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Sample records for basic vocabulary database

  1. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Blust, Robert; Gray, Russell D.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic methods have revolutionised evolutionary biology and have recently been applied to studies of linguistic and cultural evolution. However, the basic comparative data on the languages of the world required for these analyses is often widely dispersed in hard to obtain sources. Here we outline how our Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (ABVD) helps remedy this situation by collating wordlists from over 500 languages into one web-accessible database. We describe the technology underlying the ABVD and discuss the benefits that an evolutionary bioinformatic approach can provide. These include facilitating computational comparative linguistic research, answering questions about human prehistory, enabling syntheses with genetic data, and safe-guarding fragile linguistic information. PMID:19204825

  2. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  3. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  4. Measuring the Utility of a Basic French Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Jean-Guy; Richards, Jack C.

    Using frequency, range, availability, and coverage as objectively weighted indices of utility in the development of a basic French vocabulary list, the authors describe the technical procedure used in this study and list the resultant first 153 words according to the four indices and the utility rating. Weighting factors for each index, based on…

  5. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  6. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  7. A Basic Vocabulary of Federal Social Program Applications and Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter P.; And Others

    A study of the application forms for Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, food stamps, Medicaid, and Medicare was conducted to examine the frequently occurring unfamiliar, specialized vocabulary words. It was found that 76 such words occurred at least ten times in the documents studied. A large number of other…

  8. A Basic Vocabulary of Federal Social Program Applications and Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter P.; And Others

    A study of the application forms for Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, food stamps, Medicaid, and Medicare was conducted to examine the frequently occurring unfamiliar, specialized vocabulary words. It was found that 76 such words occurred at least ten times in the documents studied. A large number of other…

  9. Applying the desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies to drug information databases.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L. M.; Lam, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Medication history has always been an integral part of the patient's medical record. With the advent of the computerized medical record and the longitudinal clinical data repository, having the medication history has enabled the development of clinical decision support system that alerts for drug to drug interactions and drug allergies. Furthermore, medication data is increasingly being analyzed from a utilization and clinical outcomes standpoint. For these activities to occur, a controlled pharmacy vocabulary akin to a controlled medical vocabulary is essential. Drug information databases are well-established sources of information for pharmacy-related data and products. However, do they measure up as a controlled vocabulary? Recent experience reviewing drug information databases and integrating pharmacy-related information into a data dictionary in real-time clinical use at multiple health care institutions have revealed several challenges and issues. These are discussed according to Cimino's desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies. PMID:10566328

  10. A Basic Vocabulary and a Bibliography for Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Richard J.

    The selection of 594 words in this basic vocabulary list was compiled from various dictionaries and frequency lists for physics, mathematics and civil engineering. The list attempts to include those words which have been found to be unknown by German students learning English for science and technology. In addition to the word list, a bibliography…

  11. THE USE OF INDIVIDUALIZED MULTISENSORY MATERIALS TO DEVELOP A BASIC SIGHT VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, FRANCES N.

    TWO SETS OF MULTISENSORY DEVICES WERE USED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THEIR INDIVIDUALIZED USE WOULD HELP RETARDED READERS DEVELOP A BASIC SIGHT VOCABULARY. STUDENTS WHO HAD SPENT 9 OR 10 YEARS IN SCHOOL AND WHO WERE READING AT THE SECOND-READER INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL WERE GIVEN THE DANIELS WORD RECOGNITION LIST, FORMS A AND B, AS PRETESTS AND POST-TESTS.…

  12. MEDIC: a practical disease vocabulary used at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.

    PubMed

    Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C; Rosenstein, Michael C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2012-01-01

    The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public resource that promotes understanding about the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD biocurators manually curate a triad of chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease relationships from the scientific literature. The CTD curation paradigm uses controlled vocabularies for chemicals, genes and diseases. To curate disease information, CTD first had to identify a source of controlled terms. Two resources seemed to be good candidates: the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and the 'Diseases' branch of the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headers (MeSH). To maximize the advantages of both, CTD biocurators undertook a novel initiative to map the flat list of OMIM disease terms into the hierarchical nature of the MeSH vocabulary. The result is CTD's 'merged disease vocabulary' (MEDIC), a unique resource that integrates OMIM terms, synonyms and identifiers with MeSH terms, synonyms, definitions, identifiers and hierarchical relationships. MEDIC is both a deep and broad vocabulary, composed of 9700 unique diseases described by more than 67 000 terms (including synonyms). It is freely available to download in various formats from CTD. While neither a true ontology nor a perfect solution, this vocabulary has nonetheless proved to be extremely successful and practical for our biocurators in generating over 2.5 million disease-associated toxicogenomic relationships in CTD. Other external databases have also begun to adopt MEDIC for their disease vocabulary. Here, we describe the construction, implementation, maintenance and use of MEDIC to raise awareness of this resource and to offer it as a putative scaffold in the formal construction of an official disease ontology. DATABASE URL: http://ctd.mdibl.org/voc.go?type=disease.

  13. The availability and accessibility of basic concept vocabulary in AAC software: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Schwarz, Ilsa; Ashworth, Morgan

    2017-09-01

    Core vocabulary lists obtained through the analyses of children's utterances include a variety of basic concept words. Supporting young children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to develop their understanding and use of basic concepts is an area of practice that has important ramifications for successful communication in a classroom environment. This study examined the availability of basic concept words across eight frequently used, commercially available AAC language systems, iPad© applications, and symbol libraries used to create communication boards. The accessibility of basic concept words was subsequently examined using two AAC language page sets and two iPad applications. Results reveal that the availability of basic concept words represented within the different AAC language programs, iPad applications, and symbol libraries varied but was limited across programs. However, there is no significant difference in the accessibility of basic concept words across the language program page sets or iPad applications, generally because all of them require sophisticated motor and cognitive plans for access. These results suggest that educators who teach or program vocabulary in AAC systems need to be mindful of the importance of basic concept words in classroom settings and, when possible, enhance the availability and accessibility of these words to users of AAC.

  14. Children's printed word database: continuities and changes over time in children's early reading vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Jackie; Stuart, Morag; Dixon, Maureen; Lovejoy, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a comprehensive database of the vocabulary in reading materials used by 5 - 9 year old children in the UK. The database is available on-line http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/cpwd and allows researchers into early reading development the possibility of rigorous control over critical characteristics of experimental stimuli such as word frequency, regularity and length, frequency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, orthographic and phonological neighbourhoods etc. The on-line database is also a resource that can be used by practitioners with interests in literacy development and literacy instruction. It can be used to obtain characteristics for a user-generated list of words, or else to generate a list of words according to constraints specified by the user. Here we present an overview of the construction of the database, the materials entered into it, the survey of schools by which we obtained information about the books that were most likely to be used by children in each age group, and the search features available on the database website. We also discuss certain characteristics of the Vocabulary itself and compare these with those reported in an earlier non-representative database reported in Stuart, Dixon, Masterson and Gray (2003). We then present a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Vocabulary in books used in the Reception year, against the background of recent recommendations for change in the early teaching of reading. Finally, we present data showing that the database is indeed already proving a useful resource for both practitioners and researchers.

  15. Searching biomedical databases on complementary medicine: the use of controlled vocabulary among authors, indexers and investigators.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Linda S; Reinsch, Sibylle; Najm, Wadie I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Seffinger, Michael A; Adams, Alan; Mishra, Shiraz I

    2003-07-07

    The optimal retrieval of a literature search in biomedicine depends on the appropriate use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), descriptors and keywords among authors and indexers. We hypothesized that authors, investigators and indexers in four biomedical databases are not consistent in their use of terminology in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Based on a research question addressing the validity of spinal palpation for the diagnosis of neuromuscular dysfunction, we developed four search concepts with their respective controlled vocabulary and key terms. We calculated the frequency of MeSH, descriptors, and keywords used by authors in titles and abstracts in comparison to standard practices in semantic and analytic indexing in MEDLINE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Multiple searches resulted in the final selection of 38 relevant studies that were indexed at least in one of the four selected databases. Of the four search concepts, validity showed the greatest inconsistency in terminology among authors, indexers and investigators. The use of spinal terms showed the greatest consistency. Of the 22 neuromuscular dysfunction terms provided by the investigators, 11 were not contained in the controlled vocabulary and six were never used by authors or indexers. Most authors did not seem familiar with the controlled vocabulary for validity in the area of neuromuscular dysfunction. Recently, standard glossaries have been developed to assist in the research development of manual medicine. Searching biomedical databases for CAM is challenging due to inconsistent use of controlled vocabulary and indexing procedures in different databases. A standard terminology should be used by investigators in conducting their search strategies and authors when writing titles, abstracts and submitting keywords for publications.

  16. Searching biomedical databases on complementary medicine: the use of controlled vocabulary among authors, indexers and investigators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Linda S; Reinsch, Sibylle; Najm, Wadie I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Seffinger, Michael A; Adams, Alan; Mishra, Shiraz I

    2003-01-01

    Background The optimal retrieval of a literature search in biomedicine depends on the appropriate use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), descriptors and keywords among authors and indexers. We hypothesized that authors, investigators and indexers in four biomedical databases are not consistent in their use of terminology in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods Based on a research question addressing the validity of spinal palpation for the diagnosis of neuromuscular dysfunction, we developed four search concepts with their respective controlled vocabulary and key terms. We calculated the frequency of MeSH, descriptors, and keywords used by authors in titles and abstracts in comparison to standard practices in semantic and analytic indexing in MEDLINE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Results Multiple searches resulted in the final selection of 38 relevant studies that were indexed at least in one of the four selected databases. Of the four search concepts, validity showed the greatest inconsistency in terminology among authors, indexers and investigators. The use of spinal terms showed the greatest consistency. Of the 22 neuromuscular dysfunction terms provided by the investigators, 11 were not contained in the controlled vocabulary and six were never used by authors or indexers. Most authors did not seem familiar with the controlled vocabulary for validity in the area of neuromuscular dysfunction. Recently, standard glossaries have been developed to assist in the research development of manual medicine. Conclusions Searching biomedical databases for CAM is challenging due to inconsistent use of controlled vocabulary and indexing procedures in different databases. A standard terminology should be used by investigators in conducting their search strategies and authors when writing titles, abstracts and submitting keywords for publications. PMID:12846931

  17. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  18. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Awareness and Its Relations to Vocabulary Knowledge in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of morphological awareness and its relations to vocabulary knowledge in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. Morphological awareness has emerged as an important predictor of children's and ABE students' reading comprehension abilities; however, there has been a dearth of research…

  19. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…

  20. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Awareness and Its Relations to Vocabulary Knowledge in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct of morphological awareness and its relations to vocabulary knowledge in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. Morphological awareness has emerged as an important predictor of children's and ABE students' reading comprehension abilities; however, there has been a dearth of research…

  1. The Plant Ontology Database: A community resource for plant structure and developmental stages controlled vocabulary and annotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aim to create, maintain, and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary(ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes o...

  2. The Plant Ontology Database: A Community Resource for Plant Structure and Developmental Stages Controlled Vocabulary and Annotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aims to create, maintain and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary(ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes o...

  3. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  4. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  5. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Between Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

  6. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  7. The data dictionary--a controlled vocabulary for integrating clinical databases and medical knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Linnarsson, R; Wigertz, O

    1989-04-01

    The medical information systems of the future will probably include the entire medical record as well as a knowledge base, providing decision support for the physician during patient care. Data dictionaries will play an important role in integrating the medical knowledge bases with the clinical databases. This article presents an infological data model of such an integrated medical information system. Medical events, medical terms, and medical facts are the basic concepts that constitute the model. To allow the transfer of information and knowledge between systems, the data dictionary should be organized with regard to several common classification schemes of medical nomenclature.

  8. Some Comparisons Between "Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies" and Other Word Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.; Jacobson, Milton D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes thirteen reading vocabulary lists and draws comparisons between the Harris-Jacobson list and twelve other lists, finding a high degree of agreement on the most common 2,000 words but considerably less agreement on the reading levels and relative frequencies. (RB)

  9. Computer Databases as an Educational Tool in the Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of North Carolina School of Medicine developed a computer database, INQUIRER, containing scientific information in bacteriology, and then integrated the database into routine educational activities for first-year medical students in their microbiology course. (Author/MLW)

  10. Computer Databases as an Educational Tool in the Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of North Carolina School of Medicine developed a computer database, INQUIRER, containing scientific information in bacteriology, and then integrated the database into routine educational activities for first-year medical students in their microbiology course. (Author/MLW)

  11. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  12. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  13. MASSIVE VOCABULARY EXPANSION IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE BEYOND THE BASIC COURSE--THE EFFECTS OF STIMULI, TIMING, AND ORDER OF PRESENTATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LADO, ROBERT

    THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF STIMULI AND THEIR TIMING FOR LARGE INCREASES IN RECOGNITION VOCABULARY IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AFTER STUDENTS HAVE MASTERED THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE WAS THE SUBJECT OF RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN WITH STUDENTS ENROLLED AT THE GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICS. FOLLOWING A…

  14. The Plant Ontology Database: a community resource for plant structure and developmental stages controlled vocabulary and annotations.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Shulamit; Tung, Chih-Wei; Ilic, Katica; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; McCouch, Susan; Pujar, Anuradha; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y; Sachs, Martin M; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Stevens, Peter; Vincent, Leszek; Zapata, Felipe; Ware, Doreen

    2008-01-01

    The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC, http://www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among model plant genome databases and plant researchers that aims to create, maintain and facilitate the use of a controlled vocabulary (ontology) for plants. The ontology allows users to ascribe attributes of plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and developmental stages to data types, such as genes and phenotypes, to provide a semantic framework to make meaningful cross-species and database comparisons. The POC builds upon groundbreaking work by the Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) by adopting and extending the GOC's principles, existing software and database structure. Over the past year, POC has added hundreds of ontology terms to associate with thousands of genes and gene products from Arabidopsis, rice and maize, which are available through a newly updated web-based browser (http://www.plantontology.org/amigo/go.cgi) for viewing, searching and querying. The Consortium has also implemented new functionalities to facilitate the application of PO in genomic research and updated the website to keep the contents current. In this report, we present a brief description of resources available from the website, changes to the interfaces, data updates, community activities and future enhancement.

  15. Semantic Similarities between a Keyword Database and a Controlled Vocabulary Database: An Investigation in the Antibiotic Resistance Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Explores similarities or dissimilarities between citation-semantic and analytic indexing based on a study of records in the Science Citation Index and MEDLINE databases on antibiotic resistance in pneumonia. Concludes that disparate indexing terms may be an advantage for better recall and precision in information retrieval. (Contains 42…

  16. Semantic Similarities between a Keyword Database and a Controlled Vocabulary Database: An Investigation in the Antibiotic Resistance Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Explores similarities or dissimilarities between citation-semantic and analytic indexing based on a study of records in the Science Citation Index and MEDLINE databases on antibiotic resistance in pneumonia. Concludes that disparate indexing terms may be an advantage for better recall and precision in information retrieval. (Contains 42…

  17. Sex Differences in Item Functioning in the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II Vocabulary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Gotch, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is a diagnostic battery intended for children in grades 1st through 6th. The aim of this study was to test for item invariance, or differential item functioning (DIF), of the CIBS-II across sex in the standardization sample through the use of item response theory DIF detection…

  18. Sex Differences in Item Functioning in the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II Vocabulary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Gotch, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is a diagnostic battery intended for children in grades 1st through 6th. The aim of this study was to test for item invariance, or differential item functioning (DIF), of the CIBS-II across sex in the standardization sample through the use of item response theory DIF detection…

  19. RARGE II: an integrated phenotype database of Arabidopsis mutant traits using a controlled vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kenji; Kurotani, Atsushi; Iida, Kei; Kuromori, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is one of the most popular experimental plants. However, only 40% of its genes have at least one experimental Gene Ontology (GO) annotation assigned. Systematic observation of mutant phenotypes is an important technique for elucidating gene functions. Indeed, several large-scale phenotypic analyses have been performed and have generated phenotypic data sets from many Arabidopsis mutant lines and overexpressing lines, which are freely available online. Since each Arabidopsis mutant line database uses individual phenotype expression, the differences in the structured term sets used by each database make it difficult to compare data sets and make it impossible to search across databases. Therefore, we obtained publicly available information for a total of 66,209 Arabidopsis mutant lines, including loss-of-function (RATM and TARAPPER) and gain-of-function (AtFOX and OsFOX) lines, and integrated the phenotype data by mapping the descriptions onto Plant Ontology (PO) and Phenotypic Quality Ontology (PATO) terms. This approach made it possible to manage the four different phenotype databases as one large data set. Here, we report a publicly accessible web-based database, the RIKEN Arabidopsis Genome Encyclopedia II (RARGE II; http://rarge-v2.psc.riken.jp/), in which all of the data described in this study are included. Using the database, we demonstrated consistency (in terms of protein function) with a previous study and identified the presumed function of an unknown gene. We provide examples of AT1G21600, which is a subunit in the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase complex, and AT5G56980, which is related to the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

  20. Multi-Database Searching in the Behavioral Sciences--Part I: Basic Techniques and Core Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines practical searching techniques in seven core behavioral science databases accessing psychological literature: Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Biosis, Medline, Excerpta Medica, Sociological Abstracts, ERIC. Use of individual files is discussed and their relative strengths/weaknesses are compared. Appended is a list…

  1. Effects of Basic Learning Skill Training on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Scores of Severely Disruptive, Low Skill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Warren W.; Jacobs, Ruth S.

    Eighteen mentally retarded children were selected for study because they exhibited low levels of skills in sitting, eye contact on command, and following other commands. Ten other children were selected because they showed high levels of those skills. High skill Ss were found to have higher scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Training…

  2. Managing vocabulary for a centralized clinical system.

    PubMed

    Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Hripcsak, G; Hill, C L; Clayton, P D

    1995-01-01

    The clinical computing environment at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center is organized around a centralized database of coded patient information collected from various ancillary sources. The Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) is the central repository for the controlled vocabulary used to encode the patient data. The MED is composed of terms used in the ancillary departments and, as such, changes in the source vocabularies must be maintained in the MED. The MED also contains some basic knowledge about the terms, and sophisticated maintenance tools have been developed that take advantage of this knowledge. This paper describes the success of the knowledge-based approach by describing the techniques used in two tasks: addition of a new vocabulary and maintenance of an existing one.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  5. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, the outcomes of which drive breeding and product development. In order for basic, translational, and applied researchers to benefit from others' investigations, newly generated data must be made freely and easily accessible. MaizeGDB is the maize research community's central repository for genetics and genomics information. The overall goals of MaizeGDB are to facilitate access to the outcomes of maize research by integrating new maize data into the database and to support the maize research community by coordinating group activities. PMID:18769488

  6. Designing a Relational Database for the Basic School; Schools Command Web Enabled Officer and Enlisted Database (Sword)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    shown us that there are multiple design strategies: waterfall , incremental, and evolutionary.43 The initial intent was to use a waterfall approach...performing on a large scale what we had set out to do for TBS. PYTHON (Project Yet To Have an Official Name) had used RAD for the same reasons that we... PYTHON Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, March 2002. 48 J. Ray, Sams Teach Yourself Dreamweaver UltraDev 4 in 21 Days, p. 176. 44 Figure 10. Basic

  7. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    PubMed Central

    Köhl, Karin I; Basler, Georg; Lüdemann, Alexander; Selbig, Joachim; Walther, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation), vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique names generated by the system

  8. Vocabulary Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L.; Fisher, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary is the hallmark of an educated person as it not only promotes reading comprehension but also enables to actively participate in the society. The four practices that teachers can use to expand students' vocabularies and improve their reading are presented.

  9. Coping with changing controlled vocabularies.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J. J.; Clayton, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    For the foreseeable future, controlled medical vocabularies will be in a constant state of development, expansion and refinement. Changes in controlled vocabularies must be reconciled with historical patient information which is coded using those vocabularies and stored in clinical databases. This paper explores the kinds of changes that can occur in controlled vocabularies, including adding terms (simple additions, refinements, redundancy and disambiguation), deleting terms, changing terms (major and minor name changes), and other special situations (obsolescence, discovering redundancy, and precoordination). Examples are drawn from actual changes appearing in the 1993 update to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9-CM). The methods being used at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center to reconcile its Medical Entities Dictionary and its clinical database are discussed. PMID:7949906

  10. 25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the

  11. Using a Database to Analyze Core Basic Science Content in a Problem-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study used computer analysis to examine distribution of basic science content in the 53 cases in the problem-based medical curriculum of Rush Medical College (Illinois) and compared it to application of that content by students and faculty. The method of analysis is recommended for reviewing curricula for omissions and redundancy. (Author/MSE)

  12. Vocabulary Teaching in Action-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunday, Rifat; Atmaca, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The words are called as basic building blocks of language. It is impossible to discuss the language system without words. It is related to the vocabulary whether a language is rich or not. It is also related to the peoples' vocabulary to understand what is said and written or to express effectively their thoughts and their feelings verbally or in…

  13. What Must a Vocabulary Editing Interface Offer?

    PubMed Central

    Cole, William G.; Kim, Yun-Jung; Tuttle, Mark S.; Sherertz, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Creating, modifying, and maintaining a vocabulary is a new task that more healthcare enterprises are having to take on. There are today essentially no readily available vocabulary editing systems. This poster sets out a basic list of editing functions that knowledge workers will require - a minimal functionality list. Functions are explained and illustrated.

  14. SITUATIONAL VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, R. M.

    IT IS GENERALLY ADMITTED THAT THE VOCABULARY OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS MORE EASILY LEARNED IF IT IS ORGANIZED IN COHERENT SEMANTIC GROUPS AROUND "SITUATIONS" OR "CENTERS OF INTEREST." WHAT IS NEEDED IS A LOGICAL AND NON-ARBITRARY TAXONOMY OF SITUATIONS. WE DISTINGUISH, FIRST, OPEN AND CLOSED SITUATIONS. CLOSED SITUATIONS (FOR EXAMPLE, DAYS OF THE…

  15. Examining Learner Vocabulary Notebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrostie, James

    2007-01-01

    Most vocabulary teaching literature advises learners to keep vocabulary notebooks to help promote vocabulary acquisition as well as learner autonomy. Yet, there have been few studies of the vocabulary notebooks kept by students studying English as a foreign language. This study examined the vocabulary notebooks kept by 124 first year English…

  16. On the Minimum Vocabulary Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekharan, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a directed graph model as a tool for finding desirable minimum vocabularies to be used in indexing and information retrieval. The basic algorithm is outlined, possible enhancements to the model are discussed, and further research questions are suggested. (Author/CLB)

  17. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon; Hur, Min Hee

    2015-06-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey, and from the online registry database. A total of 17,792 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2012. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 70.7 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women was higher than that of premenopausal women among those diagnosed with breast cancer. The proportion of cases of early breast cancer increased continuously, and breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in that same year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 3-fold over last 10 years. The 5-year overall survival rate for all stages of breast cancer patients was extremely high. The clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed in ways that resulted in high overall survival over the past 10 years in Korea, and the surgical management of the disease has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  18. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey, and from the online registry database. A total of 17,792 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2012. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 70.7 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women was higher than that of premenopausal women among those diagnosed with breast cancer. The proportion of cases of early breast cancer increased continuously, and breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in that same year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 3-fold over last 10 years. The 5-year overall survival rate for all stages of breast cancer patients was extremely high. The clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed in ways that resulted in high overall survival over the past 10 years in Korea, and the surgical management of the disease has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:26155285

  19. Les Champs semantiques de l'action a travers le vocabulaire fondamental (Semantic Fields and Verbs in the Dictionary of Basic Vocabulary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons-Ridler, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    The verbs in Gougenheim's Basic Dictionary are regrouped according to three classifications (synonyms, antonyms, and association) and organized according to semantic fields. Exercises designed to emphasize these relationships are suggested. (MSE)

  20. Rethinking Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the research on word learning and vocabulary teaching, provides a rationale for building a rich vocabulary and identifies nine guidelines for sound vocabulary instruction. Problematic classroom practices are highlighted and a "best-practice" vocabulary teacher is described. The article also includes a…

  1. MIR: A Computer Based Approach to the Acquisition of Russian Vocabulary in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagvall, Anna-Lena; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The development of a method is described for the automatic ordering of texts based on the richness of their vocabularies. It further involves the specification of a basic vocabulary and of a gradual enlargement of this basic vocabulary linked to the study of the texts in the given order. (Author/RM)

  2. Analysis of Two Randomized Field Trials Testing the Effects of Online Vocabulary Instruction on Vocabulary Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles Norman

    2011-01-01

    Learning to read requires knowledge of word meanings for those words most commonly encountered in basic reading materials. Many young students lack the basic vocabulary knowledge needed to facilitate learning to read. Two randomized studies were conducted to test the effects of an online, computer-adaptive vocabulary instruction program designed…

  3. A controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Eila; Saranto, Kaija; Tallberg, Marianne; Ensio, Anneli; Junttila, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    The lack of a nursing thesaurus in Finnish has emerged among nursing professionals searching nursing knowledge and librarians when indexing literature to databases. The Finnish Nursing Education Society launched a project focusing on the development of a nursing vocabulary and the compilation of a thesaurus. The content of a vocabulary was created by six experts using Delphi-technique. The validity of the vocabulary was twice tested for indexing nursing research and has afterwards been revised. The vocabulary can be used for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The main challenge is that nurses easily can find national as well as international nursing research from databases and enhance research utilization.

  4. Text Enhancement: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the quality of information retrieval using "free text" searching in full-text databases and presents a critical perspective on the importance of augmenting access to full-text databases through some form of text enhancement, such as the use of a limited controlled vocabulary for indexing general concepts. (Author/JL)

  5. A Comprehensive Voice Message Vocabulary for Air Force Tactical Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Surveys of airframe manufacturers and Air Force tactical aircraft pilots regarding the use of voice messages in current and future tactical aircraft...and F-16. The basic 38-item vocabulary necessary to generate those messages (except threat-warning messages ) is presented and the usage of each...vocabulary item is summarized by voice message function and by aircraft. An additional 35- item vocabulary for use in threat-warning messages is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are discussed.

  6. Utilizing OODB schema modeling for vocabulary management.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Halper, M.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehension of complex controlled vocabularies is often difficult. We present a method, facilitated by an object-oriented database, for depicting such a vocabulary (the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) from the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center) in a schematic way which uses a sparse inheritance network of area classes. The resulting Object Oriented Health Vocabulary repository (OOHVR) allows visualization of the 43,000 MED concepts as 90 area classes. This view has provided valuable information to those responsible with maintaining the MED. As a result, the MED organization has been improved and some previously-unrecognized errors and inconsistencies have been removed. We believe that this schematic approach allows improved comprehension of the gestalt of large controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947671

  7. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  8. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  9. Vocabulary: Challenges and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, vocabulary was neglected in language teaching programs and curriculums for the sake of grammar and other parts of language. Nowadays, however, researchers have realized that vocabulary is an important part of language learning and teaching and worthy of attention and research. A proliferation of studies done on vocabulary can be…

  10. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  11. A Mis-recognized Medical Vocabulary Correction System for Speech-based Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Ju Han; Sakabe, Nagamasa

    2002-01-01

    Speech recognition as an input tool for electronic medical record (EMR) enables efficient data entry at the point of care. However, the recognition accuracy for medical vocabulary is much poorer than that for doctor-patient dialogue. We developed a mis-recognized medical vocabulary correction system based on syllable-by-syllable comparison of speech text against medical vocabulary database. Using specialty medical vocabulary, the algorithm detects and corrects mis-recognized medical vocabularies in narrative text. Our preliminary evaluation showed 94% of accuracy in mis-recognized medical vocabulary correction.

  12. Untutored Vocabulary Acquisition and L2 Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a self-instruction procedure designed to provide students of science and technology at the tertiary level with a basic vocabulary in a foreign language of around 1,000 items. The technique represents an efficient method for bridging the gap between the vocabulary that beginning L2 students possess and that required to read L2 scientific…

  13. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

  14. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…

  15. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  16. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action.

  17. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  18. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  19. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. Methods: This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. Results: The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. Conclusion: For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual

  20. The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

  1. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  2. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  3. Vocabularies in the VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  4. Invited Commentary: Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

  5. Building Mathematics Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

  6. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  7. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  8. Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

    2012-01-01

    When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

  9. Templates for Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.

    Most college vocabulary books lack the sophistication of a complex. Rather, they reflect the characteristics of congeries or disparate objects grouped together without any logical basis. Vocabulary study in college should focus on the process of concept formation in all its complexity, with emphasis on the relationship between the specific and…

  10. Intensive Vocabulary Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeanne R.; Dizney, Henry

    1963-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of a year-long intensive vocabulary program on the reading achievement of 12th-grade college-preparatory English students. A control class followed the regular course of study, and an experimental class supplemented it with completion of the "Harbrace Vocabulary Workshop" workbook, study of the use of footnotes and the…

  11. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  12. The basic facts of korean breast cancer in 2011: results of a nationwide survey and breast cancer registry database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Lee, Hun Jae; Lee, Jung Sun; Youn, Hyun Jo; Park, Heung Kyu; Noh, Dong-Young; Hur, Min Hee

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in Korean women, with a continuously increasing incidence. The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through an online registration program. The aim of the present study was to report the fundamental facts on Korean breast cancer in 2011, and to analyze the changing patterns in clinical characteristics and breast cancer management in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, including the total number of cases, age, stage, and type of surgery, for the year 2011 were collected from 84 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey. Additional data relating to the changing patterns of breast cancer in Korea were collected from the online breast cancer registry database and analyzed. According to nationwide survey data, a total of 16,967 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011. The crude incidence of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 67 cases per 100,000 women. Analysis of the survey and registry data gave equivalent results in terms of age distribution, stage, and type of surgery. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women (51.3%) was higher than that of premenopausal women (48.7%) with breast cancer. The incidence of stage 0 and stage I breast cancer increased continuously over the last 10 years (56.3% in 2011), and breast conserving surgery (65.7%) was performed more frequently than total mastectomy (33.8%). The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 8-fold. We conclude that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past 10 years in Korea, and surgical management has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  13. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  14. The Intego database: background, methods and basic results of a Flemish general practice-based continuous morbidity registration project.

    PubMed

    Truyers, Carla; Goderis, Geert; Dewitte, Harrie; Akker, Marjan vanden; Buntinx, Frank

    2014-06-06

    Intego is the only operational computerized morbidity registration network in Belgium based on general practice data. Intego collects data from over 90 general practitioners. All the information is routinely collected in the electronic health record during daily practice. In this article we describe the design and methods used within the Intego network together with some of its basic results. The collected data, the quality control procedures, the ethical-legal aspects and the statistical procedures are discussed. Intego contains longitudinal information on 285 357 different patients, corresponding to over 2.3% of the Flemish population representative in terms of age and sex. More than 3 million diagnoses, 12 million drug prescriptions and 29 million laboratory tests have been recorded. Intego enables us to present and compare data on health parameters, incidence and prevalence rates, laboratory results, and prescribed drugs for all relevant subgroups on a routine basis and is unique in Belgium.

  15. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  16. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:27066090

  17. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    PubMed

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Hur, Min Hee; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-03-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  18. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  19. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  20. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  1. Sara Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    The basic plan of this course in Sara is modeled after "An Experimental Course in Hausa" (FSI 1965). The course uses short cycles consisting of mimicry followed by conversations built on the same vocabulary and syntactic pattern. The format has been condensed and altered. The course contains 95 cycles and would require approximately 50 hours to…

  2. Matching controlled vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Grabar, Natalia; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Soualmia, Lina; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2003-01-01

    This study examines an enabling condition for natural languages access to medical knowledge resources (Medline, CISMeF) indexed with controlled vocabularies (e.g., the MeSH): is the vocabulary of user queries comparable with that of the index terms? The two vocabularies were compared in their original form, then under incrementally normalized forms, using character-based normalizations then linguistic normalizations. Only 16.7% of the user vocabulary, in its original form, is in the MeSH. Progressive normalizations increase this proportion to 65.5%. Besides, if the frequencies of occurrence of words are taken into account, 89.3% of user word occurrences can be matched to MeSH words. This shows the interest of taking into account further matching methods between queries and index terms than those presented here.

  3. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  4. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  5. The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

  6. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  7. The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

  8. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  9. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  10. Two Different Communication Genres and Implications for Vocabulary Development and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Dominic W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined potential differences in vocabulary found in picture books and adult's speech to children and to other adults. Using a small sample of various sources of speech and print, Hayes observed that print had a more extensive vocabulary than speech. The current analyses of two different spoken language databases and an assembled…

  11. New Directions in Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

  12. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  13. Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

  14. The Ontology for Parasite Lifecycle (OPL): towards a consistent vocabulary of lifecycle stages in parasitic organisms.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Priti P; Zheng, Jie; Logan-Klumpler, Flora; Stoeckert, Christian J; Louis, Christos; Topalis, Pantelis; Protasio, Anna V; Sheth, Amit P; Carrington, Mark; Berriman, Matthew; Sahoo, Satya S

    2012-05-23

    Genome sequencing of many eukaryotic pathogens and the volume of data available on public resources have created a clear requirement for a consistent vocabulary to describe the range of developmental forms of parasites. Consistent labeling of experimental data and external data, in databases and the literature, is essential for integration, cross database comparison, and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this work was to develop a dynamic and controlled vocabulary that can be used for various parasites. The paper describes the Ontology for Parasite Lifecycle (OPL) and discusses its application in parasite research. The OPL is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and follows the rules set by the OBO Foundry consortium. The first version of the OPL models complex life cycle stage details of a range of parasites, such as Trypanosoma sp., Leishmaniasp., Plasmodium sp., and Shicstosoma sp. In addition, the ontology also models necessary contextual details, such as host information, vector information, and anatomical locations. OPL is primarily designed to serve as a reference ontology for parasite life cycle stages that can be used for database annotation purposes and in the lab for data integration or information retrieval as exemplified in the application section below. OPL is freely available at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/opl.owl and has been submitted to the BioPortal site of NCBO and to the OBO Foundry. We believe that database and phenotype annotations using OPL will help run fundamental queries on databases to know more about gene functions and to find intervention targets for various parasites. The OPL is under continuous development and new parasites and/or terms are being added.

  15. The Ontology for Parasite Lifecycle (OPL): towards a consistent vocabulary of lifecycle stages in parasitic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing of many eukaryotic pathogens and the volume of data available on public resources have created a clear requirement for a consistent vocabulary to describe the range of developmental forms of parasites. Consistent labeling of experimental data and external data, in databases and the literature, is essential for integration, cross database comparison, and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this work was to develop a dynamic and controlled vocabulary that can be used for various parasites. The paper describes the Ontology for Parasite Lifecycle (OPL) and discusses its application in parasite research. Results The OPL is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and follows the rules set by the OBO Foundry consortium. The first version of the OPL models complex life cycle stage details of a range of parasites, such as Trypanosoma sp., Leishmaniasp., Plasmodium sp., and Shicstosoma sp. In addition, the ontology also models necessary contextual details, such as host information, vector information, and anatomical locations. OPL is primarily designed to serve as a reference ontology for parasite life cycle stages that can be used for database annotation purposes and in the lab for data integration or information retrieval as exemplified in the application section below. Conclusion OPL is freely available at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/opl.owl and has been submitted to the BioPortal site of NCBO and to the OBO Foundry. We believe that database and phenotype annotations using OPL will help run fundamental queries on databases to know more about gene functions and to find intervention targets for various parasites. The OPL is under continuous development and new parasites and/or terms are being added. PMID:22621763

  16. Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Dimling, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases.

  17. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  18. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  19. Receptive Vocabulary and Cognition of Elderly People in Institutional Care

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Rasidovic, Mirsada

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Basic cognitive functions such as: alertness, working memory, long term memory and perception, as well as higher levels of cognitive functions like: speech and language, decision-making and executive functions are affected by aging processes. Relations between the receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning, and the manifestation of differences between populations of elderly people based on the primary disease is in the focus of this study. Aim: To examine receptive vocabulary and cognition of elderly people with: verified stroke, dementia, verified stroke and dementia, and without the manifested brain disease. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 120 participants older than 65 years, living in an institution. A total of 26 variables was analyzed and classified into three groups: case history/anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. The interview with social workers, nurses and caregivers, as well as medical files were used to determine the anamnestic data. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognition. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used. Results: Mean raw score of receptive vocabulary is 161.58 (+–21:58 points). The best results for cognitive assessment subjects achieved on subscales of orientation, naming, serial subtraction, and delayed recall. Discriminative analysis showed the significant difference in the development of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning in relation to the primary disease of elderly people. The biggest difference was between subjects without manifested brain disease (centroid = 1.900) and subjects with dementia (centroid = -1754). Conclusion: There is a significant difference between elderly with stroke; dementia; stroke and dementia, and elderly people without manifested disease of the brain in the domain of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning. Variables of serial

  20. Receptive Vocabulary and Cognition of Elderly People in Institutional Care.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagic, Amela; Zunic, Lejla Junuzovic; Ibrahimagic, Omer C; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Rasidovic, Mirsada

    2017-06-01

    Basic cognitive functions such as: alertness, working memory, long term memory and perception, as well as higher levels of cognitive functions like: speech and language, decision-making and executive functions are affected by aging processes. Relations between the receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning, and the manifestation of differences between populations of elderly people based on the primary disease is in the focus of this study. To examine receptive vocabulary and cognition of elderly people with: verified stroke, dementia, verified stroke and dementia, and without the manifested brain disease. The sample consisted of 120 participants older than 65 years, living in an institution. A total of 26 variables was analyzed and classified into three groups: case history/anamnestic, receptive vocabulary assessment, and cognitive assessments. The interview with social workers, nurses and caregivers, as well as medical files were used to determine the anamnestic data. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) was used for the assessment of cognition. In order to estimate the receptive vocabulary, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used. Mean raw score of receptive vocabulary is 161.58 (+-21:58 points). The best results for cognitive assessment subjects achieved on subscales of orientation, naming, serial subtraction, and delayed recall. Discriminative analysis showed the significant difference in the development of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning in relation to the primary disease of elderly people. The biggest difference was between subjects without manifested brain disease (centroid = 1.900) and subjects with dementia (centroid = -1754). There is a significant difference between elderly with stroke; dementia; stroke and dementia, and elderly people without manifested disease of the brain in the domain of receptive vocabulary and cognitive functioning. Variables of serial subtraction, standardized test results of receptive vocabulary

  1. Who Needs Controlled Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study of professional searchers that investigated their decisions about using search terms. The use of descriptors from a controlled vocabulary versus the use of textwords for free-text searching is examined, searching styles and differences in subject areas are discussed, and the quality of thesauri and indexing is considered. (six…

  2. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  3. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  4. Vocabulary for Healthcare Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falagrady, Teresa

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School, this teacher's guide presents a course in health care vocabulary for secretaries, medical records personnel, laboratory assistants, shipping personnel, and patient relations personnel in health care facilities. The course, which should require 10-14 hours of instruction, contains…

  5. Vocabulary at the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  6. Managing Vocabulary Mapping Services

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chengjian; Monson, Kent; Poon, Kasey B.; Shakib, Shaun C.; Lau, Lee Min

    2005-01-01

    The efficient management and maintenance of large-scale and high-quality vocabulary mapping is an operational challenge. The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) group developed an information management system to provide controlled mapping services, resulting in improved efficiency and quality maintenance. PMID:16779203

  7. Research into Practice: Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, I. S. P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it…

  8. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for…

  9. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for…

  10. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  11. Techniques for Learning Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, H. Jarold

    A variety of classroom techniques for second language vocabulary learning are described, based on the principle that different approaches work with different students under varying conditions. The techniques include: rote rehearsal; the use of visual aids, including items that are acted out by students for the benefit of the class; role-playing;…

  12. Vocabulary at the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  13. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  14. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  15. The electric vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article attempts, through historical illumination, to shine through the mist of electrostatic terminology and offer a clearer view of the classical model of electricity.

  16. Auto-Indexing of the 1971-77 ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubkin, Loene

    1979-01-01

    Describes the automatic indexing project undertaken in 1978 to convert by means of a "bridge vocabulary" the terms in the ABI/INFORM database to index terms of a controlled vocabulary. Components of the bridge vocabulary are explained, and examples demonstrating the process of conversion are provided. (JD)

  17. Stanwix House Vocabulary Study: Plurals. Investigative Report Number 7227.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Penelope; Bond, Jack H.

    Research analyzed: 1) the treatment of plurals in the Functional Basic Word List for Special Pupils (Stanwix House List), and 2) plural recognition by educable mentally handicapped (EMH) students. Review of the Stanwix House List revealed that plurals were treated as discrete vocabulary items. Using a small sample of EMH subjects, the researchers…

  18. Consumer Health Vocabulary: A Proposal for a Brazilian Portuguese Language.

    PubMed

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a gap between the expressions commonly used by health consumers and health professionals. To bridge this gap, consumer health vocabularies are presented as a solution. The aim of this paper is to describe an on-going project to create a consumer health vocabulary (CHV) in the Brazilian Portuguese language. This project will be developed in three phases: terms extraction and connection to compose a CHV graph structure, human validation, and computacional application development. We expect to make a CHV beta version (including approximately 5,000 valid consumer terms stored in a database graph) available. This project can contribute to the improvement of CHVs.

  19. Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of prediction for both groups of children. English and French morphological awareness and French-English cognate awareness significantly predicted concurrent and longitudinal vocabulary development after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, phonological awareness, and word identification. The contributions of morphological awareness to English vocabulary and cognate awareness to French vocabulary strengthened between Grades 1 and 2. These findings highlight the emerging importance of morphological and cognate awareness in children's vocabulary development and suggest that these metalinguistic factors can serve to broaden the vocabulary repertoire of children who enter school with limited language proficiency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  1. Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

  2. Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

    2005-01-01

    A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

  3. Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

    2005-01-01

    A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

  4. Matching and retrieval based on the vocabulary and grammar of color patterns.

    PubMed

    Mojsilović, A; Kovacević, J; Hu, J; Safranek, R J; Ganapathy, S K

    2000-01-01

    We propose a perceptually based system for pattern retrieval and matching. The central idea is that similarity judgment has to be modeled along perceptual dimensions. Hence, we detect basic visual categories that people use in their judgment of similarity, and design a computational model that accepts patterns as input and, depending on the query, produces a set of choices that follow human behavior in pattern matching. There are two major research aspects to our work. The first one addresses the issue of how humans perceive and measure similarity within the domain of color patterns. To understand and describe this mechanism, we performed a subjective experiment which yielded five perceptual criteria used in comparison between color patterns (vocabulary), as well as a set of rules governing the use of these criteria in similarity judgment (grammar). The second research aspect is the implementation of the perceptual criteria and rules in an image retrieval system. Following the processing typical for human vision, we design a system to: (1) extract perceptual features from the vocabulary and (2) perform the comparison between the patterns according to the grammar rules. The modeling of human perception of color patterns is new--starting with a new color codebook design, compact color representation, and texture description through multi-scale edge distribution along different directions. Moreover, we propose new color and texture distance functions that correlate with human performance. The performance of the system is illustrated with numerous examples from image databases from different application domains.

  5. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…

  6. Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

  7. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary for Peace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Matos, Francisco Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Shows English-as-a-Second-Language educators how vocabulary teaching can become humanizingly meaningful through the use of techniques inspired by some of the interdependent traditions to peace, and to make a plea for ESL teachers and learners to humanize their repertoires of best practices in vocabulary teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  9. Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

  10. Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

  11. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…

  12. French Basic Course. Units 13-24 Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossard, Monique; Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is the second volume of the basic course in French. The material is divided into 12 chapters. Each of the first 11 chapters contains a dialogue, followed by notes concerning the dialogue, a list of useful expressions and vocabulary, vocabulary exercises, and questions on the dialogue. The subjects of the dialogues…

  13. French Basic Course. Units 13-24 Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossard, Monique; Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is the second volume of the basic course in French. The material is divided into 12 chapters. Each of the first 11 chapters contains a dialogue, followed by notes concerning the dialogue, a list of useful expressions and vocabulary, vocabulary exercises, and questions on the dialogue. The subjects of the dialogues…

  14. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies.

    PubMed

    Plant, Anne L; Elliott, John T; Bhat, Talapady N

    2011-12-21

    There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical operations. Organizing metadata for cell imaging

  15. Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-06

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  16. Coherent image layout using an adaptive visual vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-01

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  17. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  18. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  19. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Ahmad Azman; Rawian, Rafizah Mohd; Yahaya, Mohamad Fadhili; Abdullah, Azaharee; Mansor, Mahani; Osman, Mohd Izwan; Zakaria, Zahrullaili Ahmad; Murat, Aminarashid; Nayan, Surina; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed Malaysian tertiary students' levels of passive and controlled active vocabulary knowledge. Two tests from the Vocabulary Levels Test were used to collect the data namely the Passive Vocabulary Test and Controlled Active Vocabulary Test. When using the test, the researchers were not particularly interested in the students' total…

  1. Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

  2. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  3. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  4. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  5. Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

  6. Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

  7. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary through Code-Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Examined code-mixing, a little-known technique used in teaching vocabulary. Found that using code-mixing to introduce new vocabulary can be an efficient and effective method. Discusses procedures and cognitive processes involved in vocabulary learning and explains the use of code mixing to introduce vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  9. Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

  10. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  11. Maintaining the integrity of a Web-based medical vocabulary glossary.

    PubMed Central

    Aryel, R. M.; Cai, J.; Chueh, H. C.; Barnett, G. O.

    1997-01-01

    Medical vocabulary databases are vital components of electronic medical record (EMR) systems. While their performance and efficiency has been extensively explored by many authors, few have dealt with the maintenance of their semantic integrity. Clinicians' preference for an optimistic system has introduced a need for monitoring and filtering proposed additions to the vocabulary tables. We propose the use of batch processing and memo-posting as means of implementing a World-Wide-Web-based Controlled Vocabulary Glossary as a monitored optimistic system. PMID:9357696

  12. Wordbank: an open repository for developmental vocabulary data.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Braginsky, Mika; Yurovsky, Daniel; Marchman, Virginia A

    2016-05-18

    The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are a widely used family of parent-report instruments for easy and inexpensive data-gathering about early language acquisition. CDI data have been used to explore a variety of theoretically important topics, but, with few exceptions, researchers have had to rely on data collected in their own lab. In this paper, we remedy this issue by presenting Wordbank, a structured database of CDI data combined with a browsable web interface. Wordbank archives CDI data across languages and labs, providing a resource for researchers interested in early language, as well as a platform for novel analyses. The site allows interactive exploration of patterns of vocabulary growth at the level of both individual children and particular words. We also introduce wordbankr, a software package for connecting to the database directly. Together, these tools extend the abilities of students and researchers to explore quantitative trends in vocabulary development.

  13. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  14. Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

    2008-05-01

    The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary.

  15. C.U.B.E. English/Vocabulary. Goals IV-V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincennes Univ., IN.

    A part of the adult basic education (ABE) teaching/learning management system called CUBE (Continuity and Unity in Basic Education), this manual consists of a series of tests and guides for use in teaching English and vocabulary skills to ABE students. Among the tests provided in the manual are the Mott 1600 and Mott 1900 pretests and posttests,…

  16. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  17. The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

  18. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  19. The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

  20. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  1. Towards a Theory of Vocabulary Teaching: Psycholinguistic Implications for Vocabulary Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelotti, Michael

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a point of departure for a coherent program of vocabulary growth. The paper offers three premises for a coherent program of vocabulary growth: (1) vocabulary is best learned as it functions in communication settings, (2) teachers can more effectively stimulate vocabulary growth if they attend more…

  2. The Odd Couple: Reading and Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Fraida

    1989-01-01

    Explores the tensions between English-as-a-Second-Language reading and vocabulary instruction. Suggestions are offered for facilitating the successful meshing of reading and vocabulary skill practice. (Author/CB)

  3. Development of a controlled vocabulary for semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata for mining projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Wu, Chonglong; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Schetselaar, Ernst M.; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xinqing; Zhang, Xialin

    2010-12-01

    Semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata is a long-term concern in mining projects. Inconsistent conceptual schemas and heterogeneous professional terms among various geodata sources in a mining project often hinder their efficient use and/or reuse. Our study of a controlled vocabulary focuses on interoperability of mineral exploration geodata of different mining projects of a mining group in China. In order to achieve this purpose, a proper representation of concepts and their inter-relationships in the knowledge domain of mineral exploration for mining projects is proposed. In addition, we propose that for wider interoperability of mining project geodata the controlled vocabulary underpinning them should be interoperable with concepts in related applications in the mineral exploration domain. In developing our controlled vocabulary, we adopted/adapted national standards of geosciences taxonomies and terminologies. The organization structure of terms, coding method, metadata schema for database applications and an extensible structure of our controlled vocabulary are discussed. The controlled vocabulary we developed was then used to reconcile heterogeneous geodata and to set up integrated databases for various mining projects of the mining group. Our study shows that a properly organized controlled vocabulary not only allows for efficient reconciliation of heterogeneous geodata sources in similar or related projects, but also makes related geodata to be interoperable with extramural applications in the same knowledge domain.

  4. Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James

    2001-01-01

    Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

  5. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  6. Personalized Vocabulary Development for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubaugh, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Spoken Words, a modified language experience approach to the study of vocabulary, offers college instructors an opportunity to individualize vocabulary instruction and to demonstrate a variety of the most powerful vocabulary learning strategies in a natural language setting. To implement Spoken Words, the teacher must first model the procedure by…

  7. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  8. Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Chun-mei

    2007-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to investigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects' performance? The experimental result demonstrates that…

  9. Lexical Phrases, Functions and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…

  10. Vocabulary Development for Ginn 720, Level 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koele, Jane

    Vocabulary development activities to be used with the stories in the Ginn 720 Reading Series Level 9 textbook are offered. The introduction recommends a method of presenting the activities. For each story that appears in the textbook, a vocabulary list and a learning activity are given. At the end of each of five units, a unit vocabulary test is…

  11. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansouri, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989) (cited in Tokac, 2005) points out the role of vocabulary in a…

  12. Improving Online Reading and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…

  13. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  14. Some Vocabulary Activities Worth Teaching About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Helena S.

    1982-01-01

    The 12 activities presented in this pamphlet are intended to help make vocabulary study a stimulating experience for both teacher and student. The activities are as follows: (1) a commercially prepared list of suggestions for vocabulary development, (2) an exercise designed to relate vocabulary study to every day reading, (3) a variation of the…

  15. Lexical Phrases, Functions and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…

  16. Vocabulary Instruction for the Struggling Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee

    2005-01-01

    Children's acquisition of vocabulary is essential for gains in reading comprehension and reading development. Struggling readers often do not make gains in their reading comprehension because they have a limited reading vocabulary. Enhancing the vocabulary development and growth for children who are experiencing reading difficulties enables them…

  17. Perfecting Language: Experimenting with Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    One of the thorniest aspects of teaching languages is developing students' vocabulary, yet it is impossible to be "an accurate and highly communicative language user with a very small vocabulary" (Milton, 2009, p. 3). Nation (2006) indicates that more vocabulary than previously thought is required to function well both at spoken and…

  18. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  19. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  20. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  1. Mobile Learning to Enrich Vocabulary in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The study enlightens the impact of Mobile learning in enriching the vocabulary in English at standard VIII. Objectives of the study: 1. To find out the problems in enriching vocabulary in English at standard VIII. 2. To find out the impact of Mobile learning in enriching vocabulary in English. Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in…

  2. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  3. Listening Vocabulary: Embracing Forgotten Aural Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovation in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language classes. Whereas vocabulary coverage in classrooms and textbooks traditionally focuses on lists of target words in printed form, this article promotes the notion of "aural vocabulary" as an important part of…

  4. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically reviews…

  5. Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James

    2001-01-01

    Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

  6. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  7. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jules J

    2003-06-16

    Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus.A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term

  8. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  10. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  11. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  12. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  13. Vocabulary Development: Teaching vs. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    2003-01-01

    Considers how with no training in how to teach vocabulary skills, many teachers transfer to their classroom the same techniques that they see test makers using. Offers a chart to encourage thinking about the ways that standardized testing techniques differ from good teaching and learning practices. Argues that educators should provide students…

  14. Vocabulary Instruction through Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes a research study investigating the effects of asking preschool teachers to use a professional development tool to support their planning, implementation, and reflection of vocabulary-rich storybook reading. Findings suggested that not only could teachers use the tool in their planning and reflection but also that use of the…

  15. Improving Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Andy; Cressman, Kelley Shea; Pfanz, Tomi

    An action research project described an implementation of vocabulary strategies designed to increase reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of inner city elementary students located in central Illinois. Research shows that some children from low-income environments have below average reading abilities. Analysis of probable cause…

  16. Interactive Approaches for Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition research has been paid attention these years (e.g. Beck, McKeown & McCaslin, 1983; Harley, 1996; Huckin, Haynes, & Coady, 1993; Zahar, Cobb & Spada, 2001). A serious methodologies had been reported, including applying learner dictionaries (Nesi, 1999; Tribble, 2003), using forms of visual glossing (Al-Seghayer,…

  17. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  18. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  19. Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  20. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  1. Molecular interaction databases.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Sandra

    2012-05-01

    Molecular interaction databases are playing an ever more important role in our understanding of the biology of the cell. An increasing number of resources exist to provide these data and many of these have adopted the controlled vocabularies and agreed-upon standardised data formats produced by the Molecular Interaction workgroup of the Human Proteome Organization Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO PSI-MI). Use of these standards allows each resource to establish PSI Common QUery InterfaCe (PSICQUIC) service, making data from multiple resources available to the user in response to a single query. This cooperation between databases has been taken a stage further, with the establishment of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium which aims to maximise the curation power of numerous data resources, and provide the user with a non-redundant, consistently annotated set of interaction data. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Enhancing evidence-based practice--a controlled vocabulary for nursing practice and research.

    PubMed

    Saranto, Kaija; Tallberg, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    Evidence-based practice requires flexible systems for information retrieval. Search processes in electronic databases must be based on terms, which are familiar to professionals and describe accurately the problem to be solved. The paper describes the process of evolving a controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The vocabulary is based on terms of the Medline thesaurus the medical subject headings (MeSH) by National Library of Medicine and the International Classification for Nursing Practice by the International Council of Nurses. The created vocabulary consists of 10 themes central to nursing domain. The content was compiled using Delphi technique. The expert panel had four rounds and at the first stage the vocabulary consists of 558 terms. The validity of the vocabulary has been tested for indexing nursing research and based on the validation the expert panel has made some changes for the hierarchy and content. The vocabulary will be added as an independent theme to the Finnish thesaurus the FinMeSH.

  3. Portability issues for a structured clinical vocabulary: mapping from Yale to the Columbia medical entities dictionary.

    PubMed Central

    Kannry, J L; Wright, L; Shifman, M; Silverstein, S; Miller, P L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the issues involved in mapping an existing structured controlled vocabulary, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) developed at Columbia University, to an institutional vocabulary, the laboratory and pharmacy vocabularies of the Yale New Haven Medical Center. DESIGN: 200 Yale pharmacy terms and 200 Yale laboratory terms were randomly selected from database files containing all of the Yale laboratory and pharmacy terms. These 400 terms were then mapped to the MED in three phases: mapping terms, mapping relationships between terms, and mapping attributes that modify terms. RESULTS: 73% of the Yale pharmacy terms mapped to MED terms. 49% of the Yale laboratory terms mapped to MED terms. After certain obsolete and otherwise inappropriate laboratory terms were eliminated, the latter rate improved to 59%. 23% of the unmatched Yale laboratory terms failed to match because of differences in granularity with MED terms. The Yale and MED pharmacy terms share 12 of 30 distinct attributes. The Yale and MED laboratory terms share 14 of 23 distinct attributes. CONCLUSION: The mapping of an institutional vocabulary to a structured controlled vocabulary requires that the mapping be performed at the level of terms, relationships, and attributes. The mapping process revealed the importance of standardization of local vocabulary subsets, standardization of attribute representation, and term granularity. PMID:8750391

  4. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  5. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap for EFL Medical Undergraduates: The Establishment of a Medical Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    This study created a medical word list (MWL) to bridge the gap between non-technical and technical vocabulary. The researcher compiled a corpus containing 155 textbooks across 31 medical subject areas from e-book databases (totaling 15 million running words) and examined the range and frequency of words outside the most frequent 3,000-word…

  6. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap for EFL Medical Undergraduates: The Establishment of a Medical Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    This study created a medical word list (MWL) to bridge the gap between non-technical and technical vocabulary. The researcher compiled a corpus containing 155 textbooks across 31 medical subject areas from e-book databases (totaling 15 million running words) and examined the range and frequency of words outside the most frequent 3,000-word…

  7. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition from Language Input and from Form-Focused Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia

    2009-01-01

    Interest in L2 vocabulary learning and teaching started long before the nineteen-eighties (for references to earlier studies, see Rob Waring's database http://www1.harenet.ne.jp/~waring/vocab/vocrefs/vocref.html) but it declined with the advent of generative linguistics to the point of discrimination and neglect (Meara 1980). In 1986, I argued…

  8. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  9. Business Students' Reading Skills Related to Those Required for Use of Database Software Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, B. June

    1986-01-01

    A test was given that (1) assessed business students' ability to read materials from microcomputer database software manuals and (2) assessed their knowledge of technical vocabulary terms from the manuals. Test results revealed that the students' technical reading and vocabulary skills were considerably below those they would need to use…

  10. Vocabulary, Grammar, Sex, and Aging.

    PubMed

    Moscoso Del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the changes in our language abilities along the lifespan is a crucial step for understanding the aging process both in normal and in abnormal circumstances. Besides controlled experimental tasks, it is equally crucial to investigate language in unconstrained conversation. I present an information-theoretical analysis of a corpus of dyadic conversations investigating how the richness of the vocabulary, the word-internal structure (inflectional morphology), and the syntax of the utterances evolves as a function of the speaker's age and sex. Although vocabulary diversity increases throughout the lifetime, grammatical diversities follow a different pattern, which also differs between women and men. Women use increasingly diverse syntactic structures at least up to their late fifties, and they do not deteriorate in terms of fluency through their lifespan. However, from age 45 onward, men exhibit a decrease in the diversity of the syntactic structures they use, coupled with an increased number of speech disfluencies. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Umbel, V M; Pearson, B Z; Fernández, M C; Oller, D K

    1992-08-01

    Receptive vocabulary of Hispanic children in Miami was tested in both English and Spanish with complementary standardized tests, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) and the Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody (TVIP-H). 105 bilingual first graders, of middle to high socioeconomic status relative to national norms, were divided according to the language(s) spoken in their homes. Both groups, whether they spoke only Spanish in the home (OSH) or both English and Spanish in the home (ESH), performed near the mean of 100 in Spanish receptive vocabulary (TVIP-H means 97.0 and 96.5); in contrast, ESH group children scored more than 1 SD higher in English than OSH group children (PPVT-R means 88.0 and 69.7, respectively). It appears, therefore, that learning 2 languages at once does not harm receptive language development in the language of origin, while it does lay the groundwork for superior performance in the majority language. Furthermore, an analysis of translation equivalents, items shared by both tests, shows that a statistically significant portion of bilingual children's lexical knowledge does not overlap in their 2 languages and is therefore not reflected in single-language scores.

  12. Identifying and Activating Receptive Vocabulary by an Online Vocabulary Survey and an Online Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ivy Chuhui; Kawai, Goh

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to identify and activate the Receptive Vocabulary (RV) of English Language Learners (ELLs), we designed (1) an online five category multiple-choice vocabulary survey that more quickly measures vocabulary knowledge, and (2) an online creative writing task where ELLs chose RV items identified in step (1). While RV items of highly proficient…

  13. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  14. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  16. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  18. Helping Children Develop Skills in Phonic Analysis, Sight Vocabulary and Handwriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinder, Susan

    A study tested the effectiveness of precision teaching through a summer pilot project involving four male students between the ages of 6 and 7, all of whom had demonstrated some difficulty with basic reading skills. The 6-week program concentrated on those skills most important to emergent readers, namely, phonic analysis, sight vocabulary and…

  19. Marzano Program for Building Academic Vocabulary: Preliminary Report of the 2004-2005 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial findings from the 2004-2005 evaluation study of the program titled Building Academic Vocabulary (BAV). The theory and research supporting the development of this program are articulated in "Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement" (Marzano, 2004). Briefly, the basic assumption underlying the BAV…

  20. THE VOCABULARY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TYPING AND STENOGRAPHIC TRAINING, RESEARCH FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEST, LEONARD J.

    THE SILVERTHORN BASIC VOCABULARY OF WRITTEN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WAS REANALYZED IN ORDER TO FURNISH ACCURATE DIFFICULTY INDEXES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL AND TEST MATERIALS FOR STENOGRAPHERS AND TYPISTS. AMONG THE 11,055 DIFFERENT WORDS IN THE REANALYZED LIST, 109 OCCUR AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY 1,000 WORDS. MEAN SYLLABIC INTENSITY (NUMBER OF SPEECH…

  1. EXPLORATORY STUDIES IN THE USE OF PICTURES AND SOUND FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSSLIGHT, J.H.; KALE, S.V.

    THE EFFECTS OF A NUMBER OF VARIABLES BASIC TO THE LEARNING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY WERE REPORTED. THE LANGUAGE SELECTED FOR LEARNING WAS RUSSIAN. SUBJECTS IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT WERE 409 STUDENTS FROM AN INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY COURSE. FROM AN ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY, A PRELIMINARY LIST OF COMMON VERBS WAS SELECTED WHICH REPRESENTED AN…

  2. Enriching Vocabulary = Better Readers, Writers, Speakers, and Listeners. A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Norman E.

    Stressing language development as the prime component of all learning, this resource book presents suggestions to teachers to aid them in developing children's descriptive language. Basic to the described activities is the concept that vocabulary development is essentially concept development, requires a variety of experiences, and results from…

  3. Nonparametric Estimation of the Plausibility Functions of the Distractors of Vocabulary Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1994-01-01

    The Level-11 vocabulary subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills was analyzed using a two-stage latent trait approach and data set of 2,356 examinees, approximately 11 years of age. It is concluded that the nonparametric approach leads to efficient estimation of the latent trait. (SLD)

  4. EXPLORATORY STUDIES IN THE USE OF PICTURES AND SOUND FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSSLIGHT, J.H.; KALE, S.V.

    THE EFFECTS OF A NUMBER OF VARIABLES BASIC TO THE LEARNING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY WERE REPORTED. THE LANGUAGE SELECTED FOR LEARNING WAS RUSSIAN. SUBJECTS IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT WERE 409 STUDENTS FROM AN INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY COURSE. FROM AN ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY, A PRELIMINARY LIST OF COMMON VERBS WAS SELECTED WHICH REPRESENTED AN…

  5. Bilingual Word Power. Research Based Vocabulary Strategies for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laura Chris

    2004-01-01

    English language learners may bring linguistic knowledge in the area of cognates to their learning of new English words, but they also will have special vocabulary learning needs that English speakers will not. They need to learn basic, survival words that English speakers begin school knowing, words such as house, school, walk, and eat. They also…

  6. Some Educational Implications Derived from a Comparison of Adult Spoken and Written Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, W. Wendell

    A list of English words used most frequently in adult speech (based on "A Spoken Word Count" by Lyle V. Jones and Joseph M. Wepman) was compared to a list of words used most frequently in adult writing (based on Ernest Horn's "A Basic Writing Vocabulary, 10,000 Words Most Commonly Used in Writing"). Conclusions were that (1) word selection varies…

  7. Health Vocabulary, 1966. Guide for Translation into the Language, Chinyanja, of the Host Country, Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This vocabulary guide is an alphabetical listing of English words and their equivalent in Chinyanja. A general list of verbs is included, as well as commonly used expressions for planned conversation. The basic expressions are intended for use in learning the health needs and problems of the Malawi community. (NCR)

  8. Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolby, Julian; Fokoue, Achille; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Schonberg, Edith; Srinivas, Kavitha

    A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous, manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to the IT (Information Technology) domain, taking 58 Gartner analyst reports and using two specific LOD sources - DBpedia and Freebase. We show initial findings that address the generalizability of these techniques for vocabulary extraction in new domains, such as the energy industry.

  9. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  10. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  11. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  12. Vocabulary Memorizing Strategies by Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2012-01-01

    The findings of the study indicate that students prefer to engage in the vocabulary learning strategies that would be most appealing to them and that would entail less manipulation of the language. Of the four vocabulary memorizing strategies cited in the study (rote repetition, structural associations, semantic strategies, and mnemonic keyword…

  13. The Future of Indexing and Retrieval Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    The role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's (1) Highly structured controlled vocabularies are obsolete for indexing and retrieval; (2) The natural…

  14. Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

  15. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

  16. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  17. Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

    2008-01-01

    We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

  18. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  19. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  20. Dissecting Item Misfit on Vocabulary Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Richard C.

    The Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, which produces vocabulary instructional materials for test takers, is in the process of determining the difficulty values of nontechnical words in the English language. To this end, the Foundation writes test items for vocabulary words and tests them in schools. The items are then calibrated using the…

  1. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  2. Enhancing Emotional Vocabulary in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers suggestions on enhancing emotional vocabulary in early childhood education settings. A schematic of children's emotional literacy is followed by ways to build emotional vocabulary by teaching directly, teaching incidentally, or utilizing special activities. Suggestions also address teaching children to recognize feelings in…

  3. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  4. Toward the Automatic Identification of Sublanguage Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.; He, Shaoyi

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a method for the automatic identification of sublanguage vocabulary words as they occur in abstracts. Highlights include research relating to sublanguages and their vocabulary; domain terms; evaluation criteria, including recall and precision; and implications for natural language processing and information retrieval.…

  5. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  6. Vocabulary Assistance before and during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Stephen; Dwyer, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the…

  7. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  8. Implementing an Online Vocabulary Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition research has shed much light on practical methods for increasing lexical knowledge (Nation, 1994), many foreign language teachers hesitate to implement focused vocabulary-training programs in their classrooms. The reasons most often cited for this hesitation are associated with the difficult tasks of creating,…

  9. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  10. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  11. Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

  12. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  13. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  14. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  15. Embedding Vocabulary Instruction into the Art Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrocca, RoseAnn; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how an elementary art specialist scaffolded learning of specific academic vocabulary during a unit on how to create hollow clay ceramic sculptures. Although much has been written recently on how elementary teachers might better teach academic vocabulary in reading and language arts contexts as well as in…

  16. Improving Vocabulary Development Through Balanced Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlakar-Hillig, Mary Ellen; Malvin, Pam; Troy, Leonora

    This report describes a program for improving vocabulary development thorough balanced literacy. The targeted population consisted of three elementary classrooms in a community located in a southern suburb of Chicago. A lack of vocabulary knowledge that interfered with student academic success was documented in state and standardized test results,…

  17. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  18. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  19. Glossary of Social Studies Terms and Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorov, Karen R., Comp.

    This glossary is a tool to help teachers better understand the language of social studies. It was not created to be a study guide for vocabulary tests, as learning social studies vocabulary is best done in context. The glossary is for use in conjunction with the social studies portion of Michigan's Clarifying Language in Michigan Benchmarks (MI…

  20. Matching Instructional Design with Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, William Dee; Rupley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. The goal of this paper is to reflect on several lessons using research-based vocabulary strategies, and to present think-alouds that detail the steps in matching instructional design with those strategies in order to reach the learning outcome.…

  1. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  2. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  3. Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

    2008-01-01

    We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

  4. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  5. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  6. Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

  7. Embedding Vocabulary Instruction into the Art Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrocca, RoseAnn; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how an elementary art specialist scaffolded learning of specific academic vocabulary during a unit on how to create hollow clay ceramic sculptures. Although much has been written recently on how elementary teachers might better teach academic vocabulary in reading and language arts contexts as well as in…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary Recognition Strategies in ESP Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Justifies the teaching of vocabulary recognition strategies from vocabulary development exercises and reviews five such strategies. These strategies are: (1) inferring from context, (2) identifying lexical familiarization, (3) unchaining nominal compounds, (4) synonym search, and (5) word analysis. (Author/SED)

  9. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  10. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  11. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  12. Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010389 TITLE: Multilingual Vocabularies in Automatic Speech Recognition...numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10378 thru ADPO10397 UNCLASSIFIED 77 MULTILINGUAL VOCABULARIES IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION Giorgio Miccal...cardinality is limited to a few hundreds, even if they allow to The paper describes a method for dealing with multilingual represent all the most

  13. The Future of Indexing and Retrieval Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    The role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's (1) Highly structured controlled vocabularies are obsolete for indexing and retrieval; (2) The natural…

  14. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  17. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  18. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  19. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice.

  20. Normative adjustments to the D-KEFS trail making test: corrections for education and vocabulary level.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Delis, Dean C; Holdnack, James

    2011-11-01

    The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making Test (TMT), a modification of the original TMT, was created to isolate set-shifting (Letter-Number Switching) from other component skills. This was accomplished by including four baseline conditions (Visual Scanning, Number Sequencing, Letter Sequencing, and Motor Speed) and by placing equal numbers of stimuli in the three sequencing conditions. Given that some studies with the original TMT demonstrated a significant effect of education and intellectual functioning on performance, we utilized the D-KEFS national standardization sample to examine the effects of education and vocabulary level-i.e., Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)-on the D-KEFS TMT. The results indicate a significant effect of these variables on each D-KEFS TMT condition. Normative tables for education- and vocabulary-adjusted scaled scores based on the database from the D-KEFS national normative study were generated.

  1. The HUPO proteomics standards initiative- mass spectrometry controlled vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Ovelleiro, David; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Chambers, Matthew; Kallhardt, Marius; Levander, Fredrik; Shofstahl, James; Orchard, Sandra; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Controlled vocabularies (CVs), i.e. a collection of predefined terms describing a modeling domain, used for the semantic annotation of data, and ontologies are used in structured data formats and databases to avoid inconsistencies in annotation, to have a unique (and preferably short) accession number and to give researchers and computer algorithms the possibility for more expressive semantic annotation of data. The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO)-Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) makes extensive use of ontologies/CVs in their data formats. The PSI-Mass Spectrometry (MS) CV contains all the terms used in the PSI MS-related data standards. The CV contains a logical hierarchical structure to ensure ease of maintenance and the development of software that makes use of complex semantics. The CV contains terms required for a complete description of an MS analysis pipeline used in proteomics, including sample labeling, digestion enzymes, instrumentation parts and parameters, software used for identification and quantification of peptides/proteins and the parameters and scores used to determine their significance. Owing to the range of topics covered by the CV, collaborative development across several PSI working groups, including proteomics research groups, instrument manufacturers and software vendors, was necessary. In this article, we describe the overall structure of the CV, the process by which it has been developed and is maintained and the dependencies on other ontologies. Database URL: http://psidev.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/psidev/psi/psi-ms/mzML/controlledVocabulary/psi-ms.obo.

  2. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org PMID:24951798

  4. Patterns of similarity and difference between the vocabularies of psychology and other subjects.

    PubMed

    Benjafield, John G

    2014-02-01

    The vocabulary of Anglophone psychology is shared with many other subjects. Previous research using the Oxford English Dictionary has shown that the subjects having the most words in common with psychology are biology, chemistry, computing, electricity, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, music, pathology, philosophy, and physics. The present study presents a database of the vocabularies of these 12 subjects that is similar to one previously constructed for psychology, enabling the histories of the vocabularies of these subjects to be compared with each other as well as with psychology. All subjects have a majority of word senses that are metaphorical. However, psychology is not among the most metaphorical of subjects, a distinction belonging to computing, linguistics, and mathematics. Indeed, the history of other subjects shows an increasing tendency to recycle old words and give them new, metaphorical meanings. The history of psychology shows an increasing tendency to invent new words rather than metaphorical senses of existing words. These results were discussed in terms of the degree to which psychology's vocabulary remains unsettled in comparison with other subjects. The possibility was raised that the vocabulary of psychology is in a state similar to that of chemistry prior to Lavoisier.

  5. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  6. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  7. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  8. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  9. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic concept…

  10. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  11. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  12. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  13. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  14. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  15. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  18. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  19. The Relationship of Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy with Medical English and Terminology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the use of vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy in medical English learning, and whether after an initial six-week course to master the basics of medical terminology, those with higher use of vocabulary learning strategies and those with a higher degree of self-efficacy would have significant score improvements in the medical English proficiency. Second-year medical students (N = 115; M age = 19.6, SD = 0.5; 82 men, 33 women) participated in the study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Measures included medical English tests, the English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Survey (EVLSS), and the English Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (ELSES). Results showed that there was no significant correlation between vocabulary learning strategies and English learning self-efficacy. In addition, as a whole, vocabulary learning strategies and self-efficacy significantly predicted students' score improvements in medical English proficiency.

  20. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  1. Remote Access MicroMeSH: Evaluation of a Microcomputer System for Searching the MEDLINE Database

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Henry J.; Barnett, G. Octo; Scott, Jon; Mallon, Laurie; Blewett, Dyan Ryan

    1989-01-01

    Remote Access MicroMeSH (RAMM) is a powerful but easy to use microcomputer system for searching the MEDLINE database. RAMM incorporates MicroMeSH, a microcomputer implementation of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary. RAMM facilitates the creation of highly specific MEDLINE search queries. Our goals in creating RAMM were to provide a system that could be used to search the medical literature and to teach the basic skills required to use MeSH and MEDLINE. During the past two years RAMM has been used by clinicians, library professionals, researchers and students at Harvard Medical School and at selected academic sites in the U.S. and Canada. In February of 1989 we began an effort to formally evaluate RAMM. This paper describes the preliminary results of that evaluation.

  2. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  3. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  4. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  5. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  6. Insulin Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  7. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  8. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  9. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  10. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  11. Extending Students' Vocabulary: Prefixes and Suffixes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a teaching method for vocabulary development based on word formation by means of affixes. Discusses inflectional and derivational suffixes, prefixes, and their meaning. Offers examples of practice materials and of receptive and productive tests. (MES)

  12. Vocabulary Learning: The Use of Grids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    A system of grids to organize related vocabulary words and their associations developed for teacher trainees is illustrated, and other possible uses of the categorizing system, by students, teachers, and translators, are discussed. (MSE)

  13. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  14. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  15. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  16. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. FIREMON Database

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON database software allows users to enter data, store, analyze, and summarize plot data, photos, and related documents. The FIREMON database software consists of a Java application and a Microsoft® Access database. The Java application provides the user interface with FIREMON data through data entry forms, data summary reports, and other data management tools...

  18. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  19. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  20. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  1. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  2. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  3. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  4. Indonesian Basic Course: Volume XIII. Outline of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This 8-unit volume written in Bahasa Indonesian is intended to acquaint United States military personnel studying Bahasa Indonesian with Indonesian geography and geographic terminology. The text, used in the third phase of the Basic Course, aims to: (1) relate significant content about the area, (2) expand the student's vocabulary, and (3) develop…

  5. Oregon & Federal Basic Income Tax Return Preparation. Student's Manual 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna, Ed.

    This student manual contains materials for a 20-session course in basic income tax preparation. Each session may include some or all of these components: a reading assignment, a vocabulary list, interview questions pertinent to that session's subject matter, informative/reference materials, problems to work out in class or at home, exercises, and…

  6. Communication II: A Basic Report Writer's Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, V., Ed.; Kline, L., Ed.

    This course syllabus presents information on Communications II, a course offered at Pikes Peak Community College to provide students with practice in communication, while emphasizing vocabulary and basic writing techniques. A course outline is first presented, including a course description, a statement of general objectives, and a list of units.…

  7. Indonesian Basic Course: Volume XIV. Outline of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This 10-unit volume dealing with historical events in Indonesia is used in the advanced phase of the Indonesian Basic Course for United States military personnel. The objectives of the course are: (1) to relate the significant history of the area, (2) to expand the student's vocabulary, and (3) to develop the student's linguistic skills. The ten…

  8. Oregon & Federal Basic Income Tax Return Preparation. Student's Manual 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna, Ed.

    This student manual contains materials for a 20-session course in basic income tax preparation. Each session may include some or all of these components: a reading assignment, a vocabulary list, interview questions pertinent to that session's subject matter, informative/reference materials, problems to work out in class or at home, exercises, and…

  9. Automated database mediation using ontological metadata mappings.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    To devise an automated approach for integrating federated database information using database ontologies constructed from their extended metadata. One challenge of database federation is that the granularity of representation of equivalent data varies across systems. Dealing effectively with this problem is analogous to dealing with precoordinated vs. postcoordinated concepts in biomedical ontologies. The authors describe an approach based on ontological metadata mapping rules defined with elements of a global vocabulary, which allows a query specified at one granularity level to fetch data, where possible, from databases within the federation that use different granularities. This is implemented in OntoMediator, a newly developed production component of our previously described Query Integrator System. OntoMediator's operation is illustrated with a query that accesses three geographically separate, interoperating databases. An example based on SNOMED also illustrates the applicability of high-level rules to support the enforcement of constraints that can prevent inappropriate curator or power-user actions. A rule-based framework simplifies the design and maintenance of systems where categories of data must be mapped to each other, for the purpose of either cross-database query or for curation of the contents of compositional controlled vocabularies.

  10. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  11. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF.

  12. Comparing Phonological and Orthographic Vocabulary Size: Do Vocabulary Tests Underestimate the Knowledge of Some Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James; Hopkins, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Any description of what it means to know a word in a foreign language is likely to include recognition of form, both how a word sounds when heard and what it looks like when written. However, tests of vocabulary knowledge focus almost exclusively on the written form of the word. We have little idea of learners' phonological vocabulary knowledge or…

  13. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  14. Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

  15. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  16. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  17. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  18. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  19. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  20. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  1. Using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy plus to Develop University EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodary, Manal Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of using the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy Plus (VSSPlus) on developing university EFL students' vocabulary learning. It adopted the quasi experimental design which included two groups design. The participants were first level students at Languages and Translation Department, Arar…

  2. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size of ELT Students at EMU in Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…

  3. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  4. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  5. Bridging the Vocabulary Gap: What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    It is important for children to develop knowledge of words' meanings from a young age because vocabulary development has an impact on their reading comprehension and academic success as they get older. Some children come to school knowing far fewer words than others. Hart and Risley studied young children's vocabulary development and found that…

  6. What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…

  7. One Day, a Fun Day for Vocabulary: Mini Course, Vocabulary Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crist, Barbara

    With emphasis on the exciting aspects of language learning, this vocabulary improvement mini-course aims at presenting words in ways that are relevant, communicative, and enjoyable for the college freshman. Advocating a multisensory approach to vocabulary that involves a "hear it, say it," then, "read it, write it" sequence, the mini-course offers…

  8. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  9. Vocabulary Notebook: A Digital Solution to General and Specific Vocabulary Learning Problems in a CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazo, Plácido; Rodríguez, Romén; Fumero, Dácil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce an innovative software platform that can be especially useful in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context. This tool is called Vocabulary Notebook, and has been developed to solve all the problems that traditional (paper) vocabulary notebooks have. This tool keeps focus on the personalisation of…

  10. Improving Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Attitudes in 4th Grade Students Through Direct Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Deborah J.

    A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…

  11. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  12. International cooperation between Japanese IUGONET and EU ESPAS projects on development of the metadata database for upper atmospheric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Ritschel, Bernd; Iyemori, Tomohiko; Koyama, Yukinobu; Hori, Tomoaki; Abe, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shinbori, Atsuki; UeNo, Satoru; Sato, Yuka; Yagi, Manabu

    2013-04-01

    The upper atmospheric observational study is the area which an international collaboration is crucially important. The Japanese Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork project (2009-2014), IUGONET, is an inter-university program by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. In order to investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to combine various types of in-situ observations and to accelerate data exchange. The IUGONET institutions have been archiving observed data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. in various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. The IUGONET has been developing systems for searching metadata of these observational data, and the metadata database (MDB) has already been operating since 2011. It adopts DSPACE system for registering metadata, and it uses an extension of the SPASE data model of describing metadata, which is widely used format in the upper atmospheric society including that in USA. The European Union project ESPAS (2011-2015) has the same scientific objects with IUGONET, namely it aims to provide an e-science infrastructure for the retrieval and access to space weather relevant data, information and value added services. It integrates 22 partners in European countries. The ESPAS also plans to adopt SPASE model for defining their metadata, but search system is different. Namely, in spite of the similarity of the data model, basic system ideas and techniques of the system and web portal are different between IUGONET and ESPAS. In order to connect the two systems/databases, we are planning to take an ontological method. The SPASE keyword vocabulary, derived from the SPASE data model shall be used as standard for the description of near-earth and space data

  13. The Role of Comprehension Monitoring, Theory of Mind, and Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Story Comprehension and Recall of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; del Río, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that preschoolers' story comprehension is influenced by several basic as well as complex cognitive and linguistic processes. Among the abilities known to be relevant for young children's understanding of stories are the size of their vocabulary, their inference-making ability, and their working memory. In this study,…

  14. ARL’S Acoustic Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    1 Heng Tan, Visual Basic /SQL Server Primer, ETN Press, Montoursville, PA (1995), p. 46. Removable Hard Drives 500-CD...the user and the server, the Acoustic Signal Processing Branch has developed an innovative user-friendly Visual Basic front-end program. Residing on...Microsoft Visual Basic , Professional Edition, Version 6.0 was selected as the development language for the database user-interface program

  15. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-31

    A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill.

  16. Exploring Tactile Perceptual Dimensions Using Materials Associated with Sensory Vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Considering tactile sensation when designing products is important because the decision to purchase often depends on how products feel. Numerous psychophysical studies have attempted to identify important factors that describe tactile perceptions. However, the numbers and types of major tactile dimensions reported in previous studies have varied because of differences in materials used across experiments. To obtain a more complete picture of perceptual space with regard to touch, our study focuses on using vocabulary that expresses tactile sensations as a guiding principle for collecting material samples because these types of words are expected to cover all the basic categories within tactile perceptual space. We collected 120 materials based on a variety of Japanese sound-symbolic words for tactile sensations, and used the materials to examine tactile perceptual dimensions and their associations with affective evaluations. Analysis revealed six major dimensions: "Affective evaluation and Friction," "Compliance," "Surface," "Volume," "Temperature," and "Naturalness." These dimensions include four factors that previous studies have regarded as fundamental, as well as two new factors: "Volume" and "Naturalness." Additionally, we showed that "Affective evaluation" is more closely related to the "Friction" component (slipperiness and dryness) than to other tactile perceptual features. Our study demonstrates that using vocabulary could be an effective method for selecting material samples to explore tactile perceptual space.

  17. End-User Training for Sci-Tech Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Issues related to end-user training for scientific and technical online databases are discussed in five articles. Topics covered include instruction in the use of controlled and natural language vocabularies; a planning assessment for end-user searching; the role of the information center in industrial research; training for health care…

  18. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  19. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  1. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  2. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  3. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  4. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  5. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  6. Evolution of 30 years of the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Since its first edition, published in 1984, the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) has become a landmark for the language of measurement, and in its three editions it has evolved together with the evolution of measurement science and its applications. This paper discusses the fundamental features of the VIM as a concept system and proposes some highlights about the way in the VIM some basic and general concepts of measurement have changed their definitions in the last thirty years.

  7. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  8. Aptamer Database

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer F.; Hesselberth, Jay R.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    The aptamer database is designed to contain comprehensive sequence information on aptamers and unnatural ribozymes that have been generated by in vitro selection methods. Such data are not normally collected in ‘natural’ sequence databases, such as GenBank. Besides serving as a storehouse of sequences that may have diagnostic or therapeutic utility, the database serves as a valuable resource for theoretical biologists who describe and explore fitness landscapes. The database is updated monthly and is publicly available at http://aptamer.icmb.utexas.edu/. PMID:14681367

  9. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills In the Adult Basic Education Population

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  10. Toward a Model of Motivated Vocabulary Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a structural model that integrates vocabulary knowledge and motivation with six latent variables: the initial appraisal of vocabulary learning experience, self-regulating capacity of vocabulary learning, strategic vocabulary learning involvement, mastery of vocabulary learning tactics, vocabulary knowledge, and postappraisal of…

  11. Building a controlled health vocabulary in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Satomura, Y

    2001-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a controlled clinical vocabulary for use in electronic patient record (EPR) systems. In this paper, we propose a model for building the vocabulary. The model is composed of a Canonical Term Dictionary, an Atom Dictionary, a Composite Atom Dictionary, and an Index. Parsing and composing functions are included in this model. Canonical terms were extracted from reference terminologies. Atoms were extracted from the Canonical Term Dictionary and reduced to a set from which the Composite Atom Dictionary can be built. The index was built to link these two dictionaries. For testing the model, we compiled a sample vocabulary and applied the model to a SNOMED translation system (English to Japanese) and a term similarity estimation system. The sample vocabulary consisted of 15,600 atomic terms and 4,450 composite terms. 33,441 SNOMED terms were translated by the SNOMED translation system. The system gave adequate Japanese candidates in 56.3% of cases. The similarity estimation system found an average of 5.4 candidates when the equality ratio was over 50%. The trial applications produced good results. The model seems promising for building a standard clinical vocabulary system. This system can be applied in certain other Asian countries, such as China and Korea.

  12. LEARNING WORDS FOR LIFE: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C; Franco, Ximena

    2014-11-01

    Teaching vocabulary to young dual language learners is critical for their learning in school. This article presents recommendations for promoting vocabulary during reading aloud and conversations in early childhood.

  13. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  14. The Funnybone Family Saga. [Level 1, Books 1-5; Level 2, Books 6-10.] XYZ-Rated: For Adults Only. Basic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John

    A series of 10 high-interest, low-vocabulary reading books for adult basic education students is presented. The series begins with very simple vocabulary and gets progressively more difficult from book to book. Each book contains from four to six stories which focus on the lives and relationships of a variety of humorous characters living in a…

  15. Maize databases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  16. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  17. Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    Different kinds of pictorial databases are described with respect to aims, user groups, search possibilities, storage, and distribution. Some specific examples are given for databases used for the following purposes: (1) labor markets for artists; (2) document management; (3) telling a story; (4) preservation (archives and museums); (5) research;…

  18. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  19. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  20. Unhappy with internal corporate search? : learn tips and tricks for building a controlled vocabulary ontology.

    SciTech Connect

    Arpin, Bettina Karin Schimanski; Jones, Brian S.; Bemesderfer, Joy; Ralph, Mark E.; Miller, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Are your employees unhappy with internal corporate search? Frequent complaints include: too many results to sift through; results are unrelated/outdated; employees aren't sure which terms to search for. One way to improve intranet search is to implement a controlled vocabulary ontology. Employing this takes the guess work out of searching, makes search efficient and precise, educates employees about the lingo used within the corporation, and allows employees to contribute to the corpus of terms. It promotes internal corporate search to rival its superior sibling, internet search. We will cover our experiences, lessons learned, and conclusions from implementing a controlled vocabulary ontology at Sandia National Laboratories. The work focuses on construction of this ontology from the content perspective and the technical perspective. We'll discuss the following: (1) The tool we used to build a polyhierarchical taxonomy; (2) Examples of two methods of indexing the content: traditional 'back of the book' and folksonomy word-mapping; (3) Tips on how to build future search capabilities while building the basic controlled vocabulary; (4) How to implement the controlled vocabulary as an ontology that mimics Google's search suggestions; (5) Making the user experience more interactive and intuitive; and (6) Sorting suggestions based on preferred, alternate and related terms using SPARQL queries. In summary, future improvements will be presented, including permitting end-users to add, edit and remove terms, and filtering on different subject domains.

  1. The Role of Perception, Language, and Preference in the Developmental Acquisition of Basic Color Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, N. J.; Mullen, K. T.

    2005-01-01

    When learning basic color vocabulary, young children show a selective delay in the acquisition of brown and gray relative to other basic color terms. In this study, we first establish the robustness of this finding and then investigate the extent to which perception, language, and color preference may influence color conceptualization.…

  2. [E.I.L.] Swedish: Basic Audio-lingual Course with Correlated Tapes, Volum 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Maiken

    This basic textbook for Swedish contains 10 units. The text is adaptable for use in an academic institution, in an intensive program, or in independent study. The vocabulary is limited, and only basic and essential grammar is included. Although audiolingual skills are stressed, reading and writing skills may be taught at the discretion of the…

  3. E.I.L. Portuguese: Basic Audio-Lingual Course with Correlated Tapes, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Francisco Q.; Salerno, Tomas A.

    This basic textbook for Brazilian Portuguese contains 10 units. The text is adaptable for use in an academic institution (anticipated completion time is one academic year), in an intensive program (completion time is 90-120 hours), or in independent study. The vocabulary is limited, and only basic and essential grammar is included. Although…

  4. Basic Language Skills and Young Children's Understanding of Causal Connections during Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Lile, Jacquelyn; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of basic language skills for individual differences in preschoolers' understanding of causal connections. Assessments of basic language skills, expressive vocabulary, phonological processing, and receptive language comprehension were examined in relation to the production of causal connections in a storytelling…

  5. The Role of Perception, Language, and Preference in the Developmental Acquisition of Basic Color Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, N. J.; Mullen, K. T.

    2005-01-01

    When learning basic color vocabulary, young children show a selective delay in the acquisition of brown and gray relative to other basic color terms. In this study, we first establish the robustness of this finding and then investigate the extent to which perception, language, and color preference may influence color conceptualization.…

  6. Apple Treats. BASIC Classroom Computing Featuring Hands-On Activities and Pencil/Paper Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Developed as an introduction to computer programming using an Apple microcomputer, this document presents teachers and students with: (1) essential vocabulary used in the BASIC language; (2) syntax; and (3) programming techniques. Simple hands-on activities designed to guide the learner through beginning BASIC programming skills and fundamental…

  7. Basic Language Skills and Young Children's Understanding of Causal Connections during Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Lile, Jacquelyn; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of basic language skills for individual differences in preschoolers' understanding of causal connections. Assessments of basic language skills, expressive vocabulary, phonological processing, and receptive language comprehension were examined in relation to the production of causal connections in a storytelling…

  8. Apple Treats. BASIC Classroom Computing Featuring Hands-On Activities and Pencil/Paper Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Developed as an introduction to computer programming using an Apple microcomputer, this document presents teachers and students with: (1) essential vocabulary used in the BASIC language; (2) syntax; and (3) programming techniques. Simple hands-on activities designed to guide the learner through beginning BASIC programming skills and fundamental…

  9. Decontextualized language input and preschoolers' vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of using decontextualized language, or language that is removed from the here and now including pretend, narrative, and explanatory talk, with preschool children. The literature on parents' use of decontextualized language is reviewed and results of a longitudinal study of parent decontextualized language input in relation to child vocabulary development are explained. The main findings are that parents who provide their preschool children with more explanations and narrative utterances about past or future events in the input have children with larger vocabularies 1 year later, even with quantity of parent input and child prior vocabulary skill controlled. Recommendations for how to engage children in decontextualized language conversations are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  11. The Gene Ontology (GO) project: structured vocabularies for molecular biology and their application to genome and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Blake, Judith A; Harris, Midori A

    2008-09-01

    Scientists wishing to utilize genomic data have quickly come to realize the benefit of standardizing descriptions of experimental procedures and results for computer-driven information retrieval systems. The focus of the Gene Ontology project is three-fold. First, the project goal is to compile the Gene Ontologies: structured vocabularies describing domains of molecular biology. Second, the project supports the use of these structured vocabularies in the annotation of gene products. Third, the gene product-to-GO annotation sets are provided by participating groups to the public through open access to the GO database and Web resource. This unit describes the current ontologies and what is beyond the scope of the Gene Ontology project. It addresses the issue of how GO vocabularies are constructed and related to genes and gene products. It concludes with a discussion of how researchers can access, browse, and utilize the GO project in the course of their own research. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  13. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  14. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  16. Vocabulary Development: A Neglected Phase of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Edgar

    In our concern to improve the quality of reading, we have neglected vocabulary development; in our zeal to teach children to pronounce words, we have neglected teaching them word meanings. Vocabulary can be developed by using all the communication processes: reading, writing, speaking, listening, visualizing, and observing; and vocabulary deserves…

  17. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  18. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremmel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary test development often appears to be based on the design principles of previous tests, without questioning or empirically examining the assumptions underlying those principles. Given the current proliferation of vocabulary tests, it seems timely for the field of vocabulary testing to problematize some of those traditionalised…

  19. Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

  20. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  1. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  3. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  4. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  5. Developing an Integrated Diagnostic Test of Vocabulary Size and Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Tomoko; Schmitt, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Following growing interest in vocabulary acquisition, a number of researchers have proposed how learners' vocabulary knowledge can be measured both in terms of how many words they know (vocabulary size) and how well they know those words (depth of knowledge). However, most of the depth measures have addressed only a single depth aspect (often for…

  6. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  7. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremmel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary test development often appears to be based on the design principles of previous tests, without questioning or empirically examining the assumptions underlying those principles. Given the current proliferation of vocabulary tests, it seems timely for the field of vocabulary testing to problematize some of those traditionalised…

  8. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  9. Processing Academic Language through Four Corners Vocabulary Chart Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sarah; Sanchez, Claudia; Betty, Sharon; Davis, Shiloh

    2016-01-01

    4 Corners Vocabulary Charts (FCVCs) are explored as a multipurpose vehicle for processing academic language in a 5th-grade classroom. FCVCs typically display a vocabulary word, an illustration of the word, synonyms associated with the word, a sentence using a given vocabulary word, and a definition of the term in students' words. The use of…

  10. Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

  11. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  12. Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

  13. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  14. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  15. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  16. What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

  17. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook…

  18. Investigating an Intelligent System for Vocabulary Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    While learners can acquire vocabulary through extensive reading (Pigada & Schmitt, 2006), research suggests that acquisition can be more effective when supplemented with targeted vocabulary activities (e.g., Paribakht & Wesche, 1997). Problems arise, however, in determining what vocabulary learners have acquired, and what items should be…

  19. Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge: Depth Versus Breadth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; Paribakht, T. Sima

    1996-01-01

    Provides a detailed analysis of techniques used for second language vocabulary assessment and the implied assumptions about the underlying construct of vocabulary knowledge. The article notes that existing measures of vocabulary size are uninformative as to the depth of knowledge that learners have about particular words. (56 references)…

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  1. Using Purposefully Created Stories to Teach Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Changnam; Roberts, Carly; Coffey, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Students' knowledge of vocabulary affects their reading comprehension. Despite abundant research findings in vocabulary learning, practical instructional methods for use in schools are typically underdeveloped. This article proposes a research-based method for teaching the meanings of base academic vocabulary (i.e., Tier 2) words. The method…

  2. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  3. Vocabulary Bias in Reading Curricula. Technical Report No. 280.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram; And Others

    A study examined the match between the vocabularies of children of different ethnic and socioeconomic status groups and the school vocabulary revealed by readability formulas and word lists. The Spache 1040 and the Dale 769 readability formula word lists were used as indicators of school vocabulary in the early primary grades, and a corpus of talk…

  4. Six Vocabulary Activities for the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of vocabulary among English language learners. The author first defines what a "word" means, then discusses five aspects of vocabulary knowledge. Drawing on Swain (1993), the author identifies three main goals of vocabulary learning. The rest of the article is devoted to the description of six…

  5. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  6. Tourism through Travel Club: A Database Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Renée M. E.; Smatt, Cindi T.; Wynn, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    This applied database exercise utilizes a scenario-based case study to teach the basics of Microsoft Access and database management in introduction to information systems and introduction to database course. The case includes background information on a start-up business (i.e., Carol's Travel Club), description of functional business requirements,…

  7. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  8. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  9. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  10. Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

  11. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  12. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  13. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  14. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  15. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for

  16. IEDA Thesaurus: A Controlled Vocabulary for IEDA Systems to Advance Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Song, L.; Hsu, L.; Carter, M. R.; Ferrini, V. L.; Ash, J.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) is a community-based facility that serves to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational geoscience data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. Many dedicated systems such as the Petrological Database (PetDB), Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Data Coordination Center for the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP-DCC), etc., under the umbrella of the IEDA framework, were developed to support the preservation, discovery, retrieval, and analysis of a wide range of observational field and analytical data types from diverse communities. However, it is currently difficult to maintain consistency of indexing content within IEDA schema, and perform unified or precise searching of the data in these diverse systems as each system maintains separate vocabularies, hierarchies, authority files, or sub taxonomies. We present here the IEDA Thesaurus, a system, which combines existing separate controlled vocabularies from the different systems under the IEDA schema into a single master controlled vocabulary, also introducing some new top facets for future long-term use. The IEDA thesaurus contains structured terminology for petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, oceanography, geochronology, and volcanology, and other general metadata fields. 18 top facets (also called 'top categories') are defined, including equipment, geographic gazetteer, geologic ages, geologic units, materials, etc. The terms of the thesaurus are cross validated with others popular geoscience vocabularies such as GeoRef Thesaurus, U.S. Geological Survey Library Classification System, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), and Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. The thesaurus is organized along with the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, and is published using

  17. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., "love of those who are like themselves"), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members' future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members' future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support.

  18. A controlled vocabulary for nursing practice and research.

    PubMed

    Saranto, Kaija

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the process of evolving a controlled Nursing Vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The vocabulary is based on terms of the thesaurus of Medline i.e. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) by National Library of Medicine and the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) by the International Council of Nurses. The vocabulary consists of 10 themes central to nursing domain. The vocabulary is added as an independent theme to the Finnish thesaurus FinMeSH. The validity of the vocabulary has been tested for indexing nursing research once and has afterwards been revised. The validity will be tested again during spring 2002.

  19. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2017-06-16

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  20. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information. PMID:21347024

  1. Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study.

    PubMed

    Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J

    2010-11-13

    Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information.

  2. Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

  3. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  4. Vocabulary Instruction in a Remedial Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2005-01-01

    Six evidence-based principles for remedial vocabulary instruction are developed and described. Implementation of the principles was undertaken by twenty tutors, all of who were experienced classroom teachers, in a university clinical reading program that used one-to-one instruction. Successful strategies and the tutor's reactions are described…

  5. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  6. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  7. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  8. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  9. American National Standard Vocabulary for Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Standards Inst., Inc., New York, NY.

    The purpose of this standard is to present an organized body of concepts and their corresponding terms relevant to the field of information processing, and to identify relationships among the concepts and among terms. The body of the vocabulary is the collection of the entries. The symbol "(SC1)" is used to identify definitions agreed…

  10. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  11. Bibliography of Vocabulary Studies. Third Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Edgar; And Others

    This bibliography is the fifth edition of a work which lists published materials and unpublished theses and dissertations in vocabulary studies. Works included span the period from 1874 through December 1972. Sicty-nine categories are classified in three broad subject areas: acquisition and development, instructional materials, and research.…

  12. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  13. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  14. Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…

  15. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  16. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  17. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  18. Overcoming Challenges in Learning Probability Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.; Butler, Jaime; Nelson, Delmar

    2016-01-01

    Students can struggle to understand and use terms that describe probabilities. Such struggles lead to difficulties comprehending classroom conversations. In this article, we describe some specific misunderstandings a group of students (ages 11-12) held in regard to vocabulary such as "certain", "likely" and…

  19. Malawian Students' Meanings for Probability Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazima, Mercy

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses findings of a study that investigated Malawian students' meanings for some probability vocabulary. The study explores the meanings that, prior to instruction, students assign to some words that are commonly used in teaching probability. The aim is to have some insight into the meanings that students bring to the classroom. The…

  20. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  1. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  2. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  3. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  4. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  5. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

  6. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

  7. Vocabulary Uptake from Informal Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James

    2008-01-01

    It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to…

  8. Overcoming Challenges in Learning Probability Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.; Butler, Jaime; Nelson, Delmar

    2016-01-01

    Students can struggle to understand and use terms that describe probabilities. Such struggles lead to difficulties comprehending classroom conversations. In this article, we describe some specific misunderstandings a group of students (ages 11-12) held in regard to vocabulary such as "certain", "likely" and…

  9. Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq

    Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

  10. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  11. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  12. Word Learning in Children with Vocabulary Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L.

    2005-01-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SU) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks…

  13. Word Learning in Children with Vocabulary Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L.

    2005-01-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SU) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks…

  14. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  15. Ways to Win at Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Nichols, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip identifies ways to "WIN" at vocabulary learning. Specifically, the approach conveys three morphological strategies in the mnemonic "WIN." These three strategies remind students to find smaller units of meaning within bigger words, look for those units in other words that they know, and notice the context. Each…

  16. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  17. The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

  18. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  19. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  20. Efficiency in Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing question in second language vocabulary learning is how to optimize the acquisition of words. One approach is the so-called "spaced repetition technique" that uses intervals to repeat words in a given time frame (Balota et al., 2007; Leitner, 1972; Oxford, 1990; Pimsleur, 1967; Roediger & Karpicke, 2010; Schuetze &…