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Sample records for basic vocabulary database

  1. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Blust, Robert; Gray, Russell D.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic methods have revolutionised evolutionary biology and have recently been applied to studies of linguistic and cultural evolution. However, the basic comparative data on the languages of the world required for these analyses is often widely dispersed in hard to obtain sources. Here we outline how our Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (ABVD) helps remedy this situation by collating wordlists from over 500 languages into one web-accessible database. We describe the technology underlying the ABVD and discuss the benefits that an evolutionary bioinformatic approach can provide. These include facilitating computational comparative linguistic research, answering questions about human prehistory, enabling syntheses with genetic data, and safe-guarding fragile linguistic information. PMID:19204825

  2. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  3. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  4. A Basic Vocabulary of Federal Social Program Applications and Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter P.; And Others

    A study of the application forms for Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, food stamps, Medicaid, and Medicare was conducted to examine the frequently occurring unfamiliar, specialized vocabulary words. It was found that 76 such words occurred at least ten times in the documents studied. A large number of other…

  5. A Basic Vocabulary and a Bibliography for Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Richard J.

    The selection of 594 words in this basic vocabulary list was compiled from various dictionaries and frequency lists for physics, mathematics and civil engineering. The list attempts to include those words which have been found to be unknown by German students learning English for science and technology. In addition to the word list, a bibliography…

  6. THE USE OF INDIVIDUALIZED MULTISENSORY MATERIALS TO DEVELOP A BASIC SIGHT VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, FRANCES N.

    TWO SETS OF MULTISENSORY DEVICES WERE USED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THEIR INDIVIDUALIZED USE WOULD HELP RETARDED READERS DEVELOP A BASIC SIGHT VOCABULARY. STUDENTS WHO HAD SPENT 9 OR 10 YEARS IN SCHOOL AND WHO WERE READING AT THE SECOND-READER INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL WERE GIVEN THE DANIELS WORD RECOGNITION LIST, FORMS A AND B, AS PRETESTS AND POST-TESTS.…

  7. Children's printed word database: continuities and changes over time in children's early reading vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Jackie; Stuart, Morag; Dixon, Maureen; Lovejoy, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a comprehensive database of the vocabulary in reading materials used by 5 - 9 year old children in the UK. The database is available on-line http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/cpwd and allows researchers into early reading development the possibility of rigorous control over critical characteristics of experimental stimuli such as word frequency, regularity and length, frequency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, orthographic and phonological neighbourhoods etc. The on-line database is also a resource that can be used by practitioners with interests in literacy development and literacy instruction. It can be used to obtain characteristics for a user-generated list of words, or else to generate a list of words according to constraints specified by the user. Here we present an overview of the construction of the database, the materials entered into it, the survey of schools by which we obtained information about the books that were most likely to be used by children in each age group, and the search features available on the database website. We also discuss certain characteristics of the Vocabulary itself and compare these with those reported in an earlier non-representative database reported in Stuart, Dixon, Masterson and Gray (2003). We then present a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Vocabulary in books used in the Reception year, against the background of recent recommendations for change in the early teaching of reading. Finally, we present data showing that the database is indeed already proving a useful resource for both practitioners and researchers.

  8. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  9. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…

  10. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Awareness and Its Relations to Vocabulary Knowledge in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of morphological awareness and its relations to vocabulary knowledge in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. Morphological awareness has emerged as an important predictor of children's and ABE students' reading comprehension abilities; however, there has been a dearth of research…

  11. The Plant Ontology Database: A community resource for plant structure and developmental stages controlled vocabulary and annotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aim to create, maintain, and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary(ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes o...

  12. The Plant Ontology Database: A Community Resource for Plant Structure and Developmental Stages Controlled Vocabulary and Annotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aims to create, maintain and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary(ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes o...

  13. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  14. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  15. Computer Databases as an Educational Tool in the Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of North Carolina School of Medicine developed a computer database, INQUIRER, containing scientific information in bacteriology, and then integrated the database into routine educational activities for first-year medical students in their microbiology course. (Author/MLW)

  16. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  17. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  18. MASSIVE VOCABULARY EXPANSION IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE BEYOND THE BASIC COURSE--THE EFFECTS OF STIMULI, TIMING, AND ORDER OF PRESENTATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LADO, ROBERT

    THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF STIMULI AND THEIR TIMING FOR LARGE INCREASES IN RECOGNITION VOCABULARY IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AFTER STUDENTS HAVE MASTERED THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE WAS THE SUBJECT OF RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN WITH STUDENTS ENROLLED AT THE GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS. FOLLOWING A…

  19. Semantic Similarities between a Keyword Database and a Controlled Vocabulary Database: An Investigation in the Antibiotic Resistance Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Explores similarities or dissimilarities between citation-semantic and analytic indexing based on a study of records in the Science Citation Index and MEDLINE databases on antibiotic resistance in pneumonia. Concludes that disparate indexing terms may be an advantage for better recall and precision in information retrieval. (Contains 42…

  20. Sex Differences in Item Functioning in the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II Vocabulary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Gotch, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is a diagnostic battery intended for children in grades 1st through 6th. The aim of this study was to test for item invariance, or differential item functioning (DIF), of the CIBS-II across sex in the standardization sample through the use of item response theory DIF detection…

  1. Effects of Basic Learning Skill Training on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores of Severely Disruptive, Low Skill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Warren W.; Jacobs, Ruth S.

    Eighteen mentally retarded children were selected for study because they exhibited low levels of skills in sitting, eye contact on command, and following other commands. Ten other children were selected because they showed high levels of those skills. High skill Ss were found to have higher scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Training…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  3. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, the outcomes of which drive breeding and product development. In order for basic, translational, and applied researchers to benefit from others' investigations, newly generated data must be made freely and easily accessible. MaizeGDB is the maize research community's central repository for genetics and genomics information. The overall goals of MaizeGDB are to facilitate access to the outcomes of maize research by integrating new maize data into the database and to support the maize research community by coordinating group activities. PMID:18769488

  4. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    PubMed Central

    Köhl, Karin I; Basler, Georg; Lüdemann, Alexander; Selbig, Joachim; Walther, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation), vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique names generated by the system

  5. Vocabulary Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L.; Fisher, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary is the hallmark of an educated person as it not only promotes reading comprehension but also enables to actively participate in the society. The four practices that teachers can use to expand students' vocabularies and improve their reading are presented.

  6. Designing a Relational Database for the Basic School; Schools Command Web Enabled Officer and Enlisted Database (Sword)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    shown us that there are multiple design strategies: waterfall , incremental, and evolutionary.43 The initial intent was to use a waterfall approach...performing on a large scale what we had set out to do for TBS. PYTHON (Project Yet To Have an Official Name) had used RAD for the same reasons that we... PYTHON Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, March 2002. 48 J. Ray, Sams Teach Yourself Dreamweaver UltraDev 4 in 21 Days, p. 176. 44 Figure 10. Basic

  7. 25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the

  8. Using a Database to Analyze Core Basic Science Content in a Problem-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study used computer analysis to examine distribution of basic science content in the 53 cases in the problem-based medical curriculum of Rush Medical College (Illinois) and compared it to application of that content by students and faculty. The method of analysis is recommended for reviewing curricula for omissions and redundancy. (Author/MSE)

  9. SITUATIONAL VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, R. M.

    IT IS GENERALLY ADMITTED THAT THE VOCABULARY OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS MORE EASILY LEARNED IF IT IS ORGANIZED IN COHERENT SEMANTIC GROUPS AROUND "SITUATIONS" OR "CENTERS OF INTEREST." WHAT IS NEEDED IS A LOGICAL AND NON-ARBITRARY TAXONOMY OF SITUATIONS. WE DISTINGUISH, FIRST, OPEN AND CLOSED SITUATIONS. CLOSED SITUATIONS (FOR EXAMPLE, DAYS OF THE…

  10. A controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Eila; Saranto, Kaija; Tallberg, Marianne; Ensio, Anneli; Junttila, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    The lack of a nursing thesaurus in Finnish has emerged among nursing professionals searching nursing knowledge and librarians when indexing literature to databases. The Finnish Nursing Education Society launched a project focusing on the development of a nursing vocabulary and the compilation of a thesaurus. The content of a vocabulary was created by six experts using Delphi-technique. The validity of the vocabulary was twice tested for indexing nursing research and has afterwards been revised. The vocabulary can be used for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The main challenge is that nurses easily can find national as well as international nursing research from databases and enhance research utilization.

  11. MIR: A Computer Based Approach to the Acquisition of Russian Vocabulary in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagvall, Anna-Lena; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The development of a method is described for the automatic ordering of texts based on the richness of their vocabularies. It further involves the specification of a basic vocabulary and of a gradual enlargement of this basic vocabulary linked to the study of the texts in the given order. (Author/RM)

  12. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  13. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  14. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

  15. Untutored Vocabulary Acquisition and L2 Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a self-instruction procedure designed to provide students of science and technology at the tertiary level with a basic vocabulary in a foreign language of around 1,000 items. The technique represents an efficient method for bridging the gap between the vocabulary that beginning L2 students possess and that required to read L2 scientific…

  16. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…

  17. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  18. Vocabularies in the VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  19. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  20. Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

    2012-01-01

    When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

  1. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  2. Intensive Vocabulary Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeanne R.; Dizney, Henry

    1963-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of a year-long intensive vocabulary program on the reading achievement of 12th-grade college-preparatory English students. A control class followed the regular course of study, and an experimental class supplemented it with completion of the "Harbrace Vocabulary Workshop" workbook, study of the use of footnotes and the…

  3. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  4. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  5. Sara Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    The basic plan of this course in Sara is modeled after "An Experimental Course in Hausa" (FSI 1965). The course uses short cycles consisting of mimicry followed by conversations built on the same vocabulary and syntactic pattern. The format has been condensed and altered. The course contains 95 cycles and would require approximately 50 hours to…

  6. The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

  7. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  8. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  9. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  10. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  11. New Directions in Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

  12. Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

  13. Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Dimling, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases.

  14. Speech Database Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    cluded basic phonetic coverage and varying phonetic environments. Examining pairs of phonemes we augmented these sentences, attempting to have at...and the sampling rate. Speech data was collected and recorded utilizing the Vocabulary Master Library file (VML). 630 VML files were created and run on...these descriptions is attached with this report as Appendix B.) Basically , phonetic alignment is accomplished in three steps. First, each 5 ms frame

  15. Managing Vocabulary Mapping Services

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chengjian; Monson, Kent; Poon, Kasey B.; Shakib, Shaun C.; Lau, Lee Min

    2005-01-01

    The efficient management and maintenance of large-scale and high-quality vocabulary mapping is an operational challenge. The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) group developed an information management system to provide controlled mapping services, resulting in improved efficiency and quality maintenance. PMID:16779203

  16. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for…

  17. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  18. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  19. Vocabulary at the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  20. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  1. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  2. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  3. Stanwix House Vocabulary Study: Plurals. Investigative Report Number 7227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Penelope; Bond, Jack H.

    Research analyzed: 1) the treatment of plurals in the Functional Basic Word List for Special Pupils (Stanwix House List), and 2) plural recognition by educable mentally handicapped (EMH) students. Review of the Stanwix House List revealed that plurals were treated as discrete vocabulary items. Using a small sample of EMH subjects, the researchers…

  4. Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

    2005-01-01

    A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

  5. Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

  6. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  7. Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

  8. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

  9. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…

  10. Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-06

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  11. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  12. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  13. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  14. Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

  15. Vocabulary Knowledge of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Ahmad Azman; Rawian, Rafizah Mohd; Yahaya, Mohamad Fadhili; Abdullah, Azaharee; Mansor, Mahani; Osman, Mohd Izwan; Zakaria, Zahrullaili Ahmad; Murat, Aminarashid; Nayan, Surina; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed Malaysian tertiary students' levels of passive and controlled active vocabulary knowledge. Two tests from the Vocabulary Levels Test were used to collect the data namely the Passive Vocabulary Test and Controlled Active Vocabulary Test. When using the test, the researchers were not particularly interested in the students' total…

  16. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  17. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  18. French Basic Course. Units 13-24 Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossard, Monique; Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is the second volume of the basic course in French. The material is divided into 12 chapters. Each of the first 11 chapters contains a dialogue, followed by notes concerning the dialogue, a list of useful expressions and vocabulary, vocabulary exercises, and questions on the dialogue. The subjects of the dialogues…

  19. Wordbank: an open repository for developmental vocabulary data.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Braginsky, Mika; Yurovsky, Daniel; Marchman, Virginia A

    2016-05-18

    The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are a widely used family of parent-report instruments for easy and inexpensive data-gathering about early language acquisition. CDI data have been used to explore a variety of theoretically important topics, but, with few exceptions, researchers have had to rely on data collected in their own lab. In this paper, we remedy this issue by presenting Wordbank, a structured database of CDI data combined with a browsable web interface. Wordbank archives CDI data across languages and labs, providing a resource for researchers interested in early language, as well as a platform for novel analyses. The site allows interactive exploration of patterns of vocabulary growth at the level of both individual children and particular words. We also introduce wordbankr, a software package for connecting to the database directly. Together, these tools extend the abilities of students and researchers to explore quantitative trends in vocabulary development.

  20. Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

    2008-05-01

    The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary.

  1. C.U.B.E. English/Vocabulary. Goals IV-V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincennes Univ., IN.

    A part of the adult basic education (ABE) teaching/learning management system called CUBE (Continuity and Unity in Basic Education), this manual consists of a series of tests and guides for use in teaching English and vocabulary skills to ABE students. Among the tests provided in the manual are the Mott 1600 and Mott 1900 pretests and posttests,…

  2. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  3. The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

  4. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  5. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  6. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  7. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  8. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansouri, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a…

  9. Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James

    2001-01-01

    Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

  10. Improving Online Reading and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…

  11. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  12. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  13. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  14. Lexical Phrases, Functions and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…

  15. Personalized Vocabulary Development for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubaugh, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Spoken Words, a modified language experience approach to the study of vocabulary, offers college instructors an opportunity to individualize vocabulary instruction and to demonstrate a variety of the most powerful vocabulary learning strategies in a natural language setting. To implement Spoken Words, the teacher must first model the procedure by…

  16. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  17. Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Chun-mei

    2007-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to investigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects' performance? The experimental result demonstrates that…

  18. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  19. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody.

  20. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  1. Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  2. Vocabulary Instruction through Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes a research study investigating the effects of asking preschool teachers to use a professional development tool to support their planning, implementation, and reflection of vocabulary-rich storybook reading. Findings suggested that not only could teachers use the tool in their planning and reflection but also that use of the…

  3. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  4. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  5. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  6. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap for EFL Medical Undergraduates: The Establishment of a Medical Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    This study created a medical word list (MWL) to bridge the gap between non-technical and technical vocabulary. The researcher compiled a corpus containing 155 textbooks across 31 medical subject areas from e-book databases (totaling 15 million running words) and examined the range and frequency of words outside the most frequent 3,000-word…

  7. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition from Language Input and from Form-Focused Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia

    2009-01-01

    Interest in L2 vocabulary learning and teaching started long before the nineteen-eighties (for references to earlier studies, see Rob Waring's database http://www1.harenet.ne.jp/~waring/vocab/vocrefs/vocref.html) but it declined with the advent of generative linguistics to the point of discrimination and neglect (Meara 1980). In 1986, I argued…

  8. Business Students' Reading Skills Related to Those Required for Use of Database Software Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, B. June

    1986-01-01

    A test was given that (1) assessed business students' ability to read materials from microcomputer database software manuals and (2) assessed their knowledge of technical vocabulary terms from the manuals. Test results revealed that the students' technical reading and vocabulary skills were considerably below those they would need to use…

  9. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  10. Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Umbel, V M; Pearson, B Z; Fernández, M C; Oller, D K

    1992-08-01

    Receptive vocabulary of Hispanic children in Miami was tested in both English and Spanish with complementary standardized tests, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) and the Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody (TVIP-H). 105 bilingual first graders, of middle to high socioeconomic status relative to national norms, were divided according to the language(s) spoken in their homes. Both groups, whether they spoke only Spanish in the home (OSH) or both English and Spanish in the home (ESH), performed near the mean of 100 in Spanish receptive vocabulary (TVIP-H means 97.0 and 96.5); in contrast, ESH group children scored more than 1 SD higher in English than OSH group children (PPVT-R means 88.0 and 69.7, respectively). It appears, therefore, that learning 2 languages at once does not harm receptive language development in the language of origin, while it does lay the groundwork for superior performance in the majority language. Furthermore, an analysis of translation equivalents, items shared by both tests, shows that a statistically significant portion of bilingual children's lexical knowledge does not overlap in their 2 languages and is therefore not reflected in single-language scores.

  11. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  13. Identifying and Activating Receptive Vocabulary by an Online Vocabulary Survey and an Online Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ivy Chuhui; Kawai, Goh

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to identify and activate the Receptive Vocabulary (RV) of English Language Learners (ELLs), we designed (1) an online five category multiple-choice vocabulary survey that more quickly measures vocabulary knowledge, and (2) an online creative writing task where ELLs chose RV items identified in step (1). While RV items of highly proficient…

  14. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  15. Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolby, Julian; Fokoue, Achille; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Schonberg, Edith; Srinivas, Kavitha

    A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous, manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to the IT (Information Technology) domain, taking 58 Gartner analyst reports and using two specific LOD sources - DBpedia and Freebase. We show initial findings that address the generalizability of these techniques for vocabulary extraction in new domains, such as the energy industry.

  16. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  17. Nonparametric Estimation of the Plausibility Functions of the Distractors of Vocabulary Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1994-01-01

    The Level-11 vocabulary subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills was analyzed using a two-stage latent trait approach and data set of 2,356 examinees, approximately 11 years of age. It is concluded that the nonparametric approach leads to efficient estimation of the latent trait. (SLD)

  18. EXPLORATORY STUDIES IN THE USE OF PICTURES AND SOUND FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSSLIGHT, J.H.; KALE, S.V.

    THE EFFECTS OF A NUMBER OF VARIABLES BASIC TO THE LEARNING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY WERE REPORTED. THE LANGUAGE SELECTED FOR LEARNING WAS RUSSIAN. SUBJECTS IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT WERE 409 STUDENTS FROM AN INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY COURSE. FROM AN ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY, A PRELIMINARY LIST OF COMMON VERBS WAS SELECTED WHICH REPRESENTED AN…

  19. Bilingual Word Power. Research Based Vocabulary Strategies for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laura Chris

    2004-01-01

    English language learners may bring linguistic knowledge in the area of cognates to their learning of new English words, but they also will have special vocabulary learning needs that English speakers will not. They need to learn basic, survival words that English speakers begin school knowing, words such as house, school, walk, and eat. They also…

  20. THE VOCABULARY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TYPING AND STENOGRAPHIC TRAINING, RESEARCH FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEST, LEONARD J.

    THE SILVERTHORN BASIC VOCABULARY OF WRITTEN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WAS REANALYZED IN ORDER TO FURNISH ACCURATE DIFFICULTY INDEXES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL AND TEST MATERIALS FOR STENOGRAPHERS AND TYPISTS. AMONG THE 11,055 DIFFERENT WORDS IN THE REANALYZED LIST, 109 OCCUR AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY 1,000 WORDS. MEAN SYLLABIC INTENSITY (NUMBER OF SPEECH…

  1. Health Vocabulary, 1966. Guide for Translation into the Language, Chinyanja, of the Host Country, Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This vocabulary guide is an alphabetical listing of English words and their equivalent in Chinyanja. A general list of verbs is included, as well as commonly used expressions for planned conversation. The basic expressions are intended for use in learning the health needs and problems of the Malawi community. (NCR)

  2. Enriching Vocabulary = Better Readers, Writers, Speakers, and Listeners. A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Norman E.

    Stressing language development as the prime component of all learning, this resource book presents suggestions to teachers to aid them in developing children's descriptive language. Basic to the described activities is the concept that vocabulary development is essentially concept development, requires a variety of experiences, and results from…

  3. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  4. Normative adjustments to the D-KEFS trail making test: corrections for education and vocabulary level.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Delis, Dean C; Holdnack, James

    2011-11-01

    The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making Test (TMT), a modification of the original TMT, was created to isolate set-shifting (Letter-Number Switching) from other component skills. This was accomplished by including four baseline conditions (Visual Scanning, Number Sequencing, Letter Sequencing, and Motor Speed) and by placing equal numbers of stimuli in the three sequencing conditions. Given that some studies with the original TMT demonstrated a significant effect of education and intellectual functioning on performance, we utilized the D-KEFS national standardization sample to examine the effects of education and vocabulary level-i.e., Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)-on the D-KEFS TMT. The results indicate a significant effect of these variables on each D-KEFS TMT condition. Normative tables for education- and vocabulary-adjusted scaled scores based on the database from the D-KEFS national normative study were generated.

  5. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  6. Matching Instructional Design with Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, William Dee; Rupley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. The goal of this paper is to reflect on several lessons using research-based vocabulary strategies, and to present think-alouds that detail the steps in matching instructional design with those strategies in order to reach the learning outcome.…

  7. Embedding Vocabulary Instruction into the Art Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrocca, RoseAnn; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how an elementary art specialist scaffolded learning of specific academic vocabulary during a unit on how to create hollow clay ceramic sculptures. Although much has been written recently on how elementary teachers might better teach academic vocabulary in reading and language arts contexts as well as in…

  8. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  9. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  10. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  11. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  12. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  13. Implementing an Online Vocabulary Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition research has shed much light on practical methods for increasing lexical knowledge (Nation, 1994), many foreign language teachers hesitate to implement focused vocabulary-training programs in their classrooms. The reasons most often cited for this hesitation are associated with the difficult tasks of creating,…

  14. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  16. Enhancing Emotional Vocabulary in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers suggestions on enhancing emotional vocabulary in early childhood education settings. A schematic of children's emotional literacy is followed by ways to build emotional vocabulary by teaching directly, teaching incidentally, or utilizing special activities. Suggestions also address teaching children to recognize feelings in…

  17. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  18. Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

  19. Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

  20. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  1. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  2. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  3. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  4. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  5. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  6. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  7. Fostering Academic Vocabulary Use in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun-Mercer, Nicole; Zimmerman, Cheryl Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Though research has established a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic success and identified features to guide the L2 word learner through academic tasks (see Nation, 2013), less is known regarding student perceptions of academic vocabulary and the conscious decision-making process of these learners while they are writing. In…

  8. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  9. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  10. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org.

  11. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org PMID:24951798

  12. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice.

  13. Patterns of similarity and difference between the vocabularies of psychology and other subjects.

    PubMed

    Benjafield, John G

    2014-02-01

    The vocabulary of Anglophone psychology is shared with many other subjects. Previous research using the Oxford English Dictionary has shown that the subjects having the most words in common with psychology are biology, chemistry, computing, electricity, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, music, pathology, philosophy, and physics. The present study presents a database of the vocabularies of these 12 subjects that is similar to one previously constructed for psychology, enabling the histories of the vocabularies of these subjects to be compared with each other as well as with psychology. All subjects have a majority of word senses that are metaphorical. However, psychology is not among the most metaphorical of subjects, a distinction belonging to computing, linguistics, and mathematics. Indeed, the history of other subjects shows an increasing tendency to recycle old words and give them new, metaphorical meanings. The history of psychology shows an increasing tendency to invent new words rather than metaphorical senses of existing words. These results were discussed in terms of the degree to which psychology's vocabulary remains unsettled in comparison with other subjects. The possibility was raised that the vocabulary of psychology is in a state similar to that of chemistry prior to Lavoisier.

  14. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  15. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  16. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  18. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  19. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  1. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency.

  2. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  3. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  4. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  5. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  6. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  7. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  8. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  9. Vocabulary Learning: The Use of Grids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A system of grids to organize related vocabulary words and their associations developed for teacher trainees is illustrated, and other possible uses of the categorizing system, by students, teachers, and translators, are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Extending Students' Vocabulary: Prefixes and Suffixes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a teaching method for vocabulary development based on word formation by means of affixes. Discusses inflectional and derivational suffixes, prefixes, and their meaning. Offers examples of practice materials and of receptive and productive tests. (MES)

  11. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  12. Anesthesia Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Anesthesia Basics Print A ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  13. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  14. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  15. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  16. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  17. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF.

  18. International cooperation between Japanese IUGONET and EU ESPAS projects on development of the metadata database for upper atmospheric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Ritschel, Bernd; Iyemori, Tomohiko; Koyama, Yukinobu; Hori, Tomoaki; Abe, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shinbori, Atsuki; UeNo, Satoru; Sato, Yuka; Yagi, Manabu

    2013-04-01

    The upper atmospheric observational study is the area which an international collaboration is crucially important. The Japanese Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork project (2009-2014), IUGONET, is an inter-university program by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. In order to investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to combine various types of in-situ observations and to accelerate data exchange. The IUGONET institutions have been archiving observed data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. in various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. The IUGONET has been developing systems for searching metadata of these observational data, and the metadata database (MDB) has already been operating since 2011. It adopts DSPACE system for registering metadata, and it uses an extension of the SPASE data model of describing metadata, which is widely used format in the upper atmospheric society including that in USA. The European Union project ESPAS (2011-2015) has the same scientific objects with IUGONET, namely it aims to provide an e-science infrastructure for the retrieval and access to space weather relevant data, information and value added services. It integrates 22 partners in European countries. The ESPAS also plans to adopt SPASE model for defining their metadata, but search system is different. Namely, in spite of the similarity of the data model, basic system ideas and techniques of the system and web portal are different between IUGONET and ESPAS. In order to connect the two systems/databases, we are planning to take an ontological method. The SPASE keyword vocabulary, derived from the SPASE data model shall be used as standard for the description of near-earth and space data

  19. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  20. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  1. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  2. Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

  3. Comparing Phonological and Orthographic Vocabulary Size: Do Vocabulary Tests Underestimate the Knowledge of Some Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James; Hopkins, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Any description of what it means to know a word in a foreign language is likely to include recognition of form, both how a word sounds when heard and what it looks like when written. However, tests of vocabulary knowledge focus almost exclusively on the written form of the word. We have little idea of learners' phonological vocabulary knowledge or…

  4. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  5. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  6. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size of ELT Students at EMU in Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…

  7. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  8. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  9. Improving Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Attitudes in 4th Grade Students Through Direct Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Deborah J.

    A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…

  10. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  11. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  12. End-User Training for Sci-Tech Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Issues related to end-user training for scientific and technical online databases are discussed in five articles. Topics covered include instruction in the use of controlled and natural language vocabularies; a planning assessment for end-user searching; the role of the information center in industrial research; training for health care…

  13. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  14. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  15. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  16. Indonesian Basic Course: Volume XIV. Outline of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This 10-unit volume dealing with historical events in Indonesia is used in the advanced phase of the Indonesian Basic Course for United States military personnel. The objectives of the course are: (1) to relate the significant history of the area, (2) to expand the student's vocabulary, and (3) to develop the student's linguistic skills. The ten…

  17. Oregon & Federal Basic Income Tax Return Preparation. Student's Manual 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna, Ed.

    This student manual contains materials for a 20-session course in basic income tax preparation. Each session may include some or all of these components: a reading assignment, a vocabulary list, interview questions pertinent to that session's subject matter, informative/reference materials, problems to work out in class or at home, exercises, and…

  18. Indonesian Basic Course: Volume XIII. Outline of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This 8-unit volume written in Bahasa Indonesian is intended to acquaint United States military personnel studying Bahasa Indonesian with Indonesian geography and geographic terminology. The text, used in the third phase of the Basic Course, aims to: (1) relate significant content about the area, (2) expand the student's vocabulary, and (3) develop…

  19. Communication II: A Basic Report Writer's Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, V., Ed.; Kline, L., Ed.

    This course syllabus presents information on Communications II, a course offered at Pikes Peak Community College to provide students with practice in communication, while emphasizing vocabulary and basic writing techniques. A course outline is first presented, including a course description, a statement of general objectives, and a list of units.…

  20. ARL’S Acoustic Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    1 Heng Tan, Visual Basic /SQL Server Primer, ETN Press, Montoursville, PA (1995), p. 46. Removable Hard Drives 500-CD...the user and the server, the Acoustic Signal Processing Branch has developed an innovative user-friendly Visual Basic front-end program. Residing on...Microsoft Visual Basic , Professional Edition, Version 6.0 was selected as the development language for the database user-interface program

  1. Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    Different kinds of pictorial databases are described with respect to aims, user groups, search possibilities, storage, and distribution. Some specific examples are given for databases used for the following purposes: (1) labor markets for artists; (2) document management; (3) telling a story; (4) preservation (archives and museums); (5) research;…

  2. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  3. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  4. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills In the Adult Basic Education Population

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  5. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  6. Decontextualized language input and preschoolers' vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of using decontextualized language, or language that is removed from the here and now including pretend, narrative, and explanatory talk, with preschool children. The literature on parents' use of decontextualized language is reviewed and results of a longitudinal study of parent decontextualized language input in relation to child vocabulary development are explained. The main findings are that parents who provide their preschool children with more explanations and narrative utterances about past or future events in the input have children with larger vocabularies 1 year later, even with quantity of parent input and child prior vocabulary skill controlled. Recommendations for how to engage children in decontextualized language conversations are provided.

  7. Unhappy with internal corporate search? : learn tips and tricks for building a controlled vocabulary ontology.

    SciTech Connect

    Arpin, Bettina Karin Schimanski; Jones, Brian S.; Bemesderfer, Joy; Ralph, Mark E.; Miller, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Are your employees unhappy with internal corporate search? Frequent complaints include: too many results to sift through; results are unrelated/outdated; employees aren't sure which terms to search for. One way to improve intranet search is to implement a controlled vocabulary ontology. Employing this takes the guess work out of searching, makes search efficient and precise, educates employees about the lingo used within the corporation, and allows employees to contribute to the corpus of terms. It promotes internal corporate search to rival its superior sibling, internet search. We will cover our experiences, lessons learned, and conclusions from implementing a controlled vocabulary ontology at Sandia National Laboratories. The work focuses on construction of this ontology from the content perspective and the technical perspective. We'll discuss the following: (1) The tool we used to build a polyhierarchical taxonomy; (2) Examples of two methods of indexing the content: traditional 'back of the book' and folksonomy word-mapping; (3) Tips on how to build future search capabilities while building the basic controlled vocabulary; (4) How to implement the controlled vocabulary as an ontology that mimics Google's search suggestions; (5) Making the user experience more interactive and intuitive; and (6) Sorting suggestions based on preferred, alternate and related terms using SPARQL queries. In summary, future improvements will be presented, including permitting end-users to add, edit and remove terms, and filtering on different subject domains.

  8. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  9. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-04

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  10. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  11. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  12. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  13. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  14. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  15. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  16. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  17. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  18. Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

  19. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  1. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  2. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  3. Six Vocabulary Activities for the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of vocabulary among English language learners. The author first defines what a "word" means, then discusses five aspects of vocabulary knowledge. Drawing on Swain (1993), the author identifies three main goals of vocabulary learning. The rest of the article is devoted to the description of six…

  4. Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

  5. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook…

  6. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  7. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremmel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary test development often appears to be based on the design principles of previous tests, without questioning or empirically examining the assumptions underlying those principles. Given the current proliferation of vocabulary tests, it seems timely for the field of vocabulary testing to problematize some of those traditionalised…

  8. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  9. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  10. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  11. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  12. Processing Academic Language through Four Corners Vocabulary Chart Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh

    2016-01-01

    4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…

  13. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  14. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  15. The Funnybone Family Saga. [Level 1, Books 1-5; Level 2, Books 6-10.] XYZ-Rated: For Adults Only. Basic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John

    A series of 10 high-interest, low-vocabulary reading books for adult basic education students is presented. The series begins with very simple vocabulary and gets progressively more difficult from book to book. Each book contains from four to six stories which focus on the lives and relationships of a variety of humorous characters living in a…

  16. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for

  17. IEDA Thesaurus: A Controlled Vocabulary for IEDA Systems to Advance Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Song, L.; Hsu, L.; Carter, M. R.; Ferrini, V. L.; Ash, J.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) is a community-based facility that serves to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational geoscience data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. Many dedicated systems such as the Petrological Database (PetDB), Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Data Coordination Center for the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP-DCC), etc., under the umbrella of the IEDA framework, were developed to support the preservation, discovery, retrieval, and analysis of a wide range of observational field and analytical data types from diverse communities. However, it is currently difficult to maintain consistency of indexing content within IEDA schema, and perform unified or precise searching of the data in these diverse systems as each system maintains separate vocabularies, hierarchies, authority files, or sub taxonomies. We present here the IEDA Thesaurus, a system, which combines existing separate controlled vocabularies from the different systems under the IEDA schema into a single master controlled vocabulary, also introducing some new top facets for future long-term use. The IEDA thesaurus contains structured terminology for petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, oceanography, geochronology, and volcanology, and other general metadata fields. 18 top facets (also called 'top categories') are defined, including equipment, geographic gazetteer, geologic ages, geologic units, materials, etc. The terms of the thesaurus are cross validated with others popular geoscience vocabularies such as GeoRef Thesaurus, U.S. Geological Survey Library Classification System, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), and Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. The thesaurus is organized along with the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, and is published using

  18. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  19. Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

  20. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  1. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  2. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  3. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information. PMID:21347024

  4. Basic Language Skills and Young Children's Understanding of Causal Connections during Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Lile, Jacquelyn; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of basic language skills for individual differences in preschoolers' understanding of causal connections. Assessments of basic language skills, expressive vocabulary, phonological processing, and receptive language comprehension were examined in relation to the production of causal connections in a storytelling…

  5. The Role of Perception, Language, and Preference in the Developmental Acquisition of Basic Color Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, N. J.; Mullen, K. T.

    2005-01-01

    When learning basic color vocabulary, young children show a selective delay in the acquisition of brown and gray relative to other basic color terms. In this study, we first establish the robustness of this finding and then investigate the extent to which perception, language, and color preference may influence color conceptualization.…

  6. Apple Treats. BASIC Classroom Computing Featuring Hands-On Activities and Pencil/Paper Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Developed as an introduction to computer programming using an Apple microcomputer, this document presents teachers and students with: (1) essential vocabulary used in the BASIC language; (2) syntax; and (3) programming techniques. Simple hands-on activities designed to guide the learner through beginning BASIC programming skills and fundamental…

  7. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., "love of those who are like themselves"), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members' future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members' future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support.

  8. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  9. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  10. Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq

    Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

  11. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  12. Children's Productive Use of Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Shufeng; Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Miller, Brian; Jadallah, May; Sun, Jingjing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Scott, Theresa; Hsu, Yu-Li; Zhang, Xin; Latawiec, Beata; Grabow, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Instructional influences on productive use of academic vocabulary were investigated among 460 mostly African American and Latina/o fifth graders from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving low-income families. Students received a 6-week unit on wolf management involving collaborative group work (CG) or direct instruction (DI). The big…

  13. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  14. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  15. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  16. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  17. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

  18. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  19. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  20. Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

  1. Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

  2. Student Engagement in Learning Vocabulary with CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring that students are "engaged" in learning is a key concern for instructors across many fields. With regards to vocabulary in language learning, teachers should provide students with tasks which promote high levels of motivation and resultant engagement. The recent trend of online systems which have dynamic, collaborative, and even…

  3. Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…

  4. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  5. Word Learning in Children with Vocabulary Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L.

    2005-01-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SU) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks…

  6. American National Standard Vocabulary for Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Standards Inst., Inc., New York, NY.

    The purpose of this standard is to present an organized body of concepts and their corresponding terms relevant to the field of information processing, and to identify relationships among the concepts and among terms. The body of the vocabulary is the collection of the entries. The symbol "(SC1)" is used to identify definitions agreed…

  7. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  8. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  9. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  11. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  12. Overcoming Challenges in Learning Probability Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.; Butler, Jaime; Nelson, Delmar

    2016-01-01

    Students can struggle to understand and use terms that describe probabilities. Such struggles lead to difficulties comprehending classroom conversations. In this article, we describe some specific misunderstandings a group of students (ages 11-12) held in regard to vocabulary such as "certain", "likely" and…

  13. Malawian Students' Meanings for Probability Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazima, Mercy

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses findings of a study that investigated Malawian students' meanings for some probability vocabulary. The study explores the meanings that, prior to instruction, students assign to some words that are commonly used in teaching probability. The aim is to have some insight into the meanings that students bring to the classroom. The…

  14. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction in a Remedial Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2005-01-01

    Six evidence-based principles for remedial vocabulary instruction are developed and described. Implementation of the principles was undertaken by twenty tutors, all of who were experienced classroom teachers, in a university clinical reading program that used one-to-one instruction. Successful strategies and the tutor's reactions are described…

  16. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  17. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  18. Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaie, Saeed; Ketabi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm…

  19. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

  20. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Bishop, M Denise

    2015-09-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge assessed using an identical set of 23 words to control for differential knowledge of specific vocabulary items. Results indicated that a single-factor model that encompassed morphological and vocabulary knowledge provided the best fit to the data. Finally, explanatory item response modeling was used to investigate sources of variance in the vocabulary and morphological awareness tasks we administered. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed.

  1. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  2. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  3. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  4. MANULEX: a grade-level lexical database from French elementary school readers.

    PubMed

    Lété, Bernard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Colé, Pascale

    2004-02-01

    This article presents MANULEX, a Web-accessible database that provides grade-level word frequency lists of nonlemmatized and lemmatized words (48,886 and 23,812 entries, respectively) computed from the 1.9 million words taken from 54 French elementary school readers. Word frequencies are provided for four levels: first grade (G1), second grade (G2), third to fifth grades (G3-5), and all grades (G1-5). The frequencies were computed following the methods described by Carroll, Davies, and Richman (1971) and Zeno, Ivenz, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995), with four statistics at each level (F, overall word frequency; D, index of dispersion across the selected readers; U, estimated frequency per million words; and SFI, standard frequency index). The database also provides the number of letters in the word and syntactic category information. MANULEX is intended to be a useful tool for studying language development through the selection of stimuli based on precise frequency norms. Researchers in artificial intelligence can also use it as a source of information on natural language processing to simulate written language acquisition in children. Finally, it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists.

  5. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  6. An impact assessment and critical appraisal of the ISO standard for wheelchair vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Michael J; Henderson, Graham I

    2013-07-01

    Wheelchairs are, for users, a primary means of mobility and an important means of performing activities of daily living. A common, accepted vocabulary is required to support and foster evidence-based practice and communication amongst professionals and with users. The international standard for wheelchair vocabulary, ISO 7176-26:2007, specifies terms and definitions with the purpose of eliminating confusion from the duplication or inappropriate use of terms. The aim of this study was to assess its impact and, based on that assessment, critically appraise the standard. Two databases were searched returning 189 and 283 unique articles with wheelchair in the title published between 2004-2006 and 2009-2011 respectively. Compliance, based on title and abstract usage, was poor, ranging from 0 to 50% correct usage, with no significant difference between pre- and post-publication. A review of prescription forms found only 9% correct usage. A survey of NHS wheelchair managers found that only 30% were positive that they had a copy despite 67% agreeing that the standard is important. The ISO wheelchair vocabulary standard was found not to be achieving its stated purpose. It is recommended that it be revised taking into account the findings of this study including the need for targeted dissemination and increased awareness.

  7. Random Drift versus Selection in Academic Vocabulary: An Evolutionary Analysis of Published Keywords

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example. PMID:18728786

  8. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  9. The Basic Course: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demo, Penny

    Defining basic speech communication courses as those public speaking, interpersonal, or communication courses that treat fundamental communication concepts, this annotated bibliography reflects the current thought of speech educators on the basic course. The bibliography consists of 27 citations, all of which are drawn from the ERIC database. (SKC)

  10. Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    monolingual (a few thousands) is an obstacle to a full generalization of the inventories, then moved to the multilingual case. In the approach towards the...language. of multilingual models than the monolingual models, and it was specifically observed in the test with Spanish utterances. In fact...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010389 TITLE: Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition

  11. Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

  12. Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students.

    PubMed

    Portocarrero, José S; Burright, Richard G; Donovick, Peter J

    2007-03-01

    We assessed the English vocabulary and verbal fluency of college students who were either bilinguals who were born abroad and spoke English or monolingual speakers of English. We examined the relationship between age of arrival to the U.S. of bilinguals and their English vocabulary. The bilinguals' performance on English vocabulary was in the average range. However, despite arriving to the U.S. at a relatively young age, and having sufficient command of English to attend a competitive university, the bilinguals had lower receptive and expressive English vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Age of arrival was moderately correlated with English vocabulary scores. The younger the bilingual students were when they arrived to the U.S., the better their English vocabulary. Both groups had similar performance on phonetic fluency. However, the bilingual group performed significantly lower in semantic fluency. This pattern of performance in verbal fluency is consistent with that found in previous studies.

  13. Receptive vocabulary analysis in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Abbeduto, Leonard; Conners, Frances A

    2016-08-01

    The present study is an in-depth examination of receptive vocabulary in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison to control groups of individuals of similar nonverbal ability with typical development (TD) and non-specific etiology intellectual disability (ID). Verb knowledge was of particular interest, as it is known to be a predictor of later syntactic development. Fifty participants with DS, aged 10-21 years, 29 participants with ID, 10-21 years, and 29 participants with TD, 4-9 years, completed measures of receptive vocabulary (PPVT-4), nonverbal ability (Leiter-R), and phonological memory (Nonword Repetition subtest of the CTOPP). Groups were compared on percentage correct of noun, verb and attribute items on the PPVT-4. Results revealed that on verb items, the participants with ID performed significantly better than both participants with DS and TD, even when overall receptive vocabulary ability and phonological memory were held constant. Groups with DS and TD showed the same pattern of lexical knowledge, performing better on nouns than both verbs and attributes. In contrast, the group with ID performed similarly on nouns and verbs, but worse on attributes.

  14. Databases and the Professional Evaluator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Stephen J.

    The role of the professional evaluator within a school district is essentially to provide data for use in informed decision making. In School District 4J in Eugene, Oregon, this role involves performing tasks in three basic categories: (1) maintaining and interpreting ongoing databases, (2) finding and analyzing information to answer specific…

  15. Begin: Online Database Searching Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Erica K.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of online databases, school library media specialists are encouraged to introduce students to online searching. Four books that would help media specialists gain a basic background are reviewed and it is noted that although they are very technical, they can be adapted to individual needs. (EM)

  16. Searching NCBI Databases Using Entrez.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Gretchen; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2011-10-01

    One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two basic protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An alternate protocol builds upon the first basic protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The support protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.

  17. Searching NCBI databases using Entrez.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2008-12-01

    One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two Basic Protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An Alternate Protocol builds upon the first Basic Protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The Support Protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.

  18. Searching NCBI databases using Entrez.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Gretchen; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2011-06-01

    One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two basic protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An alternate protocol builds upon the first basic protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The support protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.

  19. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473

  20. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    PubMed

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  1. Plausibility Functions of Iowa Vocabulary Test Items Estimated by the Simple Sum Procedure of the Conditional P.D.F. Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Simple sum procedure of the conditional PDF approach (plausiblity of distractor function) combined with the normal approach method was applied for estimating the plausibility functions of the distractors of the Level II vocabulary subtest items of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. In so doing, the normal ogive model was adopted for the correct…

  2. Building a Database for a Quantitative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, C. Joseph; Kleinhammer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A database can greatly benefit a quantitative analysis. The defining characteristic of a quantitative risk, or reliability, model is the use of failure estimate data. Models can easily contain a thousand Basic Events, relying on hundreds of individual data sources. Obviously, entering so much data by hand will eventually lead to errors. Not so obviously entering data this way does not aid linking the Basic Events to the data sources. The best way to organize large amounts of data on a computer is with a database. But a model does not require a large, enterprise-level database with dedicated developers and administrators. A database built in Excel can be quite sufficient. A simple spreadsheet database can link every Basic Event to the individual data source selected for them. This database can also contain the manipulations appropriate for how the data is used in the model. These manipulations include stressing factors based on use and maintenance cycles, dormancy, unique failure modes, the modeling of multiple items as a single "Super component" Basic Event, and Bayesian Updating based on flight and testing experience. A simple, unique metadata field in both the model and database provides a link from any Basic Event in the model to its data source and all relevant calculations. The credibility for the entire model often rests on the credibility and traceability of the data.

  3. The role of primary caregiver vocabulary knowledge in the development of bilingual children’s vocabulary skills

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the impact of environmental factors (SES, the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Method We measured vocabulary skills of 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 7 who spoke Spanish as their native language and English as their second language. Data related to language environment in the home, specifically the percent of language exposure to each language and SES, were obtained from primary caregiver interviews. Primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge was measured directly using expressive and receptive vocabulary assessments in both languages. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge, the child’s percent exposure to each language, and SES were robust predictors of children’s English, but not Spanish, vocabulary skills. Conclusions These findings indicate that in the early school age, primary caregiver vocabulary skills have a stronger impact on bilingual children’s second-language than native-language vocabulary. PMID:24824882

  4. The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yasuko Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…

  5. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    PubMed

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  6. Database Handling Software and Scientific Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabaldon, Diana J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the general characteristics of database management systems and file systems. Also gives a basic framework for evaluating such software and suggests characteristics that should be considered when buying software for specific scientific applications. A list of vendor addresses for popular database management systems is included. (JN)

  7. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  8. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  9. Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil

    2010-01-01

    "I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

  10. Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Adel M.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigated Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) English Language Learners used; and strategies they thought were effective to them in terms of language proficiency. Using an online survey, 121 participants responded to statements regarding their usage of VLSs. Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low…

  11. Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based on…

  12. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  13. Is Vocabulary Growth Influenced by the Relations among Words in a Language Learner's Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network.…

  14. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  15. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

  16. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  17. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

    A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

  18. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  19. Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

  20. Minority Language Speaking Students' First and Second Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. Normann

    1987-01-01

    Study of Danish language needs of an immigrant student leads to the assertion that concepts pertaining to first- and second-language vocabulary need revision, particularly regarding certain minority languages and certain fields, including the distinction between "active" and "passive" vocabulary and first-language and…

  1. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  2. Cooperative vs. Individual Learning Effects on Vocabulary Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Georgene

    A study examined the relative merits of individual and cooperative methods of vocabulary instruction in the seventh grade. It was hypothesized that socialization would act as a motivating force among these adolescents, and that those involved in paired instruction would show increased vocabulary retention. Students in both control (individual) and…

  3. Vocabulary Memorization Strategies among Arab Postgraduate English Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qaysi, Fouad Hussein; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated vocabulary memorization strategies in the EFL context, but few researches have been conducted on the types of memorization strategies used by the Arab students in Malaysia. Thus, this study investigates the types of vocabulary memorization strategies employed by the Arab students in the Intensive English course at…

  4. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  5. Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…

  6. Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

  7. Procedural Vocabulary: Lexical Signalling of Conceptual Relations in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Maria Jose Luzon

    1999-01-01

    Explores the function of items of procedural vocabulary as signals of conceptual relations in scientific discourse. Procedural vocabulary consists of lexical items that do not belong to any particular schema. Develops a taxonomy of procedural items in terms of the contextual relations they create between content-bearing words, classifying the…

  8. Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

  9. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  10. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  11. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Reading an Authentic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that second/foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary from reading. This study was designed to examine whether advanced EFL learners can acquire vocabulary incidentally from reading an authentic text. Eighteen first year English major students read and listened to the first eight chapters of Pride and…

  12. High School Chinese: Second Year Text, Vocabulary, and Character Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This second year volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A student workbook has also been designed (see FL 002 777 ). The text provided dialogues and practice in vocabulary, translation, questions, writing, and language patterns. Ideas for homework are also included. The book is divided into…

  13. Dramaturging Non-Realism: Creating a New Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring-Smith, Tori

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the experiences of a professional and academic dramaturg as she learns how to respond to non-realist plays. Proposes that non-realism is not simply the absence of realism but is a form in itself. Presents a vocabulary for non-realist texts. Notes that to create this vocabulary the features of its style should be defined. Discusses the…

  14. Can Retrieval Opportunities Increase Vocabulary Learning during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Because reading for meaning only can lead to low rates of second language (L2) vocabulary learning and because previous research has demonstrated the benefits of word retrieval opportunities for intentional L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2007; McNamara & Healy, 1995a, Experiment 2; Royer, 1973), the present study assessed the effect of…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary through Games--A Sanguine Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anil, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is predominant in improving one's communicative skill. Language is more powerful when it is being used perfectly. Teachers should consider the background of learners and aid them to learn and develop their vocabulary in many interesting ways especially through games. This paper deals with a productive and a logical study, done on a set…

  16. Mathematics Vocabulary and Its Effect on Student Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessman, Jennifer; Myszczak, Beverly

    This action research project describes a program for improving student comprehension of mathematical vocabulary. The targeted population consisted of two classes of fifth grade students from two elementary schools located in the suburbs of a large metropolitan area in Illinois. The problem of poor mathematical vocabulary was documented through…

  17. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  18. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  19. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  20. Sex Differences in Expressive Vocabulary of Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Sue B.; Spencer, W. Boyd

    1983-01-01

    The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test was administered to 56 males and 52 females from 45 to 80 months of age to investigate sex differences in the expressive vocabulary of Head Start children. Data indicated no significant sex differences. (Author/PN)

  1. Reading for Pleasure and Progress in Vocabulary and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Brown, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines inequalities in attainment in vocabulary and mathematics at age 16 for a nationally representative cohort of people born in Britain in 1970 (the 1970 British Cohort Study). Our analytical sample is n = 3,583 cohort members who completed vocabulary and mathematics tests at age 16. We explore whether inequalities as a result of…

  2. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  3. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juriah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…

  4. Conceptualization of Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Academic Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…

  5. A Framework for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…

  6. An Effective Method for Building Meaning Vocabulary in Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Boote, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary to primary grade children is essential. Previous studies of teaching vocabulary (word meanings) using story books in the primary grades reported gains of 20%-25% of word meanings taught. The present studies concern possible influences on word meaning acquisition during instruction (Study 1) and increasing the percentage and…

  7. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  8. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  9. Comparative Usefulness of Online and Traditional Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring vocabulary in L2 is rather a difficult and demanding process and most of the language learners wish to know which vocabulary learning method and/or activity is more beneficial or even the best one; however, the responses to this question vary and there is no clear-cut answer though there are some various suggestions and conclusions drawn…

  10. Effect of Strategy Training on Vocabulary in EFL Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…

  11. Metacognitive Strategy Training and Vocabulary Learning of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Na

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to tap the relationship between metacognitive strategy training and vocabulary learning of college students through a five week training program. It aims to answer the following question: Can metacognitive strategy training facilitate vocabulary learning of Chinese college students? Both questionnaire and tests were used in the…

  12. Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    Word is one of the most important components of a natural language. Speech is meaningful because of the meanings of words. Vocabulary acquired in one's mother tongue is learned consciously in a foreign language in non-native settings. Learning vocabulary in a system based on grammar is generally neglected or learned in conventional ways. This…

  13. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  14. The Role of Experience in Learning Science Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Carol V.; Contreras, Norma J.

    Comparing traditional to experiential instruction, a study investigated whether teaching content area vocabulary using hands-on experiences and teacher/student interaction would result in greater vocabulary knowledge and better comprehension of a related text than conventional dictionary work. Subjects, 45 fourth grade students from a chapter 1…

  15. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

  16. Vocabulary Learning through an Online Computerized Flashcard Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Stuart; Hogg, Nicholas; Rush, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that paired-associate learning is an effective way to acquire second language vocabulary. However, much research in the field has measured small-scale vocabulary learning. This is due to the methods which learners used to conduct paired-associate learning: paper flash cards. This project sought to measure vocabulary…

  17. Fragmentation and Consolidation: Recent Articles on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broady, Elspeth

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…

  18. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…

  19. French Vocabulary in "Encore Tricolore": Do Pupils Have a Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschichold, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…

  20. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  1. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  2. Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

  3. Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  5. A Study: The Relationship of Personality Type to Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covner, Thelma Crockin

    To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…

  6. A Context-Based Strategy for Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deanna L.

    2008-01-01

    Students in Deanna L. Nelson's high school classroom study vocabulary gradually over a period of time. Students begin by collecting words from readings and listing them on a designated whiteboard. They prepare practice quizzes to exchange with peers and engage in frequent vocabulary discussions that emphasize recognition of context clues and other…

  7. A New Receptive Vocabulary Size Test for French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…

  8. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  9. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  10. Using a Generative Vocabulary Matrix in the Learning Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    As teachers organize classroom schedules to meet curricular demands and time constraints, they strive to seek ways to motivate and sustain student engagement in quality vocabulary instruction, enjoyable learning experiences, and interesting informational books. This article addresses these concerns and describes a vocabulary acquisition strategy…

  11. Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

  12. A Linguistic Approach to Social Studies Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jerry L.; Ruff, Thomas P.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using a linguistic approach to supplement teaching social studies vocabulary. Highlights advantages of teaching vocabulary through etymological analysis, including greater student interest, more precise definitions, and the approach's transferability. Disadvantages include the complexity of some prefix meanings. Concludes that this…

  13. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    PubMed

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  14. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  15. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  16. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  17. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  18. The Effects of English Vocabulary Mastery on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockhold, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines socioeconomic status (SES), English language proficiency (ELP), vocabulary proficiency (VP), and math proficiency (MP) of students to determine if SES, as determined by the Free and Reduced Lunch Program (FRL), as well as English language proficiency (ELP) and vocabulary proficiency (VP), as measured by CELLA scale scores and…

  19. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

  20. Thai Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 10 volumes comprise Lessons 1-80 in an introductory course in Thai. The general format, as presented in the first unit, consists of (1) a question-answer pattern drill, which introduces new grammatical structures, (2) a dialog, containing the new structures and vocabulary, (3) a recombination dialog, presenting the new words and patterns in…

  1. Albanian: Basic Radio Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been designed as a supplement to a course in Albanian developed by the Defense Language Institute. The emphasis in this text is placed on radio communications instruction. The volume is divided into five exercises, each of which contains a vocabulary, dictation, and an air-to-ground communications procedure conducted in Albanian…

  2. A data analysis expert system for large established distributed databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnacek, Anne-Marie; An, Y. Kim; Ryan, J. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A design for a natural language database interface system, called the Deductively Augmented NASA Management Decision support System (DANMDS), is presented. The DANMDS system components have been chosen on the basis of the following considerations: maximal employment of the existing NASA IBM-PC computers and supporting software; local structuring and storing of external data via the entity-relationship model; a natural easy-to-use error-free database query language; user ability to alter query language vocabulary and data analysis heuristic; and significant artificial intelligence data analysis heuristic techniques that allow the system to become progressively and automatically more useful.

  3. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  4. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  5. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  6. Interactive Database of Pulsar Flux Density Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralewska, O.; Krzeszowski, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.

    2012-12-01

    The number of astronomical observations is steadily growing, giving rise to the need of cataloguing the obtained results. There are a lot of databases, created to store different types of data and serve a variety of purposes, e. g. databases providing basic data for astronomical objects (SIMBAD Astronomical Database), databases devoted to one type of astronomical object (ATNF Pulsar Database) or to a set of values of the specific parameter (Lorimer 1995 - database of flux density measurements for 280 pulsars on the frequencies up to 1606 MHz), etc. We found that creating an online database of pulsar flux measurements, provided with facilities for plotting diagrams and histograms, calculating mean values for a chosen set of data, filtering parameter values and adding new measurements by the registered users, could be useful in further studies on pulsar spectra.

  7. The Effects of Morphemic Vocabulary Instruction on Prefix Vocabulary and Sentence Comprehension for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shannon Harris; Lignugaris-Kraft, Benjamin; Forbush, David E.

    2016-01-01

    A limited vocabulary is a substantial obstacle to success in reading comprehension (Graves, 2004). A morphemic approach to vocabulary instruction may be an effective method for increasing student outcomes in both word knowledge and reading comprehension (Kuo & Anderson, 2006; Reed, 2008). The purpose of this research was to examine the effects…

  8. The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

  9. Reading English as a Second Language with Vocabulary Definitions: Cognitive Load Effects on Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cognitive load management using vocabulary definitions in reading passages for readers of English as a second language (ESL) with different levels of expertise who were attending school in Hong Kong. Experiment 1 found that vocabulary definitions integrated within a passage (integrated…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Typically Developing Language and Low Language Skills: Comparing Embedded and Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capellini, Cara S.

    2010-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…

  11. Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

  12. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  13. Realising Personalised Vocabulary Learning in the Hong Kong Context via a Personalised Curriculum Featuring "Student-Selected Vocabulary"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Mui Lan; Ma, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a personalised instructional strategy, "student-selected vocabulary," to facilitate secondary school students' vocabulary building. It then reports how this personalised instructional strategy was implemented and evaluated through a teacher-led intervention study of 57 low-achieving Hong Kong secondary school…

  14. Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing T.; Tse, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there have been few systematic efforts to develop and evaluate CHVs. This paper presents the point of view that CHV development is practical and necessary for extending research on informatics-based tools to facilitate consumer health information seeking, retrieval, and understanding. In support of the view, we briefly describe a distributed, bottom-up approach for (1) exploring the relationship between common consumer health expressions and professional concepts and (2) developing an open-access, preliminary (draft) “first-generation” CHV. While recognizing the limitations of the approach (e.g., not addressing psychosocial and cultural factors), we suggest that such exploratory research and development will yield insights into the nature of consumer health expressions and assist developers in creating tools and applications to support consumer health information seeking. PMID:16221948

  15. Word learning in children with vocabulary deficits.

    PubMed

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L

    2005-04-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks assessed how much the children had learned about the words' phonological form and semantic properties after 6 repetitions (Time 1) and again after 12 repetitions (Time 2) of the words in each context. The SLI group performed significantly worse than the CAC group at both Time 1 and Time 2 on all measures of the words presented in both contexts. They performed similarly to the VAC group (who were on average 21/2 years younger) on Time 1 and Time 2 measures from both contexts, except for the Naming task at Time 2, on which their performance was significantly lower. These findings suggest that children with vocabulary deficits have difficulties with both phonological and semantic aspects of word learning.

  16. Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

  17. Draft secure medical database standard.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, George

    2002-01-01

    Medical database security is a particularly important issue for all Healthcare establishments. Medical information systems are intended to support a wide range of pertinent health issues today, for example: assure the quality of care, support effective management of the health services institutions, monitor and contain the cost of care, implement technology into care without violating social values, ensure the equity and availability of care, preserve humanity despite the proliferation of technology etc.. In this context, medical database security aims primarily to support: high availability, accuracy and consistency of the stored data, the medical professional secrecy and confidentiality, and the protection of the privacy of the patient. These properties, though of technical nature, basically require that the system is actually helpful for medical care and not harmful to patients. These later properties require in turn not only that fundamental ethical principles are not violated by employing database systems, but instead, are effectively enforced by technical means. This document reviews the existing and emerging work on the security of medical database systems. It presents in detail the related problems and requirements related to medical database security. It addresses the problems of medical database security policies, secure design methodologies and implementation techniques. It also describes the current legal framework and regulatory requirements for medical database security. The issue of medical database security guidelines is also examined in detailed. The current national and international efforts in the area are studied. It also gives an overview of the research work in the area. The document also presents in detail the most complete to our knowledge set of security guidelines for the development and operation of medical database systems.

  18. A REVISED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INSTRUCTIONAL LITERACY MATERIAL FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, EDWIN H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ADULT LITERACY AND BASIC EDUCATION MATERIALS IS DIVIDED INTO THREE STAGES -- INTRODUCTORY (LEVELS 1-3), ELEMENTARY (LEVELS 4-6), AND INTERMEDIATE (LEVELS 7-9). SUBJECT MATTER INCLUDES READING (INCLUDING COMPREHENSION), SPELLING, VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR, ARITHMETIC, SOCIAL STUDIES, GEOGRAPHY, CITIZENSHIP AND DAILY…

  19. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  20. Developmental Dyscalculia and Basic Numerical Capacities: A Study of 8--9-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Bevan, Anna; Butterworth, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one 8- and 9-year-old children selected for dyscalculia, reading difficulties or both, were compared to controls on a range of basic number processing tasks. Children with dyscalculia only had impaired performance on the tasks despite high-average performance on tests of IQ, vocabulary and working memory tasks. Children with reading…

  1. Informal Inventory: Lippincott Basic Reading Series; Teacher's Administration Copy and Student's Reading Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Priscilla; Ritt, Marsha

    This reading inventory was constructed from vocabulary lists and stories in Lippincott's Basic Reading Series (1971 edition). Designed to yield an estimate of a child's instructional reading level for grades one through eight, this program comprises reading selections and tests which are individually administered and to which students respond…

  2. Running a Completely Automated Experiment by Microcomputer: An Example Program in BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment which compares the effectiveness of two key word techniques of vocabulary acquisition and gives the original 228-line program which was used. The program is written in BASIC to be run on Commodore CBM or PET machines with one disk drive. Eight references are listed. (MER)

  3. Hitting the MARC: Database Structure for Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calame, Albert P.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the basic database structure that should be in place in library automation systems. Suggests that any library automation system that includes a catalog should be using a database engine that uses the MARC record structure at its basic structure for record storage. Describes the elements of MARC 21 formats--the new standards for the…

  4. Special Report: Part One. Making Sense of Database Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.; Goley, George F., IV

    1984-01-01

    Identifies essential database management terminology and groups the various types of database management programs into three basic categories for discussion of basic features, typical applications, and costs. A table of the leading programs available in each category includes the manufacturer's name and address, hardware requirements, and price…

  5. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research.

  6. The Productive Vocabulary Development in the Written Chinese of the Hong Kong Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal investigation into the productive vocabulary development in the written Chinese of the Cantonese-speaking elementary children in Hong Kong. Data gathering took place using two vocabulary tests which selected prescriptive vocabulary from the textbooks and the 2007 Vocabulary List. The two assessment tests also…

  7. A Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Vocabulary Approach for Young Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Lucia I.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Dina C.; Kainz, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of the language of vocabulary instruction in promoting English vocabulary in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). The authors compared the effectiveness of delivering a single evidence-informed vocabulary approach using English as the language of vocabulary instruction (English culturally responsive…

  8. The Type of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by ESL Students in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgari, Azadeh; Mustapha, Ghazali Bin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that learners will face during the process of second language learning is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary has been recognized as crucial to language use in which insufficient vocabulary knowledge of the learners led to difficulties in second language learning. Thus, in the case of learning the vocabulary in…

  9. The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Dictionary Use on EFL Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Zhifa

    2013-01-01

    The present study mainly investigated the effects of vocabulary knowledge and dictionary use on EFL reading performance. The results show that scores on vocabulary size, specific vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated. Scores on specific vocabulary knowledge are more closely correlated with reading…

  10. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  11. The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

  12. Examining the Classification Accuracy of a Vocabulary Screening Measure with Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Clemens, Nathan H.; Parker, Christopher; Whitcomb, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the classification accuracy of the "Dynamic Indicators of Vocabulary Skills" (DIVS) as a preschool vocabulary screening measure. With a sample of 240 preschoolers, fall and winter DIVS scores were used to predict year-end vocabulary risk using the 25th percentile on the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Third…

  13. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary through Reading as a Social Practice in Saudi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalhab, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The study explores the social practice of vocabulary learning by examining vocabulary teaching techniques employed by teachers, the vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) identified by students as most useful and the ones they felt most competent in using when reading and teachers' and students' attitudes towards learning vocabulary through…

  14. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

  15. Database Search Engines: Paradigms, Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Kenneth; Martens, Lennart; Berven, Frode S; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The first step in identifying proteins from mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics data is to infer peptides from tandem mass spectra, a task generally achieved using database search engines. In this chapter, the basic principles of database search engines are introduced with a focus on open source software, and the use of database search engines is demonstrated using the freely available SearchGUI interface. This chapter also discusses how to tackle general issues related to sequence database searching and shows how to minimize their impact.

  16. Children's inference generation: The role of vocabulary and working memory.

    PubMed

    Currie, Nicola Kate; Cain, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Inferences are crucial to successful discourse comprehension. We assessed the contributions of vocabulary and working memory to inference making in children aged 5 and 6years (n=44), 7 and 8years (n=43), and 9 and 10years (n=43). Children listened to short narratives and answered questions to assess local and global coherence inferences after each one. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed developmental improvements on both types of inference. Although standardized measures of both vocabulary and working memory were correlated with inference making, multiple regression analyses determined that vocabulary was the key predictor. For local coherence inferences, only vocabulary predicted unique variance for the 6- and 8-year-olds; in contrast, none of the variables predicted performance for the 10-year-olds. For global coherence inferences, vocabulary was the only unique predictor for each age group. Mediation analysis confirmed that although working memory was associated with the ability to generate local and global coherence inferences in 6- to 10-year-olds, the effect was mediated by vocabulary. We conclude that vocabulary knowledge supports inference making in two ways: through knowledge of word meanings required to generate inferences and through its contribution to memory processes.

  17. Negative Effects of Learning Spreadsheet Management on Learning Database Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vágner, Anikó; Zsakó, László

    2015-01-01

    A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…

  18. Why Save Your Course as a Relational Database?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gregory C.; Katz, David L.; Davis, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a system that stores course materials for computer-based training programs in a relational database called Of Course! Outlines the basic structure of the databases; explains distinctions between Of Course! and other authoring languages; and describes how data is retrieved from the database and presented to the student. (Author/LRW)

  19. Components for Maintaining and Publishing Earth Science Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is

  20. Automatic speech recognition for large vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Kaemmerer, B.; Kuepper, W.; Lagger, H.

    1985-12-01

    An isolated word recognition system for large vocabularies (1000 to 5000 words) with 98% recognition performance was developed. It was implemented on an array processor for real time requirements. The speech signal is described by short time autocorrelation functions. Short response times as well as high recognition accuracies are achieved by means of a hierarchical classification scheme. A fast preselection stage yields a small number of suitable word candidates to be considered for further classification. To that end a linear segmentation or a segmentation based on acoustic or phonetic cues was performed. High selectivity is obtained by using fine temporal resolution and nonlinear time alignment in the final classification step. By taking into account phonetically identical fragments of words, a distinction between highly confusable words can be made. Speaker adaptation for new system users is performed within a relatively short training phase.

  1. Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

  2. Indexing and Access for Digital Libraries and the Internet: Human, Database, and Domain Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses indexing and access to digital resources, especially on the Internet. Topics include subject searching versus indexing; multiple terms of access; folk classification; basic level terms; folk access; Bradford's Law; Zipfian distributions; vocabulary scalability; the Resnikoff-Dolby 30:1 Rule; domain-specific indexing; and implications for…

  3. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  4. JICST Factual Database JICST DNA Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokizawa, Yoshiko; Abe, Atsushi

    Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of DNA database in October 1988. This database is composed of EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Library and Genetic Sequence Data Bank. The authors outline the database system, data items and search commands. Examples of retrieval session are presented.

  5. Integrating Variances into an Analytical Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    For this project, I enrolled in numerous SATERN courses that taught the basics of database programming. These include: Basic Access 2007 Forms, Introduction to Database Systems, Overview of Database Design, and others. My main job was to create an analytical database that can handle many stored forms and make it easy to interpret and organize. Additionally, I helped improve an existing database and populate it with information. These databases were designed to be used with data from Safety Variances and DCR forms. The research consisted of analyzing the database and comparing the data to find out which entries were repeated the most. If an entry happened to be repeated several times in the database, that would mean that the rule or requirement targeted by that variance has been bypassed many times already and so the requirement may not really be needed, but rather should be changed to allow the variance's conditions permanently. This project did not only restrict itself to the design and development of the database system, but also worked on exporting the data from the database to a different format (e.g. Excel or Word) so it could be analyzed in a simpler fashion. Thanks to the change in format, the data was organized in a spreadsheet that made it possible to sort the data by categories or types and helped speed up searches. Once my work with the database was done, the records of variances could be arranged so that they were displayed in numerical order, or one could search for a specific document targeted by the variances and restrict the search to only include variances that modified a specific requirement. A great part that contributed to my learning was SATERN, NASA's resource for education. Thanks to the SATERN online courses I took over the summer, I was able to learn many new things about computers and databases and also go more in depth into topics I already knew about.

  6. BioWarehouse: a bioinformatics database warehouse toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas J; Pouliot, Yannick; Wagner, Valerie; Gupta, Priyanka; Stringer-Calvert, David WJ; Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Karp, Peter D

    2006-01-01

    Background This article addresses the problem of interoperation of heterogeneous bioinformatics databases. Results We introduce BioWarehouse, an open source toolkit for constructing bioinformatics database warehouses using the MySQL and Oracle relational database managers. BioWarehouse integrates its component databases into a common representational framework within a single database management system, thus enabling multi-database queries using the Structured Query Language (SQL) but also facilitating a variety of database integration tasks such as comparative analysis and data mining. BioWarehouse currently supports the integration of a pathway-centric set of databases including ENZYME, KEGG, and BioCyc, and in addition the UniProt, GenBank, NCBI Taxonomy, and CMR databases, and the Gene Ontology. Loader tools, written in the C and JAVA languages, parse and load these databases into a relational database schema. The loaders also apply a degree of semantic normalization to their respective source data, decreasing semantic heterogeneity. The schema supports the following bioinformatics datatypes: chemical compounds, biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways, proteins, genes, nucleic acid sequences, features on protein and nucleic-acid sequences, organisms, organism taxonomies, and controlled vocabularies. As an application example, we applied BioWarehouse to determine the fraction of biochemically characterized enzyme activities for which no sequences exist in the public sequence databases. The answer is that no sequence exists for 36% of enzyme activities for which EC numbers have been assigned. These gaps in sequence data significantly limit the accuracy of genome annotation and metabolic pathway prediction, and are a barrier for metabolic engineering. Complex queries of this type provide examples of the value of the data warehousing approach to bioinformatics research. Conclusion BioWarehouse embodies significant progress on the database integration problem for

  7. The Vocabulary of English Punctuation (Coming to Terms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the vocabulary of English punctuation terms, largely unchanged since the Norman conquest in 1066. Discusses the meaning of the period, colon, comma, question mark, exclamation point, slash, parenthesis, brackets, asterisk, hyphen, and ampersand. (RS)

  8. Mythomanics: A Painless Dictionary and Vocabulary Skills Builder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Lynn M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a dictionary game, adapted from the game "Balderdash," which builds skills in vocabulary and dictionary use, creative writing, and impromptu speaking, and simultaneously develops the ability to evaluate definitions critically. (MM)

  9. Unleash the Drama! Make Vocabulary and Content Come to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lendvay, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    How can a teacher make learning vocabulary and academic content meaningful to students from diverse cultural backgrounds? The author shares strategies for incorporating dynamic participatory processes into the classroom.

  10. Coupling vocabularies and data structures: lessons from LOINC.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, R. A.; Huff, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Using LOINC's data model for laboratory test result names as a starting point, an extended model is presented, coupled to a more complete vocabulary model. Justifications for this approach are obtained from a matching experiment that attempts to identify SNOMED terms that correspond to the various components of the LOINC names. Some limitations of LOINC's current vocabulary model, exposed during the matching process, are discussed. PMID:8947634

  11. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  12. Using New Vocabulary in Writing: Exploring How Word and Learner Characteristics Relate to the Likelihood That Writers Use Newly Taught Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Christina L.; Kearns, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding academic vocabulary is essential to student success in school. Use of academic vocabulary words in writing is considered one of the strongest measures of how well a reader understands a given word. In theory, willingness to use academic vocabulary in writing indicates the complexity of acquiring representations of the word's…

  13. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language.

  14. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  15. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  16. The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and molecular biology database collection.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Michael Y; Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 172 papers that include descriptions of 56 new molecular biology databases, and updates on 115 databases whose descriptions have been previously published in NAR or other journals. Following the classification that has been introduced last year in order to simplify navigation of the entire issue, these articles are divided into eight subject categories. This year's highlights include RNAcentral, an international community portal to various databases on noncoding RNA; ValidatorDB, a validation database for protein structures and their ligands; SASBDB, a primary repository for small-angle scattering data of various macromolecular complexes; MoonProt, a database of 'moonlighting' proteins, and two new databases of protein-protein and other macromolecular complexes, ComPPI and the Complex Portal. This issue also includes an unusually high number of cancer-related databases and other databases dedicated to genomic basics of disease and potential drugs and drug targets. The size of NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, remained approximately the same, following the addition of 74 new resources and removal of 77 obsolete web sites. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  17. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  18. Creating a VAPEPS database: A VAPEPS tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, George

    1989-01-01

    A procedural method is outlined for creating a Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) Database. The method of presentation employs flowcharts of sequential VAPEPS Commands used to create a VAPEPS Database. The commands are accompanied by explanatory text to the right of the command in order to minimize the need for repetitive reference to the VAPEPS user's manual. The method is demonstrated by examples of varying complexity. It is assumed that the reader has acquired a basic knowledge of the VAPEPS software program.

  19. Non-Agricultural Databases and Thesauri: Retrieval of Subject Headings and Non-Controlled Terms in Relation to Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to assess the utility of non-agriculture-specific information systems, databases, and respective controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in organising and retrieving agricultural information. The purpose is to identify thesaurus-linked tree structures, controlled subject headings/terms (heading words, descriptors), and principal…

  20. Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group.

  1. Transforming the Premier Perspective® Hospital Database into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model

    PubMed Central

    Makadia, Rupa; Ryan, Patrick B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) has been implemented on various claims and electronic health record (EHR) databases, but has not been applied to a hospital transactional database. This study addresses the implementation of the OMOP CDM on the U.S. Premier Hospital database. Methods: We designed and implemented an extract, transform, load (ETL) process to convert the Premier hospital database into the OMOP CDM. Standard charge codes in Premier were mapped between the OMOP version 4.0 Vocabulary and standard charge descriptions. Visit logic was added to impute the visit dates. We tested the conversion by replicating a published study using the raw and transformed databases. The Premier hospital database was compared to a claims database, in regard to prevalence of disease. Findings: The data transformed into the CDM resulted in 1% of the data being discarded due to data errors in the raw data. A total of 91.4% of Premier standard charge codes were mapped successfully to a standard vocabulary. The results of the replication study resulted in a similar distribution of patient characteristics. The comparison to the claims data yields notable similarities and differences amongst conditions represented in both databases. Discussion: The transformation of the Premier database into the OMOP CDM version 4.0 adds value in conducting analyses due to successful mapping of the drugs and procedures. The addition of visit logic gives ordinality to drugs and procedures that wasn’t present prior to the transformation. Comparing conditions in Premier against a claims database can provide an understanding about Premier’s potential use in pharmacoepidemiology studies that are traditionally conducted via claims databases. Conclusion and Next Steps: The conversion of the Premier database into the OMOP CDM 4.0 was completed successfully. The next steps include refinement of vocabularies and mappings and continual maintenance of

  2. Inferring sublexical correspondences from sight vocabulary: evidence from 6- and 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M; Masterson, J; Dixon, M; Quinlan, P

    1999-05-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate 6-to-7-year-old children's ability to acquire knowledge of sublexical correspondences between print and sound from their reading experience. A computer database containing the printed word vocabulary of children taking part in the experiment was compiled and used to devise stimuli controlled for grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) frequency and rime neighbourhood consistency according to the children's reading experience. Knowledge of GPC rules and rime units was compared by asking children to read aloud three types of nonword varying in regularity of GPC and consistency of rime pronunciation. Results supported the view that children can acquire knowledge of both GPC rules and rime units from their reading experience. GPC rule strength affects the likelihood of a GPC response; rime consistency affects the likelihood of a rime response.

  3. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  4. Geoscientific Vocabularies and Linked Data at The British Geological Survey - progress and pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.; Heaven, R.

    2013-12-01

    The British Geological Survey makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to promote standardisation and interoperability between its databases and other digital information systems. Many of our vocabularies are published and searchable at http://www.bgs.ac.uk/data/vocabularies/home.html/. There is a movement to ';open up' government data in both the US and UK. In the UK this is promoted by data.gov.uk. Some view linked data as the best way to share and connect disparate data, information and knowledge, in order to develop a ';Web of Data'. Linked data facilitate connections between data sets, and lower the barriers to accessing data that must otherwise be discovered and exploited using other methods. Recently there has been a rapid increase in the rate of publication of linked data, this increase currently being estimated at 300% per year. In the past 2 years we have undertaken a pilot study to publish some of our authoritative vocabularies as linked data. This study has focussed primarily on publishing BGS' 1:625 000 scale geologic map data for the UK, supported by development of linked data sets for: Earth materials - based on the BGS Rock Classification Scheme; lithostratigraphy - based on the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units; and geochronology - based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The BGS linked data sets are published at data.bgs.ac.uk. We have learned a number of lessons about the potential and limitations of linked data and associated technologies. We do not envisage SPARQL endpoints being the primary route for public access to linked data because the user would require technical knowledge of the data structure, and because it can be a security threat. Rather, SPARQL may lie behind a user-friendly API. Federated SPARQL queries that can interrogate distributed data sources are in reality too slow, and in practise the data sets would likely be combined in a single store. The data sets in our pilot study are all reasonably static and we

  5. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  6. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning.

  7. Personal Database Management System I TRIAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoneo; Kashihara, Akihiro; Kawagishi, Keisuke

    The current paper provides TRIAS (TRIple Associative System) which is a database management system for a personal use. In order to implement TRIAS, we have developed an associative database, whose format is (e,a,v) : e for entity, a for attribute, v for value. ML-TREE is used to construct (e,a,v). ML-TREE is a reversion of B+-tree that is multiway valanced tree. The paper focuses mainly on the usage of associative database, demonstrating how to use basic commands, primary functions and applcations.

  8. Developing Vocabularies to Improve Understanding and Use of NOAA Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis project (NOSIA II), is an attempt to capture and tell the story of how valuable observing systems are in producing products and services that are required to fulfill the NOAA's diverse mission. NOAA's goals and mission areas cover a broad range of environmental data; a complexity exists in terms and vocabulary as applied to the creation of observing system derived products. The NOSIA data collection focused first on decomposing NOAA's goals in the creation and acceptance of Mission Service Areas (MSAs) by NOAA senior leadership. Products and services that supported the MSAs were then identified through the process of interviewing product producers across NOAA organization. Product Data inputs including models, databases and observing system were also identified. The NOSIA model contains over 20,000 nodes each representing levels in a network connecting products, datasources, users and desired outcomes. An immediate need became apparent that the complexity and variety of the data collected required data management to mature the quality and the content of the NOSIA model. The NOSIA Analysis Database (ADB) was developed initially to improve consistency of terms and data types to allow for the linkage of observing systems, products and NOAA's Goals and mission. The ADB also allowed for the prototyping of reports and product generation in an easily accessible and comprehensive format for the first time. Web based visualization of relationships between products, datasources, users, producers were generated to make the information easily understood This includes developing ontologies/vocabularies that are used for the development of users type specific products for NOAA leadership, Observing System Portfolio mangers and the users of NOAA data.

  9. Acquiring Foreign Language Vocabulary Through Meaningful Linguistic Context: Where is the Limit to Vocabulary Learning?

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Bernardo; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2017-04-01

    The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words per sentence). Furthermore, Krashen's Input Hypothesis and the Evaluation component of the Involvement Load Hypothesis were tested to determine the degree at which non-comprehensible input hinders the ability of a learner to successfully use linguistic context for translation and comprehension. Results indicated that, as the number of foreign words per sentence, i.e., non-comprehensible input, increased the ability to successfully translate foreign words and create situational models for comprehension begins to decrease especially beyond five unfamiliar words per sentence. This result suggests that there is an optimal level of effectiveness in the use of a linguistic context strategy for learning foreign language vocabulary, but also that there is a limit to the strategy's effectiveness. Implications and applications to the field of foreign language learning are discussed.

  10. Project BOLT--Final Report for the Experimental and Demonstration Phase of the Basic Occupational Language Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rican Forum, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Puerto Rican Forum's Basic Occupational Language Training (BOLT) program teaches English language skills to Spanish-speaking people, and Spanish language skills to English-speaking people. Special BOLT curricula emphasize high-skilled instructors, audio-visual and audio-lingual techniques, job-oriented vocabularies, and on-site instruction.…

  11. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

  12. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  13. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms.

  14. Consolidation of vocabulary during sleep: The rich get richer?

    PubMed

    James, Emma; Gaskell, M Gareth; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa

    2017-03-06

    Sleep plays a role in strengthening new words and integrating them with existing vocabulary knowledge, consistent with neural models of learning in which sleep supports hippocampal transfer to neocortical memory. Such models are based on adult research, yet neural maturation may mean that the mechanisms supporting word learning vary across development. Here, we propose a model in which children may capitalise on larger amounts of slow-wave sleep to support a greater demand on learning and neural reorganisation, whereas adults may benefit from a richer knowledge base to support consolidation. Such an argument is reinforced by the well-reported "Matthew effect", whereby rich vocabulary knowledge is associated with better acquisition of new vocabulary. We present a meta-analysis that supports this association between children's existing vocabulary knowledge and their integration of new words overnight. Whilst multiple mechanisms likely contribute to vocabulary consolidation and neural reorganisation across the lifespan, we propose that contributions of existing knowledge should be rigorously examined in developmental studies. Such research has potential to greatly enhance neural models of learning.

  15. Computer vocabulary training in kindergarten children with special needs.

    PubMed

    Segers, Eliane; Nooijen, Miranda; de Moor, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether vocabulary training on a computer can enhance vocabulary learning of young children with special needs and whether the task-on-behaviour of these children differed when story reading was carried out by the teacher or by the computer. An experimental group (n=9) listened to a story read to them by the computer and played additional computer vocabulary games during three 20-min sessions. The control group (n=9) had the same story read to them by a teacher and then followed the normal school curriculum. The results showed that children with special needs were equally able to keep their attention on the story when it was read to them by the computer as when it was read to them by the teacher. For vocabulary growth, the intervention showed positive effects. The children from the experimental group learned more experimental words between the pre-test and retention test than the children in the control group. The study shows that a group of kindergarten children with special needs can enhance their vocabulary by working with a computer program without human intervention.

  16. Semantic mediation of vocabularies for ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, John; Isenor, Anthony W.; Rueda, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The collective terminology used in a community of interest identifies the important concepts used by that community. These concepts are related to the research activities of the community and therefore to the types of data that the community creates and uses. Such data may be obtained through direct measurement, through laboratory analysis, or through the numerical or physical modeling conducted by community members. The terminology associated with the data, collectively referred to as a vocabulary, often develops within subgroups of a larger community. When these subgroups are brought together, the disjointed nature of the vocabularies must be addressed for the data to be consolidated into a single, consistent data resource. This consolidation represents a critical challenge for the construction of an ocean observing system. The work presented here describes a semantic mediation framework, which is used to relate multiple oceanographic vocabularies, thereby allowing data consolidation. The framework is described in terms of capabilities required to manage the diverse vocabularies from the organizations that support an ocean observing system. The framework implementation then illustrates the required semantic mediation between the oceanographic vocabularies of the smaller communities, allowing an ocean observing system to appear as a coherent single system, producing coherent data resources from the originally disjoint systems.

  17. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics A ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  18. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  19. PASCAL vs BASIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  20. Aero/fluids database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, John E.; Violett, Duane L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The AFAS Database System was developed to provide the basic structure of a comprehensive database system for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Structures and Dynamics Laboratory Aerophysics Division. The system is intended to handle all of the Aerophysics Division Test Facilities as well as data from other sources. The system was written for the DEC VAX family of computers in FORTRAN-77 and utilizes the VMS indexed file system and screen management routines. Various aspects of the system are covered, including a description of the user interface, lists of all code structure elements, descriptions of the file structures, a description of the security system operation, a detailed description of the data retrieval tasks, a description of the session log, and a description of the archival system.

  1. Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.

  2. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  3. [The origins of the Polish medical and nursing care vocabulary until 1838].

    PubMed

    Urbanek, B

    1998-01-01

    The vocabulary concerning the patient care dates back to the times of early Christianity and presents the Latin etymology. Though meager limited to a few words, the lexical range that with the course of historical development formed the terminology still provides a basic notional framework valid till the present day in many European languages. The author depicts the way the Polish onomatology developed since the early Middle Ages till 1838 (the year the term the nursing of patients was used for the first time). She searches for borrowings, relations, analogies present in other European languages, mainly in Romance, German and English. She uses in her research monastic sources (monastery rules), church materials, hospital post-visit files, hospital regulations and instructions, guides and dictionaries. Urbanek focuses on the conditions and processes that affect the development of the Polish nomenclature. She attempts to define the range of the content and functions of the terms: medical care and nursing of patients.

  4. Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-09-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor.

  5. Morphological Awareness Intervention: Improving Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension for Adult Learners.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Kathryn E; Binder, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Adult Basic Education programs are under pressure to develop and deliver instruction that promotes rapid and sustained literacy development. We describe a novel approach to a literacy intervention that focuses on morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units contained in words. We argue that if you teach learners that big words are comprised of smaller components (i.e., morphemes), you will provide those students with the skills to figure out the meanings of new words. Research with children has demonstrated that teaching them about morphemes improves word recognition, spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension (Bowers & Kirby, 2009; Kirk & Gillon, 2009; Nunes, Bryant, & Olsson, 2003). Our hope is that this type of intervention will be successful with adult learners, too.

  6. Extended Statistical Learning as an account for slow vocabulary growth.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Kern, Sophie; Dos Santos, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Stokes (2010) compared the lexicons of English-speaking late talkers (LT) with those of their typically developing (TD) peers on neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) characteristics and suggested that LTs employed learning strategies that differed from those of their TD peers. This research sought to explore the cross-linguistic validity of this conclusion. The lexicons (production, not recognition) of 208 French-speaking two-year-old children were coded for ND and WF. Regression revealed that ND and WF together predicted 62% of the variance in vocabulary size, with ND and WF uniquely accounting for 53% and 9% of that variance respectively. Epiphenomenal findings were ruled out by comparison of simulated data sets with the actual data. A generalized Mann-Whitney test showed that children with small vocabularies had significantly higher ND values and significantly lower WF values than children with large vocabularies. An EXTENDED STATISTICAL LEARNING theory is proposed to account for the findings.

  7. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    PubMed Central

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30 to 60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child’s age, contrary to previous results (Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development, and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (ibid). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. PMID:22803603

  8. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  9. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  10. Assessment of the Design Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Instruction Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Burstein, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Broad-stroke approaches to vocabulary teaching in preschool include effective instructional elements, yet may be too ill-structured to affect the vocabulary learning of children experiencing serious delays. Using a formative research approach, this study examines the design potential of a supplemental vocabulary instruction technique that…

  11. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  12. Acquisition of Vocabulary by Dint of Unique Strategies: Indispensible for Fostering English Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the gateway to knowledge that unlocks the doors of sublime ideas to the readers. The competency on the lexical items of language plays a significant role in learning a new concept. Any learner who has excellent command over the use of vocabulary excels in his/her study of different subjects. Vocabulary learning is one of the…

  13. Using Mobile-Assisted Exercises to Support Students' Vocabulary Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for learning has become well-known and is widely adopted in many language classes. The use of SMS for transmitting short messages is a fast way of helping students to learn vocabulary. To address this issue, this study was conducted to examine the effects of mobile-assisted vocabulary exercises on vocabulary acquisition of…

  14. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  15. Examining Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition by Person-and Item-Level Factors in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jennifer LeeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to the process of reading comprehension (Cromely & Azevedo, 2007; Stahl & Nagy, 2005; Stanovich, 1986). The majority of our vocabulary knowledge is postulated to come from the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) while reading (Nagy & Anderson, 1984). Prior studies have estimated an average…

  16. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  17. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  18. Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the Elementary and Intermediate Italian Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank; Cicogna, Caterina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses strategies for enhancing vocabulary acquisition in first- and second-year Italian courses. The first part reviews the research on vocabulary acquisition; the second incorporates the implications of Danesi's model of neurological bimodality; the third part focuses on techniques for vocabulary elicitation; and the fourth presents examples…

  19. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  20. Learning Vocabulary in a Foreign Language: A Computer Software Based Model Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelbay Yilmaz, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at devising a vocabulary learning software that would help learners learn and retain vocabulary items effectively. Foundation linguistics and learning theories have been adapted to the foreign language vocabulary learning context using a computer software named Parole that was designed exclusively for this study. Experimental…

  1. Lexical Testing and the Reliability of the Modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Debbita; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Jaganathan, Paramaswari

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the vocabulary tests available, and reports the reliability of the modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS) (Rosszell, 2007). Although there is no consensus as to what actually constitutes vocabulary knowledge, the notion that it is made up of receptive knowledge (words recognised or known when seen or heard) and…

  2. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  3. Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

  4. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  5. Erfahrungen bei der Arbeit am russischen Wortschatz (Experiences in Work on the Russian Vocabulary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruechten, Christa von

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiences with vocabulary booklets written by the students from Grade 5 through Grade 10. These included vocabularies grouped as to subject matter; special attention was given to vocabularies which would have a bearing on the whole school career and on developing free speaking ability. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. "The Most Annoying Assignment Ever": Helping Composition Students Navigate New Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Heal

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the author's community college students feel self-conscious about their vocabulary. She thinks that their resistance to expanding their vocabulary has many tangled roots: sometimes the students seem nervous about what they leave behind as they notch their vocabulary up to a more formal, college level. This article discusses how the…

  7. Improving Vocabulary Skills of Kindergarten Students through a Multi-Tier Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuticelli, Mari; Coyne, Michael D.; Ware, Sharon M.; Oldham, Ashley; Loftus Rattan, Susan

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the inclusion of direct, explicit vocabulary instruction in the early elementary grades. Young children are entering school with a wide range of early literacy experiences, including vocabulary knowledge. Those students who are limited in their vocabulary knowledge are at a greater risk for later language and reading…

  8. Students' Proficiency and Textual Computer Gloss Use in Facilitating Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mohamad A.; Sim, Tam S.; Su'ad A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning vocabulary forms a major part for any language learner. Apart from direct teaching of vocabulary, language teachers are always searching for ways to increase their students' vocabulary to enable them to use the language more effectively. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate whether the use of computer textual glosses can aid…

  9. Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

  10. Efficacy of Rich Vocabulary Instruction in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Logan Herrera, Becky

    2015-01-01

    A multi-cohort cluster randomized trial was conducted to estimate effects of rich vocabulary classroom instruction on vocabulary and reading comprehension. A total of 1,232 fourth- and fifth-grade students from 61 classrooms in 24 schools completed the study. Students received instruction in 140 Tier Two vocabulary words featured in two…

  11. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  12. Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yuka

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

  13. Proximal Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction in Primary and Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; McKeown, Margaret; Igel, Charles; Clemons, Trudy; Randel, Bruce; Clark, Tedra

    2011-01-01

    Educational practices are needed to promote strong vocabulary growth so that vocabulary can be both the cause and result of successful reading. Vocabulary interventions need to begin early and continue for a sustained period of time (Beck & McKeown, 2007a; Biemiller, 2003; Foorman, Seals, Anthony & Pollard-Durodola, 2003). According to theoretical…

  14. eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

  15. Dispersion and Frequency: Is There Any Difference as Regards Their Relation to L2 Vocabulary Gains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Mármol, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current importance given to L2 vocabulary acquisition in the last two decades, considerable deficiencies are found in L2 students' vocabulary size. One of the aspects that may influence vocabulary learning is word frequency. However, scholars warn that frequency may lead to wrong conclusions if the way words are distributed is ignored.…

  16. On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li-na

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…

  17. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

  18. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  20. Building Vocabulary Knowledge in Preschoolers through Shared Book Reading and Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Ridge, Katherine; Parker, Amira; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study moves beyond previous investigations to examine whether an educational intervention combining shared book reading with a vocabulary game increases children's vocabulary knowledge. Four-year-olds (N = 44) were randomly assigned to dyads in either an intervention (shared book reading plus vocabulary review game) or comparison condition…