.A.; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Au, Catherine; Gilliat, Ann F.; Hellberg, Josephine; Thornton, Janet M.; Gems, David

    2014-01-01

    In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes. During aging, unfertilized oocytes in the uterus develop into tumors, whose development was accelerated by mdl-1(tm311). Opposite phenotypes were seen in daf-2 mutants, i.e. mdl-1 and daf-2 mutant germlines are hyperplastic and hypoplastic, respectively. Thus, MDL-1, like its mammalian orthologs, is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and growth that slows progression of an age-related pathology in C. elegans (uterine tumors). In addition, intestine-limited rescue of mdl-1 increased lifespan but not to wild type levels. Thus, mdl-1 likely acts both in the intestine and the germline to influence age-related mortality. PMID:24531613

  13. The bHLH Transcription Factor Hand Regulates the Expression of Genes Critical to Heart and Muscle Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hallier, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Julia; Roeder, Thomas; Tögel, Markus; Meyer, Heiko; Paululat, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Hand proteins belong to the highly conserved family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors and are critical to distinct developmental processes, including cardiogenesis and neurogenesis in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster a single orthologous hand gene is expressed with absence of the respective protein causing semilethality during early larval instars. Surviving adult animals suffer from shortened lifespan associated with a disorganized myofibrillar structure being apparent in the dorsal vessel, the wing hearts and in midgut tissue. Based on these data, the major biological significance of Hand seems to be related to muscle development, maintenance or function; however, up to now the physiological basis for Hand functionality remains elusive. Thus, the identification of genes whose expression is, directly or indirectly, regulated by Hand has considerable relevance with respect to understanding its biological functionality in flies and vertebrates. Beneficially, hand mutants are viable and exhibit affected tissues, which renders Drosophila an ideal model to investigate up- or downregulated target genes by a comparative microarray approach focusing on the respective tissues from mutant specimens. Our present work reveals for the first time that Drosophila Hand regulates the expression of numerous genes of diverse physiological relevancy, including distinct factors required for proper muscle development and function such as Zasp52 or Msp-300. These results relate Hand activity to muscle integrity and functionality and may thus be highly beneficial to the evaluation of corresponding hand phenotypes. PMID:26252215

  14. A myogenic factor from sea urchin embryos capable of programming muscle differentiation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, J M; Goldberg, L; Chakraborty, T; Olson, E N; Klein, W H

    1991-01-01

    Using the basic helix-loop-helix domain of the myogenic factor myogenin as a probe, we identified a clone from a sea urchin cDNA library with considerable sequence similarity to the vertebrate myogenic factors. This cDNA, sea urchin myogenic factor 1 (SUM-1), transactivated a muscle creatine kinase-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in 10T1/2 fibroblasts to a level comparable to that of the vertebrate myogenic factors. In addition, bacterially expressed beta-galactosidase-SUM-1 fusion protein interacted directly with the kappa E-2 site in the muscle creatine kinase enhancer core as assayed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Stably transfected SUM-1 activated the muscle differentiation program and converted 10T1/2 cells from fibroblasts to myotubes. In sea urchin embryos, SUM-1 RNA was not detected before gastrulation. It accumulated to its highest levels during the prism stage when myoblasts were first detected by myosin immunostaining and then diminished as myocytes differentiated. SUM-1 protein was localized in secondary mesenchyme cells when they could first be identified as muscle cells by myosin immunostaining. These results implicate SUM-1 as a regulatory factor involved in the early decision of a pluripotent secondary mesenchyme cell to convert to a myogenic fate. SUM-1 is an example of an invertebrate myogenic factor that is capable of functioning in mammalian cells. Images PMID:2068103

  15. The purple cauliflower arises from activation of a MYB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Wei; Zhou, Xiangjun; Burke, Sarah; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Li, Li

    2010-11-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. An interesting and unique Purple (Pr) gene mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis) confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving the striking mutant phenotype of intense purple color in curds and a few other tissues. To unravel the nature of the Pr mutation in cauliflower, we isolated the Pr gene via a combination of candidate gene analysis and fine mapping. Pr encoded a R2R3 MYB transcription factor that exhibited tissue-specific expression, consistent with an abnormal anthocyanin accumulation pattern in the mutant. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and cauliflower plants expressing the Pr-D allele recapitulated the mutant phenotype, confirming the isolation of the Pr gene. Up-regulation of Pr specifically activated a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and a subset of anthocyanin structural genes encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase to confer ectopic accumulation of pigments in the purple cauliflower. Our results indicate that the genetic variation including a Harbinger DNA transposon insertion in the upstream regulatory region of the Pr-D allele is responsible for the up-regulation of the Pr gene in inducing phenotypic change in the plant. The successful isolation of Pr provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Brassica vegetables, and offers a genetic resource for development of new varieties with enhanced health-promoting properties and visual appeal.

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor plays a dual role in regulating skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gal-Levi, R; Leshem, Y; Aoki, S; Nakamura, T; Halevy, O

    1998-03-12

    The role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, in proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells was studied in primary cultures of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells and a myogenic C2 cell line. HGF mRNA was expressed mainly in the myotubes of both cultures. The addition of conditioned medium derived from those cultures had a scattering effect on the canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK. In contrast, c-met mRNA levels decreased during cell differentiation of C2 and primary satellite cells. Application of exogenous HGF to chicken myoblasts resulted in their enhanced DNA synthesis. Among several growth factors, HGF was the first to induce DNA synthesis in quiescent satellite cells, thereby driving them into the cell cycle. Ectopic expression of chicken HGF in primary satellite cells suppressed the activation of muscle-regulatory gene reporter constructs MCK-CAT, MRF4-CAT, MEF2-CAT and 4Rtk-CAT, as well as the gene expression of MyoD and myogenin, and MHC protein expression. Ectopic MyoD reversed HGF's inhibitory effect on MCK transactivation. These data suggest that HGF inhibits cell differentiation by inhibiting the activity of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/E protein heterodimers, thus inhibiting myogenic determination factor activity and subsequent muscle-specific protein expression. During muscle growth and regeneration, HGF plays a dual role in satellite-cell myogenesis, affecting both the proliferation and differentiation of these cells in a paracrine fashion.

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) inhibits skeletal muscle cell differentiation: a role for the bHLH protein twist and the cdk inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Spicer, D B; Gal-Levi, R; Halevy, O

    2000-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a crucial role in regulating the differentiation of both fetal and adult skeletal myoblasts. This study aimed at defining the intracellular factors that mediate the effect of HGF on adult myoblast differentiation. HGF increased Twist expression while decreasing p27(kip1) protein levels and not affecting the induction of p21(Cip1/Waf1) in satellite cells. Like HGF, overexpression of Twist did not affect p21 expression while inhibiting muscle-specific proteins. Both ectopic Twist-antisense (Twist-AS) and p27 partially rescued the effects of HGF on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in muscle satellite cells; the two plasmids together effected full rescue, suggesting that HGF independently regulates these two factors to mediate its effects. Ectopic p27 promoted differentiation in the presence of HGF by blocking the induction of Twist. Using Twist-AS to lower Twist levels restored the HGF-dependent reduction of p27 and MHC. In the presence of ectopic HGF, satellite cells formed thin mononuclear myotubes. Neither ectopic p27, Twist-AS, or their combination reversed this change in cell morphology, suggesting that HGF acts through additional mediators to inhibit downstream events during myogenesis. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects of HGF on muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are mediated through changes in the expression levels of the myogenic-inhibitory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein Twist and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27.

  18. Characterization of the placenta specific bovine mammalian achaete scute-like homologue 2 (Mash2) gene.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D R; Lefebvre, R; Smith, L C

    2006-01-01

    Mash2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, stimulates mononucleate trophoblast cell proliferation and inhibits giant/binucleate cell formation. In mice, Mash2 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene. Regulation of bovine Mash2 is unclear due to limited genetic knowledge. Our objectives were to clone and characterize bovine Mash2 and evaluate its imprinting status by utilizing Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus interspecies crossing. Bovine Mash2 mRNA shares 78% and 70% homology with human and mouse Mash2, with the DNA binding domain (88%) and bHLH region (95%) being highly conserved. Expression of Mash2 mRNA was seen exclusively in cotyledonary areas of the placenta. The greatest abundance of Mash2 mRNA was in day 17 filamentous embryos, during the time of rapid trophoblast proliferation. Reduction in Mash2 mRNA abundance was detected in day 8 parthenogenetic blastocysts suggesting paternal regulation of gene expression. Prior to implantation (days 8 and 17), Mash2 mRNA appears to have biallelic expression, but is paternally silenced after implantation (days 40 and 60). In conclusion, the Mash2 is highly conserved across species and is specifically expressed in the bovine placenta. Bovine Mash2 appears to be maternally expressed after implantation, but the paternal genome plays a role in regulating expression.

  19. Sn, a maize bHLH gene, modulates anthocyanin and condensed tannin pathways in Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mark Paske; Paolocci, Francesco; Hughes, John-Wayne; Turchetti, Valentina; Allison, Gordon; Arcioni, Sergio; Morris, Phillip; Damiani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major flavonoid end-products in higher plants. While the transactivation of anthocyanins by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors is well documented, very little is known about the transregulation of the pathway to condensed tannins. The present study analyses the effect of over-expressing an Sn transgene in Lotus corniculatus, a model legume, with the aim of studying the regulation of anthocyanin and tannin end-products. Contrary to expectation, effects on anthocyanin accumulation were subtle and restricted to the leaf midrib, leaf base and petiole tissues. However, the accumulation of condensed tannin polymers was dramatically enhanced in the leaf blade and this increase was accompanied by a 50-fold increase in the number of tannin-containing cells in this tissue. A detailed analysis of selected lines indicated that this transactivational phenotype correlated with high steady-state transcript levels of the introduced transgene and the introduction of a single copy of the CaMV35S-Sn construct into these clonal genotypes. While the levels of condensed tannins in leaves were increased by up to 1% of the dry weight, other major secondary end-products (flavonols, lignins and inducible phytoalexins) were unaltered in transactivated lines. These results give an initial insight into the developmental and higher-order regulation of polyphenolic metabolism in Lotus and other higher plant species.

  20. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  1. Regulation of the Drosophila hypoxia-inducible factor alpha Sima by CRM1-dependent nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nuria M; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Roth, Peggy; Cauerhff, Ana; Samakovlis, Christos; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-05-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha) proteins are regulated by oxygen levels through several different mechanisms that include protein stability, transcriptional coactivator recruitment, and subcellular localization. It was previously reported that these transcription factors are mainly nuclear in hypoxia and cytoplasmic in normoxia, but so far the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster HIF-alpha protein Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We identified the relevant nuclear localization signal and two functional nuclear export signals (NESs). These NESs are in the Sima basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and promote CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Site-directed mutagenesis of either NES provoked Sima nuclear retention and increased transcriptional activity, suggesting that nuclear export contributes to Sima regulation. The identified NESs are conserved and probably functional in the bHLH domains of several bHLH-PAS proteins. We propose that rapid nuclear export of Sima regulates the duration of cellular responses to hypoxia.

  2. Control of lysosomal biogenesis and Notch-dependent tissue patterning by components of the TFEB-V-ATPase axis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Emiliana; Kobia, Francis; Busi, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Arianna; De Masi, Federico; Vaccari, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, TFEB (transcription factor EB) and MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulates both lysosomal function and organ development. However, it is not clear whether these 2 processes are interconnected. Here, we show that Mitf, the single TFEB and MITF ortholog in Drosophila, controls expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase pump (V-ATPase) subunits. Remarkably, we also find that expression of Vha16-1 and Vha13, encoding 2 key components of V-ATPase, is patterned in the wing imaginal disc. In particular, Vha16-1 expression follows differentiation of proneural regions of the disc. These regions, which will form sensory organs in the adult, appear to possess a distinctive endolysosomal compartment and Notch (N) localization. Modulation of Mitf activity in the disc in vivo alters endolysosomal function and disrupts proneural patterning. Similar to our findings in Drosophila, in human breast epithelial cells we observe that impairment of the Vha16-1 human ortholog ATP6V0C changes the size and function of the endolysosomal compartment and that depletion of TFEB reduces ligand-independent N signaling activity. Our data suggest that lysosomal-associated functions regulated by the TFEB-V-ATPase axis might play a conserved role in shaping cell fate.

  3. Discrete Levels of Twist Activity Are Required to Direct Distinct Cell Functions during Gastrulation and Somatic Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Ching; Dobi, Krista C.; Baylies, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Twist (Twi), a conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator, directs the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and regulates changes in cell fate, cell polarity, cell division and cell migration in organisms from flies to humans. Analogous to its role in EMT, Twist has been implicated in metastasis in numerous cancer types, including breast, pancreatic and prostate. In the Drosophila embryo, Twist is essential for discrete events in gastrulation and mesodermal patterning. In this study, we derive a twi allelic series by examining the various cellular events required for gastrulation in Drosophila. By genetically manipulating the levels of Twi activity during gastrulation, we find that coordination of cell division is the most sensitive cellular event, whereas changes in cell shape are the least sensitive. Strikingly, we show that by increasing levels of Snail expression in a severe twi hypomorphic allelic background, but not a twi null background, we can reconstitute gastrulation and produce viable adult flies. Our results demonstrate that the level of Twi activity determines whether the cellular events of ventral furrow formation, EMT, cell division and mesodermal migration occur. PMID:24915423

  4. Stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses: differences and commonalities.

    PubMed

    Serna, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Stomata, found on the epidermis of all terrestrial plants, consist of two specialized cells called guard cells, which surround a tiny pore. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic control of stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses. In Arabidopsis, three basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes control the successive steps that lead to stomatal formation. SPEECHLESS (SPCH) drives the cell division that initiates the stomatal cell lineage, MUTE induces the formation of the immediate stomatal precursor cell, and FAMA causes the stomatal precursor cell to divide into the two guard cells. Recent results demonstrate that these genes share functions with their grass homologs, and that MUTE is expressed later in development than its grass counterparts. Other differences in stomatal development between these two plant groups are exemplified by the PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) gene of maize. PAN1, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase with an inactive kinase domain, promotes polarization of the subsidiary mother cell and orients its cell division plane. Because such events do not exist in Arabidopsis, it is likely that the PAN1-like genes of Arabidopsis and PAN1 are paralogs. Together, these results indicate that distinctions in the regulation of gene expression and protein function are both responsible for the divergence of stomatal development between Arabidopsis and grasses.

  5. Cell fate transitions during stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Serna, Laura

    2009-08-01

    Stomata, the most influential components in gas exchange with the atmosphere, represent a revealing system for studying cell fate determination. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have demonstrated that many of the components, functioning in a signaling cascade, guide numerous cell fate transitions that occur during stomatal development. The signaling cascade is initiated at the cell surface through the activation of the membrane receptors TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and/or ERECTA (ER) family members by the secretory peptide EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1) and/or a substrate processed proteolytically by the subtilase STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION1 (SDD1) and transduced through cytoplasmic MAP kinases (YODA (YDA), MKK4/MKK5, and MPK3/MPK6) towards the nucleus. In the nucleus, these MAP kinases regulate the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, and FAMA, which act in concert with the bHLH-Leu zipper protein SCREAM (SCRM) (and/or its closely related paralog, SCREAM2). This article reviews current insights into the role of this signaling cascade during stomatal development.

  6. A competitive peptide inhibitor KIDARI negatively regulates HFR1 by forming nonfunctional heterodimers in Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin-Young; Seo, Pil Joon; Ryu, Jae Yong; Cho, Shin-Hae; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic dimer formation is an elaborate means of modulating transcription factor activities in diverse cellular processes. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED 1 (HFR1), for example, plays a role in plant photomorphogenesis by forming non-DNA binding heterodimers with PHYTOCHROMEINTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs). Recent studies have shown that a small HLH protein KIDARI (KDR) negatively regulates the HFR1 activity in the process. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the KDR control of the HFR1 activity are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that KDR attenuates the HFR1 activity by competitively forming nonfunctional heterodimers, causing liberation of PIF4 from the transcriptionally inactive HFR1-PIF4 complex. Accordingly, the photomorphogenic hypocotyl growth of the HFR1-overexpressing plants can be suppressed by KDR coexpression, as observed in the HFR1-deficient hfr1-201 mutant. These results indicate that the PIF4 activity is modulated through a double layer of competitive inhibition by HFR1 and KDR, which could in turn ensure fine-tuning of the PIF4 activity under fluctuating light conditions.

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: regulation of hematopoiesis and involvement in the progression of blood diseases.

    PubMed

    Casado, Fanny L; Singh, Kameshwar P; Gasiewicz, Thomas A

    2010-04-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that belongs to the superfamily of environment-sensing PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) proteins. A large number of ligands have been described to bind AhR and promote its nuclear translocation. In the nucleus, the AhR and its dimerization partner the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) form a DNA-binding complex that acts as a transcriptional regulator. Animal and human data suggest that, beyond its mediating responses to xenobiotic and/or unknown endogenous ligands, the AhR has a role, although as yet undefined, in the regulation of cell cycle and inflammation. The AhR also appears to regulate the hematopoietic and immune systems during development and adult life in a cell-specific manner. While accidental exposure to xenobiotic AhR ligands has been associated with leukemia in humans, the specific mechanisms of AhR involvement are still not completely understood. However, recent data are consistent with a functional role of the AhR in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). Studies highlighting AhR regulation of HSCs/HPCs provide a rational framework to understand their biology, a role of the AhR in hematopoietic diseases, and a means to develop interventions for these diseases.

  8. Tcf15 Primes Pluripotent Cells for Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Owen R.; Lin, Chia-Yi; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Zhou, Xinzhi; Taube, Jessica; Blin, Guillaume; Waterhouse, Anna; Smith, Andrew J.H.; Lowell, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Summary The events that prime pluripotent cells for differentiation are not well understood. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins, which are inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor activity, contribute to pluripotency by blocking sequential transitions toward differentiation. Using yeast-two-hybrid screens, we have identified Id-regulated transcription factors that are expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). One of these, Tcf15, is also expressed in the embryonic day 4.5 embryo and is specifically associated with a novel subpopulation of primed ESCs. An Id-resistant form of Tcf15 rapidly downregulates Nanog and accelerates somatic lineage commitment. We propose that because Tcf15 can be held in an inactive state through Id activity, it may prime pluripotent cells for entry to somatic lineages upon downregulation of Id. We also find that Tcf15 expression is dependent on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, providing an explanation for how FGF can prime for differentiation without driving cells out of the pluripotent state. PMID:23395635

  9. Ligand-binding properties of a juvenile hormone receptor, Methoprene-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jean-Philippe; Iwema, Thomas; Epa, V Chandana; Takaki, Keiko; Rynes, Jan; Jindra, Marek

    2011-12-27

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a sesquiterpenoid of vital importance for insect development, yet the molecular basis of JH signaling remains obscure, mainly because a bona fide JH receptor has not been identified. Mounting evidence points to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the best JH receptor candidate. However, details of how Met transduces the hormonal signal are missing. Here, we demonstrate that Met specifically binds JH III and its biologically active mimics, methoprene and pyriproxyfen, through its C-terminal PAS domain. Substitution of individual amino acids, predicted to form a ligand-binding pocket, with residues possessing bulkier side chains reduces JH III binding likely because of steric hindrance. Although a mutation that abolishes JH III binding does not affect a Met-Met complex that forms in the absence of methoprene, it prevents both the ligand-dependent dissociation of the Met-Met dimer and the ligand-dependent interaction of Met with its partner bHLH-PAS protein Taiman. These results show that Met can sense the JH signal through direct, specific binding, thus establishing a unique class of intracellular hormone receptors.

  10. Conserved structural motifs at the C-terminus of baculovirus protein IE0 are important for its functions in transactivation and supporting hr5-mediated DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Luria, Neta; Lu, Liqun; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2012-05-01

    IE0 and IE1 are transactivator proteins of the most studied baculovirus, the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). IE0 is a 72.6 kDa protein identical to IE1 with the exception of its 54 N-terminal amino acid residues. To gain some insight about important structural motifs of IE0, we expressed the protein and C‑terminal mutants of it under the control of the Drosophila heat shock promoter and studied the transactivation and replication functions of the transiently expressed proteins. IE0 was able to promote replication of a plasmid bearing the hr5 origin of replication of AcMNPV in transient transfections with a battery of eight plasmids expressing the AcMNPV genes dnapol, helicase, lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, p35, ie-2 and lef-7. IE0 transactivated expression of the baculovirus 39K promoter. Both functions of replication and transactivation were lost after introduction of selected mutations at the basic domain II and helix-loop-helix conserved structural motifs in the C-terminus of the protein. These IE0 mutants were unable to translocate to the cell nucleus. Our results point out the important role of some structural conserved motifs to the proper functioning of IE0.

  11. Twist: a molecular target in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Chen, Han-chun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Fu, Junjiang

    2013-10-01

    Twist, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is involved in the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), which play an essential role in cancer metastasis. Overexpression of Twist or its promoter methylation is a common scenario in metastatic carcinomas. Twist is activated by a variety of signal transduction pathways, including Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Ras, and Wnt signaling. Activated Twist upregulates N-cadherin and downregulates E-cadherin, which are the hallmarks of EMT. Moreover, Twist plays an important role in some physiological processes involved in metastasis, like angiogenesis, invadopodia, extravasation, and chromosomal instability. Twist also protects cancer cells from apoptotic cell death. In addition, Twist is responsible for the stemness of cancer cells and the generation of drug resistance. Recently, targeting Twist has gained significant interests in cancer therapeutics. The inactivation of Twist by small RNA technology or chemotherapeutic approach has been proved successful. Moreover, several inhibitors which are antagonistic to the upstream or downstream molecules of Twist signaling pathways have also been identified. Development of potential treatment strategies by targeting Twist has a great promise in cancer therapeutics.

  12. RSL Class I Genes Controlled the Development of Epidermal Structures in the Common Ancestor of Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Proust, Hélène; Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Prescott, Helen; Kelly, Steve; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Dolan, Liam

    2016-01-11

    The colonization of the land by plants, sometime before 470 million years ago, was accompanied by the evolution tissue systems [1-3]. Specialized structures with diverse functions-from nutrient acquisition to reproduction-derived from single cells in the outermost layer (epidermis) were important sources of morphological innovation at this time [2, 4, 5]. In extant plants, these structures may be unicellular extensions, such as root hairs or rhizoids [6-9], or multicellular structures, such as asexual propagules or secretory hairs (papillae) [10-12]. Here, we show that a ROOTHAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor positively regulates the development of the unicellular and multicellular structures that develop from individual cells that expand out of the epidermal plane of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha; mutants that lack MpRSL1 function do not develop rhizoids, slime papillae, mucilage papillae, or gemmae. Furthermore, we discovered that RSL class I genes are also required for the development of multicellular axillary hairs on the gametophyte of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Because class I RSL proteins also control the development of rhizoids in mosses and root hairs in angiosperms [13, 14], these data demonstrate that the function of RSL class I genes was to control the development of structures derived from single epidermal cells in the common ancestor of the land plants. Class I RSL genes therefore controlled the generation of adaptive morphological diversity as plants colonized the land from the water.

  13. Regulation of the Drosophila Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α Sima by CRM1-Dependent Nuclear Export ▿

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Nuria M.; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Roth, Peggy; Cauerhff, Ana; Samakovlis, Christos; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) proteins are regulated by oxygen levels through several different mechanisms that include protein stability, transcriptional coactivator recruitment, and subcellular localization. It was previously reported that these transcription factors are mainly nuclear in hypoxia and cytoplasmic in normoxia, but so far the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster HIF-α protein Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We identified the relevant nuclear localization signal and two functional nuclear export signals (NESs). These NESs are in the Sima basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and promote CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Site-directed mutagenesis of either NES provoked Sima nuclear retention and increased transcriptional activity, suggesting that nuclear export contributes to Sima regulation. The identified NESs are conserved and probably functional in the bHLH domains of several bHLH-PAS proteins. We propose that rapid nuclear export of Sima regulates the duration of cellular responses to hypoxia. PMID:18332128

  14. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  15. The Arabidopsis bHLH Transcription Factors MYC3 and MYC4 Are Targets of JAZ Repressors and Act Additively with MYC2 in the Activation of Jasmonate Responses[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Chini, Andrea; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Chico, José-Manuel; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Geerinck, Jan; Eeckhout, Dominique; Schweizer, Fabian; Godoy, Marta; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Pauwels, Laurens; Witters, Erwin; Puga, María Isabel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Goossens, Alain; Reymond, Philippe; De Jaeger, Geert; Solano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) trigger an important transcriptional reprogramming of plant cells to modulate both basal development and stress responses. In spite of the importance of transcriptional regulation, only one transcription factor (TF), the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix MYC2, has been described so far as a direct target of JAZ repressors. By means of yeast two-hybrid screening and tandem affinity purification strategies, we identified two previously unknown targets of JAZ repressors, the TFs MYC3 and MYC4, phylogenetically closely related to MYC2. We show that MYC3 and MYC4 interact in vitro and in vivo with JAZ repressors and also form homo- and heterodimers with MYC2 and among themselves. They both are nuclear proteins that bind DNA with sequence specificity similar to that of MYC2. Loss-of-function mutations in any of these two TFs impair full responsiveness to JA and enhance the JA insensitivity of myc2 mutants. Moreover, the triple mutant myc2 myc3 myc4 is as impaired as coi1-1 in the activation of several, but not all, JA-mediated responses such as the defense against bacterial pathogens and insect herbivory. Our results show that MYC3 and MYC4 are activators of JA-regulated programs that act additively with MYC2 to regulate specifically different subsets of the JA-dependent transcriptional response. PMID:21335373

  16. An atypical bHLH transcription factor regulates early xylem development downstream of auxin.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Matsukawa, Manami; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2013-03-01

    The vascular system in plants, which comprises xylem, phloem and vascular stem cells, originates from provascular cells and forms a continuous network throughout the plant body. Although various aspects of vascular development have been extensively studied, the early process of vascular development remains largely unknown. LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW), which encodes an atypical basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays an essential role in establishing vascular cells. Here, we report the analysis of LHW homologs in relation to vascular development. Three LHW homologs, LONESOME HIGHWAY LIKE 1-3 (LHL1-LHL3), were preferentially expressed in the plant vasculature. Genetic analysis indicated that, although the LHL3 loss-of-function mutant showed no obvious phenotype, the lhw lhl3 double mutant displayed more severe phenotypic defects in the vasculature of the cotyledons and roots than the lhw single mutant. Only one xylem vessel was formed at the metaxylem position in lhw lhl3 roots, whereas the lhw root formed one protoxylem and one or two metaxylem vessels. Conversely, overexpression of LHL3 enhanced xylem development in the roots. Moreover, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid caused ectopic LHL3 expression in accordance with induced auxin maximum. These results suggest that LHL3 plays a positive role in xylem differentiation downstream of auxin.

  17. ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1), ADPG2, and QUARTET2 Are Polygalacturonases Required for Cell Separation during Reproductive Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Mikihiro; Kay, Pippa; Wilson, Sarah; Swain, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Cell separation is thought to involve degradation of pectin by several hydrolytic enzymes, particularly polygalacturonase (PG). Here, we characterize an activation tagging line with reduced growth and male sterility caused by increased expression of a PG encoded by QUARTET2 (QRT2). QRT2 is essential for pollen grain separation and is part of a small family of three closely related endo-PGs in the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome, including ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE1 (ADPG1) and ADPG2. Functional assays and complementation experiments confirm that ADPG1, ADPG2, and QRT2 are PGs. Genetic analysis demonstrates that ADPG1 and ADPG2 are essential for silique dehiscence. In addition, ADPG2 and QRT2 contribute to floral organ abscission, while all three genes contribute to anther dehiscence. Expression analysis is consistent with the observed mutant phenotypes. INDEHISCENT (IND) encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix required for silique dehiscence, and we demonstrate that the closely related HECATE3 (HEC3) gene is required for normal seed abscission and show that IND and HEC3 are required for normal expression of ADPG1 in the silique dehiscence zone and seed abscission zone, respectively. We also show that jasmonic acid and ethylene act together with abscisic acid to regulate floral organ abscission, in part by promoting QRT2 expression. These results demonstrate that multiple cell separation events, including both abscission and dehiscence, require closely related PG genes. PMID:19168715

  18. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Stephen M.; Wright, Margaret C.; Bolock, Alexa M.; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression. PMID:26138479

  19. Mesogenin 1 is a master regulator of paraxial presomitic mesoderm differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chalamalasetty, Ravindra B; Garriock, Robert J; Dunty, William C; Kennedy, Mark W; Jailwala, Parthav; Si, Han; Yamaguchi, Terry P

    2014-11-01

    Neuromesodermal (NM) stem cells generate neural and paraxial presomitic mesoderm (PSM) cells, which are the respective progenitors of the spinal cord and musculoskeleton of the trunk and tail. The Wnt-regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor mesogenin 1 (Msgn1) has been implicated as a cooperative regulator working in concert with T-box genes to control PSM formation in zebrafish, although the mechanism is unknown. We show here that, in mice, Msgn1 alone controls PSM differentiation by directly activating the transcriptional programs that define PSM identity, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, motility and segmentation. Forced expression of Msgn1 in NM stem cells in vivo reduced the contribution of their progeny to the neural tube, and dramatically expanded the unsegmented mesenchymal PSM while blocking somitogenesis and notochord differentiation. Expression of Msgn1 was sufficient to partially rescue PSM differentiation in Wnt3a(-/-) embryos, demonstrating that Msgn1 functions downstream of Wnt3a as the master regulator of PSM differentiation. Our data provide new insights into how cell fate decisions are imposed by the expression of a single transcriptional regulator.

  20. Mga is essential for the survival of pluripotent cells during peri-implantation development.

    PubMed

    Washkowitz, Andrew J; Schall, Caroline; Zhang, Kun; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas; Mager, Jesse; Papaioannou, Virginia E

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance and control of pluripotency is of great interest in stem cell biology. The dual specificity T-box/basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper transcription factor Mga is expressed in the pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) and epiblast of the peri-implantation mouse embryo, but its function has not been investigated previously. Here, we use a loss-of-function allele and RNA knockdown to demonstrate that Mga depletion leads to the death of proliferating pluripotent ICM cells in vivo and in vitro, and the death of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. Additionally, quiescent pluripotent cells lacking Mga are lost during embryonic diapause. Expression of Odc1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of ornithine into putrescine in the synthesis of polyamines, is reduced in Mga mutant cells, and the survival of mutant ICM cells as well as ESCs is rescued in culture by the addition of exogenous putrescine. These results suggest a mechanism whereby Mga influences pluripotent cell survival through regulation of the polyamine pool in pluripotent cells of the embryo, whether they are in a proliferative or quiescent state.

  1. Silencing of AP-4 inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and promotes apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuanyu; Guo, Wei; Chen, Shanshan; Xu, Yizhuo; Li, Ping; Wang, Huaqi; Chu, Heying; Li, Juan; DU, Yuwen; Chen, Xiaonan; Zhang, Guojun; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Activating enhancer-binding protein (AP)-4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, and is involved in tumor biology. However, the role of AP-4 in human lung cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of AP-4 in human lung cancer tissues and cells was investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was observed that the level of AP-4 was increased in tumor tissues and cells compared with their normal counterparts. AP-4 expression was knocked down by transfection with a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lung cancer cells, and this indicated that siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 inhibited cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis by modulating the expression of p21 and cyclin D1. The results of the present study suggest that AP-4 may be an oncoprotein that has a significant role in lung cancer, and that siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 may have therapeutic potential as a strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

  2. Folic acid supplementation affects apoptosis and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Jia, De-yong; Liu, Hui-juan; Wang, Fu-wu; Liu, Shang-ming; Ling, Eng-Ang; Liu, Kai; Hao, Ai-jun

    2008-07-25

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation has been shown to be extremely effective in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), one of the most common birth defects associated with diabetic pregnancy. However, the antiteratogenic mechanism of FA in diabetes-induced NTDs is unclear. This study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of FA in neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high glucose in vitro. The undifferentiated or differentiated NSCs were cultured in normal D-glucose concentration (NG) or high D-glucose concentration (HG) with or without FA. FA supplementation significantly decreased apoptosis induced by HG and lowered the expression of p53 in the nucleus of undifferentiated NSCs exposed to HG. Administration of FA in differentiated NSCs did not alter their precocious differentiation induced by HG. The increased mRNA expression levels of the basic helix-loop-helix factors including Neurog1, Neurog2, NeuroD2, Mash1, Id1, Id2, and Hes5 in the presence of HG were not significantly affected by FA. The present results provided a cellular mechanism by which FA supplementation may have a potential role in prevention of NTDs in diabetic pregnancies. On the other hand, FA increased the mRNA expression levels of the above transcription factors and accelerated the differentiation of NSCs in the NG medium, suggesting that it may adversely affect the normal differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, the timing and dose of FA would be critical factors in considering FA supplementation in normal maternal pregnancy.

  3. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:27829840

  4. Molecular characterization and expression of As-nurp1 gene from Artemia sinica during development and in response to salinity and temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuying; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Han, Lulu; Yuan, Zhe; Tan, Jian; Du, Bin; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear protein 1 (NURP1) is a stress-related protein and closely related to diapause in the development of Artemia. In the present paper, the full-length 568-bp cDNA sequence of the nurp1 homolog of Artemia sinica (As-nurp1) was isolated by RACE technology for the first time. The putative As-nurp1 protein consists of 66 amino acids with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the putative As-nurp1 protein sequence was relatively conserved across species, especially in the bHLH domain. The expression of As-nurp1 is widely distributed during A. sinica development. This is followed by a dramatic downregulation after diapause and is newly upregulated from the larval nauplius stage. Furthermore, As-nurp1 transcripts are highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity and low temperature. These findings suggest that As-nurp1 is stress-related and may act as a protective factor in embryonic development.

  5. Scleraxis is required for maturation of tissue domains for proper integration of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Yuki; Takimoto, Aki; Watanabe, Hitomi; Hiraki, Yuji; Kondoh, Gen; Shukunami, Chisa

    2017-01-01

    Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel ScxCre knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx. Expression of tenomodulin, a marker of mature tenocytes and ligamentocytes, was almost absent in tendons and ligaments of ScxCre/Cre KI mice lacking Scx to indicate defective maturation. In homozygotes, the transiently Scx-expressing entheseal regions such as the rib cage, patella cartilage, and calcaneus were small and defective and cartilaginous tuberosity was missing. Decreased Sox9 expression and phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and Smad3 were also observed in the developing entheseal cartilage, patella, and deltoid tuberosity of ScxCre/Cre KI mice. These results highlighted the functional importance of both transient and persistent expression domains of Scx for proper integration of the musculoskeletal components. PMID:28327634

  6. Identification of OsbHLH133 as a regulator of iron distribution between roots and shoots in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ying, Yinghui; Narsai, Reena; Ye, Lingxiao; Zheng, Luqing; Tian, Jingluan; Whelan, James; Shou, Huixia

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient element for plant growth. Regulation of Fe-deficiency signalling networks is one of the many functions reported for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in plants. In the present study, OsbHLH133 was found to be induced by Fe-deficiency conditions in Oryza sativa. Insertional inactivation of OsbHLH133 (bhlh133) resulted in growth retardation, with enhanced Fe concentration seen in shoots, and reduced Fe concentration in roots. Overexpression of OsbHLH133 had the opposite effect, that is resulted in an enhanced Fe concentration in roots and reduced Fe concentration in shoots and also in xylem sap. Microarray analysis showed that some of the genes encoding Fe-related functions were up-regulated under Fe-sufficient conditions, in bhlh133 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Significant differential expression of a number of signalling pathways, including calcium signalling, was also seen in bhlh133 plants compared to wild-type plants, independent of Fe conditions.

  7. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-12-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10(35)) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10(35) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10(35) gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10(35) mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10(35) regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10(35) plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis.

  8. Molecular Characterisation, Evolution and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Aurelia sp.1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshan; Yu, Zhigang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Shi, Yan; Wang, Jianyan; Wang, Minxiao; Sun, Song

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of physiological oxygen homeostasis is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a key transcriptional factor of the PHD-HIF system in all metazoans. However, the molecular evolutionary origin of this central physiological regulatory system is not well characterized. As the earliest eumetazoans, Cnidarians can be served as an interesting model for exploring the HIF system from an evolutionary perspective. We identified the complete cDNA sequence of HIF-1α (ASHIF) from the Aurelia sp.1, and the predicted HIF-1α protein (pASHIF) was comprised of 674 amino acids originating from 2,025 bp nucleotides. A Pairwise comparison revealed that pASHIF not only possessed conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains but also contained the oxygen dependent degradation (ODD) and the C-terminal transactivation domains (C-TAD), the key domains for hypoxia regulation. As indicated by sequence analysis, the ASHIF gene contains 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns. Western blot analysis indicated that pASHIF that existed in the polyps and medusa of Aurelia. sp.1 was more stable for a hypoxic response than normoxia. PMID:24926666

  9. The mammalian single-minded (SIM) gene: Mouse cDNA structure and diencephalic expression indicate a candidate gene for Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Akiko |; Kudoh, Jun; Shindoh, Nobuaki

    1996-07-01

    We have recently isolated a human homolog (hSIM) of the Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene from the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21 using the exon trapping method. The Drosophila sim gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates the development of the central nervous system midline cell lineage. To elucidate the structure of the mammalian SIM protein, we have isolated cDNA clones from a mouse embryo cDNA library. The cDNA clones encode a polypeptide of 657 amino acids with a bHLH (basic-helix-loop-helix) domain, characteristic of a large family of transcription factors, and a PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain in the amino-terminal half region. Both of these domains have striking sequence homology with human SIM and Drosophila SIM proteins. In contrast, the carboxy-terminal half of the mouse SIM protein consists of a proline-rich region with no sequence homology to the Drosophila SIM provator domain of a number of transcription factors. Whole-mount embryo in situ hybridization experiments revealed that the SIM mRNA is expressed prominently in the diencephalon during embryogenesis strongly suggest that the newly isolated mammalian SIM homolog may play a critical role in the development of the mammalian central nervous system. We propose that the human SIM gene may be one of the pathogenic genes of Down syndrome. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Association of the winged helix motif of the TFIIEα subunit of TFIIE with either the TFIIEβ subunit or TFIIB distinguishes its functions in transcription.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Akimoto, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Satoko; Hisatake, Koji; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In eukaryotes, the general transcription factor TFIIE consists of two subunits, α and β, and plays essential roles in transcription. Structure-function studies indicate that TFIIE has three-winged helix (WH) motifs, with one in TFIIEα and two in TFIIEβ. Recent studies suggested that, by binding to the clamp region of RNA polymerase II, TFIIEα-WH promotes the conformational change that transforms the promoter-bound inactive preinitiation complex to the active complex. Here, to elucidate its roles in transcription, functional analyses of point-mutated human TFIIEα-WH proteins were carried out. In vitro transcription analyses identified two classes of mutants. One class was defective in transcription initiation, and the other was defective in the transition from initiation to elongation. Analyses of the binding of this motif to other general transcription factors showed that the former class was defective in binding to the basic helix-loop-helix motif of TFIIEβ and the latter class was defective in binding to the N-terminal cyclin homology region of TFIIB. Furthermore, TFIIEα-WH bound to the TFIIH XPB subunit at a third distinct region. Therefore, these results provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying RNA polymerase II activation at the initial stages of transcription.

  11. NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT crystal structures implicate the bHLH-PAS family as multi-ligand binding transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dalei; Su, Xiaoyu; Potluri, Nalini; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal PAS domain proteins NPAS1 and NPAS3 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) family, and their genetic deficiencies are linked to a variety of human psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and bipolar disease. NPAS1 and NPAS3 must each heterodimerize with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), to form functional transcription complexes capable of DNA binding and gene regulation. Here we examined the crystal structures of multi-domain NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT-DNA complexes, discovering each to contain four putative ligand-binding pockets. Through expanded architectural comparisons between these complexes and HIF-1α-ARNT, HIF-2α-ARNT and CLOCK-BMAL1, we show the wider mammalian bHLH-PAS family is capable of multi-ligand-binding and presents as an ideal class of transcription factors for direct targeting by small-molecule drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18790.001 PMID:27782878

  12. Evolution of the Max and Mlx Networks in Animals

    PubMed Central

    McFerrin, Lisa G.; Atchley, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are essential for the regulation of gene expression and often form emergent complexes to perform vital roles in cellular processes. In this paper, we focus on the parallel Max and Mlx networks of TFs because of their critical involvement in cell cycle regulation, proliferation, growth, metabolism, and apoptosis. A basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) domain mediates the competitive protein dimerization and DNA binding among Max and Mlx network members to form a complex system of cell regulation. To understand the importance of these network interactions, we identified the bHLHZ domain of Max and Mlx network proteins across the animal kingdom and carried out several multivariate statistical analyses. The presence and conservation of Max and Mlx network proteins in animal lineages stemming from the divergence of Metazoa indicate that these networks have ancient and essential functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the bHLHZ domain identified clear relationships among protein families with distinct points of radiation and divergence. Multivariate discriminant analysis further isolated specific amino acid changes within the bHLHZ domain that classify proteins, families, and network configurations. These analyses on Max and Mlx network members provide a model for characterizing the evolution of TFs involved in essential networks. PMID:21859806

  13. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces hepatic steatosis via the upregulation of fatty acid transport.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Tanaka, Shinwa; Nobutani, Kentaro; Miki, Akira; Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Ashida, Hitoshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2010-12-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim domain transcription factor, which is activated by various xenobiotic ligands. AHR is known to be abundant in liver tissue and to be associated with hepatic steatosis. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the activation of AHR promotes hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of AHR in hepatic steatosis. The intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a potent AHR ligand, into C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the levels of triglycerides and six long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the livers of mice, resulting in hepatic microvesicular steatosis. 3MC significantly enhanced the expression level of fatty acid translocase (FAT), a factor regulating the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into hepatocytes, in the liver. In an in vitro experiment using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, 3MC increased the expression level of FAT, and the downregulation of AHR by AHR siRNA led to the suppression of 3MC-induced FAT expression. In addition, the mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, an upstream factor of FAT, was increased in the livers of 3MC-treated mice. Taking together, AHR activation induces hepatic microvesicular steatosis by increasing the expression level of FAT.

  14. Diversity in the utilization of glucose and lactate in synthetic mammalian myotubes generated by engineered configurations of MyoD and E12 in otherwise non-differentiation growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Grubišić, Vladimir; Parpura, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    We previously used the expression of various combinations and configurations of MyoD and E12, two basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TF), to produce populations of myotubes assuming distinct morphology, myofibrillar development and Ca2+ dynamics, from mammalian C2C12 myoblasts in non-differentiation growth conditions. Here, we assessed the synthetically generated myotubes in terms of energetics, otherwise necessary to sustain their mechanical output as bio-actuators. We found that the myotubes exhibit changed expression of key regulators for the uptake and utilization of two major cellular fuels, glucose and lactate. Furthermore, while lactate transport was uniformly slowed in all the populations of myotubes, glucose uptake and utilization were modified by particular TF configuration. Our approach allows the production of a class of biomaterials with predetermined energetics that could be applied in biorobotics, where fuel of choice could be used, and also in reparative medicine where, for example, particular population of myotubes could be additionally employed as glucose sinks to mitigate effects of secondary metabolic syndrome.

  15. OsMYC2, an essential factor for JA-inductive sakuranetin production in rice, interacts with MYC2-like proteins that enhance its transactivation ability

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of sakuranetin, a flavonoid anti-fungal phytoalexin that occurs in rice, is highly dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) signalling and induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. We previously identified OsNOMT, which encodes naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT); NOMT is a key enzyme for sakuranetin production. Although OsNOMT expression is induced by JA treatment, the regulation mechanism that activates the biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that JA-inducible basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor OsMYC2 drastically enhances the activity of the OsNOMT promoter and is essential for JA-inducible sakuranetin production. In addition, we identified 2 collaborators of OsMYC2, OsMYC2-like protein 1 and 2 (OsMYL1 and OsMYL2) that further activated the OsNOMT promoter in synergy with OsMYC2. Physical interaction of OsMYC2 with OsMYL1 and OsMYL2 further supported the idea that these interactions lead to the enhancement of the transactivation activity of OsMYC2. Our results indicate that JA signalling via OsMYC2 is reinforced by OsMYL1 and OsMYL2, resulting in the inductive production of sakuranetin during defence responses in rice. PMID:28067270

  16. A Novel Soybean ERF Transcription Factor, GmERF113, Increases Resistance to Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanling; Chang, Xin; Qi, Dongyue; Dong, Lidong; Wang, Guangjin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Cheng, Qun; Chen, Xi; Han, Dan; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in regulating plant biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a new ERF gene, GmERF113, was isolated from the highly resistant soybean ‘Suinong 10.’ Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by GmERF113 contained a conserved AP2/ERF domain of 58 amino acid and belonged to the B-4 subgroup of the ERF subfamily. Expression of GmERF113 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate. GmERF113 protein localized to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts, could bind to the GCC-box, and acted as a transcription activator. In addition, a region of the full-length GmERF113, GmERF113-II, interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) in yeast cells. Full-length GmERF113 also interacted with GmbHLH in planta. GmERF113-overexpressing transgenic plants in susceptible cultivar ‘Dongnong 50’ soybean exhibited increased resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes, PR1 and PR10-1. These results indicate that GmERF113 may play a crucial role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection. PMID:28326092

  17. Characterization of MxFIT, an iron deficiency induced transcriptional factor in Malus xiaojinensis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lili; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Mudan; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency often results in nutritional disorder in fruit trees. Transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of iron uptake. In this study, we isolated an iron deficiency response transcription factor gene, MxFIT, from an iron-efficient apple genotype of Malus xiaojinensis. MxFIT encoded a basic helix-loop-helix protein and contained a 966 bp open reading frame. MxFIT protein was targeted to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells and showed strong transcriptional activation in yeast cells. Spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed that MxFIT was up-regulated in roots under iron deficiency at both mRNA and protein levels, while almost no expression was detected in leaves irrespective of iron supply. Ectopic expression of MxFIT resulted in enhanced iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency and stronger resistance to iron deficiency. Thus, MxFIT might be involved in iron uptake and plays an important role in iron deficiency response.

  18. A Negative Feedback Loop between PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs and HECATE Proteins Fine-Tunes Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling; Bu, Qingyun; Shen, Hui; Dang, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), a small group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, repress photomorphogenesis both in the dark and light. Light signals perceived by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors induce rapid degradation of PIFs to promote photomorphogenesis. Here, we show that HECATE (HEC) proteins, another small group of HLH proteins, antagonistically regulate PIFs to promote photomorphogenesis. HEC1 and HEC2 heterodimerize with PIF family members. PIF1, HEC1, and HEC2 genes are spatially and temporally coexpressed, and HEC2 is localized in the nucleus. hec1, hec2, and hec3 single mutants and the hec1 hec2 double mutant showed hyposensitivity to light-induced seed germination and accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoids, hallmark processes oppositely regulated by PIF1. HEC2 inhibits PIF1 target gene expression by directly heterodimerizing with PIF1 and preventing DNA binding and transcriptional activation activity of PIF1. Conversely, PIFs directly activate the expression of HEC1 and HEC2 in the dark, and light reduces the expression of these HECs possibly by degrading PIFs. HEC2 is partially degraded in the dark through the ubiquitin/26S-proteasome pathway and is stabilized by light. HEC2 overexpression also reduces the light-induced degradation of PIF1. Taken together, these data suggest that PIFs and HECs constitute a negative feedback loop to fine-tune photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27073231

  19. Crystal structure of PHO4 bHLH domain-DNA complex: flanking base recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, T; Toumoto, A; Ihara, K; Shimizu, M; Kyogoku, Y; Ogawa, N; Oshima, Y; Hakoshima, T

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of a DNA-binding domain of PHO4 complexed with DNA at 2.8 A resolution revealed that the domain folds into a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif with a long but compact loop that contains a short alpha-helical segment. This helical structure positions a tryptophan residue into an aromatic cluster so as to make the loop compact. PHO4 binds to DNA as a homodimer with direct reading of both the core E-box sequence CACGTG and its 3'-flanking bases. The 3'-flanking bases GG are recognized by Arg2 and His5. The residues involved in the E-box recognition are His5, Glu9 and Arg13, as already reported for bHLH/Zip proteins MAX and USF, and are different from those recognized by bHLH proteins MyoD and E47, although PHO4 is a bHLH protein. PMID:9303313

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the FSH receptor: new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Brian P.; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    The cell-surface receptor for the gonadotropin follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is expressed exclusively on Sertoli cells of the testis and granulosa cells of the ovary. FSH signal transduction through its receptor (Fshr) is critical for the timing and maintenance of normal gametogenesis in the mammalian gonad. In the 13 years since the gene encoding Fshr was first cloned, the mechanisms controlling its transcription have been extensively examined, but a clear understanding of what drives its unique cell-specificity remains elusive. Current knowledge of basal Fshr transcription highlights the role of an E-box in the proximal promoter which is bound by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor 1 (Usf1) and Usf2. Recent studies utilizing knockout mice and chromatin immunoprecipitation validated the importance of Usf to Fshr transcription and demonstrated a sexually dimorphic requirement for the Usf proteins to maintain normal Fshr expression. Studies have also shown that the promoter region itself is insufficient for appropriate Fshr expression in transgenic mice, indicating Fshr transcription depends on regulatory elements that lie outside of the promoter. Identification of such elements has been propelled by recent availability of genome sequence data, which facilitated studies using comparative genomics, DNase I hypersensitivity mapping, and transgenic analysis with large fragments of DNA. This review will focus on the current understanding of transcriptional regulatory processes that control expression of rat Fshr, including recent advances from our laboratory. PMID:17084019

  1. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-receptor interaction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao-jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-yu

    2016-01-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively. In this study, we showed that Twist2 was upregulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and augmented cell migration and invasion in human kidney-cancer-derived cells in vitro. Twist2 also promoted tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 expression. This result indicates that Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 is involved in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role of Twist2 in the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment for human kidney cancer. PMID:27099513

  2. NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT crystal structures implicate the bHLH-PAS family as multi-ligand binding transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dalei; Su, Xiaoyu; Potluri, Nalini; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2016-10-26

    Here, the neuronal PAS domain proteins NPAS1 and NPAS3 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) family, and their genetic deficiencies are linked to a variety of human psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and bipolar disease. NPAS1 and NPAS3 must each heterodimerize with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), to form functional transcription complexes capable of DNA binding and gene regulation. Here we examined the crystal structures of multi-domain NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT-DNA complexes, discovering each to contain four putative ligand-binding pockets. Through expanded architectural comparisons between these complexes and HIF-1α-ARNT, HIF-2α-ARNT and CLOCK-BMAL1, we show the wider mammalian bHLH-PAS family is capable of multi-ligand-binding and presents as an ideal class of transcription factors for direct targeting by small-molecule drugs.

  3. NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT crystal structures implicate the bHLH-PAS family as multi-ligand binding transcription factors

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Dalei; Su, Xiaoyu; Potluri, Nalini; ...

    2016-10-26

    Here, the neuronal PAS domain proteins NPAS1 and NPAS3 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) family, and their genetic deficiencies are linked to a variety of human psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and bipolar disease. NPAS1 and NPAS3 must each heterodimerize with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), to form functional transcription complexes capable of DNA binding and gene regulation. Here we examined the crystal structures of multi-domain NPAS1-ARNT and NPAS3-ARNT-DNA complexes, discovering each to contain four putative ligand-binding pockets. Through expanded architectural comparisons between these complexes and HIF-1α-ARNT, HIF-2α-ARNT and CLOCK-BMAL1, we show the widermore » mammalian bHLH-PAS family is capable of multi-ligand-binding and presents as an ideal class of transcription factors for direct targeting by small-molecule drugs.« less

  4. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  5. The Clock gene clone and its circadian rhythms in Pelteobagrus vachelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Shao, Ting

    2015-05-01

    The Clock gene, a key molecule in circadian systems, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. We isolated a 936-bp partial cDNA sequence of the Clock gene ( Pva-clock) from the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli that exhibited high identity with Clock genes of other species of fish and animals (65%-88%). The putative domains included a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and two period-ARNT-single-minded (PAS) domains, which were also similar to those in other species of fish and animals. Pva-Clock was primarily expressed in the brain, and was detected in all of the peripheral tissues sampled. Additionally, the pattern of Pva-Clock expression over a 24-h period exhibited a circadian rhythm in the brain, liver and intestine, with the acrophase at zeitgeber time 21:35, 23:00, and 23:23, respectively. Our results provide insight into the function of the molecular Clock of P. vachelli.

  6. Target gene specificity of USF-1 is directed via p38-mediated phosphorylation-dependent acetylation.

    PubMed

    Corre, Sébastien; Primot, Aline; Baron, Yorann; Le Seyec, Jacques; Goding, Colin; Galibert, Marie-Dominique

    2009-07-10

    How transcription factors interpret the output from signal transduction pathways to drive distinct programs of gene expression is a key issue that underpins development and disease. The ubiquitously expressed basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper upstream stimulating factor-1 binds E-box regulatory elements (CANNTG) to regulate a wide number of gene networks. In particular, USF-1 is a key component of the tanning process. Following UV irradiation, USF-1 is phosphorylated by the p38 stress-activated kinase on threonine 153 and directly up-regulates expression of the POMC, MC1R, TYR, TYRP-1 and DCT genes. However, how phosphorylation on Thr-153 might affect the activity of USF-1 is unclear. Here we show that, in response to DNA damage, oxidative stress and cellular infection USF-1 is acetylated in a phospho-Thr-153-dependent fashion. Phospho-acetylated USF-1 is nuclear and interacts with DNA but displays altered gene regulatory properties. Phospho-acetylated USF-1 is thus proposed to be associated with loss of transcriptional activation properties toward several target genes implicated in pigmentation process and cell cycle regulation. The identification of this critical stress-dependent USF-1 modification gives new insights into understanding USF-1 gene expression modulation associated with cancer development.

  7. CBP/p300 as a co-factor for the Microphthalmia transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Roberts, K; Gambino, G; Cook, A; Kouzarides, T; Goding, C R

    1997-06-26

    The Microphthalmia basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-Leucine Zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor (Mi) plays a crucial role in the genesis of melanocytes; mice deficient for a functional (Microphthalmia) gene product lack all pigment cells. We show here that the Mi activation domain resides N-terminal to the DNA-binding domain and that as little as 18 amino acids are sufficient to mediate transcription activation. The minimal activation region of Mi is highly conserved in the related transcription factor TFE3 and is predicted to adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation. This region of Mi is also highly conserved with a region of E1A known to be essential for binding the CBP/p300 transcription cofactor. Consistent with these observations, the Mi activation domain can interact in vitro with CBP specifically through a region of CBP required for complex formation with E1A, P/CAF and c-Fos, and anti p300 antibodies can co-immunoprecipitate Mi from both melanocyte and melanoma cell lines. In addition, co-transfection of a vector expressing CBP2 (aas 1621-1891) fused to the VP16 activation domain potentiated the ability of Mi to activate transcription, confirming the significance of the CBP-Mi interaction observed in vitro. These data suggest that transcription activation by Mi is achieved at least in part by recruitment of CBP. The parallels between transcription regulation by Microphthalmia in melanocytes and MyoD in muscle cells are discussed.

  8. Phosphorylation of the TAL1 oncoprotein by the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J T; Cobb, M H; Baer, R

    1993-01-01

    Alteration of the TAL1 gene is the most common genetic lesion found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TAL1 encodes phosphoproteins, pp42TAL1 and pp22TAL1, that represent phosphorylated versions of the full-length (residues 1 to 331) and truncated (residues 176 to 331) TAL1 gene products, respectively. Both proteins contain the basic helix-loop-helix motif, a DNA-binding and protein dimerization motif common to several known transcriptional regulatory factors. We now report that serine residue 122 (S122) is a major phosphorylation site of pp42TAL1 in leukemic cell lines and transfected COS1 cells. In vivo phosphorylation of S122 is induced by epidermal growth factor with a rapid time course that parallels activation of the ERK/MAP2 protein kinases. Moreover, S122 is readily phosphorylated in vitro by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1. These data suggest that TAL1 residue S122 serves as an in vivo substrate for ERK/MAP2 kinases such as ERK1. Therefore, S122 phosphorylation may provide a mechanism whereby the properties of TAL1 polypeptides can be modulated by extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:8423803

  9. A Role for Id2 in Regulating Photic Entrainment of the Mammalian Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Giles E.; Watson, Nathan P.; Mantani, Akio; Peirson, Stuart N.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Loros, Jennifer J.; Israel, Mark A.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Inhibitor of DNA binding genes (Id1–Id4) encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors associated with development and tumorigenesis [1, 2], but little is known concerning the function(s) of these genes in normal adult animals. Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3–5], and further analysis revealed a circadian pattern of expression of all four Id genes in multiple tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To explore an in vivo function, we generated and characterized deletion mutations of Id2 and of Id4. Id2−/− mice exhibit abnormally rapid entrainment and an increase in the magnitude of the phase shift of the pacemaker. A significant proportion of mice also exhibit disrupted rhythms when maintained under constant darkness. Conversely, Id4−/− mice did not exhibit a noticeable circadian phenotype. In vitro studies using an mPer1 and an AVP promoter reporter revealed the potential for ID1, ID2, and ID3 proteins to interact with the canonical basic HLH clock proteins BMAL1 and CLOCK. These data suggest that the Id genes may be important for entrainment and operation of the mammalian circadian system, potentially acting through BMAL1 and CLOCK targets. PMID:19217292

  10. Atoh1 inhibits neuronal differentiation and collaborates with Gli1 to generate medulloblastoma-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Ayrault, Olivier; Zhao, Haotian; Zindy, Frederique; Qu, Chunxu; Sherr, Charles J.; Roussel, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    The morphogen and mitogen Sonic Hedgehog activates a Gli1-dependent transcription program that drives proliferation of granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) within the external germinal layer of the postnatally developing cerebellum. Medulloblastomas with mutations activating the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway preferentially arise within the external germinal layer, and the tumor cells closely resemble GNPs. Atoh1/Math1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for GNP histogenesis, does not induce medulloblastomas when expressed in primary mouse GNPs that are explanted from the early postnatal cerebellum and transplanted back into the brains of naïve mice. However, enforced expression of Atoh1 in primary GNPs enhances the oncogenicity of cells overexpressing Gli1 by almost three orders of magnitude. Unlike Gli1, Atoh1 cannot support GNP proliferation in the absence of Sonic Hedgehog signaling and does not govern expression of canonical cell cycle genes. Instead, Atoh1 maintains GNPs in a Sonic Hedgehog-responsive state by regulating genes that trigger neuronal differentiation, including many expressed in response to bone morphogenic protein-4. Therefore, by targeting multiple genes regulating the differentiation state of GNPs, Atoh1 collaborats with the pro-proliferative Gli1-dependent transcriptional program to influence medulloblastoma development. PMID:20516124

  11. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 and GLABRA1 Compete for Binding to GLABRA3 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Martina; Schultheiß, Ilka; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Clemen, Christoph S.; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The MBW (for R2R3MYB, basic helix-loop-helix [bHLH], and WD40) genes comprise an evolutionarily conserved gene cassette that regulates several traits such as (pro)anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. Trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is governed by GLABRA1 (GL1; R2R3MYB), GL3 (bHLH), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1; WD40). They are thought to form a trimeric complex that acts as a transcriptional activation complex. We provide evidence that these three MBW proteins form either GL1 GL3 or GL3 TTG1 dimers. The formation of each dimer is counteracted by the respective third protein in yeast three-hybrid assays, pulldown experiments (luminescence-based mammalian interactome), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. We further show that two target promoters, TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC), are differentially regulated: GL1 represses the activation of the TRY promoter by GL3 and TTG1, and TTG1 suppresses the activation of the CPC promoter by GL1 and GL3. Our data suggest that the transcriptional activation by the MBW complex involves alternative complex formation and that the two dimers can differentially regulate downstream genes. PMID:25926482

  12. TAL-1/SCL and its partners E47 and LMO2 up-regulate VE-cadherin expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deleuze, Virginie; Chalhoub, Elias; El-Hajj, Rawan; Dohet, Christiane; Le Clech, Mikaël; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Huber, Philippe; Mathieu, Danièle

    2007-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix TAL-1/SCL essential for hematopoietic development is also required during vascular development for embryonic angiogenesis. We reported that TAL-1 acts positively on postnatal angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial morphogenesis. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of TAL-1 silencing in human primary endothelial cells. We found that TAL-1 knockdown caused the inhibition of in vitro tubulomorphogenesis, which was associated with a dramatic reduction in vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at intercellular junctions. Consistently, silencing of TAL-1 as well as of its cofactors E47 and LMO2 down-regulated VE-cadherin at both the mRNA and the protein level. Endogenous VE-cadherin transcription could be activated in nonendothelial HEK-293 cells by the sole concomitant ectopic expression of TAL-1, E47, and LMO2. Transient transfections in human primary endothelial cells derived from umbilical vein (HUVECs) demonstrated that VE-cadherin promoter activity was dependent on the integrity of a specialized E-box associated with a GATA motif and was maximal with the coexpression of the different components of the TAL-1 complex. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TAL-1 and its cofactors occupied the VE-cadherin promoter in HUVECs. Together, these data identify VE-cadherin as a bona fide target gene of the TAL-1 complex in the endothelial lineage, providing a first clue to TAL-1 function in angiogenesis.

  13. PIFs: Systems Integrators in Plant Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Leivar, Pablo; Monte, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are members of the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix family of transcriptional regulators that interact specifically with the active Pfr conformer of phytochrome (phy) photoreceptors. PIFs are central regulators of photomorphogenic development that act to promote stem growth, and this activity is reversed upon interaction with phy in response to light. Recently, significant progress has been made in defining the transcriptional networks directly regulated by PIFs, as well as the convergence of other signaling pathways on the PIFs to modulate growth. Here, we summarize and highlight these findings in the context of PIFs acting as integrators of light and other signals. We discuss progress in our understanding of the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of PIFs that illustrates the integration of light with hormonal pathways and the circadian clock, and we review seedling hypocotyl growth as a paradigm of PIFs acting at the interface of these signals. Based on these advances, PIFs are emerging as required factors for growth, acting as central components of a regulatory node that integrates multiple internal and external signals to optimize plant development. PMID:24481072

  14. Regulation of cell divisions and differentiation by MALE STERILITY32 is required for anther development in maize.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jihyun; Skibbe, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Kelliher, Timothy; Kremling, Karl; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

    2013-11-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants relies on proper division and differentiation of cells in the anther, a process that gives rise to four somatic layers surrounding central germinal cells. The maize gene male sterility32 (ms32) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, which functions as an important regulator of both division and differentiation during anther development. After the four somatic cell layers are generated properly through successive periclinal divisions, in the ms32 mutant, tapetal precursor cells fail to differentiate, and, instead, undergo additional periclinal divisions to form extra layers of cells. These cells become vacuolated and expand, and lead to failure in pollen mother cell development. ms32 expression is specific to the pre-meiotic anthers and is distributed initially broadly in the four lobes, but as the anther develops, its expression becomes restricted to the innermost somatic layer, the tapetum. The ms32-ref mac1-1 double mutant is unable to form tapetal precursors and also exhibits excessive somatic proliferation leading to numerous, disorganized cell layers, suggesting a synergistic interaction between ms32 and mac1. Altogether, our results show that MS32 is a major regulator in maize anther development that promotes tapetum differentiation and inhibits periclinal division once a tapetal cell is specified.

  15. Mga, a dual-specificity transcription factor that interacts with Max and contains a T-domain DNA-binding motif.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlin, P J; Steingrìmsson, E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Eisenman, R N

    1999-01-01

    The basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) proteins Myc, Mad and Mnt are part of a transcription activation/repression system involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. The function of these proteins as transcription factors is mediated by heterodimerization with the small bHLHZip protein Max, which is required for their specific DNA binding to E-box sequences. We have identified a novel Max-interacting protein, Mga, which contains a Myc-like bHLHZip motif, but otherwise shows no relationship with Myc or other Max-interacting proteins. Like Myc, Mad and Mnt proteins, Mga requires heterodimerization with Max for binding to the preferred Myc-Max-binding site CACGTG. In addition to the bHLHZip domain, Mga contains a second DNA-binding domain: the T-box or T-domain. The T-domain is a highly conserved DNA-binding motif originally defined in Brachyury and characteristic of the Tbx family of transcription factors. Mga binds the preferred Brachyury-binding sequence and represses transcription of reporter genes containing promoter-proximal Brachyury-binding sites. Surprisingly, Mga is converted to a transcription activator of both Myc-Max and Brachyury site-containing reporters in a Max-dependent manner. Our results suggest that Mga functions as a dual-specificity transcription factor that regulates the expression of both Max-network and T-box family target genes. PMID:10601024

  16. Specificity of DNA binding of the c-Myc/Max and ARNT/ARNT dimers at the CACGTG recognition site.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, H I; Yang, J H

    1999-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix proteins that interact with the DNA recognition site CACGTG include the c-Myc/Max heterodimer and the ARNT (Ahreceptornucleartranslocator) homodimer. We have utilized a PCR-based protocol to identify high affinity binding sites of either the c-Myc/Max or ARNT/ARNT dimers and analyzed the ability of these dimers to interact with their derived consensus sequences and activate genes. chi(2)analysis of the selected DNA recognition sites revealed that DNA binding of the ARNT homodimer is symmetric, resulting in the consensus sequence RTCACGTGAY. Gel shift analysis demonstrated that the flanking nucleotides play an important role in dictating DNA binding affinity of the ARNT homodimer. These flanking sequences also regulate the ability of ARNT to competitively displace the c-Myc/Max heterodimer from a CACGTG-containing sequence. However, transient transfection analyses in CV-1 cells revealed that ARNT and c-Myc/Max exhibited similar abilities to activate transcription through each other's consensus sequences. Taken together, these results indicate that although binding affinity of these dimers for the CACGTG core sequences may be differentially influenced by flanking nucleotides, transcriptional activity may also be determined by other factors, such as cellular concentrations of these proteins and their co-activators. PMID:10454619

  17. Reconstitution of an E box-binding Myc:Max complex with recombinant full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Farina, Anthony; Faiola, Francesco; Martinez, Ernest

    2004-04-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein (Myc) is a DNA sequence-specific transcription factor that regulates transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and its deregulated expression is implicated in many types of human cancer. Myc has an N-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) that interacts with various coactivators and a C-terminal basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) domain required for E box-specific DNA-binding and heterodimerization with its obligatory bHLHZip protein partner Max. The analysis of the mechanisms by which the Myc:Max complex regulates transcription at the molecular level in vitro has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining highly pure recombinant Myc:Max heterodimers that contain full-length Myc with its complete TAD domain and that have sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. Here, we describe a simple method to reconstitute recombinant Myc:Max complexes from highly purified full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that are soluble and highly active in E box-specific DNA-binding in vitro. The reconstituted Myc:Max complexes are stable and lack Max:Max homodimers. This procedure should facilitate the characterization of the DNA-binding and transcription activation functions of full-length Myc:Max complexes in vitro and in particular the role of Myc TAD-interacting cofactors and Myc:Max post-translational modifications.

  18. Reconstitution of an E box-binding Myc:Max complex with recombinant full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Anthony; Faiola, Francesco; Martinez, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein (Myc) is a DNA sequence-specific transcription factor that regulates transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and its deregulated expression is implicated in many types of human cancer. Myc has an N-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) that interacts with various coactivators and a C-terminal basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) domain required for E box-specific DNA-binding and heterodimerization with its obligatory bHLHZip protein partner Max. The analysis of the mechanisms by which the Myc:Max complex regulates transcription at the molecular level in vitro has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining highly pure recombinant Myc:Max heterodimers that contain full-length Myc with its complete TAD domain and that have sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. Here, we describe a simple method to reconstitute recombinant Myc:Max complexes from highly purified full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that are soluble and highly active in E box-specific DNA-binding in vitro. The reconstituted Myc:Max complexes are stable and lack Max:Max homodimers. This procedure should facilitate the characterization of the DNA-binding and transcription activation functions of full-length Myc:Max complexes in vitro and in particular the role of Myc TAD-interacting cofactors and Myc:Max post-translational modifications. PMID:15003254

  19. Perspective in chronic kidney disease: targeting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as potential therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Aaishwarya B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Prajapati, Ashish R; Shah, Shreya

    2012-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia is a pathologic feature of many human diseases like cancer, myocardial infarction, stroke, and kidney disease. Convincing data from clinical studies in patients with chronic renal failure point to chronic hypoxia of kidneys as the end result of multiple processes and mechanisms. In acute as well as chronic diseases, tissue hypoxia not only implies a risk of energy deprivation but also induces regulatory mechanisms with profound influence on gene expression. Moreover, once established, accumulating evidence points to this chronic hypoxia as the central player along with final common pathway to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An evolutionarily preserved oxygen-sensing mechanism enables cells to adapt and maintain homeostasis under hypoxic conditions by transcriptional activation of a host of genes mediating metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, energy conservation, erythropoiesis, in addition to cell survival. The endogenous oxygen-sensing mechanism incorporates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that hub cellular response to hypoxia and comprises a family of oxygen-sensitive basic helix-loop-helix proteins that control the cellular transcriptional response to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is thus a significant mediator of physiological responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. Since HIF is activated to suboptimal levels in pathogenic renal states, therapeutic activation holds a promising novel and effective approach to the treatment of ESRD. Current insights into the regulation of HIF may augment the understanding of the role of hypoxia in renal failure progression and may unbolt new options to improve hypoxia tolerance and induce nephroprotection.

  20. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades.

  1. Mild osteopetrosis in the microphthalmia-oak ridge mouse. A model for intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in humans.

    PubMed

    Nii, A; Steingrímsson, E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Ward, J M

    1995-12-01

    Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia (mi) locus affect coat color, eye development, and mast cells. The original allele, mi, also shows severe osteopetrosis. Mice homozygous for the microphthalmia-Oak Ridge (Mior) mutation are white, microphthalmic animals with retarded incisor development. To investigate whether this mutation causes osteopetrosis, we examined skeletal tissues of the Mior mouse. A typical osteopetrotic lesion, accumulation of unresorbed primary spongiosa, was found at the metaphyses of long bones and at the costochondral junctions in Mior/Mior mice from 10 days to 37 days of age, whereas no accumulation was seen at the mid-diaphyses in these bones. The osteopetrotic conditions of Mior/Mior mice increased progressively during the first 5 weeks after birth. However, adult Mior/Mior mice 3 months or older showed improvement of the osteopetrotic condition, although the disease was not completely resolved. Ultrastructurally, osteoclasts of Mior/Mior mice had well developed ruffled borders. These results show that the Mior mutation has milder osteopetrotic changes than the original mi mutation, a surprising observation given that both mutations affect the same functional domain of the mi protein, a basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-Zipper transcription factor. The Mior phenotype resembles the intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in humans.

  2. Site-directed mutagenesis and saturation mutagenesis for the functional study of transcription factors involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Werkman, Joshua R; Kong, Que; Yuan, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is largely coordinated by a complex network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs), co-factors, and their cognate cis-regulatory elements in the genome. TFs are multidomain proteins that arise evolutionarily through protein domain shuffling. The modular nature of TFs has led to the idea that specific modules of TFs can be re-designed to regulate desired gene(s) through protein engineering. Utilization of designer TFs for the control of metabolic pathways has emerged as an effective approach for metabolic engineering. We are interested in engineering the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, Myc-type) transcription factors. Using site-directed and saturation mutagenesis, in combination with efficient and high-throughput screening systems, we have identified and characterized several amino acid residues critical for higher transactivation activity of a Myc-like bHLH transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in plants. Site-directed and saturation mutagenesis should be generally applicable to engineering of all TFs.

  3. The genomic organization of the human transcription factor 3 (TFE3) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Macchi, P.; Repetto, M.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.

    1995-08-10

    We have determined the exon-intron structure of the human TFE3 gene located on Xp11.22-23. By designing PCR primers, we were able to amplify various segments of the TFE3 genomic region, thus establishing that this gene is composed of seven exons, the first six of which are small (from 56 to 159 nt). The 5{prime} UT region is contained entirely in the first exon, while the 3{prime} UT region is contained in the seventh exon. The comparison of the genomic and the published cDNA versions revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of TFE3 in the C-terminus region is 125 amino acids shorter than previously reported. This eliminates most of the putative proline- and arginine-rich domain and makes the human sequence more similar to its mouse homolog. The activation domain at the N-terminus is contained in exon 2, as has been described for the mouse. The basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) motif is spread over exons 4 to 6, while the leucine zipper (LZ) is almost all contained in the last portion of exon 6. This split BHLH is different from other BHLH-LZ genes whose genomic structures have been determined up to now. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Auto-regulation of the Sohlh1 gene by the SOHLH2/SOHLH1/SP1 complex: implications for early spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Takuji; Mizuta, Junya; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor proteins often play essential roles in cellular differentiation. The bHLH proteins SOHLH2 and SOHLH1 are expressed specifically in spermatogonia and oocytes and are required for early spermatogonial and oocyte differentiation. We previously reported that knocking out Sohlh2 causes defects in spermatogenesis and oogenesis similar to those in Sohlh1-null mice, and that Sohlh1 is downregulated in the gonads of Sohlh2-null mice. We also demonstrated that SOHLH2 and SOHLH1 can form a heterodimer. These observations led us to hypothesize that the SOHLH2/SOHLH1 heterodimer regulates the Sohlh1 promoter. Here, we show that SOHLH2 and SOHLH1 synergistically upregulate the Sohlh1 gene through E-boxes upstream of the Sohlh1 promoter. Interestingly, we identified an SP1-binding sequence, called a GC-box, adjacent to these E-boxes, and found that SOHLH1 could bind to SP1. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis using testes from mice on postnatal day 8 showed that SOHLH1 and SP1 bind to the Sohlh1 promoter region in vivo. Our findings suggest that an SOHLH2/SOHLH1/SP1 ternary complex autonomously and cooperatively regulates Sohlh1 gene transcription through juxtaposed E- and GC-boxes during early spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

  5. Hes1 Is Expressed in the Second Heart Field and Is Required for Outflow Tract Development

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Karim; Jarry, Thérèse; Mattei, Marie-Geneviève; Kelly, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid growth of the embryonic heart occurs by addition of progenitor cells of the second heart field to the poles of the elongating heart tube. Failure or perturbation of this process leads to congenital heart defects. In order to provide further insight into second heart field development we characterized the insertion site of a transgene expressed in the second heart field and outflow tract as the result of an integration site position effect. Results Here we show that the integration site of the A17-Myf5-nlacZ-T55 transgene lies upstream of Hes1, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix containing transcriptional repressor required for the maintenance of diverse progenitor cell populations during embryonic development. Transgene expression in a subset of Hes1 expression sites, including the CNS, pharyngeal epithelia, pericardium, limb bud and lung endoderm suggests that Hes1 is the endogenous target of regulatory elements trapped by the transgene. Hes1 is expressed in pharyngeal endoderm and mesoderm including the second heart field. Analysis of Hes1 mutant hearts at embryonic day 15.5 reveals outflow tract alignment defects including ventricular septal defects and overriding aorta. At earlier developmental stages, Hes1 mutant embryos display defects in second heart field proliferation, a reduction in cardiac neural crest cells and failure to completely extend the outflow tract. Conclusions Hes1 is expressed in cardiac progenitor cells in the early embryo and is required for development of the arterial pole of the heart. PMID:19609448

  6. Hand2 Function in Second Heart Field Progenitors is Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchihashi, Takatoshi; Maeda, Jun; Shin, Chong; Ivey, Kathryn N.; Black, Brian; Olson, Eric N.; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Srivastava, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Cardiogenesis involves the contributions of multiple progenitor pools, including mesoderm-derived cardiac progenitors known as the first and second heart fields. Disruption of genetic pathways regulating individual subsets of cardiac progenitors likely underlies many forms of human cardiac malformations. Hand2 is a member of the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors and is expressed in numerous cell lineages that contribute to the developing heart. However, the early embryonic lethality of Hand2-null mice has precluded lineage-specific study of its function in myocardial progenitors. Here, we generated and used a floxed allele of Hand2 to ablate its expression in specific cardiac cell populations at defined developmental points. We found that Hand2 expression within the mesoderm-derived second heart field progenitors was required for their survival and deletion in this domain recapitulated the complete Hand2-null phenotype. Loss of Hand2 at later stages of development and in restricted domains of the second heart field revealed a spectrum of cardiac anomalies resembling forms of human congenital heart disease. Molecular analyses of Hand2 mutant cells revealed several genes by which Hand2 may influence expansion of the cardiac progenitors. These findings demonstrate that Hand2 is essential for survival of second heart field progenitors and that the graded loss of Hand2 function in this cardiac progenitor pool can cause a spectrum of congenital heart malformation. PMID:21185281

  7. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 and GLABRA1 Compete for Binding to GLABRA3 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Martina; Schultheiß, Ilka; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Uhrig, Joachim F; Koegl, Manfred; Clemen, Christoph S; Simon, Rüdiger; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The MBW (for R2R3MYB, basic helix-loop-helix [bHLH], and WD40) genes comprise an evolutionarily conserved gene cassette that regulates several traits such as (pro)anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. Trichome differentiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is governed by GLABRA1 (GL1; R2R3MYB), GL3 (bHLH), and transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1; WD40). They are thought to form a trimeric complex that acts as a transcriptional activation complex. We provide evidence that these three MBW proteins form either GL1 GL3 or GL3 TTG1 dimers. The formation of each dimer is counteracted by the respective third protein in yeast three-hybrid assays, pulldown experiments (luminescence-based mammalian interactome), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. We further show that two target promoters, Triptychon (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC), are differentially regulated: GL1 represses the activation of the TRY promoter by GL3 and TTG1, and TTG1 suppresses the activation of the CPC promoter by GL1 and GL3. Our data suggest that the transcriptional activation by the MBW complex involves alternative complex formation and that the two dimers can differentially regulate downstream genes.

  8. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) Genes in White Adipose Tissue of Id1 Protein-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Ling, Flora; Griffin, Timothy M.; He, Ting; Towner, Rheal; Ruan, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that Id1-deficient mice are resistant to a high fat diet- and age-induced obesity, as revealed by reduced weight gain and body fat, increased lipid oxidation, attenuated hepatosteatosis, lower levels of lipid droplets in brown adipose tissue, and smaller white adipocytes after a high fat diet feeding or in aged animals. Id1 deficiency improves glucose tolerance, lowers serum insulin levels, and reduces TNFα gene expression in white adipose tissue. Id1 deficiency also increased expression of Sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure, in the white adipose tissue. This effect was accompanied by the elevation of several genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, such as cytochrome c, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, the phenotype for Id1 deficiency was similar to that of mice expressing an E protein dominant-positive construct, ET2, suggesting that the balance between Id and E proteins plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:25190816

  9. C. elegans SoxB genes are dispensable for embryonic neurogenesis but required for terminal differentiation of specific neuron types

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Berta; Santella, Anthony; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Bao, Zhirong; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis involves deeply conserved patterning molecules, such as the proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Sox proteins and specifically members of the SoxB and SoxC groups are another class of conserved transcription factors with an important role in neuronal fate commitment and differentiation in various species. In this study, we examine the expression of all five Sox genes of the nematode C. elegans and analyze the effect of null mutant alleles of all members of the SoxB and SoxC groups on nervous system development. Surprisingly, we find that, unlike in other systems, neither of the two C. elegans SoxB genes sox-2 (SoxB1) and sox-3 (SoxB2), nor the sole C. elegans SoxC gene sem-2, is broadly expressed throughout the embryonic or adult nervous system and that all three genes are mostly dispensable for embryonic neurogenesis. Instead, sox-2 is required to maintain the developmental potential of blast cells that are generated in the embryo but divide only postembryonically to give rise to differentiated neuronal cell types. Moreover, sox-2 and sox-3 have selective roles in the terminal differentiation of specific neuronal cell types. Our findings suggest that the common themes of SoxB gene function across phylogeny lie in specifying developmental potential and, later on, in selectively controlling terminal differentiation programs of specific neuron types, but not in broadly controlling neurogenesis. PMID:26153233

  10. A role for Id2 in regulating photic entrainment of the mammalian circadian system.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Giles E; Watson, Nathan P; Mantani, Akio; Peirson, Stuart N; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Loros, Jennifer J; Israel, Mark A; Dunlap, Jay C

    2009-02-24

    Inhibitor of DNA binding genes (Id1-Id4) encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors associated with development and tumorigenesis [1, 2], but little is known concerning the function(s) of these genes in normal adult animals. Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3-5], and further analysis revealed a circadian pattern of expression of all four Id genes in multiple tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To explore an in vivo function, we generated and characterized deletion mutations of Id2 and of Id4. Id2(-/-) mice exhibit abnormally rapid entrainment and an increase in the magnitude of the phase shift of the pacemaker. A significant proportion of mice also exhibit disrupted rhythms when maintained under constant darkness. Conversely, Id4(-/-) mice did not exhibit a noticeable circadian phenotype. In vitro studies using an mPer1 and an AVP promoter reporter revealed the potential for ID1, ID2, and ID3 proteins to interact with the canonical basic HLH clock proteins BMAL1 and CLOCK. These data suggest that the Id genes may be important for entrainment and operation of the mammalian circadian system, potentially acting through BMAL1 and CLOCK targets.

  11. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (Srb1) Is Required for Hypoxic Adaptation and Virulence in the Dimorphic Fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Juwen C.; Smulian, A. George

    2016-01-01

    The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host. Silencing of Srb1 resulted in a strain of H. capsulatum that is incapable of surviving in vitro hypoxia. We found that without complete Srb1 expression, H. capsulatum is killed by murine macrophages and avirulent in mice given a lethal dose of yeasts. Additionally, silencing Srb1 inhibited the hypoxic upregulation of other known H. capsulatum hypoxia-responsive genes (HRG), and genes that encode ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes. Consistent with these regulatory functions, Srb1 silenced H. capsulatum cells were hypersensitive to the antifungal azole drug itraconazole. These data support the theory that the H. capsulatum SREBP is critical for hypoxic adaptation and is required for H. capsulatum virulence. PMID:27711233

  12. Dual-mode Modulation of Smad Signaling by Smad-interacting Protein Sip1 is Required for Myelination in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qinjie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Xu, Xiaomei; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun; Shou, Weinian; Chen, Yan; Higashi, Yujiro; van den Berghe, Veronique; Seuntjens, Eve; Kernie, Steven G.; Bukshpun, Polina; Sherr, Elliott H.; Huylebroeck, Danny; Lu, Q. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Myelination by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for proper brain function, yet the molecular determinants that control this process remain poorly understood. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Olig1 and Olig2 promote myelination, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibit myelination. Here we show that these opposing regulators of myelination are functionally linked by the Olig1/2 common target Smad-interacting protein-1 (Sip1). We demonstrate that Sip1 is an essential modulator of CNS myelination. Sip1 represses differentiation inhibitory signals by antagonizing BMP receptor activated-Smad activity while activating crucial oligodendrocyte-promoting factors. Importantly, a key Sip1-activated target, Smad7, is required for oligodendrocyte differentiation, and partially rescues differentiation defects caused by Sip1 loss. Smad7 promotes myelination by blocking the BMP and β-catenin negative regulatory pathways. Thus, our findings reveal that Sip1-mediated antagonism of inhibitory signaling is critical for promoting CNS myelination and point to new mediators for myelin repair. PMID:22365546

  13. Dual-mode modulation of Smad signaling by Smad-interacting protein Sip1 is required for myelination in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qinjie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Xu, Xiaomei; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun; Shou, Weinian; Chen, Yan; Higashi, Yujiro; van den Berghe, Veronique; Seuntjens, Eve; Kernie, Steven G; Bukshpun, Polina; Sherr, Elliott H; Huylebroeck, Danny; Lu, Q Richard

    2012-02-23

    Myelination by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for proper brain function, yet the molecular determinants that control this process remain poorly understood. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Olig1 and Olig2 promote myelination, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibit myelination. Here we show that these opposing regulators of myelination are functionally linked by the Olig1/2 common target Smad-interacting protein-1 (Sip1). We demonstrate that Sip1 is an essential modulator of CNS myelination. Sip1 represses differentiation inhibitory signals by antagonizing BMP receptor-activated Smad activity while activating crucial oligodendrocyte-promoting factors. Importantly, a key Sip1-activated target, Smad7, is required for oligodendrocyte differentiation and partially rescues differentiation defects caused by Sip1 loss. Smad7 promotes myelination by blocking the BMP- and β-catenin-negative regulatory pathways. Thus, our findings reveal that Sip1-mediated antagonism of inhibitory signaling is critical for promoting CNS myelination and point to new mediators for myelin repair.

  14. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1; definition of regulatory domains within the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C W; O'Rourke, J F; Nagao, M; Gleadle, J M; Ratcliffe, P J

    1997-04-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric DNA binding complex composed of two basic-helix-loop-helix Per-AHR-ARNT-Sim proteins (HIF-1alpha and -1beta), is a key component of a widely operative transcriptional response activated by hypoxia, cobaltous ions, and iron chelation. To identify regions of HIF-1 subunits responsible for oxygen-regulated activity, we constructed chimeric genes in which portions of coding sequence from HIF-1 genes were either linked to a heterologous DNA binding domain or encoded between such a DNA binding domain and a constitutive activation domain. Sequences from HIF-1alpha but not HIF-1beta conferred oxygen-regulated activity. Two minimal domains within HIF-1alpha (amino acids 549-582 and amino acids 775-826) were defined by deletional analysis, each of which could act independently to convey inducible responses. Both these regions confer transcriptional activation, and in both cases adjacent sequences appeared functionally repressive in transactivation assays. The inducible operation of the first domain, but not the second, involved major changes in the level of the activator fusion protein in transfected cells, inclusion of this sequence being associated with a marked reduction of expressed protein level in normoxic cells, which was relieved by stimulation with hypoxia, cobaltous ions, or iron chelation. These results lead us to propose a dual mechanism of activation in which the operation of an inducible activation domain is amplified by regulation of transcription factor abundance, most likely occurring through changes in protein stability.

  15. scratch, a pan-neural gene encoding a zinc finger protein related to snail, promotes neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Roark, M; Sturtevant, M A; Emery, J; Vaessin, H; Grell, E; Bier, E

    1995-10-01

    The Drosophila scratch (scrt) gene is expressed in most or all neuronal precursor cells and encodes a predicted zinc finger transcription factor closely related to the product of the mesoderm determination gene snail (sna). Adult flies homozygous for scrt null alleles have a reduced number of photoreceptors in the eye, and embryos lacking the function of both scrt and the pan-neural gene deadpan (dpn), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, exhibit a significant loss of neurons. Conversely, ectopic expression of a scrt transgene during embryonic and adult development leads to the production of supernumerary neurons. Consistent with scrt functioning as a transcription factor, various genes are more broadly expressed than normal in scrt null mutants. Reciprocally, these same genes are expressed at reduced levels in response to ectopic scrt expression. We propose that scrt promotes neuronal cell fates by suppressing expression of genes promoting non-neuronal cell fates. We discuss the similarities between the roles of the ancestrally related scrt, sna, and escargot (esc) genes in regulating cell fate choices.

  16. bHLH-O proteins are crucial for Drosophila neuroblast self-renewal and mediate Notch-induced overproliferation.

    PubMed

    Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Magadi, Srivathsa S; Delidakis, Christos

    2012-04-01

    Drosophila larval neurogenesis is an excellent system for studying the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of a somatic stem cell (neuroblast). Neuroblasts (NBs) give rise to differentiated neurons and glia via intermediate precursors called GMCs or INPs. We show that E(spl)mγ, E(spl)mβ, E(spl)m8 and Deadpan (Dpn), members of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange protein family, are expressed in NBs but not in differentiated cells. Double mutation for the E(spl) complex and dpn severely affects the ability of NBs to self-renew, causing premature termination of proliferation. Single mutations produce only minor defects, which points to functional redundancy between E(spl) proteins and Dpn. Expression of E(spl)mγ and m8, but not of dpn, depends on Notch signalling from the GMC/INP daughter to the NB. When Notch is abnormally activated in NB progeny cells, overproliferation defects are seen. We show that this depends on the abnormal induction of E(spl) genes. In fact E(spl) overexpression can partly mimic Notch-induced overproliferation. Therefore, E(spl) and Dpn act together to maintain the NB in a self-renewing state, a process in which they are assisted by Notch, which sustains expression of the E(spl) subset.

  17. A Regulatory Transcriptional Loop Controls Proliferation and Differentiation in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanrui; Reichert, Heinrich; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis is initiated by a set of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors that specify neural progenitors and allow them to generate neurons in multiple rounds of asymmetric cell division. The Drosophila Daughterless (Da) protein and its mammalian counterparts (E12/E47) act as heterodimerization factors for proneural genes and are therefore critically required for neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that Da can also be an inhibitor of the neural progenitor fate whose absence leads to stem cell overproliferation and tumor formation. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that Da induces the differentiation factor Prospero (Pros) whose asymmetric segregation is essential for differentiation in one of the two daughter cells. Da co-operates with the bHLH transcription factor Asense, whereas the other proneural genes are dispensible. After mitosis, Pros terminates Asense expression in one of the two daughter cells. In da mutants, pros is not expressed, leading to the formation of lethal transplantable brain tumors. Our results define a transcriptional feedback loop that regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in Drosophila optic lobe neuroblasts. They indicate that initiation of a neural differentiation program in stem cells is essential to prevent tumorigenesis. PMID:24804774

  18. Inhibition of cell proliferation by the Mad1 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, M F; Ashmun, R A; Sherr, C J; Eisenman, R N; Ayer, D E

    1996-01-01

    Mad1 is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that is induced upon differentiation of a number of distinct cell types. Mad1 dimerizes with Max and recognizes the same DNA sequences as do Myc:Max dimers. However, Mad1 and Myc appear to have opposing functions. Myc:Max heterodimers activate transcription while Mad:Max heterodimers repress transcription from the same promoter. In addition Mad1 has been shown to block the oncogenic activity of Myc. Here we show that ectopic expression of Mad1 inhibits the proliferative response of 3T3 cells to signaling through the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor. The ability of over-expressed Myc and cyclin D1 to complement the mutant CSF-1 receptor Y809F (containing a Y-to-F mutation at position 809) is also inhibited by Mad1. Cell cycle analysis of proliferating 3T3 cells transfected with Mad1 demonstrates a significant decrease in the fraction of cells in the S and G2/M phases and a concomitant increase in the fraction of G1 phase cells, indicating that Mad1 negatively influences cell cycle progression from the G1 to the S phase. Mutations in Mad1 which inhibit its activity as a transcription repressor also result in loss of Mad1 cell cycle inhibitory activity. Thus, the ability of Mad1 to inhibit cell cycle progression is tightly coupled to its function as a transcriptional repressor. PMID:8649388

  19. Interplay of the E box, the cyclic AMP response element, and HTF4/HEB in transcriptional regulation of the neurospecific, neurotrophin-inducible vgf gene.

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, G; Pennuto, M; Illi, B; Canu, N; Filocamo, G; Trani, E; Rinaldi, A M; Possenti, R; Mandolesi, G; Sirinian, M I; Jucker, R; Levi, A; Nasi, S

    1997-01-01

    vgf is a neurotrophin response-specific, developmentally regulated gene that codes for a neurosecretory polypeptide. Its transcription in neuronal cells is selectively activated by the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3, which induce survival and differentiation, and not by epidermal growth factor. We studied a short region of the rat vgf promoter which is essential for its regulated expression. A cyclic AMP response element (CRE) within this region is necessary for NGF induction of vgf transcription. Two sites upstream of CRE, an E box and a CCAAT sequence, bind nuclear protein complexes and are involved in transcriptional control. The E box has a dual role. It acts as an inhibitor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, together with a second E box located downstream, and as a stimulator in the NGF-responsive cell line PC12. By expression screening, we have isolated the cDNA for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, a homolog of the HTF4/HEB E protein, that specifically binds the vgf promoter E box. The E protein was present in various cell lines, including PC12 cells, and was a component of a multiprotein nuclear complex that binds the promoter in vitro. The E box and CRE cooperate in binding to this complex, which may be an important determinant for neural cell-specific expression. PMID:9032251

  20. Stra13 regulates satellite cell activation by antagonizing Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Li, Li; Vercherat, Cécile; Gulbagci, Neriman Tuba; Acharjee, Sujata; Li, Jiali; Chung, Teng-Kai; Thin, Tin Htwe; Taneja, Reshma

    2007-01-01

    Satellite cells play a critical role in skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury. Notch signaling is vital for satellite cell activation and myogenic precursor cell expansion but inhibits myogenic differentiation. Thus, precise spatial and temporal regulation of Notch activity is necessary for efficient muscle regeneration. We report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Stra13 modulates Notch signaling in regenerating muscle. Upon injury, Stra13−/− mice exhibit increased cellular proliferation, elevated Notch signaling, a striking regeneration defect characterized by degenerated myotubes, increased mononuclear cells, and fibrosis. Stra13−/− primary myoblasts also exhibit enhanced Notch activity, increased proliferation, and defective differentiation. Inhibition of Notch signaling ex vivo and in vivo ameliorates the phenotype of Stra13−/− mutants. We demonstrate in vitro that Stra13 antagonizes Notch activity and reverses the Notch-imposed inhibition of myogenesis. Thus, Stra13 plays an important role in postnatal myogenesis by attenuating Notch signaling to reduce myoblast proliferation and promote myogenic differentiation. PMID:17502421

  1. The Transcriptional Repressor MYB2 Regulates Both Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Proanthocyandin and Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Medicago truncatula[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) is limited to specific cell types and developmental stages, but little is known about how antagonistically acting transcriptional regulators work together to determine temporal and spatial patterning of pigmentation at the cellular level, especially for PAs. Here, we characterize MYB2, a transcriptional repressor regulating both anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MYB2 was strongly upregulated by MYB5, a major regulator of PA biosynthesis in M. truncatula and a component of MYB-basic helix loop helix-WD40 (MBW) activator complexes. Overexpression of MYB2 abolished anthocyanin and PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, respectively. Anthocyanin deposition was expanded in myb2 mutant seedlings and flowers accompanied by increased anthocyanin content. PA mainly accumulated in the epidermal layer derived from the outer integument in the M. truncatula seed coat, starting from the hilum area. The area of PA accumulation and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE expression was expanded into the seed body at the early stage of seed development in the myb2 mutant. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological evidence suggests that MYB2 functions as part of a multidimensional regulatory network to define the temporal and spatial pattern of anthocyanin and PA accumulation linked to developmental processes. PMID:26410301

  2. HEY1 Leu94Met gene polymorphism dramatically modifies its biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Villaronga, MA; Lavery, DN; Bevan, CL; Llanos, S; Belandia, B

    2012-01-01

    The hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1 (HEY1) is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-Orange (bHLH-O) family of transcriptional repressors that mediate Notch signaling. Several cancer-related pathways also regulate HEY1 expression, and HEY1 itself acts as an indirect positive regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and a negative regulator of androgen receptor activity. In this study we show how a naturally occurring non-synonymous polymorphism at codon 94 of HEY1, which results in a substitution of leucine by methionine (Leu94Met), converts HEY1 from an androgen receptor corepressor to an androgen receptor co-activator without affecting its intrinsic transcriptional repressive domains. The polymorphism Leu94Met also abolishes HEY1-mediated activation of p53 and suppresses the ability of HEY1 to induce p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and aberrant cell differentiation in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Moreover, expression of HEY1, but not of the variant Leu94Met, confers sensitivity to p53-activating chemotherapeutic drugs on U2OS cells. In addition, we have identified motifs in HEY1 that are critical for the regulation of its subcellular localization and analysed how mutations in those motifs affect both HEY1 and HEY1-Leu94Met functions. These findings suggest that the polymorphism Leu94Met in HEY1 radically alters its biological activities and may affect oncogenic processes. PMID:19802006

  3. EsxB, a secreted protein from Bacillus anthracis forms two distinct helical bundles

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Yao; Tan, Kemin; Chhor, Gekleng; ...

    2015-07-03

    The EsxB protein from Bacillus anthracis belongs to the WXG100 family, a group of proteins secreted by a specialized secretion system. We have determined the crystal structures of recombinant EsxB and discovered that the small protein (~10 kDa), comprised of a helix-loop-helix (HLH) hairpin, is capable of associating into two different helical bundles. The two basic quaternary assemblies of EsxB are an antiparallel (AP) dimer and a rarely observed bisecting U (BU) dimer. This structural duality of EsxB is believed to originate from the heptad repeat sequence diversity of the first helix of its HLH hairpin, which allows for twomore » alternative helix packing. The flexibility of EsxB and the ability to form alternative helical bundles underscore the possibility that this protein can serve as an adaptor in secretion and can form hetero-oligomeric helix bundle(s) with other secreted members of the WXG100 family, such as EsxW. The highly conserved WXG motif is located within the loop of the HLH hairpin and is mostly buried within the helix bundle suggesting that its role is mainly structural. The exact functions of the motif, including a proposed role as a secretion signal, remain unknown.« less

  4. EsxB, a secreted protein from Bacillus anthracis forms two distinct helical bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yao; Tan, Kemin; Chhor, Gekleng; Butler, Emily K.; Jedrzejczak, Robert P.; Missiakas, Dominique; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-07-03

    The EsxB protein from Bacillus anthracis belongs to the WXG100 family, a group of proteins secreted by a specialized secretion system. We have determined the crystal structures of recombinant EsxB and discovered that the small protein (~10 kDa), comprised of a helix-loop-helix (HLH) hairpin, is capable of associating into two different helical bundles. The two basic quaternary assemblies of EsxB are an antiparallel (AP) dimer and a rarely observed bisecting U (BU) dimer. This structural duality of EsxB is believed to originate from the heptad repeat sequence diversity of the first helix of its HLH hairpin, which allows for two alternative helix packing. The flexibility of EsxB and the ability to form alternative helical bundles underscore the possibility that this protein can serve as an adaptor in secretion and can form hetero-oligomeric helix bundle(s) with other secreted members of the WXG100 family, such as EsxW. The highly conserved WXG motif is located within the loop of the HLH hairpin and is mostly buried within the helix bundle suggesting that its role is mainly structural. The exact functions of the motif, including a proposed role as a secretion signal, remain unknown.

  5. Genome-wide identification, classification and functional analyses of the bHLH transcription factor family in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuyi

    2015-08-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest families of gene regulatory proteins and play crucial roles in genetic, developmental and physiological processes in eukaryotes. Here, we conducted a survey of the Sus scrofa genome and identified 109 putative bHLH transcription factor members belonging to super-groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while four members were orphan genes. We identified 6 most significantly enriched KEGG pathways and 116 most significant GO annotation categories. Further comprehensive surveys in human genome and other 12 medical databases identified 72 significantly enriched biological pathways with these 113 pig bHLH transcription factors. From the functional protein association network analysis 93 hub proteins were identified and 55 hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within their protein families. Especially, there were 20 hub proteins found highly connected in the functional interaction network. The present study deepens our understanding and provided insights into the evolution and functional aspects of animal bHLH proteins and should serve as a solid foundation for further for analyses of specific bHLH transcription factors in the pig and other mammals.

  6. The transcription factor, the Cdk, its cyclin and their regulator: directing the transcriptional response to a nutritional signal.

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, K; Fisher, F; McAndrew, P C; Goding, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cdk complex prevents transcription of PHO5 by inhibiting the ability of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Pho4 to activate transcription in response to high phosphate conditions. In low phosphate the Pho80-Pho85 complex is inactivated and Pho4 is then able to activate the acid phosphatase gene PHO5. We show here that Pho4 and the homeobox protein Pho2 interact in vivo and act cooperatively to activate the PHO5 UAS, with interaction being regulated by the phosphate switch. In addition, we also demonstrate that an additional factor, Pho81, interacts in high phosphate with both the Pho80 cyclin and with Pho4. In low phosphate, Pho80 and Pho81 dissociate from Pho4, but retain the ability to interact with each other. The evidence presented here supports the idea that Pho81 acts as a phosphate-sensitive trigger that regulates the ability of the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cdk complex to bind Pho4, while DNA binding by Pho4 is dependent on the phosphate-sensitive interaction with Pho2. Images PMID:7957107

  7. MyoD stimulates delta-1 transcription and triggers notch signaling in the Xenopus gastrula.

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberger, T; Steinbach, O C; Authaler, A; Kopan, R; Rupp, R A

    1999-01-01

    The Notch signaling cascade is involved in many developmental decisions, a paradigm of which has been the selection between epidermal and neural cell fates in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Notch has also been implicated as a regulator of myogenesis, although its precise function there has remained controversial. Here we show that the muscle-determining factor MyoD is a direct, positive regulator of the Notch ligand Delta-1 in prospective myoblasts of the pre-involuted mesoderm in Xenopus gastrulae. Injection of a dominant MyoD repressor variant ablates mesodermal Delta-1 expression in vivo. Furthermore, MyoD-dependent Delta-1 induction is sufficient to activate transcription from promoters of E(spl)-related genes in a Notch-dependent manner. These results indicate that a hallmark of neural cell fate determination, i.e. the feedback loop between differentiation promoting basic helix-loop-helix proteins and the Notch regulatory circuitry, is conserved in myogenesis, supporting a direct involvement of Notch in muscle determination. PMID:10202155

  8. NeuroD1 mediates nicotine-induced migration and invasion via regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in a subset of neural and neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jihan K; Guerra, Marcy L; Gonzales, Joshua X; McMillan, Elizabeth A; Minna, John D; Cobb, Melanie H

    2014-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for acquisition of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A role has been demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 in the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancer, including SCLC. In the present study we investigate the possible function of NeuroD1 in established tumors, as well as actions early on in pathogenesis, in response to nicotine. We demonstrate that nicotine up-regulates NeuroD1 in immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and a subset of undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased expression of NeuroD1 subsequently leads to regulation of expression and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit cluster of α3, α5, and β4. In addition, we find that coordinated expression of these subunits by NeuroD1 leads to enhanced nicotine-induced migration and invasion, likely through changes in intracellular calcium. These findings suggest that aspects of the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancers may be affected by a nicotine- and NeuroD1-induced positive feedback loop.

  9. Overexpression of a bHLH1 Transcription Factor of Pyrus ussuriensis Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance and Increases Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Huang, Xiao-San; Li, Kong-Qing; Yin, Hao; Li, Lei-Ting; Yao, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in arrays of physiological and biochemical processes. However, knowledge concerning the functions of bHLHs in cold tolerance remains poorly understood. In this study, a PubHLH1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. PubHLH1 was upregulated by cold, salt, and dehydration, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PubHLH1 had the transactivational activity and localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of PubHLH1 in transgenic tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The transgenic lines had higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll, higher proline contents, lower electrolyte leakages and MDA when compared with wild type (WT). In addition, transcript levels of eight genes associated with ROS scavenging, regulation, and stress defense were higher in the transgenic plants relative to the WT under the chilling stress. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PubHLH1 played a key role in cold tolerance and, at least in part, contributed to activation of stress-responsive genes. PMID:27092159

  10. Over-Expressed Twist Associates with Markers of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancers via ERK and Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Ke; Chen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Fan; Bai, Jing-Wen; Qiu, Si-Qi; Du, Cai-Wen; Huang, Wen-He; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of Twist, a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and predicts poor prognosis in various kinds of cancers, including breast cancer. In order to further clarify Twist’s role in breast cancer, we detected Twist expression in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Twist expression was observed in 54% (220/408) of breast cancer patients and was positively associated with tumor size, Ki67, VEGF-C and HER2 expression. Conversely, Twist was negatively associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and E-cadherin expression. Patients with Twist expression had a poorer prognosis for 30-month disease free survival (DFS) (82.9%) than patients with negative Twist (92.3%). Overexpression of Twist led to dramatic changes in cellular morphology, proliferation, migratory/invasive capability, and expression of EMT-related biomarkers in breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show that Twist serves as a driver of tumorigenesis, as well as an inducer of EMT, at least in part, through activation of the Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways which are critical for Twist-mediated EMT. Our results demonstrate that Twist expression is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:26295469

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in barrier organ physiology, immunology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Esser, Charlotte; Rannug, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an evolutionarily old transcription factor belonging to the Per-ARNT-Sim-basic helix-loop-helix protein family. AhR translocates into the nucleus upon binding of various small molecules into the pocket of its single-ligand binding domain. AhR binding to both xenobiotic and endogenous ligands results in highly cell-specific transcriptome changes and in changes in cellular functions. We discuss here the role of AhR for immune cells of the barrier organs: skin, gut, and lung. Both adaptive and innate immune cells require AhR signaling at critical checkpoints. We also discuss the current two prevailing views-namely, 1) AhR as a promiscuous sensor for small chemicals and 2) a role for AhR as a balancing factor for cell differentiation and function, which is controlled by levels of endogenous high-affinity ligands. AhR signaling is considered a promising drug and preventive target, particularly for cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding its biology is of great importance.

  12. The Birth of a Black Rice Gene and Its Local Spread by Introgression

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Tetsuo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Oguchi, Taichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Noriko; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Izawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and spread of novel agronomic traits during crop domestication are complex events in plant evolution. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has red grains due to the accumulation of proanthocyanidins, whereas most cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) varieties have white grains induced by a defective allele in the Rc basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. Although the events surrounding the origin and spread of black rice traits remain unknown, varieties with black grains due to anthocyanin accumulation are distributed in various locations throughout Asia. Here, we show that the black grain trait originated from ectopic expression of the Kala4 bHLH gene due to rearrangement in the promoter region. Both the Rc and Kala4 genes activate upstream flavonol biosynthesis genes, such as chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, and downstream genes, such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, to produce the respective specific pigments. Genome analysis of 21 black rice varieties as well as red- and white-grained landraces demonstrated that black rice arose in tropical japonica and its subsequent spread to the indica subspecies can be attributed to the causal alleles of Kala4. The relatively small size of genomic fragments of tropical japonica origin in some indica varieties indicates that refined introgression must have occurred by natural crossbreeding in the course of evolution of the black trait in rice. PMID:26362607

  13. Ha-Ras transformation of MCF10A cells leads to repression of Singleminded-2s through NOTCH and C/EBPβ

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, TL; Wellberg, E; Laffin, B; Schilling, L; Metz, RP; Zahnow, CA; Porter, WW

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that Singleminded-2s (SIM2s), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors, is downregulated in breast cancer samples and has tumor suppressor activity. However, the mechanism by which SIM2s is repressed in breast cancer cells has not been determined. In this study, we show that transformation of MCF10A cells by Harvey-Ras (Ha-Ras) induces CCAAT/enhance binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and activates the NOTCH signaling pathway to block SIM2s gene expression. NOTCH-mediated repression acts through a C-repeat binding factor 1 (CBF1)-independent mechanism, as introduction of CBF1 had no effect on SIM2s expression. Consistent with C/ebpβ-dependent inhibition of SIM2s, C/ebpβ−/−mouse mammary glands express high levels of SIM2s and reestablishment of C/ebpβ isoforms decreased SIM2s mRNA levels in C/ebpβ immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines. These studies illustrate a novel pathway of tumor suppressor gene silencing in Ha-Ras-transformed breast epithelial cells and identify SIM2s as a target of C/EBPβ and NOTCH signaling. PMID:19169276

  14. Artificial ligand binding within the HIF2alpha PAS-B domain of the HIF2 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Thomas H; Tomchick, Diana R; Machius, Mischa; Guo, Yan; Bruick, Richard K; Gardner, Kevin H

    2009-01-13

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) basic helix-loop-helix Per-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) transcription factors are master regulators of the conserved molecular mechanism by which metazoans sense and respond to reductions in local oxygen concentrations. In humans, HIF is critically important for the sustained growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Here, we describe crystal structures of the heterodimer formed by the C-terminal PAS domains from the HIF2alpha and ARNT subunits of the HIF2 transcription factor, both in the absence and presence of an artificial ligand. Unexpectedly, the HIF2alpha PAS-B domain contains a large internal cavity that accommodates ligands identified from a small-molecule screen. Binding one of these ligands to HIF2alpha PAS-B modulates the affinity of the HIF2alpha:ARNT PAS-B heterodimer in vitro. Given the essential role of PAS domains in forming active HIF heterodimers, these results suggest a presently uncharacterized ligand-mediated mechanism for regulating HIF2 activity in endogenous and clinical settings.

  15. Upstream stimulatory factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) cooperatively activate HIF2 target genes during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Matthew R; Wang, Liyi; Ware, Katie; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2012-11-01

    While the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and HIF2α/ARNT (HIF2) proteins in activating hypoxia-inducible genes are well established, the role of other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response is less clear. We report here for the first time that the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zip transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is required for the hypoxic transcriptional response, specifically, for hypoxic activation of HIF2 target genes. We show that inhibiting USF2 activity greatly reduces hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes in cell lines that have USF2 activity, while inducing USF2 activity in cells lacking USF2 activity restores hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes. Mechanistically, USF2 activates HIF2 target genes by binding to HIF2 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF2α protein, and recruiting coactivators CBP and p300 to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF2α, USF2, CBP, p300, and RNA polymerase II on HIF2 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of USF2 knockdown on proliferation, motility, and clonogenic survival of HIF2-dependent tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF2α knockdown, indicating that USF2 works with HIF2 to activate HIF2 target genes and to drive HIF2-depedent tumorigenesis.

  16. Artificial ligand binding within the HIF2[alpha] PAS-B domain of the HIF2 transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, Thomas H.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Guo, Yan; Bruick, Richard K.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2009-05-12

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) basic helix-loop-helix Per-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) transcription factors are master regulators of the conserved molecular mechanism by which metazoans sense and respond to reductions in local oxygen concentrations. In humans, HIF is critically important for the sustained growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Here, we describe crystal structures of the heterodimer formed by the C-terminal PAS domains from the HIF2{alpha} and ARNT subunits of the HIF2 transcription factor, both in the absence and presence of an artificial ligand. Unexpectedly, the HIF2{alpha} PAS-B domain contains a large internal cavity that accommodates ligands identified from a small-molecule screen. Binding one of these ligands to HIF2{alpha} PAS-B modulates the affinity of the HIF2{alpha}:ARNT PAS-B heterodimer in vitro. Given the essential role of PAS domains in forming active HIF heterodimers, these results suggest a presently uncharacterized ligand-mediated mechanism for regulating HIF2 activity in endogenous and clinical settings.

  17. Delta–Notch—and then? Protein interactions and proposed modes of repression by Hes and Hey bHLH factors

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Gessler, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Hes and Hey genes are the mammalian counterparts of the Hairy and Enhancer-of-split type of genes in Drosophila and they represent the primary targets of the Delta–Notch signaling pathway. Hairy-related factors control multiple steps of embryonic development and misregulation is associated with various defects. Hes and Hey genes (also called Hesr, Chf, Hrt, Herp or gridlock) encode transcriptional regulators of the basic helix-loop-helix class that mainly act as repressors. The molecular details of how Hes and Hey proteins control transcription are still poorly understood, however. Proposed modes of action include direct binding to N- or E-box DNA sequences of target promoters as well as indirect binding through other sequence-specific transcription factors or sequestration of transcriptional activators. Repression may rely on recruitment of corepressors and induction of histone modifications, or even interference with the general transcriptional machinery. All of these models require extensive protein–protein interactions. Here we review data published on protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions of Hairy-related factors and discuss their implications for transcriptional regulation. In addition, we summarize recent progress on the identification of potential target genes and the analysis of mouse models. PMID:17586813

  18. Homozygous Mutations in NEUROD1 Are Responsible for a Novel Syndrome of Permanent Neonatal Diabetes and Neurological Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Minton, Jayne A.L.; Kantor, Iren; Williams, Denise; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE NEUROD1 is expressed in both developing and mature β-cells. Studies in mice suggest that this basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is critical in the development of endocrine cell lineage. Heterozygous mutations have previously been identified as a rare cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to explore the potential contribution of NEUROD1 mutations in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We sequenced the NEUROD1 gene in 44 unrelated patients with permanent neonatal diabetes of unknown genetic etiology. RESULTS Two homozygous mutations in NEUROD1 (c.427_ 428del and c.364dupG) were identified in two patients. Both mutations introduced a frameshift that would be predicted to generate a truncated protein completely lacking the activating domain. Both patients had permanent diabetes diagnosed in the first 2 months of life with no evidence of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and a morphologically normal pancreas on abdominal imaging. In addition to diabetes, they had learning difficulties, severe cerebellar hypoplasia, profound sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment due to severe myopia and retinal dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS We describe a novel clinical syndrome that results from homozygous loss of function mutations in NEUROD1. It is characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes and a consistent pattern of neurological abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia, learning difficulties, sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment. This syndrome highlights the critical role of NEUROD1 in both the development of the endocrine pancreas and the central nervous system in humans. PMID:20573748

  19. 14-3-3 Proteins are essential for regulation of RTG3-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G P; Steensma, H Y

    2001-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins comprise a family of highly conserved proteins that bind more than 60 different, mostly phosphorylated, proteins. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two genes, BMH1 and BMH2, encoding 14-3-3 proteins. Disruption of both genes together is lethal. In this study we constructed a mutant with a single, temperature-sensitive bmh allele. Recessive mutations in SIN4 and RTG3 can suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of this mutant. These genes encode a global transcriptional regulator and a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, respectively. The yeast 14-3-3 proteins were shown to bind to the Rtg3 protein. Overexpression of RTG3 is lethal even in wild-type cells. These genetic and biochemical data are consistent with a model in which the 14-3-3 proteins are required to keep the Rtg3 protein in an inactive state, which is (one of) the essential function(s) of the 14-3-3 proteins.

  20. High-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yan-Chang; Li, Zuo-Zhou; Jiang, Zheng-Wang; Yang, Hong-Li; Gong, Jun-Jie; He, Shi-Song; Wu, Shi-Quan; Yang, Zuo-Quan; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Zhong-Yan

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. Red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. However, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. Partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25 °C (T25) was one of the dominant factors inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis, 'Hongyang'. Expression of structural genes, AcMRP and AcMYB1 in inner pericarp sampled from the two high altitudes (low temperature area), was notably higher than the low altitude (high temperature area) during fruit coloration. AcMYB1 and structural genes coordinate expression supported the MYB-bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix)-WD40 regulatory complex mediated downregulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis induced by high temperatures in kiwifruit. Moreover, cytological observations using the light and transmission electronic microscopy showed that there were a series of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion (AVI)-like structures involved in their vacuolization process and dissolution of the pigmented bodies inside cells of fruit inner pericarp. Anthocyanin transport was inhibited by high temperature via retardation of vacuolization or reduction in AIV-like structure formation. Our findings strongly suggested that complex multimechanisms influenced the effects of high temperature on red-fleshed kiwifruit coloration.

  1. Segregating neural and mechanosensory fates in the developing ear: patterning, signaling, and transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Raft, Steven; Groves, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is composed of multiple sensory receptor epithelia, each of which is specialized for detection of sound, gravity, or angular acceleration. Each receptor epithelium contains mechanosensitive hair cells, which are connected to the brainstem by bipolar sensory neurons. Hair cells and their associated neurons are derived from the embryonic rudiment of the inner ear epithelium, but the precise spatial and temporal patterns of their generation, as well as the signals that coordinate these events, have only recently begun to be understood. Gene expression, lineage tracing, and mutant analyses suggest that both neurons and hair cells are generated from a common domain of neural and sensory competence in the embryonic inner ear rudiment. Members of the Shh, Wnt, and FGF families, together with retinoic acid signals, regulate transcription factor genes within the inner ear rudiment to establish the axial identity of the ear and regionalize neurogenic activity. Close-range signaling, such as that of the Notch pathway, specifies the fate of sensory regions and individual cell types. We also describe positive and negative interactions between basic helix-loop-helix and SoxB family transcription factors that specify either neuronal or sensory fates in a context-dependent manner. Finally, we review recent work on inner ear development in zebrafish, which demonstrates that the relative timing of neurogenesis and sensory epithelial formation is not phylogenetically constrained.

  2. [Mutation screening of MITF gene in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Shu-Zhi; Liu, Jun; Han, Bing; Wang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Dai, Pu; Young, Wie-Yen; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Warrgenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is the most common autosomal dominantly-inherited syndrome with hearing loss. MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor)is a basic-helix-loop-helix-luecine zipper (bHLHZip) factor which regulates expression of tyrosinase, and is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Mutations in MITF associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report a three-generation Chinese family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. The proband exhibits congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis and facial freckles. One of family members manifests sensorineural deafness, and the other patients show premature greying or/and freckles. This mutation, heterozygous deletion c.639delA, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking normal interaction with its target DNA motif. This mutation is a novel mutation and the third case identified in exon 7 of MITF in WS2. Though there is only one base pair distance between this novel mutation and the other two documented cases and similar amino acids change, significant difference is seen in clinical phenotype, which suggests genetic background may play an important role.

  3. The semidominant Mi(b) mutation identifies a role for the HLH domain in DNA binding in addition to its role in protein dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Steingrímsson, E; Nii, A; Fisher, D E; Ferré-D'Amaré, A R; McCormick, R J; Russell, L B; Burley, S K; Ward, J M; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G

    1996-01-01

    The mouse microphthalmia (mi) locus encodes a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor called MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor). Mutations at mi affect the development of several different cell types, including melanocytes, mast cells, osteoclasts and pigmented epithelial cells of the eye. Here we describe the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the semidominant Microphthalmia(brwnish) (Mi(b)) mutation. We show that this mutation primarily affects melanocytes and produces retinal degeneration. The mutation is a G to A transition leading to a Gly244Glu substitution in helix 2 of the HLH dimerization domain. This location is surprising since other semidominant mi mutations characterized to date have been shown to affect DNA binding or transcriptional activation domains of MITF and act as dominant negatives, while mutations that affect MITF dimerization are inherited recessively. Gel retardation assays showed that while the mutant MITF(Mi-b) protein retains its dimerization potential, it is defective in its ability to bind DNA. Computer modeling suggested that the Gly244Glu mutation might disrupt DNA binding by interfering with productive docking of the protein dimer onto DNA. The Mi(b) mutation therefore appears to dissociate a DNA recognition function of the HLH domain from its role in protein dimerization. Images PMID:8947051

  4. Expression of the mad gene during cell differentiation in vivo and its inhibition of cell growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Mad is a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor which can dimerize with the Max protein and antagonize transcriptional activation by the Myc-Max transcription factor heterodimer. While the expression of Myc is necessary for cell proliferation, the expression of Mad is induced upon differentiation of at least some leukemia cell lines. Here, the expression of the mad gene has been explored in developing mouse tissues. During organogenesis in mouse embryos mad mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and in the mantle layer of the developing brain. At later stages mad expression was detected in neuroretina, epidermis, and whisker follicles, and in adult mice mad was expressed at variable levels in most organs analyzed. Interestingly, in the skin mad was highly expressed in the differentiating epidermal keratinocytes, but not in the underlying proliferating basal keratinocyte layer. Also, in the gut mad mRNA was abundant in the intestinal villi, where cells cease proliferation and differentiate, but not in the crypts, where the intestinal epithelial cells proliferate. In the testis, mad expression was associated with the completion of meiosis and early development of haploid cells. In cell culture, Mad inhibited colony formation of a mouse keratinocyte cell line and rat embryo fibroblast transformation by Myc and Ras. The pattern of mad expression in tissues and its ability to inhibit cell growth in vitro suggests that Mad can cause the cessation of cell proliferation associated with cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:7896882

  5. Differential use of SCL/TAL-1 DNA-binding domain in developmental hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Mira T; Chagraoui, Hedia; Vyas, Paresh; Porcher, Catherine

    2008-08-15

    Dissecting the molecular mechanisms used by developmental regulators is essential to understand tissue specification/differentiation. SCL/TAL-1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor absolutely critical for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell specification and lineage maturation. Using in vitro and forced expression experimental systems, we previously suggested that SCL might have DNA-binding-independent functions. Here, to assess the requirements for SCL DNA-binding activity in vivo, we examined hematopoietic development in mice carrying a germline DNA-binding mutation. Remarkably, in contrast to complete absence of hematopoiesis and early lethality in scl-null embryos, specification of hematopoietic cells occurred in homozygous mutant embryos, indicating that direct DNA binding is dispensable for this process. Lethality was forestalled to later in development, although some mice survived to adulthood. Anemia was documented throughout development and in adulthood. Cellular and molecular studies showed requirements for SCL direct DNA binding in red cell maturation and indicated that scl expression is positively autoregulated in terminally differentiating erythroid cells. Thus, different mechanisms of SCL's action predominate depending on the developmental/cellular context: indirect DNA binding activities and/or sequestration of other nuclear regulators are sufficient in specification processes, whereas direct DNA binding functions with transcriptional autoregulation are critically required in terminal maturation processes.

  6. Structural Basis for LMO2-Driven Recruitment of the SCL:E47bHLH Heterodimer to Hematopoietic-Specific Transcriptional Targets

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Kamel; Hoosdally, Sarah J.; Tuladhar, Kapil; Karia, Dimple; Hall-Ponselé, Elisa; Platonova, Olga; Vyas, Paresh; Patient, Roger; Porcher, Catherine; Mancini, Erika J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell fate is governed by combinatorial actions of transcriptional regulators assembling into multiprotein complexes. However, the molecular details of how these complexes form are poorly understood. One such complex, which contains the basic-helix-loop-helix heterodimer SCL:E47 and bridging proteins LMO2:LDB1, critically regulates hematopoiesis and induces T cell leukemia. Here, we report the crystal structure of (SCL:E47)bHLH:LMO2:LDB1LID bound to DNA, providing a molecular account of the network of interactions assembling this complex. This reveals an unexpected role for LMO2. Upon binding to SCL, LMO2 induces new hydrogen bonds in SCL:E47, thereby strengthening heterodimer formation. This imposes a rotation movement onto E47 that weakens the heterodimer:DNA interaction, shifting the main DNA-binding activity onto additional protein partners. Along with biochemical analyses, this illustrates, at an atomic level, how hematopoietic-specific SCL sequesters ubiquitous E47 and associated cofactors and supports SCL’s reported DNA-binding-independent functions. Importantly, this work will drive the design of small molecules inhibiting leukemogenic processes. PMID:23831025

  7. Genome-wide identification of TAL1's functional targets: insights into its mechanisms of action in primary erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Mira T; Hughes, Jim R; Taylor, Stephen; McGowan, Simon J; Soneji, Shamit; Green, Angela L; Vyas, Paresh; Porcher, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Coordination of cellular processes through the establishment of tissue-specific gene expression programs is essential for lineage maturation. The basic helix-loop-helix hemopoietic transcriptional regulator TAL1 (formerly SCL) is required for terminal differentiation of red blood cells. To gain insight into TAL1 function and mechanisms of action in erythropoiesis, we performed ChIP-sequencing and gene expression analyses from primary fetal liver erythroid cells. We show that TAL1 coordinates expression of genes in most known red cell-specific processes. The majority of TAL1's genomic targets require direct DNA-binding activity. However, one-fifth of TAL1's target sequences, mainly among those showing high affinity for TAL1, can recruit the factor independently of its DNA binding activity. An unbiased DNA motif search of sequences bound by TAL1 identified CAGNTG as TAL1-preferred E-box motif in erythroid cells. Novel motifs were also characterized that may help distinguish activated from repressed genes and suggest a new mechanism by which TAL1 may be recruited to DNA. Finally, analysis of recruitment of GATA1, a protein partner of TAL1, to sequences occupied by TAL1 suggests that TAL1's binding is necessary prior or simultaneous to that of GATA1. This work provides the framework to study regulatory networks leading to erythroid terminal maturation and to model mechanisms of action of tissue-specific transcription factors.

  8. Out of the Mouths of Plants: The Molecular Basis of the Evolution and Diversity of Stomatal Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kylee M.; Rychel, Amanda L.; Torii, Keiko U.

    2010-01-01

    Stomata are microscopic valves on the plant epidermis that played a critical role in the evolution of land plants. Studies in the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have identified key transcription factors and signaling pathways controlling stomatal patterning and differentiation. Three paralogous Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix proteins, SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of cell-state transitions together with their heterodimeric partners SCREAM (SCRM) and SCRM2. Cell–cell signaling components, including putative ligands, putative receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, orient asymmetric cell divisions and prevent overproduction and clustering of stomata. The recent availability of genome sequence and reverse genetics tools for model monocots and basal land plants allows for the examination of the conservation of genes important in stomatal patterning and differentiation. Studies in grasses have revealed that divergence of SPCH-MUTE-FAMA predates the evolutionary split of monocots and dicots and that these proteins show conserved and novel roles in stomatal differentiation. By contrast, specific asymmetric cell divisions in Arabidopsis and grasses require unique molecular components. Molecular phylogenetic analysis implies potential conservation of signaling pathways and prototypical functions of the transcription factors specifying stomatal differentiation. PMID:20179138

  9. Downregulation of the transcription factor scleraxis in brain of patients with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yeghiazaryan, K; Turhani-Schatzmann, D; Labudova, O; Schuller, E; Olson, E N; Cairns, N; Lubec, G

    1999-01-01

    Performing gene hunting in fetal Down Syndrome (DS) brain, we found a downregulated sequence with 100% homology to the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor (TF) scleraxis (Scl). It was the aim of the study to evaluate Scl-mRNA steady state levels in adult DS brain with Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological changes, brain of patients with AD, and controls in order to find out whether Scl-downregulation is linked to DS per se or simply to neurodegeneration, common to both disorders. Determination of Scl-mRNA steady state levels was carried out by a blotting method in frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe and cerebellum. We found significantly decreased Scl-transcripts in brain of DS and AD, both, when normalized versus the house-keeping gene beta actin or total RNA. We demonstrate the significant decrease of Scl-mRNA steady state levels in the pathogenesis of DS and AD suggesting a tentative role for this transcription factor in the development of the neurodegenerative processes known to occur in both disorders. More specifically, the biological meaning of the downregulation of Scl may be the involvement in the pathogenesis of impaired neuronal plasticity and wiring observed in DS and AD, phenomena regulated by the concerted action of the many transcription factors expressed in human brain.

  10. Essential roles of Da transactivation domains in neurogenesis and in E(spl)-mediated repression.

    PubMed

    Zarifi, Ioanna; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Alexiadis, Anastasios; Livadaras, Ioannis; Delidakis, Christos

    2012-11-01

    E proteins are a special class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that heterodimerize with many bHLH activators to regulate developmental decisions, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. Daughterless (Da) is the sole E protein in Drosophila and is ubiquitously expressed. We have characterized two transcription activation domains (TADs) in Da, called activation domain 1 (AD1) and loop-helix (LH), and have evaluated their roles in promoting peripheral neurogenesis. In this context, Da heterodimerizes with proneural proteins, such as Scute (Sc), which is dynamically expressed and also contributes a TAD. We found that either one of the Da TADs in the Da/Sc complex is sufficient to promote neurogenesis, whereas the Sc TAD is incapable of doing so. Besides its transcriptional activation role, the Da AD1 domain serves as an interaction platform for E(spl) proteins, bHLH-Orange family repressors which antagonize Da/Sc function. We show that the E(spl) Orange domain is needed for this interaction and strongly contributes to the antiproneural activity of E(spl) proteins. We present a mechanistic model on the interplay of these bHLH factors in the context of neural fate assignment.

  11. Expression of a MyoD family member prefigures muscle pattern in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Michelson, A M; Abmayr, S M; Bate, M; Arias, A M; Maniatis, T

    1990-12-01

    We have isolated a Drosophila gene that is expressed in a temporal and spatial pattern during embryogenesis, strongly suggesting an important role for this gene in the early development of muscle. This gene, which we have named nautilus (nau), encodes basic and helix-loop-helix domains that display striking sequence similarity to those of the vertebrate myogenic regulatory gene family. nau transcripts are initially localized to segmentally repeated clusters of mesodermal cells, a pattern that is reminiscent of the expression of the achaete-scute genes in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. These early nau-positive cells are detected just prior to the first morphological evidence of muscle cell fusion and occupy similar positions as the later-appearing muscle precursors. Subsequently, nau transcripts are present in at least a subset of growing muscle precursors and mature muscle fibers that exhibit distinct segmental differences. These observations establish nau as the earliest known marker of myogenesis in Drosophila and indicate that this gene may be a key determinant of pattern formation in the embryonic mesoderm.

  12. Drosophila lilliputian is required for proneural gene expression in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Ginnene M.; Gangemi, Andrew J.; Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Saunders, Aleister J.; Marenda, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Proper neurogenesis in the developing Drosophila retina requires the regulated expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors Atonal (Ato) and Daughterless (Da). Factors that control the timing and spatial expression of these bHLH proneural genes in the retina are required for the proper formation and function of the adult eye and nervous system. Results Here, we report that lilliputian (lilli), the Drosophila homolog of the FMR2/AF4 family of proteins regulates the transcription of ato and da in the developing fly retina. We find that lilli controls ato expression at multiple enhancer elements. We also find that lilli contributes to ato auto-regulation in the morphogenetic furrow by first regulating the expression of da prior to ato. We show that FMR2 regulates the ato and da homologs MATH5 and TCF12 in human cells, suggesting a conservation of this regulation from flies to humans. Conclusions We conclude that lilliputian is part of the genetic program that regulates the expression of proneural genes in the developing retina. PMID:22275119

  13. Enhancer mutations of Akv murine leukemia virus inhibit the induction of mature B-cell lymphomas and shift disease specificity towards the more differentiated plasma cell stage

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Sorensen, Jonna; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2007-05-25

    This study investigates the role of the proviral transcriptional enhancer for B-lymphoma induction by exogenous Akv murine leukemia virus. Infection of newborn inbred NMRI mice with Akv induced 35% plasma cell proliferations (PCPs) (consistent with plasmacytoma), 33% diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 25% follicular B-cell lymphomas and few splenic marginal zone and small B-cell lymphomas. Deleting one copy of the 99-bp proviral enhancer sequence still allowed induction of multiple B-cell tumor types, although PCPs dominated (77%). Additional mutation of binding sites for the glucocorticoid receptor, Ets, Runx, or basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in the proviral U3 region, however, shifted disease induction to almost exclusively PCPs, but had no major influence on tumor latency periods. Southern analysis of immunoglobulin rearrangements and ecotropic provirus integration patterns showed that many of the tumors/cell proliferations induced by each virus were polyclonal. Our results indicate that enhancer mutations weaken the ability of Akv to induce mature B-cell lymphomas prior to the plasma cell stage, whereas development of plasma cell proliferations is less dependent of viral enhancer strength.

  14. Robust specification of sensory neurons by dual functions of charlatan, a Drosophila NRSF/REST-like repressor of extramacrochaetae and hairy.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yasutoyo; Lim, Young-Mi; Niwa, Nao; Hayashi, Shigeo; Tsuda, Leo

    2011-08-01

    Sensory bristle formation in Drosophila is a well-characterized system for studying sensory organ development at the molecular level. The master proneural genes of the achaete-scute (ac-sc) complex, which encode basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, are necessary and sufficient for sensory bristle formation. charlatan (chn) was originally identified as a transcriptional activator of ac-sc gene expression through interaction with its enhancer, an activity that promotes sensory bristle development. In contrast, Chn was also identified as a functional homologue of mammalian neuron-restrictive silencing factor or RE1 silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST), an important transcriptional repressor during vertebrate neurogenesis and stem cell development that acts through epigenetic gene silencing. Here, we report that Chn acts as a repressor of extramacrochaetae (emc) and hairy, molecules that inhibit ac-sc expression. This double-negative mechanism, together with direct activation via the achaete enhancer, increases expression of achaete and ensures robust development of sensory neurons. A mutation in the C-terminal repressor motif of Chn, which causes Chn to lose its repression activity, converted Chn to an activator of emc and hairy, suggesting that Chn is a dual functional regulator of transcription. Because chn-like sequences are found among arthropods, regulation of neuronal development by Chn-like molecules may be widely conserved.

  15. Identification of Candidate Genes Underlying an Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus in Soybean1

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Gregory A.; King, Keith E.; Severin, Andrew J.; May, Gregory D.; Cianzio, Silvia R.; Lin, Shun Fu; Lauter, Nicholas C.; Shoemaker, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalent on calcareous soils in the United States and abroad, iron deficiency is among the most common and severe nutritional stresses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max) commercial plantings, the identification and use of iron-efficient genotypes has proven to be the best form of managing this soil-related plant stress. Previous studies conducted in soybean identified a significant iron efficiency quantitative trait locus (QTL) explaining more than 70% of the phenotypic variation for the trait. In this research, we identified candidate genes underlying this QTL through molecular breeding, mapping, and transcriptome sequencing. Introgression mapping was performed using two related near-isogenic lines in which a region located on soybean chromosome 3 required for iron efficiency was identified. The region corresponds to the previously reported iron efficiency QTL. The location was further confirmed through QTL mapping conducted in this study. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction identified two genes encoding transcription factors within the region that were significantly induced in soybean roots under iron stress. The two induced transcription factors were identified as homologs of the subgroup lb basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes that are known to regulate the strategy I response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Resequencing of these differentially expressed genes unveiled a significant deletion within a predicted dimerization domain. We hypothesize that this deletion disrupts the Fe-DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT)/bHLH heterodimer that has been shown to induce known iron acquisition genes. PMID:22319075

  16. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability.

  17. Development of inner ear afferent connections: forming primary neurons and connecting them to the developing sensory epithelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The molecular and cellular origin of the primary neurons of the inner ear, the vestibular and spiral neurons, is reviewed including how they connect to the specific sensory epithelia and what the molecular nature of their survival is. Primary neurons of the ear depend on a single basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) protein for their formation, neurogenin 1 (ngn1). An immediate downstream gene is the bHLH gene neuronal differentiation (NeuroD). Targeted null mutations of ngn1 results in absence of primary neuron formation; targeted null mutation of NeuroD results in loss of almost all spiral and many vestibular neurons. NeuroD and a later expressed gene, Brn3a, play a role in pathfinding to and within sensory epithelia. The molecular nature of this pathfinding property is unknown. Reduction of hair cells in ngn1 null mutations suggests a clonal relationship with primary neurons. This relationship may play some role in specifying the identity of hair cells and the primary neurons that connect with them. Primary neuron neurites growth to sensory epithelia is initially independent of trophic factors released from developing sensory epithelia, but becomes rapidly dependent on those factors. Null mutations of specific neurotrophic factors lose distinct primary neuron populations which undergo rapid embryonic cell death.

  18. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with Hand2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanping; Blackwell, Evan L.; McKnight, Mitchell T.; Knutsen, Gregory R.; Vu, Wendy T.; Ruest, L. Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor Twist1 fulfills an essential function in neural crest cell formation, migration and survival and is associated with the craniosynostic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome in humans. However, its functions during mandibular development, when it may interact with other bHLH transcription factors like Hand2, are unknown since mice homozygous for the Twist1 null mutation die in early embryogenesis. To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch. Results The mutant mice exhibited a spectrum of craniofacial anomalies, including mandibular hypoplasia, altered middle ear development, and cleft palate. It appears that Twist1 is essential for the survival of the neural crest cells involved in the development of the mandibular ramal elements. Twist1 plays a role in molar development and cusp formation by participating in the reciprocal signaling needed for the formation of the enamel knot. This gene is also needed to control the ossification of the mandible, a redundant role shared with Hand2. Conclusion Twist1, along with Hand2, is essential for the proximo-distal patterning and development of the mandible and ossification. PMID:22411303

  19. Overexpression of EcbHLH57 Transcription Factor from Eleusine coracana L. in Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Salt, Oxidative and Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nataraja, Karaba N.; Udayakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors constitute one of the largest families in plants and are known to be involved in various developmental processes and stress tolerance. We report the characterization of a stress responsive bHLH transcription factor from stress adapted species finger millet which is homologous to OsbHLH57 and designated as EcbHLH57. The full length sequence of EcbHLH57 consisted of 256 amino acids with a conserved bHLH domain followed by leucine repeats. In finger millet, EcbHLH57 transcripts were induced by ABA, NaCl, PEG, methyl viologen (MV) treatments and drought stress. Overexpression of EcbHLH57 in tobacco significantly increased the tolerance to salinity and drought stress with improved root growth. Transgenic plants showed higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance under drought stress that resulted in higher biomass. Under long-term salinity stress, the transgenic plants accumulated higher seed weight/pod and pod number. The transgenic plants were also tolerant to oxidative stress and showed less accumulation of H202 and MDA levels. The overexpression of EcbHLH57 enhanced the expression of stress responsive genes such as LEA14, rd29A, rd29B, SOD, APX, ADH1, HSP70 and also PP2C and hence improved tolerance to diverse stresses. PMID:26366726

  20. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway as a regulatory pathway for cell adhesion and matrix metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Tiffany; Murphy, K.A.; White, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an orphan receptor in the basic-helix-loop-helix PAS family of transcriptional regulators. Although the endogenous regulator of this pathway has not been identified, the AhR is known to bind and be activated by a variety of compounds ranging from environmental contaminants to flavanoids. The function of this receptor is still unclear; however, animal models indicate that the AhR is important for normal development. One hypothesis is that the AhR senses cellular stress and initiates the cellular response by altering gene expression and inhibiting cell cycle progression and that activation of the AhR by exogenous environmental chemicals results in the dysregulation of this normal function. In this review we will examine the role of the AhR in the regulation of genes and proteins involved in cell adhesion and matrix remodeling, and discuss the implications of these changes in development and disease. In addition, we will discuss evidence suggesting that the AhR pathway is responsive to changes in matrix composition as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:18940186

  1. A Conserved Network of Transcriptional Activators and Repressors Regulates Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Eudicots[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.; Davies, Kevin M.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Montefiori, Mirco; Brendolise, Cyril; Boase, Murray R.; Ngo, Hanh; Jameson, Paula E.; Schwinn, Kathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Plants require sophisticated regulatory mechanisms to ensure the degree of anthocyanin pigmentation is appropriate to myriad developmental and environmental signals. Central to this process are the activity of MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) complexes that regulate the transcription of anthocyanin genes. In this study, the gene regulatory network that regulates anthocyanin synthesis in petunia (Petunia hybrida) has been characterized. Genetic and molecular evidence show that the R2R3-MYB, MYB27, is an anthocyanin repressor that functions as part of the MBW complex and represses transcription through its C-terminal EAR motif. MYB27 targets both the anthocyanin pathway genes and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1), itself an essential component of the MBW activation complex for pigmentation. Other features of the regulatory network identified include inhibition of AN1 activity by the competitive R3-MYB repressor MYBx and the activation of AN1, MYB27, and MYBx by the MBW activation complex, providing for both reinforcement and feedback regulation. We also demonstrate the intercellular movement of the WDR protein (AN11) and R3-repressor (MYBx), which may facilitate anthocyanin pigment pattern formation. The fundamental features of this regulatory network in the Asterid model of petunia are similar to those in the Rosid model of Arabidopsis thaliana and are thus likely to be widespread in the Eudicots. PMID:24642943

  2. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development.

    PubMed

    Cisse, Babacar; Caton, Michele L; Lehner, Manfred; Maeda, Takahiro; Scheu, Stefanie; Locksley, Richard; Holmberg, Dan; Zweier, Christiane; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Kant, Sarina G; Holter, Wolfgang; Rauch, Anita; Zhuang, Yuan; Reizis, Boris

    2008-10-03

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) represent a unique immune cell type specialized in type I interferon (IFN) secretion in response to viral nucleic acids. The molecular control of PDC lineage specification has been poorly understood. We report that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (E protein) E2-2/Tcf4 is preferentially expressed in murine and human PDCs. Constitutive or inducible deletion of murine E2-2 blocked the development of PDCs but not of other lineages and abolished IFN response to unmethylated DNA. Moreover, E2-2 haploinsufficiency in mice and in human Pitt-Hopkins syndrome patients was associated with aberrant expression profile and impaired IFN response of the PDC. E2-2 directly activated multiple PDC-enriched genes, including transcription factors involved in PDC development (SpiB, Irf8) and function (Irf7). These results identify E2-2 as a specific transcriptional regulator of the PDC lineage in mice and humans and reveal a key function of E proteins in the innate immune system.

  3. Structure of the leukemia oncogene LMO2: implications for the assembly of a hematopoietic transcription factor complex.

    PubMed

    El Omari, Kamel; Hoosdally, Sarah J; Tuladhar, Kapil; Karia, Dimple; Vyas, Paresh; Patient, Roger; Porcher, Catherine; Mancini, Erika J

    2011-02-17

    The LIM only protein 2 (LMO2) is a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell development whose ectopic expression in T cells leads to the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Through its LIM domains, LMO2 is thought to function as the scaffold for a DNA-binding transcription regulator complex, including the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SCL/TAL1 and E47, the zinc finger protein GATA-1, and LIM-domain interacting protein LDB1. To understand the role of LMO2 in the formation of this complex and ultimately to dissect its function in normal and aberrant hematopoiesis, we solved the crystal structure of LMO2 in complex with the LID domain of LDB1 at 2.4 Å resolution. We observe a largely unstructured LMO2 kept in register by the LID binding both LIM domains. Comparison of independently determined crystal structures of LMO2 reveals large movements around a conserved hinge between the LIM domains. We demonstrate that such conformational flexibility is necessary for binding of LMO2 to its partner protein SCL/TAL1 in vitro and for the function of this complex in vivo. These results, together with molecular docking and analysis of evolutionarily conserved residues, yield the first structural model of the DNA-binding complex containing LMO2, LDB1, SCL/TAL1, and GATA-1.

  4. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) expression attenuates the degree of TiO2-induced cytotoxicity in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sook; Yoon, Seokjoo; Yoon, Hea Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Yoon, Hyoun Kyoung; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Song, Chang Woo

    2009-09-28

    The inhibitor of differentiation (Id) family of genes, which encodes negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration. However, the specific role of Id1 in titanium dioxide (TiO2)-induced lung injury has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated whether TiO2 induces apoptosis in H1299 lung cancer cells and by which pathways. Based on the results of the LDH assay, dual staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI), and RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related gene expression, TiO2 caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and appeared to involve both necrosis and apoptosis. Furthermore, Id1 expression was significantly reduced in TiO2-treated cells compared with control cells. To further investigate the functional role of Id1, cells were transduced with a recombinant adenovirus expressing Id1, and the effects on sensitivity to TiO2 were analyzed. Id1 overexpression led to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and reduced the sensitivity of H1299 cells to TiO2. Our results indicate that Id1 expression attenuates the degree of TiO2-induced cytotoxicity in lung cells.

  5. Hes1 is required for the development of the superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk and the carotid body.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yoko; Saitoh, Takayoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Katoh, Tokio; Iseki, Sachiko

    2012-08-01

    Hes1 gene represses the expression of proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor Mash1, which is essential for the differentiation of the sympathetic ganglia and carotid body glomus cells. The sympathetic ganglia, carotid body, and common carotid artery in Wnt1-Cre/R26R double transgenic mice were intensely labeled by X-gal staining, i.e., the neural crest origin. The deficiency of Hes1 caused severe hypoplasia of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). At embryonic day (E) 17.5-E18.5, the volume of the SCG in Hes1 null mutants was reduced to 26.4% of the value in wild-type mice. In 4 of 30 cases (13.3%), the common carotid artery derived from the third arch artery was absent in the null mutants, and the carotid body was not formed. When the common carotid artery was retained, the organ grew in the wall of the third arch artery and glomus cell precursors were provided from the SCG in the null mutants as well as in wild-types. However, the volume of carotid body in the null mutants was only 52.5% of the value in wild-types at E17.5-E18.5. These results suggest that Hes1 plays a critical role in regulating the development of neural crest derivatives in the mouse cervical region.

  6. MicroRNA 146 (Mir146) modulates spermatogonial differentiation by retinoic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Impaired biogenesis of microRNAs disrupts spermatogenesis and leads to infertility in male mice. Spermatogonial differentiation is a key step in spermatogenesis, yet the mechanisms that control this event remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered microRNA 146 (Mir146) to be highly regulated during spermatogonial differentiation, a process dependent on retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Mir146 transcript levels were diminished nearly 180-fold in differentiating spermatogonia when compared with undifferentiated spermatogonia. Luciferase assays revealed the direct binding of Mir146 to the 3' untranslated region of the mediator complex subunit 1 (Med1), a coregulator of retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs). Overexpression of Mir146 in cultured undifferentiated spermatogonia reduced Med1 transcript levels, as well as those of differentiation marker kit oncogene (Kit). MED1 protein was also diminished. Conversely, inhibition of Mir146 increased the levels of Kit. When undifferentiated spermatogonia were exposed to RA, Mir146 was downregulated along with a marker for undifferentiated germ cells, zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (Zbtb16; Plzf); Kit was upregulated. Overexpression of Mir146 in RA-treated spermatogonia inhibited the upregulation of Kit, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), and spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific basic helix-loop-helix 2 (Sohlh2). Inhibition of Mir146 in RA-treated spermatogonia greatly enhanced the upregulation of these genes. We conclude that Mir146 modulates the effects of RA on spermatogonial differentiation.

  7. Nato3 integrates with the Shh-Foxa2 transcriptional network regulating the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Nissim-Eliraz, Einat; Zisman, Sophie; Schatz, Omri; Ben-Arie, Nissim

    2013-09-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons originate from the floor plate of the midbrain, a transient embryonic organizing center located at the ventral-most midline. Since the loss of mesDA leads to Parkinson's disease, the molecular mechanisms controlling the genesis and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors are extensively studied and the identification and characterization of new genes is of interest. Here, we show that the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nato3 (Ferd3l) increases in parallel to the differentiation of SN4741 dopaminergic cells in vitro. Nato3 transcription is directly regulated by the transcription factor Foxa2, a target and effector of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of Shh signaling downregulated the expression of Nato3, thus defining Nato3 as a novel component of one of the major pathways controlling cell patterning and generation of mesDA. Furthermore, we show that Nato3 regulated Shh and Foxa2 through a novel feed-backward loop. Up- and downregulation of Nato3 further affected the transcription of Nurr1, implicated in the genesis of mesDA, but not of TH. Taken together, these data shed new light on the transcriptional networks controlling the generation of mesDA and may be utilized in the efforts to direct stem cells towards a dopaminergic fate.

  8. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Miyuki; Ito, Jumpei; Koyama, Riko; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Maturana, Andrés D

    2016-05-27

    Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein for signaling proteins and transcription factors. Previously, we reported that ENH1 overexpression promotes the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ENH1 in the C2C12 cells differentiation remains elusive. ENH1 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells by sequestering Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (Id2) in the cytosol. Id2 is a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors activity and prevents myogenesis. Here, we found that ENH1 overcome the Id2 repression of C2C12 cells myogenic differentiation and that ENH1 overexpression promotes mice satellite cells activation, the first step toward myogenic differentiation. In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity.

  9. Characterization and functional analysis of the 5' flanking region of Sparus aurata myostatin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Funkenstein, Bruria; Balas, Viki; Rebhan, Yanai; Pliatner, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Although several MSTN promoters were described in fish, no functional analysis was reported so far. Here, the 5' flanking region (1372 bp) of the MSTN-1 gene of the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-1) was cloned, sequenced and characterized. It contains two consensus sequences for TATA box (TATAA), a CAAT box, ten putative E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) and two putative binding sites to TF Myocyte enhancing factor-2 (MEF2). In addition, it has several putative binding sites to TF Pit-1a and several response elements to nuclear receptors (GRE, ERE, PRE, ARE, TRE, RARE and PPARRE) and cAMP-response elements. Transcriptional activity of five genomic fragments (truncated at their upstream region) of 372, 941, 972, 1113 and 1355 bp was studied in vitro, using transient transfection in A204 cells. All constructs directed luciferase activity, with the highest activity obtained by the 1113 bp fragment. These experiments show that all five genomic fragments are functional MSTN promoters and differences in promoter activity might be due to presence of enhancers and/or repressor sequences, regulating MSTN promoter activity.

  10. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephen M; Wright, Margaret C; Bolock, Alexa M; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-07-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression.

  11. Basic concepts of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins. PMID:22395460

  12. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  13. Basic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J W

    1990-01-01

    This article will describe the basic techniques required for successful cell culture. It will also act to introduce some of the other chapters in this volume. It is not intended, as this volume is not, to describe the establishment of a tissue culture laboratory, nor to provide a historical or theoretical survey of cell culture. There are several books that adequately cover these areas, including the now somewhat dated but still valuable volume by Paul (1), the multi-authored Methods in Enzymology volume edited by Jakoby and Pastan (2), and the new edition of Freshney (3). Instead, this chapter's focus will be on the techniques for establishing primary rodent cell cultures from embryos and adult skin, maintaining and subculturing these fibro-blasts and their transformed derivatives, and the isolation of genetically pure strains. The cells described are all derived from Chinese hamsters since, to date, these cells, have proved to be the most useful for somatic cell genetics (4,5). The techniques, however, are generally applicable to most fibroblastic cell types.

  14. Basic science of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cucchiarini, Magali; de Girolamo, Laura; Filardo, Giuseppe; Oliveira, J Miguel; Orth, Patrick; Pape, Dietrich; Reboul, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, disabling disorder of the joints that affects a large population worldwide and for which there is no definitive cure. This review provides critical insights into the basic knowledge on OA that may lead to innovative end efficient new therapeutic regimens. While degradation of the articular cartilage is the hallmark of OA, with altered interactions between chondrocytes and compounds of the extracellular matrix, the subchondral bone has been also described as a key component of the disease, involving specific pathomechanisms controlling its initiation and progression. The identification of such events (and thus of possible targets for therapy) has been made possible by the availability of a number of animal models that aim at reproducing the human pathology, in particular large models of high tibial osteotomy (HTO). From a therapeutic point of view, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising option for the treatment of OA and may be used concomitantly with functional substitutes integrating scaffolds and drugs/growth factors in tissue engineering setups. Altogether, these advances in the fundamental and experimental knowledge on OA may allow for the generation of improved, adapted therapeutic regimens to treat human OA.

  15. Back to basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to educate the public about the long road from obscure experiment to life-changing discovery, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has been enlisting prominent researchers, science writers, and scientific organizations such as the AGU. More than two years in development, the NAS basic science initiative “Beyond Discovery: The Path From Research to Human Benefits” is an attempt to translate peer-review-quality science papers into general-interest science articles and booklets.As conceived by NAS vice-president Jack Halpern and a host of representatives from the scientific community, the Beyond Discovery initiative will “develop case studies that identify and trace the origins of important technological and medical advances.” These case studies will be written by scientists in a style publishable in a journal such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The articles are intended to be understandable to educators, college students, and the scientifically literate public. The case studies then will be further distilled by science writers into articles for a wider audience of policy makers and the general public.

  16. Basics of cytology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  17. Basic science of pain.

    PubMed

    DeLeo, Joyce A

    2006-04-01

    The origin of the theory that the transmission of pain is through a single channel from the skin to the brain can be traced to the philosopher and scientist René Descartes. This simplified scheme of the reflex was the beginning of the development of the modern doctrine of reflexes. Unfortunately, Descartes' reflex theory directed both the study and treatment of pain for more than 330 years. It is still described in physiology and neuroscience textbooks as fact rather than theory. The gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 rejuvenated the field of pain study and led to further investigation into the phenomena of spinal sensitization and central nervous system plasticity, which are the potential pathophysiologic correlates of chronic pain. The processing of pain takes place in an integrated matrix throughout the neuroaxis and occurs on at least three levels-at peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal sites. Basic strategies of pain control monopolize on this concept of integration by attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the periphery, by activation of inhibitory processes that gate pain at the spinal cord and brain, and by interference with the perception of pain. This article discusses each level of pain modulation and reviews the mechanisms of action of opioids and potential new analgesics. A brief description of animal models frames a discussion about recent advances regarding the role of glial cells and central nervous system neuroimmune activation and innate immunity in the etiology of chronic pain states. Future investigation into the discovery and development of novel, nonopioid drug therapy may provide needed options for the millions of patients who suffer from chronic pain syndromes, including syndromes in which the pain originates from peripheral nerve, nerve root, spinal cord, bone, muscle, and disc.

  18. Phosphatase is responsible for run down, and probably G protein- mediated inhibition of inwardly rectifying K+ currents in guinea pig chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of G protein-mediated inhibition of an inwardly rectifying K+ current (IIR) in adrenal chromaffin cells was investigated using the whole-cell version of the patch clamp technique. In case of recording with use of ATP-containing patch solution, the IIR was well maintained; otherwise, it ran down within 15 min. This run down was not prevented by replacement with adenylyl-imidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolysable analogue of ATP, but was markedly reduced by the addition to the ATP-free solution of 1 microM calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). The addition of alkaline phosphatase to the ATP-containing solution facilitated run down of the current, and application of 100 microM H-7, a general kinase inhibitor, reversibly suppressed IIR. These results taken together suggest that inwardly rectifying K+ channels are under the influence of kinase and phosphatase without external signals. Infusion of nonhydrolysable analogues of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3- thiophosphate) (GTP gamma S) or guanylyl-imidodiphosphate, through the pipette produced little inward current at -55 mV, but completely inhibited IIR within approximately 5 or 6 min in all cells tested in the presence of 12 microM Mg2+ inside the cell. In contrast, infusion of aluminum fluoride (AlF) complex, another GTP binding (G) protein activator, consistently produced large inward currents, but did not alter IIR noticeably for 15 min in 17% of the cells tested. In the other cells, the inhibition of IIR developed slowly after long latent periods. This inhibitory potency of AlF was not enhanced by an increase in Mg2+ concentrations. Subtraction of the current-voltage relationship before from that noted during the generation of inward current by AlF complex revealed that the inward current diminished progressively with hyperpolarizations, as is the case with a nonselective cation current (INS) induced by a muscarinic agonist. Thus, AlF complex seems to be potent with

  19. Effects of SIRT1 gene knock-out via activation of SREBP2 protein-mediated PI3K/AKT signaling on osteoarthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Zeng, Hui; Lei, Ming; Xiao, De-Ming; Li, Wei; Yuan, Hao; Lin, Jian-Jing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of SIRT1 gene knock-out on osteoarthritis in mice, and the possible roles of SREBP2 protein and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the effects. Mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a SIRT1 gene knock-out group (6 mice in each group). In these groups, one side of the knee anterior cruciate ligament was traversed, and the ipsilateral medial meniscus was cut to establish an osteoarthritis model of knee joint. The countralateral synovial bursa was cut out, serving as controls. The knee joint specimens were then divided into four groups: SIRT1(+/+) control group (group A, n=6); SIRT1(+/+) osteoarthritis group (group B, n=6); SIRT1(-/-) control group (group C, n=6); SIRT1(-/-) osteoarthritis group (group D, n=6). HE staining, Masson staining, Safranin O-Fast Green staining and Van Gieson staining were used to observe the morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the knee. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to detect the expression of SIRT1, SREBP2, VEGF, AKT, HMGCR and type II collagen proteins. SA-β-gal staining was utilized to evaluate chondrocyte aging. The results showed clear knee joint cartilage destruction and degeneration in the SIRT1(-/-) osteoarthritis group. The tidal line was twisted and displaced anteriorly. Type II collagen was destroyed and distributed unevenly. Compared with the SIRT1(+/+) osteoarthritis group and SIRT1(-/-) control group, SIRT1 protein expression was not obviously changed in the SIRT1(-/-) osteoarthritis group (P>0.05), while the expression levels of the SREBP2, VEGF and HMGCR proteins were significantly increased (P<0.05) and the levels of AKT and type II collagen proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05). SIRT1 gene knock-out may aggravate cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis by activating the SREBP2 protein-mediated PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, suggesting that SIRT1 gene may play a protective role against osteoarthritis.

  20. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  1. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  2. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  3. Creating Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dolores M.

    Adult basic education programs must teach the "social living skills" disadvantaged adults need, as well as basic literacy skills. In creating an ABE program, one must first assess the needs of the target population--through surveys, group meetings, an advisory council of members of the target population, demographic studies, and consideration of…

  4. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  5. Basic Research Plan, February 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program supported development of computer models of the SCWO process. These models incorporate the results of basic...performance have been achieved. In advancing the technology, the Center for Composite Materials has established strong ties to the composites industry and...team of researchers at the University of Maryland undertook an innovative , interdisciplinary basic research program to advance smart structures

  6. Czech Basic Course: Verb List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, William; Vit, Karel V.

    This compilation of verbs, intended for students of the Defense Language Institute (DLI) Basic Course, provides brief definitions for each entry. No sentence examples are included. The text is intended to serve as a compact reference and study aid. Examples are selected from the Basic Course and the DLI Czech-English Dictionary. Entries are listed…

  7. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  8. Basic sciences: an alternative career?

    PubMed

    Khatri, R

    2013-01-01

    Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career.

  9. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the basic blood chemistry test include blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, which tell how well the kidneys ... amount of sugar in the blood. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a measure of how well the ...

  10. Plants, Animals and Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Countrystart is a class in which students work with plants and animals, providing numerous opportunities to integrate basic skills teaching. The practical subject area becomes the vehicle to develop other skills needed by students. (JOW)

  11. CPR in Basic Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulk, David; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The American Heart Association's Heartsaver Program, including instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills, has been integrated into the basic Personal Health and Safety course at the University of Arkansas. An outline of the course content is provided. (JMF)

  12. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORα (PPARα) AGONISTS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE INHIBITOR OF DNA BINDING (ID2) EXPRESSION IN RODENTS AND HUMAN CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor family whose members play important roles in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones,...

  13. Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Recommended activities include: (1) etymology exercises for elementary school students; (2) a search for information about Alexander the Great; (3) monthly inspections of the school yard to observe environmental changes; and (4) an art history unit on Cro-Magnon cave drawings. An interdisciplinary unit on transportation is included. (PP)

  14. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future and will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals (energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security) depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions. The program has two distinct interrelated parts: research and facilities operations and development. In the pursuit of forefront research results, BES designs, builds and operates certain large, complex advanced scientific facilities such as neutron sources and synchrotron radiation sources. These facilities not only provide BES with unique instruments, but these instruments are also made available to all qualified users, even those not supported by BES. Thus, the facilities actually leverage a great deal more research from the national effort. The BES program conducts basic research that will most likely help the Nation's long-term energy goals. BES implements a broad strategy for conducting basic research and contributes strongly towards national energy goals and to national goals of maintaining and enhancing scientific leadership, technological innovation, and economic strength.

  15. Arabic Basic Course: Basic Dialogues for Airport Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is intended for use as supplementary material in the Advanced Phase of the "Arabic Basic Course," developed and implemented at the Defense Language Institute. The purpose of this book is to acquaint students with specialized airport terminology pertaining to takeoff and landing procedures directed in modern, standard Arabic. The…

  16. A Basic Incompetence in the Defining of Basic Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledd, James

    1986-01-01

    Applies a brief history of standard English usage in America to take issue with the College Board's pronouncements on basic academic competencies. Points out the underlying injustice to demand a mastery of standard English from students who, through no fault of their own, have had no chance to master it. (JK)

  17. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  18. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  20. CROI 2016: Basic Science Review.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections continued to maintain balance in the representation of different areas of research related to HIV/AIDS. The basic science category encompasses research on viral reservoirs and HIV cure, on cellular factors regulating the interplay between virus and host, and on factors that influence viral pathogenicity. Basic research on factors that influence the interaction between the virus and the host cell continues to unearth surprises with the identification of a new host antiviral factor. Further, research into the mechanisms of viral persistence reveals that there is much to learn about how HIV-1 is able to persist in the face of antiviral suppression.

  1. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    s T*S IFI /G i’ u A "m = - ILI l ~2 U0k.. ’~la BASIC PROCESSES OF PLASMA PROPULSION Herbert 0. Schrade Institut fir Raumfahrtsysteme Universitat...discharge channel with respect to a small disturbance. IZ4 q, , L No cl W) 03Cii >i 04 -9- Depending on the amouunt of e given in eqs. (la) and (Ib) and...available at the University of Stuttgart about a year ago. H. 0. Schrade, M. Auweter-Kurtz and H. L . Kurtz, "Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

  2. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  3. Career Education and Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Owen, Ed.

    To provide a reliable correlation of how the "basics" are strengthened by implementing career education units, concepts, and/or skills into existing curricula, the Career Education Project of the Kentucky Valley Educational Cooperative studied the achievement of career education and non-career education students in reading, mathematics,…

  4. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  5. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  6. The Future of Basic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, George; Mlynarczyk, Rebecca Williams

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we assess the status of basic writing early in the twenty-first century. Beginning with a discussion of the attacks on BW that intensified during the 1990s and early 2000s--attacks that originated from such diverse sources as state legislatures, university officials, and BW scholars themselves--we go on to summarize the responses…

  7. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  8. The Audit Committee. Board Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, John S.

    2004-01-01

    The Effective Committees set of booklets comprises publications on the following committees: investment, buildings and grounds, academic affairs, student affairs, finance, development, trustees, audit, compensation, and executive. It is part of the AGB Board Basics Series. This report describes the primary role of an audit committee. The primary…

  9. Drafting. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charles

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives for a basic drafting course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily). The organized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student to develop general competencies in the…

  10. Environmental Education: Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes an instructional framework based on concepts of energy, ecosystems, carrying capacity, change, and stewardship. Stresses the importance of determining what is really important (basic) for each student to experience or learn in relation to each concept and grade level. Student-centered learning activities and sample lesson on energy…

  11. Printing. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 17 terminal objectives for a secondary level basic printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course with specialized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop basic…

  12. Learning Cycles for Basic Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Kathy

    Basic writing teachers can make use of the Learning Cycle teaching technique to design exploration and invention activities with which their students can practice analytical writing. The Learning Cycle approach is based on Piagetian theory and involves a three-phase process of exploration, invention, and discovery. In the exploration phase…

  13. Re-Modeling Basic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolino, Rachel; Freel, Penny

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the State University of New York at New Paltz developed the Supplemental Writing Workshop Program for its basic writing students in response to public pressure to discontinue the offering of so-called remedial writing courses at four-year institutions. Our primary purpose in this article is to describe the design of the SWW Program, which…

  14. JSC interactive basic accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts for an interactive basic accounting system (IBAS) are considered in terms of selecting the design option which provides the best response at the lowest cost. Modeling the IBAS workload and applying this workload to a U1108 EXEC 8 based system using both a simulation model and the real system is discussed.

  15. The Measurement of Basic Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disch, James G., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven articles contain information about measurement and evaluation in physical education and sport and complement the "Basic Stuff" series. They focus on (1) student self-assessment for exercise physiology; (2) monitoring motor development; (3) biomechanical analysis; and (4) measurements of aesthetic qualities, psychosocial…

  16. Basic Instruction in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Laurie, Ed.

    Chapter 1 of this monograph dealing with basic physical education instruction programs traces the history of physical education in colleges and universities from 1885 to 1985. Physical education programs became strongly entrenched within the higher education curriculum with the sanction of college administrators who recognized a responsibility to…

  17. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  18. Basic Scientific Subroutines, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckdeschel, F. R.

    This book, second in a series dealing with scientific programing in the BASIC language, provides students, engineers, and scientists with a documented library of subroutines for scientific applications. Subjects of the eight chapters include: (1) least-squares approximation of functions and smoothing of data; (2) approximating functions by series…

  19. Carpentry. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. L.; Adcox, John W., Jr.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives in this course guide in basic carpentry. The guide is designed to prepare persons for initial employment, or to upgrade or retrain persons already employed, or to provide the apprenticeship related course work necessary to…

  20. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…