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Sample records for basin bahia brazil

  1. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  2. Genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Gossypium mustelinum, a wild relative of cotton, in the basin of the De Contas River in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Hoffmann, Lucia Vieira; Ciampi, Ana Yamaguishi; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna

    2014-02-01

    Gossypium mustelinum is a wild cotton relative found only in the semiarid region of Bahia state in Brazil, and changes caused by humans in the natural habitat of this species have endangered the existence of several natural populations. Information about the occurrence and genetic composition of these populations is necessary to design effective conservation measures. The aim of this study was to characterize the in situ maintenance mode and assess the genetic diversity of G. mustelinum populations in the basin of the De Contas River. A sample of 205 G. mustelinum specimens was collected from the margins of the Jacaré, Riacho Quixaba, Riacho Serra Azul, and Riacho Riachão rivers and genotyped using 13 SSR primer pairs. In general, all G. mustelinum populations exhibit inadequate in situ maintenance, predominantly due to the deforestation of riparian vegetation and herbivory. The observed total genetic diversity of G. mustelinum was significant (H E = 0.489), highly structured (F ST = 0.534), and organized in homozygous genotypes (F IS = 0.873). The high observed inbreeding level is consistent with the predominance of self-fertilization and geitonogamy (t m = 0.234). In addition, the pattern of genetic structure tended to form groups that coincided with the collection sites, i.e., first clustering within subpopulations, then within populations, and finally within the closest populations. Thus, the observed genetic diversity is likely to be rapidly lost, and conservation measures should therefore be undertaken.

  3. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  4. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  5. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  6. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  7. Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nanci; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Rozental, Tatiana; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Favacho, Alexsandra R.M.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Dasch, Gregory A.; de Lemos, Elba R.S.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, Brazilian spotted fever was once considered the only tick-borne rickettsial disease. We report eschar-associated rickettsial disease that occurred after a tick bite. The etiologic agent is most related to Rickettsia parkeri, R. africae, and R. sibirica and probably widely distributed from São Paulo to Bahia in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:21291605

  8. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  9. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key.

  10. Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

  11. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  12. Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

  13. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  14. A new species of Tupiperla Froehlich, 1969 (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae) from Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Bispo, Pitágoras C; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-07-09

    The gripopterygid genus Tupiperla comprises 18 species, 16 have been recorded from Brazil, including T. guariru n. sp., described here. The new species was collected from streams in the Serra da Jibóia region, Bahia State, Brazil using light traps. Additional material from Amargosa, Bahia State, Brazil was also studied.

  15. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  16. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa) in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, M S A; Carvalho, F S; Oliveira, H C; Boehs, G

    2017-08-17

    This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil), its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240) were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8). In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  17. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begoniadelicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begoniaelianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begoniapaganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status.

  18. Toxoplasmatinae Parasites in Bats from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; Rodrigues, Gabriel Menezes; Silva, Evandro Moraes; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Franke, Carlos Roberto; de Magalhães Cunha, Rogério; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. Whereas T. gondii is a zoonotic disease, N. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. Some chiropteran species can be infected by T. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. In most cases, T. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. It is not known whether N. caninum can infect bats. We determined infection rates of T. gondii and N. caninum in free-living bats in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Brain samples from 97 bats of seven species, captured in 2008-15, were analyzed by PCRs for T. gondii and N. caninum . Two of the 97 samples were positive for T. gondii DNA. None of the samples were positive for N. caninum DNA, suggesting that the bats were not susceptible to N. caninum infection or that its prevalence was very low.

  19. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.

  20. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  1. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  2. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  3. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  4. Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

    1958-01-01

    Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

  5. Cacau Cabruca Agroforestry System of Production in Bahia, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Southern Bahia probably in the beginning of the 19th century. To establish such system, farmers in the Atlantic rain forest region selectively maintained around 75 adult individual native trees per hectare, removed the o...

  6. The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

  7. Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil: new species and updated records.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-03-13

    There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.

  8. How Pecten Brazil drilled the Amazon basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    Pecten Brazil overcame numerous obstacles to drill two exploratory wells in the Amazon Basin last year. These included: The threat of low water in normally navigable rivers. Dense jungle growth at both locations. Lack of suitable roads for heavy hauling. Inconvenient distances from supply points. An unusual basalt formation responsible for unique drilling problems. Hundreds of helicopter lifts to move drilling rigs, supplies, and personnel. Pecten contracted with Petrobras, the Brazilian national oil company, to evaluate three blocks in the Amazon jungle, each about 68 miles (110 km) on a side, through seismic study and ultimate drilling. Planning for the drilling phase got started on March 17, 1981 with December 1 targeted as spud date for the first well. Actual spud date was November 25, 5 days ahead of schedule, in spite of all obstacles. Pecten has a mid-Amazonas block now under seismic investigation for possible exploratory drilling. Logistics problems in this one provide new difficulties, as the area is extremely wet. Most work is carried on by boat. The company is also looking offshore Bahia, testing the possible extension of the Renconcavo basin. Two wells have already provided good shows of a high pour point oil, with flow rates from 400 to 1,000 b/d. Another area of interest to Pecten is offshore Rio Grande do Norte.

  9. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone

    2005-11-01

    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  10. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  11. Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

  12. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  13. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions.

  14. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-06-17

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil.

  15. [Evaluation of decentralized management of basic pharmaceutical care in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Lessa

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the decentralized management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal (local) level in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The working hypothesis is that conditioning factors for such management results mainly from an essentially technical and procedures-based approach that still prevails in pharmaceutical care. Two research strategies were used: an extensive strategy, based on the Protocol of Indicators developed by the Nucleus for Studies and Research in Pharmaceutical Care (NEPAF) at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University in Bahia, in two Bahian municipalities. Data were collected with questionnaires, a checklist, and document analysis. The intensive phase used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The findings confirm the initial premises, detecting management practices limited to the operational dimension, with an emphasis on aspects of the logistic cycle in pharmaceutical care. Some limited strides were identified in the organizational and sustainability dimensions, focused on promoting greater participation and autonomy in the management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal level.

  16. A new species of Atanatolica Mosely 1936 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anne M; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-04-16

    The Neotropical genus Atanatolica includes 17 species distributed from Costa Rica to Brazil, but only two, A. brasiliana and A. flinti, have been recorded from Brazil, both occurring in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States. A new species, Atanatolica bonita n. sp., is described and illustrated based on males and females from the Atlantic Forest in Bahia State in northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by the following characters: Apicomesal and apicolateral processes of segment X of same length, long and digitate; and second article of each inferior appendage well developed, long, and thumb-shaped. Notes on demographic changes and correlations with seasonal variation and precipitation are also given.

  17. Conjoint analysis of nature tourism values in Bahia, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Thomas Holmes; Chris Zinkhan; Keith Alger; D. Evan Mercer

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses conjoint analysis to estimate the value of nature tourism attributes in a threatened forest ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. Computerized interviews were conducted using a paired comparison design. An ordinal interpretation of the rating scale was used and marginal utilities were estimated using ordered probit. The empirical results showed that the...

  18. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Santana, Lailla Nascimento; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-08-01

    Leishmaniosis is a zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. American cutaneous leishmaniosis (ACL) is mainly caused by the species L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, and American visceral leishmaniosis (AVL) is caused by L. infantum chagasi. In addition to their proven roles as reservoirs of AVL, dogs are also suspected by researchers to be reservoirs of ACL due to reports of this infection in domestic environments and of infected dogs in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in dogs from Vila Operária, Buerarema, Bahia, using parasitological tests, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, this study also aimed to identify risk factors associated with illness in dogs in this locality by conducting an epidemiological survey. For this purpose, 292 dogs were clinically evaluated for the presence of skin lesions, and the dogs that showed these changes were submitted to scarification injury to enable preparation of slides for microscopic study of amastigotes. Subsequently, the dogs underwent blood sampling for serological (IFA) and molecular (PCR) tests. Additionally, the owners of the dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire to facilitate the identification of risk factors for exposure of dogs to pathogens of ACL. Of the 292 dogs studied, 13 (4.5%) had lesions suggestive of ACL, but with a negative parasitological examination and 147 (50.3%) were seropositive according to the IFA. Of the 273 dogs studied using PCR test, 10 (3.66%) were positive for L. braziliensis, and all samples were negative for L. infantum chagasi. Wastelands in the peridomicile and the presence of light in the household were risk factors associated with ACL. The results show that Vila Operária has asymptomatic dogs with ACL and that the detection sensitivity of the IFA was higher than that of PCR for the infected dogs.

  19. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  20. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices.

  1. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  2. Perkinsus sp. infecting oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) on the coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Sabry, Rachel Costa; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Mariane Dos Santos Aguiar; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of the protozoan Perkinsus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the coast of Bahia State, Brazil. The oysters (n = 900) were collected in February-March and July-August 2010. The Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) analysis of gills and rectum revealed hypnospores of Perkinsus sp. with a high mean prevalence (63%). The infection intensity varied from very light to advanced. The polymerase chain reaction confirmed Perkinsus in 87.2% of the RFTM-positive oysters. Histological analysis showed trophozoites and schizonts phagocytized by hemocytes, mainly in the intestine and the stomach epithelium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, Jorge E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

  4. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-02-13

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil.

  5. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt

  6. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  7. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Soares, Luciano S; Monteiro, Danielle S; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans.

  8. Traffic deaths: recent evolution and regional differences in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the temporal evolution of mortality due to traffic accidents in regions within Bahia State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2007, using data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We calculated overall rates of mortality due to traffic accidents and specific rates by type of victim. Temporal evolution was analyzed by means of correlations between rates and years of study, as well as polynomial regression models to evaluate trends. During the study period, the regions analyzed accounted for 60% of deaths due to traffic accidents in Bahia. Excess mortality among males and superior percentage of deaths in young individuals were observed. Overall, the evolution of global rates showed decreases beginning in 1998, but growth resumption in 2000, although the trend was not statistically significant. Regional differences were more marked when analyzing rates according to type of victim. However, a growing trend was observed in most locations for rates of accidents involving motorcyclists, which, in conjunction with other findings, substantiates concerns regarding the current situation of increased deaths involving motorcycles in Brazil.

  9. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  11. [Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.

  12. [Professional practices in public dental healthcare: case study of two municipal districts, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; da Silva, Lígia Maria Vieira

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the working facilities and processes of dentists in the primary healthcare systems of two towns in Bahia State, Brazil, striving to analyze the extent to which factors related to dental care, training, placement and professional profiles influence their practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine dentists in both towns, with work process organization patterns in Municipality C being closer to the structuring principles of Brazil's National Health System than in Municipality E. This seems to be related to management characteristics, with networking links among individual, collective, and preventive clinical activities and planning noted in Municipality C. Despite these differences, the practitioners presented similarities in terms of dual militancy and perceptions of the public and private healthcare fields. The hegemony of the private sector seems to be influencing the professional practices of dentists in the public health system.

  13. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevanisp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided.

  14. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  15. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  16. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed

  17. [Ants as biological indicators of human impact in mangroves of the southeastern coast of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Delabie, Jacques H C; Paim, Valéria R L de M; Do Nascimento, Ivan C; Campiolo, Sofia; Mariano, Cléa dos S F

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are common in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Although plant diversity is low, this ecosystem supports a range of animals, offering some resources for non-aquatic organisms. Many insects live in mangroves and, between them, many ant species that are exclusively arboreous. Mangroves throughout the world suffer from high levels of human impact, and this is particularly true for southeastern Bahia, where land-uses include traditional crab and fish exploitation, urban development, refuse pollution, recreation, and timber extraction. The ants of 13 mangrove sites, representing a range of levels of human use, have been studied along 250 km of the southern Bahia littoral, between Itacaré and Porto Seguro. Ants were sampled both inside and on the periphery of the tidal zone, using entomological rainbow, baiting, collect of hollow branches and pit-fall. A total of 108 species have been collected, with the richest genera being Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex, and the most frequent belonging to the genera Azteca and Crematogaster. The ant community living on the periphery of mangrove areas is rather homogeneous regardless of the degree of environmental perturbation, but varies markedly with the disturbance inside the mangroves themselves. The evolution of richness of the both communities, mangrove and periphery, is negatively related to the human effects, even limited to the periphery. Ant communities therefore have the potential to be useful as biological indicators of ecological impacts of land-use in these mangrove systems.

  18. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paulo Roberto Santana de; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; Ciuffo, Isolina Allen; Góes, Mônica; Blanton, Ronald Edward; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos

    2007-12-01

    By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r2 = 0.24, p = 0.001) supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection.

  19. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

  20. Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Silva, Patrícia Mirella da

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points) in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay) and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season) were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae.

  1. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems.

  2. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  3. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

  4. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network.

  5. Environmental impact of uranium mining and ore processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ilson G; Cidu, Rosa; Fanfani, Luca; Pitsch, Helmut; Beaucaire, Catherine; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2005-11-15

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) started in 2000. Hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out from 1999 to 2001 revealed generally good quality of the water resources outside and inside the mineralized area. No chemical contamination in waters for domestic uses was observed. Hydrochemical characteristics did not vary significantly after 1 year of U exploitation, as compared to premining conditions. Due to the short time of mining, the results cannot exclude future variations in water quality. Leaching experiments helped to describe processes of ore and waste degradation. Sulfate was identified as an indicator for different types of contamination. Potential hazards related to local climate (hot rainy season) were identified. They indicate that tailings derived from the ore processing, destabilized by sulfuric acid attack, may induce acidification and salinization in the surrounding environment. Another potential source of environmental impact could be linked to local radium-rich mineralization, originating radon emission.

  6. Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

    2000-07-01

    In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production.

  7. Characterization of organic matter in a sediment Core near the Mataripe refinery, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; Zucchi, Maria do Rosário; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; de Argollo, Roberto Max

    2016-04-15

    A sediment core was taken from the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Mataripe Bahia-Brazil refinery. The results of dating, (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods, combined with organic indicators, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and total organic carbon (TOC), showed significant change with the start of production of the oil fields of Aratu, Itaparica and Dom João (1939-1947) and the construction of the Mataripe refinery (1949-1950). This event was marked by a series of significant changes, including an abrupt increase in TOC and the growth of PAH concentrations and the presence Unresolved/Resolved ratio (UR/R)>4 in n-alkanes fraction, which indicated that the contamination was of petrogenic origin. The δ(13)C of specific n-alkanes compounds showed gradual deplete with the depth.

  8. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  9. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ε, HindIII-G γ, HindIII-A γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3‘ ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil. PMID:21637405

  10. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Wellington; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-07-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5' ε, HindIII-(G) γ, HindIII-(A) γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3' ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the β(A) chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  11. A new species of Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) with new generic and species records in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Quinteiro, Fabio B; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-10-19

    Trichoptera is the most species-rich clade of exclusively aquatic insects. In Brazil, 645 species have been recorded, distributed in 70 genera and 16 families. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, 85 species have been recorded, including 56 in Bahia State. Sixteen of the Northeast Region species belong to the family Leptoceridae. Among these, the long-horned caddisfly genus Neoathripsodes Holzenthal has been a monotypic genus since its erection more than 26 years ago. It is an endemic genus in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and only the male stage has been described for its only known species, Neoathripsodes anomalus. In this paper, we describe a new species of Neoathripsodes, with the first description of a female in this genus. Additionally, we present new records for the family Leptoceridae in Bahia, especially from the Serra Bonita Mountains, in order to help solve a long-term problem in Brazilian caddisfly research: An uneven proportion of studies in some regions of the country due to historical reasons. The Northeast Region of Brazil still remains a neglected area in which efforts to unearth its biodiversity should be focused. In this work, four species are recorded for the first time for Bahia State and its Serra Bonita Mountains: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann 1905, Neoathripsodes holzenthali n. sp., Nectopsyche fuscomaculata Flint 1983, and Notalina cipo Holzenthal 1986. Neoathripsodes and Notalina are new generic records for Bahia State. The following four species are new records for Serra Bonita: Atanatolica bonita Costa & Calor 2014, Oecetis martinae Quinteiro & Calor 2015, O. furcata Quinteiro & Calor 2015, and Triplectides gracilis (Burmeister 1839). Additional new distributional records for Bahia State are included in this study.

  12. A new species of snail-case caddisflies (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae) and new records of caddisflies from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel Lima DE; Gomes, Victor; Calor, Adolfo R

    2017-02-03

    A new species of Helicopsyche subgenus Feropsyche from Chapada Diamantina is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Helicopsyche catoles n. sp. is easily distinguished from congeners by the following features: inferior appendages clavate, each bearing a posteroventral projection with 2-4 setae in lateral view, and tergum X with a notched apex and a short setal row along its length in dorsal view. Additionally, new records from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, are presented. A total of 31 species, including the new species, are recorded, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families. Two of these species constitute new records to Brazil (Helicopsyche (Feropsyche) succincta and Marilia misionensis) and another 10 of these species represent new records for Bahia [Chimarra (Curgia) hyoeides, Macronema hageni, M. partitum, Polyplectropus tragularius, Smicridea coronata, S. helenae, S. iguazu, S. jundiai, S. radula and Marilia major].

  13. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from rubber tree crops in the State of Bahia, Brazil, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Lofego, Antonio Carlos; Castro, Elizeu Barbosa; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2015-06-02

    The current study describes the results of a survey of Phytoseiidae mites conducted on a rubber tree plantation in the State of Bahia, Brazil. We present 22 species, two of which are new to science, Amblydromalus insolitus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and Typhlodromips paramilus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and three new records for this host are presented. The species composition was more related with the records of the northern Brazilian Region, than with that of Southeastern and Midwestern.

  14. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (≥ 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group.

  15. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  16. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

  17. Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil: interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social class.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalhães, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; James, Sherman A; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2004-10-01

    We conducted a study of the association between gender, race/ethnicity, and social class and prevalence of depressive disorders in an urban sample (N = 2302) in Bahia, Brazil. Individual mental health status was assessed by the PSAD/QMPA scale. Family SES and head of household's schooling and occupation were taken as components for a 4-level social class scale. Race/ethnicity (white, moreno, mulatto, black) was assessed with a combination of self-designation and a system of racial classification. The overall 12-month prevalence of depressive symptoms was 12%, with a female:male ratio of 2:1. Divorced/widowed persons showed the highest prevalence and single the lowest. There was a negative correlation with education: the ratio college educated:illiterate was 4:1. This gradient was stronger for women than men. There was no F:M difference in depression among Whites, upper-middle classes, college-educated, or illiterate. Prevalence ratios for single, widowed and Blacks were well above the overall pattern. Regarding race/ethnicity, higher prevalences of depression were concentrated in the Moreno and Mulatto subgroups. There was a consistent social class and gender interaction, along all race/ethnicity strata. Three-way interaction analyses found strong gender effect for poor and working-class groups, for all race/ethnicity strata but Whites. Black poor yielded the strongest gender effect of all (up to nine-fold). We conclude that even in a highly unequal context such as Bahia, Blacks, Mulattos and women were protected from depression by placement into the local dominant classes; and that the social meaning of ethnic-gender-generation diversity varies with being unemployed or underemployed, poor or miserable, urban or rural, migrant or non-migrant.

  18. A comparison study of Zika virus outbreaks in French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Shi; Ruan, Shigui

    2017-03-21

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks occurred in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and in Brazil and Colombia in 2015-2016, respectively. Using our recently developed ZIKV disease model, we simulated the reported ZIKV infection cases from French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia of Brazil. Moreover, we estimated that the infection attack rates were 78.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.5-86.3%) in French Polynesia which closely matches a previous serological study; 20.8% (95% CI: 1.1-50.0%) in Colombia which suggests that the attack rate was most likely less than 50%; and 32.4% (95% CI: 2.5-94.2%) in the State of Bahia in Brazil which suggests that the attack rate is unidentifiable with monthly data in Bahia. Furthermore, we found that the association of precipitation and ZIKV outbreak was more evident in Colombia than the other two places. These results are helpful for us to understand the possible evolution, to control the on-going outbreaks, to prevent the potential geographic spread, and to study the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of ZIKV.

  19. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin.

  20. "Shark is the man!": ethnoknowledge of Brazil's South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Filho, Márcio Luiz Vargas; Schiavetti, Alexandre; Alarcon, Daniela Trigueirinho; Costa-Neto, Eraldo Medeiros

    2014-07-03

    Fishermen's knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen's profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil's northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and "esperas". The informers classified sharks' behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or "the man") in the sea. This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of

  1. Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

  2. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galvagne Loss, Ana Teresa; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Machado, Caio Graco; Flores, Fernando Moreira

    2014-07-10

    Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin's principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form ("pássaro" in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community.

  3. Parasites of economically important bivalves from the southern coast of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Gabriela Calvi; Luz, Mariane Dos Santos Aguiar; Boehs, Guisla

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the parasites of three commercially important bivalve species (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis and Lucina pectinata) from the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 540 specimens were collected in August 2009 and February 2010, at three localities. The bivalve specimens were measured on their longest axis, opened, and macroscopically examined for the presence of parasites or signs of disease. They were then fixed in Davidson' solution and subjected to routine histological processing, with paraffin embedding and H&E staining; next, the specimens were examined under a light microscope. No parasites were observed associated with L. pectinata. Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Sphenophrya sp. (Ciliophora), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), Urastoma sp. (Turbellaria) and Bucephalus sp. (Digenea) were observed in both C. rhizophorae and M. guyanensis, as well as Ancistrocoma sp. (Ciliophora) and Tylocephalum sp. (Cestoda) in the former. A high prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was seen, but caused no apparent damage to the host. Bucephalus sp. caused the destruction of tissues, with castration, but showed low prevalence. The other parasites occurred in low prevalence and intensity, without causing significant damage.

  4. Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

    2002-07-01

    The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses.

  5. Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Lavinsky, Manuella; Said, Roueda Abou; Strenzel, Gil Marcelo Reuss; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control.

  6. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  7. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  8. Frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in naturally infected cattle in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; Neta, Elza de Souza Muniz; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of species of the genus Eimeria species in naturally infected bovines in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study population comprised 117 Zebu crossbred cattle that belonged to 10 dairy herds with extensive or semi-extensive production systems. The modified Gordon and Whitlock technique was used to determine positive samples and number of oocysts per gram of feces. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test with Yates correction and a 95% confidence interval. Thirty-nine cattle (33.33%) were positive, and ten different species were identified in infected animals: E. bovis (24.79%); E. canadensis (8.55%); E. zuernii (6.83%); E. ellipsoidalis (5.99%); E. cylindrica (3.42%); E. auburnensis (3.42%); E. brasiliensis (2.56%); E. bukidnonensis (1.71%); E. alabamensis (0.85%), and E. subspherica (0.85%). Higher parasitism was observed in animals up to one year of age (p = 0.005), but no animal presented clinical signs of the disease. As the presence of clinical eimeriosis was not evidenced and all animals were Zebu crossbred cattle from extensive or semi-extensive production systems, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of these factors on disease development.

  9. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  10. Species richness and distribution of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Chapada Diamantina region, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Landeiro, Victor L; Pepinelli, Mateus; Hamada, Neusa

    2009-01-01

    Taxonomically, blackflies (Simuliidae) are among the best-known aquatic insects in Brazil. However, information on their distribution is lacking for many regions. We sampled simuliids in 50 streams in the Chapada Diamantina region, State of Bahia, located in three distinct geographical areas, 20 at Lençóis, 18 at Mucugê, and 12 at Rio de Contas. We analyzed simuliid species richness and distribution in the Chapada Diamantina area as a whole, as well as in each of the three distinct geographical areas. We collected 20 species, three of which were not yet described and two were described after our sampling. The three areas are distinct in relation to environmental variables, mainly owing to differences in altitude and water pH. Four species were restricted to Rio de Contas, while four other species were restricted to Mucugê. Sixteen species were present in Mucugê and fifteen in Rio de Contas. Only twelve species were present in Lençóis, despite the higher sampling effort. Rio de Contas appears to be the area that harbors the highest species richness. Species richness was related to environmental factors only when evaluated on a small spatial scale (i.e. when each area was analyzed separately). Although we have not tested for causal relationships, our findings agree with other studies that showed that pH and altitude are important factors with which species richness and species distribution appear to be associated.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Confirmed by Forensic Examination in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Welington Dos Santos; Barroso-Junior, Ubirajara de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence. The mean age of the children in whom sexual abuse was confirmed was 8.2 (SD, 2.9) years, and 208 cases were female (83.9%). In 94% of the cases, the reason for carrying out the forensic examination was a report of sexual abuse. Less than 1% of the aggressors were female. A ruptured hymen was the finding that confirmed sexual abuse in 172 cases, corresponding to 83% of cases in girls. There were 2 cases of pregnancy. Recent anal or perianal lesions were present in 35 (87.5%) of the confirmed cases involving boys. Laboratory confirmation based on the detection of spermatozoa or prostate-specific antigen occurred in only 4.2% of cases. In all these cases, sample collection was performed within 24 hours of the alleged abuse. Thus, in the majority of cases with material evidence of sexual abuse, the confirmation criteria consisted of a ruptured hymen and recent perianal lesions.

  12. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  13. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  14. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  15. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives.

  16. Archeomagnetism in Brazil: New archeointensity data from the Bahia region over the past five centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G. A.; Genevey, A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Etchevarne, C.; Afonso, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a clear need of new archeomagnetic data from the southern hemisphere to better constrain the global geomagnetic field models over the past few millennia. In particular, less than 5% of all available absolute archeointensity data have been obtained from this hemisphere. We will present the first archeointensity data obtained for Brazil from the analysis of several groups of architectural brick fragments dated mainly from the so-called colonial period (with ages ranging between ~1550 AD and ~1850 AD). The fragments collected were produced in or close to the city of Salvador, Bahia State (13°S, 38.5°W) and their dating is ascertained with archives and archeological evidences, yielding precise age controls with, in most cases, uncertainties of less than 10 years. Intensity experiments were performed using the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method as modified by Coe (1967). The stability of the magnetic mineralogy was monitored using partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) checks and pTRM tail tests (Riisager and Riisager, 2001) were used to detect possible biases due to the presence of multidomain grains. High-temperature intensity measurements were also carried out using the Triaxe magnetometer (Le Goff and Gallet, 2004). For both experimental procedures, effects related to the anisotropy of the TRM and to the dependence of TRM acquisition on the cooling rate were taken into account. A good agreement is observed when comparing the mean intensity values obtained using the two methods. We will further compare our new archeointensity results with the intensities expected in Brazil from global geomagnetic field models over the past 500 years.

  17. Genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris from Recôncavo, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, J L; Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M

    2013-09-10

    Bees play a key role in pollination and thereby help maintain plant diversity. The stingless bee Melipona scutellaris is an important pollinator in northeastern Brazil because it is endemic to this region. Both deforestation and timber harvesting have reduced the nesting sites for this species, thus reducing its population and range. Genetic studies may help reverse this process by providing important tools for their proper management with a view to conservation of this species. Microsatellite markers have proven to be ideal for mapping genes and population genetic studies. Our aim was to study, using microsatellite markers, the interpopulation genetic variability of M. scutellaris in different parts of the Recôncavo region in Bahia State, Brazil. In all, 95 adult workers from 11 localities in Recôncavo Baiano (Amargosa, Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, Conceição da Feira, Conceição do Almeida, Domingos Macedo Costa, Governador Mangabeira, Jaguaripe, Jiquiriça, Maragojipe, São Felipe, and Vera Cruz) were analyzed using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for different Meliponini species. The total number of alleles, allele richness, and genetic diversity ranged from 2 to 7 per locus (average = 4.4), 1.00 to 4.88, and 0.0 to 0.850, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 0.76 and 0.0 to 0.84, respectively. No locus showed deviation from the expected frequencies in the chi-square test or linkage disequilibrium. The fixation index, analysis of molecular variance, and unweighted pair-group method using the arithmetic average revealed the effects of human activities on the populations of M. scutellaris, as little genetic structure was detected.

  18. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S

    2012-09-01

    The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

  19. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  20. Exposure to carbonyl compounds in charcoal production plants in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Albertinho B; Kato, Mina; Rezende, Mariângela M; de P Pereira, Pedro Afonso; de Andrade, Jaílson B

    2013-03-01

    Studies have investigated the exposure levels of carbonyl compounds (CC) in the indoor and outdoor air of homes, vehicles, workplaces, urban and industrial areas, and rural sites. However, an investigation of these emissions and occupational exposure to CC in charcoal production facilities has not been previously conducted. The objective of this study was to measure the atmospheric concentrations of several CC to assess the exposure of workers of two charcoal plants located north of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Stationary and personal samples were collected using Sep-Pak® C18 cartridges that were coated with a 0.2 % acidic solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The quantification of the resulting 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives was conducted using a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detection. In the personal samples, the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanone, furfural, and C4 isomers (n-butanal-isobutanal-butanone) ranged from 12 to 139, 38 to 165, 136 to 483, 39 to 114, and 63 to 132 μg m(-3), respectively. In the stationary samples, the concentrations of these CC ranged from 20 to 160, 111 to 284, 328 to 644, 70 to 163, and 100 to 176 μg m(-3), respectively. When compared to the occupational exposure limits for 8 h, the concentrations of formaldehyde were often greater than the levels recommended by the American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which indicates a health risk for charcoal workers. These results are the first reported concerning the occupational exposure to CC in charcoal plants.

  1. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

    2013-03-11

    The genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications.

  2. Canine tungiasis: High prevalence in a tourist region in Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Tatiani Vitor; Heukelbach, Jorg; Assunção, Maíra Siles; Fernandes, Thalna Magalhães; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Carlos, Renata Santiago Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease neglected by authorities, health professionals, and the general population. Its occurrence is significantly associated with poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalence of tungiasis, associated clinical signs and risk factors of the canine population at a tourist site in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (northeast Brazil). All village households were visited and dogs inspected after authorization by owners. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Of the 114 dogs included in the study, 71 (62.3%) were infested; all of them had lesions on their pads. An ectopic lesion on the nose was observed in one dog (1.4%). The number of manipulated lesions outnumbered the number of vital and avital lesions with an average of 88.3%. Edema (95.8%) and hyperkeratosis (85.9%) were the most prevalent clinical signs. Behavioral disorders such as excessive licking (6/71; 8.5%), disobedience (1/71; 1.4%) and prostration (2/71; 2.8%) were reported. In the multi-variate analysis, semi-restricted condition of the dogs (adjusted OR=8.58; 95% CI=2.47-29.76) and the presence of sand on the compound (adjusted OR=14.23, 95% CI=2.88-70.28) were significantly associated with infestation. We concluded that, infestation with Tunga spp. is highly endemic in the canine population of the village. The low level of restrictions on dogs and the presence of sand in areas most frequented by the animals are perpetuating factors of infestation in the community, subject to integrated and multidisciplinary intervention measures.

  3. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  4. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  5. BetaS-haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Salvador, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M S; Bomfim, G C; Maciel, E; Cerqueira, I; Lyra, I; Zanette, A; Bomfim, G; Adorno, E V; Albuquerque, A L; Pontes, A; Dupuit, M F; Fernandes, G B; dos Reis, M G

    2003-10-01

    BetaS-Globin haplotypes were studied in 80 (160 betaS chromosomes) sickle cell disease patients from Salvador, Brazil, a city with a large population of African origin resulting from the slave trade from Western Africa, mainly from the Bay of Benin. Hematological and hemoglobin analyses were carried out by standard methods. The betaS-haplotypes were determined by PCR and dot-blot techniques. A total of 77 (48.1%) chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR) haplotype, 73 (45.6%) as Benin (BEN), 1 (0.63%) as Senegal (SEN), and 9 (5.63%) as atypical (Atp). Genotype was CAR/CAR in 17 (21.3%) patients, BEN/BEN in 17 (21.3%), CAR/BEN in 37 (46.3%), BEN/SEN in 1 (1.25%), BEN/Atp in 1 (1.25%), CAR/Atp in 6 (7.5%), and Atp/Atp in 1 (1.25%). Hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit values did not differ among genotype groups but were significantly higher in 25 patients presenting percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) > or = 10% (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The median HbF concentration was 7.54+/-4.342% for the CAR/CAR genotype, 9.88 3.558% for the BEN/BEN genotype, 8.146 4.631% for the CAR/BEN genotype, and 4.180+/-2.250% for the CAR/Atp genotype (P = 0.02), although 1 CAR/CAR individual presented an HbF concentration as high as 15%. In view of the ethnic and geographical origin of this population, we did not expect a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for CAR/CAR and BEN/BEN homozygous haplotypes and a high proportion of heterozygous CAR/BEN haplotypes since the State of Bahia historically received more slaves from Western Africa than from Central Africa.

  6. [Rapid evaluation of ant diversity in land use systems in southern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Braga, Danielle L; Louzada, Júlio N C; Zanetti, Ronald; Delabie, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to compare the soil ant diversity in different land use systems from Atlantic Forest area, in Southern Bahia state, Brazil. The ants were sampled in 16 sites: two primary forest sites (un-logged forest); three young secondary forests (<8 years old); three intermediate secondary forests (8-20 years old); three old secondary forests (>20 years old); three Eucalyptus grandis plantations (3-7 years old), and two introduced pastures. Each site was sampled in three sampling points 15 m apart, and distant over 50 m from the site edge. In each sampling point we gathered the litter from a 1 m² and extracted the ants with Winkler extractors during 48h. We found 103 ant species from 29 genera and eight subfamilies. The five richest genera were Pheidole (19 species), Solenopsis (8), Apterostigma (10), Hypoponera (7) e Paratrechina (5). The highest ant richness density was found in the primary forest (7.4 species/sample; S = 37; n = 5); followed by the old secondary forest (5.33 species/sample; S = 48; n = 9); young secondary forest (5.25 species/sample; S = 42, n = 8); eucalyptus plantation (4.22 species/sample; S = 38, n = 9), intermediate secondary forest (3.5 species/sample; S = 35, n = 10, and introduced pasture (2.67 species/sample; S = 16, n = 6). The ecosystems with higher structural complexity showed the highest ant richness density by sample. Therefore, in the Atlantic Forest region, the eucalyptus plantation is a better alternative of land use to conserve the ant biodiversity than pastures, and quite similar to native secondary forests in ant community characteristics.

  7. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

    2011-05-01

    Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  8. Schooling for Some: Local Financial Commitment to Basic Education in Bahia, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N.; Verhine, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Recent literature on Brazilian educational finance has documented low expenditure levels and problems of efficiency, efficacy, and equity. This paper analyzes financial data from Bahia state "municipios" and examines revenue and expenditure trends to explain variations in financial commitment across "municipios." Local interest…

  9. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  10. Inversion of Seismic Cross-hole Data from Dom Joao Field, Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Oliveira, N. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic Tomography was incorporated in Reservoir Geophysics with the intention of providing high-resolution images of regions in the Earth's subsurface that are characterized as potential reservoirs. In this work, seismic traveltime tomography in the transmission mode was applied to real data from the Dom Joao Field, Reconcavo Basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. This basin represents a landmark of oil exploration in Brazil and has been intensively studied since the 1950s. Today, the Reconcavo Basin is still the principal oil producer in the State of Bahia, but there is a demand for new technologies, especially for mature fields, to improve hydrocarbon recovery. Acoustic ray tracing for the computation of traveltimes was used for forward modeling, and the conjugate gradient algorithm with regularization through derivative matrices was used as an inverse procedure. The tomographic inversion is an ill-posed problem because the existence, uniqueness and stability conditions are not completely satisfied. Mathematical techniques are commonly used with the intention of providing better conditioning for the numerical solution of such problems. The input data in the system are the traveltimes between the sources and the receivers and the distances propagated by each ray connecting such sources and receivers. Both inputs are provided through acoustic forward modeling. The linear system is regularized by derivative matrices derived to minimize the instability. This regularization procedure has a crucially important parameter called regularization parameter lambda. For the selection of lambda we used the L-module, which is based on the well-known L-curve. The estimated tomograms were consistent with previous geological knowledge of the area and the P-wave velocity range was consistent. The results showed that traveltime tomography is feasible for the characterization of reservoirs with a high rate of vertical change, similar to the Dom Joao Field.

  11. Seismic Traveltime Tomography Applied to Data from Miranga Field, Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Rodrigues, V.

    2015-12-01

    The growing global demand for hydrocarbons has tested the limits of oil exploration and exploitation technologies. Within the seismic methods, tomography is an alternative for the high resolution characterization of reservoirs, enabling a more efficient recovery of new as well as mature fields. In this work, seismic traveltime tomography in the transmission mode was applied to real data from the Miranga Field, Reconcavo Basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. This basin represents a landmark of oil exploration in Brazil and has been intensively studied since the 1950s. Today, the Reconcavo Basin is still the principal oil producer in the State of Bahia, but there is a demand for new technologies, especially for mature fields, to improve hydrocarbon recovery. The objective is to estimate the two-dimensional velocity distribution in the region between the two wells. We have used linearized inversion through the Levenberg-Marquardt scheme. The input data in the system are the traveltimes between the sources and the receivers and the distances propagated by each ray connecting such sources and receivers. Both inputs are provided through acoustic forward modeling. The conjugate gradient algorithm with regularization through derivative matrices was used as an inverse procedure. The tomographic inversion is an ill-posed problem because the existence, uniqueness and stability conditions are not completely satisfied. The linear system is regularized by derivative matrices derived to minimize the instability. This regularization procedure has a crucially important parameter called regularization parameter lambda. For the selection of lambda we used L-curve and Theta-curve. The estimated tomograms were consistent with previous geological knowledge of the area and the P-wave velocity range was consistent. The results showed that traveltime tomography is feasible for the characterization of reservoirs with a high rate of vertical change, similar to the Miranga Field.

  12. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Henrique Fernandes; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2012-07-02

    This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: "molt", "walking dance" and "spawning". This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological profile of multiple sclerosis in a reference center in the State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Fukuda, Thiago; Pereira, Júlio; Seixas, Jamile; Miranda, Rafael; Rodrigues, Bernardo; Saback, Thaís; Andrade, Renata; Cardoso, Grace; Martinez, Rosa; Avena, Juliane; Melo, Ailton

    2006-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Its prevalence and clinical aspects vary according to the continent considered, being more frequent in Caucasians and young individuals aged 20 to 40 years. Epidemiological data from Brazil show that prevalence is variable, being more frequent in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the country, rather than in the Northern and Northeastern areas. The purpose of this paper is to describe MS clinical and epidemiological features in the State of Bahia, in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Thus, we held a cross-sectional study over the period from February to May, 2005, in the Multiple Sclerosis Patient Support Center ("Núcleo de Apoio aos Pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla") of Bahia, which included all patients with a diagnosis of MS seen over this period of time. A total of 121 patients were investigated, being 80.2% females (female:male ratio=4:1), with higher frequency in mulatto individuals (64%), and the relapsing-remitting type (91.3%). Most patients (68.7%) had mild MS, and blacks were prone to worse prognosis compared to other patients.

  14. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p < 0,001). Prescriptions from primary care in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care.

  15. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  16. [Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura

    2004-01-01

    The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress.

  17. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  18. Highlights from the IV International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 20-21, 2011, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato D; Becker, Richard C; Newby, L Kristin; Peterson, Eric D; Hylek, Elaine M; Granger, Christopher B; Crowther, Mark; Wang, Tracy; Carvalho, Antonio C; Berwanger, Otavio; Giraldez, Roberto R; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Darze, Eduardo; Kalil, Renato A K; Andrande, Marianna; Boas, Fabio Villas; Andrade, Jadelson; Rocha, Ana Thereza; Harrington, Robert A; Lopes, Antonio C; Garcia, David A

    2012-07-01

    To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fourth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from October 20-21, 2011. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

  19. Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-10-01

    We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil.

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  1. Checklist, new species and new records of Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E DE L; Mermudes, José Ricardo M; Bravo, Freddy; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2017-02-16

    A checklist of Cerambycidae from three Brazilian localities of the Chapada Diamantina mountain range (Catolés, Piatã and Mucugê) is provided. These three localities are considered of great biological importance. A total of 38 species were collected, belonging to 29 genera, 18 tribes and two subfamilies. Ten new records for the state of Bahia are presented, and a new species, Desmiphora (Desmiphora) iwasarai (Desmiphorini, Lamiinae), is described and illustrated.

  2. Brazil to help develop oil, gas in Argentina's Northeast basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that Brazil and Argentina have agreed to joint exploration and development of oil and gas in Argentina's Northeast basin. Although not covered by the accord, the venture could lead to a 2,400 km, $2.5 billion gas pipeline system form the Argentine basin to southern Brazil, beyond almost $2 billion in exploration and development costs. The Northeast basin has proved reserves of 95 million bbl of crude oil and 2.1 tcf of gas.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae) in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia Carvalho Pestana; Zannin, Marlene; Rodrigues, Daisy Schwab; Santos, Claudia Regina dos; Correa, Ieda Ana; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Saxitoxin (STX) found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52%) and severe (33%), two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support.

  4. Reproductive cycle of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819) in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape), Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camilo, V M A; Souza, J da C; Conceição, E de J; Luz, J R; Boehs, G; Campiolo, S

    2017-08-17

    Mytella guyanensis, consumed and commercialized in coastal regions of Brazil, is one of several bivalve species of socioeconomic interest for coastal communities. Besides serving as a source of income and subsistence for these communities, it also contributes to their food security as it is a source of proteins and micronutrients. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied aiming to contribute to food security and its preservation. Samples were collected monthly, between March 2014 and March 2015, in a natural stock (12°38'50"S; 38°51'43"W) in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape) (community Engenho da Ponte), Bahia, Brazil. Mytella guyanensis is collected by women on site, where the artisanal fishing of this resource is performed without following any specific handling procedure. Also, empirical evidence indicates overexploitation. The specimens collected were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length), and after macroscopic analysis they were fixed in Davidson solution, processed by routine histology techniques and stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The macroscopic analysis showed sexual dimorphism, with the male and female gonads presenting a milky-white and orange colour, respectively. A 1:1 sex ratio (M: F) was observed and reproduction of the species was continuous all year round. March, April, July and August were the months with highest values of gamete elimination. We suggest that a M. guyanensis management plan should restrict capture during these months, in order to sustainably regulate exploitation of this food resource in this reserve.

  5. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  6. Source and distribution of organic matter in surface sediments from mangroves on the island of Itaparica, Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisângela Costa; Celino, Joil José; Santos, Vera Lúcia Cancio Souza; Bispo De Souza, José Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Elemental analysis and isotopic composition evaluated the impact of human activity at the surface sediments in the largest island of Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil. Saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and isoprenoids) by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector and (13)C by mass spectrometer were determined from 30 surface sediment samples in mangroves at the Itaparica Island (Bahia-Brazil) in the rainy and dry season. These data, distribution, and ratio of carbon/nitrogen showed a mixture of sources: continental, marine, and anthropogenic ones. From the chromatographic profiles, light oil contamination was observed in the dry regions of Baiacu, Campinas, and Ponta Grossa, while in Jiribatuba it was observed during the rainy season. However, δ(13)C results during dry and rainy season in the presence of oil also showed in Misericordia and Cacha Prego districts for both periods and Ponta Grossa during the rainy season. Principal component analysis, using a correlation matrix, revealed the latent relationships among all the surface sediment stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results.

  7. [Lead poisoning: Zinc protoporphyrin in blood of children from Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M; Neto, A M; Peres, M F; Gonçalves, H R; Guimarães, G C; Amorim, C J; Silva, J A; Tavares, T M

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study has investigated lead poisoning among all the 101 children aged 1 to 5 years, living at less then 500 m from a lead smelter which has been operating since 1960 in Santo Amaro da Purificação, State of Bahia, Brazil. Lead poisoning was evaluated by determining the concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in whole blood. Results were compared with those obtained from 98 children of the same age range, in a nursery from Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. In Santo Amaro, ZPP geometric mean was 65.5 mg/dl (geometric S.D. = 1.7), much higher, therefore, than the normal threshold of 30 microg/dl recommended by the CDC-USA. A child was excluded from statistical analyses because of very high ZPP level: 789 mg/dl. In Salvador, ZPP geometric mean was 31.0 mg/dl (geometric SD = 1.6). "Extremely elevated" ZPP levels (above 156 mg/dl) were observed in 8% of the children from Santo Amaro and in none (0%) of the children from Salvador, this statistical difference being highly significant. Anaemia was present among 35.0% of the children from Santo Amaro and among 25.5% of those from Salvador. One year-old children showed the highest levels of ZPP and anaemia. No marked statistical association was found between ZPP levels and anaemia. Lead contamination of this children population remained in a permanently high level during, at least, the period from 1980 to 1992. In December, 1993 the lead smelter has definitively ceased its industrial activities in Santo Amaro da Purificação.

  8. Ecological niche modeling for visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction and growing degree day-water budget analysis.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Prixia; Malone, John B; Bavia, Maria E

    2006-11-01

    Two predictive models were developed within a geographic information system using Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Prediction (GARP) and the growing degree day (GDD)-water budget (WB) concept to predict the distribution and potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objective was to define the environmental suitability of the disease as well as to obtain a deeper understanding of the eco-epidemiology of VL by associating environmental and climatic variables with disease prevalence. Both the GARP model and the GDDWB model, using different analysis approaches and with the same human prevalence database, predicted similar distribution and abundance patterns for the Lutzomyia longipalpis-Leishmania chagasi system in Bahia. High and moderate prevalence sites for VL were significantly related to areas of high and moderate risk prediction by: (i) the area predicted by the GARP model, depending on the number of pixels that overlapped among eleven annual model years, and (ii) the number of potential generations per year that could be completed by the Lu. longipalpis-L. chagasi system by GDD-WB analysis. When applied to the ecological zones of Bahia, both the GARP and the GDD-WB prediction models suggest that the highest VL risk is in the interior region of the state, characterized by a semi-arid and hot climate known as Caatinga, while the risk in the Bahia interior forest and the Cerrado ecological regions is lower. The Bahia coastal forest was predicted to be a low-risk area due to the unsuitable conditions for the vector and VL transmission.

  9. "Cricket singing means rain": semiotic meaning of insects in the district of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Neto, Eraldo M

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with the semiotic meanings which are given both to the appearance and/or behavior of insect species according to the ethnoentomological knowledge of the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected from February to May 2001 by performing open-ended, recorded interviews with nine men and twenty-five women, whose ages ranged from 19 to 82 years old. Data were analyzed by using the union model, which involves considering all available information on the surveyed subject. Twelve kinds of insects were associated with both beneficial and harmful events, as well as with the indication of changing weather. The way local people perceive and interpret the appearance and/or behavior of certain species of insects depends on the cultural background of each inhabitant. The following semiotic meanings were recorded: fatal, funereal, auspicial, meteorological, societal, monetary, and of abundance or scarcity. The beliefs in the augural power of insects in the village of Pedra Branca are deep-rooted in the local tradition and are transmitted from generation to generation through oral culture. It is hoped that the data now available will be incorporated into a curriculum by those researchers interested in insect conservation and ethnobiology as well.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens.

  11. Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length) and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests.

  12. [Work and psychological distress among public school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Porto, Lauro Antônio; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with all the teachers in the municipal school system in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, investigated the association between work content (psychological demand and control over work) and the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among teachers. The Karasek demand-control model was used to evaluate control over work. The Self-Report Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate minor psychiatric disorders. MPD prevalence was 55.9% among the 808 teachers studied. Crude prevalence of MPD showed a positive and significant association with psychological demand and a negative and significant association with control over work. MPD prevalence was higher in teachers with highly demanding work, characterized by heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.44-2.10), and in those with active work, with heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.61), as compared to teachers with low-demand work (light demand and high control), after adjusting for confounders in a multiple logistic regression model. As a conclusion, teachers' mental health is strongly associated with their work content.

  13. Prevalence of neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Andrade, Lílian Lessa; Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in an artisanal fishing community. The main health complaints included musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) attributable to working conditions. The present work found a prevalence of neck and distal upper limb MSD among the artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort epidemiological study involving 209 artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers. The Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a survey listing physical demands adapted to shellfish gathering were used for the study. The MSD values obtained in some part of the body, neck or shoulder, and distal upper limb were 94.7%, 71.3% and 70.3%, respectively. The shellfish gatherers were found to work long shifts despite the high prevalence of MSD. The factors that cause these women to keep performing such activities include the need to make a living and provide food for their families through the sale and consumption of seafood.

  14. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups.

  15. [Dental fluorosis in schoolchildren 12 and 15 years of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001 and 2004].

    PubMed

    Oliveira Junior, Saulo Regis de; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Lopes, Laíra Sá; Soares, Ana Prates; Ribeiro, Adriana de Andrade; Fonseca, Lis de Amorim

    2006-06-01

    This article compares the results of two surveys in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, on prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 12 and 15-year-olds. The article discusses the survey methodologies in relation to their sampling process, calibration of examiners, and data collection procedures, comparing the resulting differences using chi-square and 95% confidence intervals obtained with the Dean index. A total of 3,313 adolescents 12 and 15 years of age were analyzed in 2001 and 1,032 in 2004. Both surveys used examiner calibration, and the samples were population-based. In the second survey there were a higher proportion of students from public schools for both ages, as compared to 2001 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the fluorosis rate at 12 years, with a prevalence of 32.64% in 2004 and 31.4% in 2001. For 15-year-olds, the prevalence in 2004 (16.83%) was lower than in 2001 (27.6%). No increase was observed in the prevalence or severity of fluorosis in Salvador from 2001 to 2004.

  16. [Impact of the Water for All Program (PAT) on childhood morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in the Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rasella, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Water for All Program (PAT), launched in Bahia State, Brazil, with the objective of expanding coverage of the water supply and sanitation in areas with high vulnerability to waterborne diseases. A total of 224 municipalities (counties) with adequate vital statistics were selected. A controlled before-and-after study design was used, performing analyses with multivariate negative binomial regression with fixed effects, from 2005 to 2008. PAT coverage - as a continuous variable - was negatively associated (p < 0.01) with the under-five mortality rate. Municipalities with coverage ≥ 10% showed a reduction of 39% (p < 0.05) in mortality from diarrhea, under-five mortality of 14% (p < 0.01), and hospitalizations from diarrhea of 6% (p < 0.05) when compared to municipalities without PAT or with lower coverage, having adjusted for confounding. No effects were found on external causes of mortality, used as a control. When focused on highly vulnerable areas, water and sanitation programs can have an important impact in reducing health inequalities in the population.

  17. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity.

  18. Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia, Brazil-- interactions of gender, ethnicity and social class.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalhães, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; James, Sherman A; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports findings on Alcohol Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research setting characterized by racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. A household survey was conducted with a sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of alcoholic beverages with frequent drunkenness, with failed attempts to stop drinking. The rate of 12-month prevalence was 7%, with an overall male: female ratio of 6:1. A positive association of ACAb prevalence with education and social class was found. Male gender and higher socio-economic status were associated with increased odds of ACAb. No relationship was found between ethnicity and ACAb. Stratified analysis yielded consistent gender effects, throughout all strata of independent variables. A strong interaction of gender (male) and social class (upper class) was found for Mulattos and Morenos (maximum Prevalence rate=9.04). Interaction patterns found defy simple generalizations based on class, ethnicity, and gender considered alone.

  19. Hepatitis B virus prevalence and vaccination response in health care workers and students at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Patrícia; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Andrade, Jacy; Vasconcelos Rêgo, Marco Antônio; Marques, Patrícia; Meyer, Roberto; Araújo, Alex; Menezes, Thomaz; Oliveira, Carolina; Macêdo, Rodrigo Sousa; Macêdo, Lucas Sousa; Leal, Júlio César; Matos, Betânia; Schaer, Robert; Simones, Juçara M; Freire, Songeli M; Paraná, Raymundo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Hepatitis B (HB) is one of the most prevalent occupational infections in health attendance environments. According to the Brazil Ministry of Health, health professionals must be vaccinated against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and provide laboratory proof of immunization. To evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV infection and to analyze the response to vaccine by measuring serum antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels in a sample of students and health professionals at the Federal University of Bahia. As part of this cross-sectional study, a campaign against occupational HB was launched in 2007 and vaccination and blood samples were collected for analysis of the following serological markers: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs (measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay) and total antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc). The study sample comprised 766 people. Global seropositivity for HBV was 1.7%: 0.5% in the students and 8.8% in the professionals. In a group of volunteers, a serological profile compatible with postvaccine immunity was shown by 95% of volunteers with proof of vaccination and by 81.8% of volunteers without proof of vaccination. In conclusion, this study shows that it is important to promote vaccination campaigns and improve knowledge and awareness about HB among health care workers and higher education students.

  20. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-06-20

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms.

  1. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium.

  2. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes.

  3. A new remarkable and Critically Endangered species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with a discussion on durophagy in the Characiformes.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Lima, Flávio C T; Dario, Fabio DI; Gerhard, Pedro

    2017-02-20

    Astyanax brucutu is described from the rio Pratinha, rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is promptly distinguished from other characids by having four, rarely three, robust, rounded, and usualy tricuspid teeth on inner premaxillary series and similar teeth on dentary. The species is furthermore characterized by a series of unusual character states in the Characidae, including head blunt in lateral and dorsal views, longitudinal foreshortening of lower jaw, ventral margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from horizontal limb of preopercle, leaving a broad area without superficial bones, mesethmoid anteroventrally expanded, and adductor mandibulae and primordial ligament remarkably developed. Analysis of gut contents of adults revealed the almost exclusive presence of crushed shells of tiny gastropods of the family Hydrobiidae. The robust anatomy of jaws, teeth, muscles and associated ligaments are likely adaptations to durophagy, a feeding strategy unusual among characids. Astyanax brucutu is known only from its type locality, an approximately 670 m long, transparent and isolated perennial epigean watercourse surrounded by subterranean or intermittent rivers. The distinctive combination of environmental features characterizing the area of occurrence of the new species is not observed elsewhere in the basin or adjacent basins. A series of severe anthropogenic impacts, associated with the restricted geographic range of the species, implies that A. brucutu should be regarded as Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List Criteria.

  4. Geology of petroleum in Campos basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.

    1984-04-01

    A schematic model of oil generation, migration, accumulation, and alteration is presented for the Campos basin, a sedimentary province covering an area of nearly 31,000 km/sup 2/ (12,000 mi/sup 2/) offshore southeastern Brazil, where an estimated 1 billion m/sup 3/ (6.3 billion bbl) of oil in place has been discovered since 1974. Source rocks for this oil belong to the Lower Cretaceous Lagoa Feia Formation; oil generation probably started in the Miocene. At that time, a series of local windows opened in the regional evaporite seal at the top of the Lagoa Feia Formation and focused the upward escape of hydrocarbons, mainly along halokinetic fault surfaces. Reservoirs of Albian, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary age were charged and their porosities enhanced by natural fracturing, solution, and/or grain rearrangement. Original oil (postulated range of 30/sup 0/-35/sup 0/ API gravity) underwent differentiation by migration, reflected in relative enrichment of aromatics and of the light /sup 12/C stable carbon isotope. Alteration of oil by water occurs if one of the two fluids in contact is allochthonous; bacterial alteration is important in low-temperature regimes. Oil entrapment is helped by hydrodynamic conditions, with the intake area of the Paraiba do Sul river delta supposedly playing an important part. Lopatin-type plots gave the first clue for establishing this model, which takes into account a large number of facts about the basin, such as well and seismic information, clay diagenesis, water and petroleum geochemistry, pressure data, and their geologic field relationships.

  5. [Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda.

  6. The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

    2007-06-01

    The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains.

  7. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  8. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  9. A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Halenar, Lauren B; Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    The recently extinct large-bodied New World monkey Protopithecus brasiliensis Lund 1836 was named based on a distal humerus and proximal femur found in the Lagoa Santa cave system in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. These bones are from an animal about twice the size of the largest extant platyrrhines. One hundred and seventy-five years later, a nearly complete skeleton was discovered in the Toca da Boa Vista caves in the neighboring state of Bahia and was allocated to the same taxon as it was the first platyrrhine fossil of comparable size found since the originals. Our detailed study of the equivalent elements, however, reveals important morphological differences that do not correspond to intraspecific variation as we know it in related platyrrhine taxa. The presence of both an expanded brachioradialis flange on the humerus and gluteal tuberosity on the femur of the Bahian skeleton distinguishes it from the Lagoa Santa fossil as well as from all other platyrrhines. Further cranial and postcranial evidence suggests a closer relationship of the former with the alouattine Alouatta, while the limited Lund material fits more comfortably with the ateline clade. Therefore, we propose to limit P. brasiliensis Lund to the distal humerus and proximal femur from Lagoa Santa and erect a new genus and species for the skeleton from Toca da Boa Vista. Cartelles coimbrafilhoi was a large-bodied frugivore with a relatively small brain and diverse locomotor repertoire including both suspension and climbing that expands the range of platyrrhine biodiversity beyond the dimensions of the living neotropical primates.

  10. Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Laura J; Calip, Gregory S; Novo, Patricia M; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

    2013-09-01

    In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia's Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than 5 years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P = 0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF's role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil.

  12. Horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional vegetation between caatinga and tropical rain forest, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lima, Artur Gomes; Guedes, Maria Lenise Silva; Sherlock, Italo A

    2003-09-01

    A study about the horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna in two distinct ecosystems, caatinga area, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, and the tropical rain forest area, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, was performed in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Lutzomyia longipalpis was predominant in the caatinga, and following it came the species L. capixaba and L. oswaldoi. In the tropical rain forest other species were found, such as L. intermedia, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. yuilli, L.fischeri, L. damascenoi, L. evandroi, L. monticola, and L. lenti. It was found that the geographical limits of the vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are clearly defined by the biological and phytogeographic characteristics.

  13. [Nutritional and feeding status of preschool children in the semi-arid region of Bahia (Brazil): I. Anthropometric assessment].

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Marlúcia O Assis, A; Baqueiro, C M; Quaglia, G M; Morris, S S; Barreto, M L

    1995-12-01

    A survey of 754 preschool children was undertaken in the urban areas of seven small towns of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study set out to determine the prevalence of weight and height deficits, as well as to correlate them with variables such as age, family income, mother's schooling and food consumption. A prevalence of 22.9% of Height for Age (HA) below -2.0 SD was found (stunting) and prevalence of 19.1% and 3.6% were determined, respectively for Weight for Age (WA) and Weight for Height (WH) below -2.0 SD (wasting). Regarding food consumption, only 6.8% of the children received a diet with an adequate energy supply for their age group in the previous day. There was a close association between inadequate HA and WA and family income per capita (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively). Children from families with income < 1/4 of the minimum wage per capita had twice the chance of being malnourished as compared with those from the > or = 1/2 minimum wage per capita stratum. The children included in this study showed prevalences of inadequate WH and WA significantly higher than those found in a national survey conducted in the same period (p = 0.047 and p = 0.000 respectively). This fact is surprising since in the last decade important reductions in child malnutrition and mortality were reported in the country as a whole; this may indicate that children from this region probably were not benefitted in the same way as the rest of the Brazilian child population.

  14. Sickle cell anemia: delayed diagnosis in Bahia, Brazil--a largely Afro-descendant population.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Angela Maria Dias; Gonçalves, Marilda de Sousa; Bahia, Regina Célia Santos; Nogueira, Luciana Vasconcelos Araujo; Arruda, Sérgio Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in the world and include sickle cell anemia (SCA), which is a public health problem in Brazil. Nevertheless, the disease is highly unknown among health professionals, and delayed diagnosis constitutes an important cause of concern for caretakers of SCA patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory history of SCA patients whose diagnosis was established during the first year of life to those of other SCA patients who had delayed SCA diagnosis. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were all reviewed from 99 steady-state SCA patients who were followed in a public hematology and hemotherapy clinic in Salvador, Brazil. The patients were aged > or = 12 years and attended the outpatient unit at least once from November 2008 to June 2009. The data were analyzed in 2010. For all patients, the mean age (+/- SD) at diagnosis was 12.7(+/- 12.1) years, ranging from 0 to 47 years. Mean age was higher in patients whose SCA diagnosis was established after age 5 (32.9 +/- 11.9 years, P = .005). Increased unconjugated bilirubin, stroke and splenic sequestration were more prevalent in patients who were diagnosed in the first year of life (P = .043, .024 and .026 respectively). The data suggest that stroke, splenic sequestration and unconjugated bilirubin level may be influenced by age at SCA diagnosis.

  15. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  16. [Building bridges: interdisciplinarity in practice. PopTrans Study: a study with transvestites and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dourado, Ines; Silva, Luís Augusto V da; Magno, Laio; Lopes, Maycon; Cerqueira, Caio; Prates, Adriana; Brignol, Sandra; MacCarthy, Sarah

    2016-10-10

    Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C. The article is intended to describe the experience with the implementation and development of an ethno-epidemiological study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Mapping the population began with a formative survey that was crucial for orienting the epidemiological survey. The production of ethno-epidemiological data posed a daily challenge for the researchers, triggering a series of reflections on the limits of our concepts and categories for translating the diversity of study participants' practices and experiences.

  17. Simulium (Psilopelmia) virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Neusa; Silva, Nayra Gomes da; Pereira, Eleny da Silva

    2012-02-01

    The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium (Psilopelmia) in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  18. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quartz sand resources in the Santa Maria Eterna formation, Bahia, Brazil: A geochemical and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Murilo Ferreira Marques dos; Fujiwara, Eric; Schenkel, Egont Alexandre; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Suzuki, Carlos Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the quartz sand occurrences of the Santa Maria Eterna formation, in northeastern Brazil, as a potential source of raw material for silica glass manufacturing. Samples of quartz sand were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine a range of trace elements and establish its chemical purity. The technological potential of the sand was obtained by counting the quantity of bubbles formed during flame fusion over silica plate. Both chemistry and bubble formation indicate that the raw material is suitable for producing silica glass. The work also investigated the composition of fluid inclusions in the quartz grains and the surface micro-texture by scanning electron microscopy. With the results obtained by these procedures, we inferred that the quartz sand was probably formed in a marine environment, by the precipitation of silica in the form of quartz. The main impurities of the samples are probably present in the mineral inclusions implying that purification is possible and probably competitive.

  20. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  1. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahı´a de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  2. [Medication use by the quilombola population: a survey in Southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Guimaraes, Mark Drew Crosland; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2013-10-01

    To characterize the medication use by the quilombola population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 797 adult quilombola in Vitória da Conquista, BA, Northeastern Brazil, in 2011. Analysis of variance was used to compare means of drugs by subject, according to demographic, socioeconomic and health-related behavior variables. Prevalence, prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariate analysis was carried out using Poisson regression with robust variance. The most widely consumed drugs by the population were those for the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Prevalence of medication use was 41.9%, significantly higher among women (50.3%) than men (31.9%). After adjusted analysis, medication use was associated with being female gender, being aged 60 or older, higher economic level, worse self-rated health, greater number of self-reported diseases and number of medical appointments. Strategies to improve rational drug use should preferentially focus on women and older adults. Thus, special attention should be given to promote rational prescription in everyday health services.

  3. Alcohol drinking patterns by gender, ethnicity, and social class in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalh es, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; Kawachi, Ichiro; James, Sherman A

    2004-02-01

    To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD) were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week). Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male), marital status (single), migration (non-migrant), better educated (college level), and social class (upper). No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor) and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%). A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources of social health inequities.

  4. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  5. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 μg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples.

  6. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  7. Characterization of the lead smelter slag in Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, L R P de Andrade; Bernardez, L A

    2011-05-30

    For 33 years, a primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro (Brazil). Since the 1970s, large amounts of Pb and Cd have been widely documented in the blood and hair of people living near the smelter. The plant closed down in 1993, and several years later, the Pb levels in the blood of children under 4 years of age living near the smelter were high, where the disposed lead slag was suspected to be the main source of this contamination. The objective of this study is to elucidate the source of the Pb contamination and any other potentially toxic contamination, focusing on the characterization of the slag. The samples used for this characterization study were taken from the slag heaps. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the major constituents of the slag, in decreasing order of wt%, were the following: Fe(2)O(3) (28.10), CaO (23.11), SiO(2) (21.39), ZnO (9.47), MgO (5.44), PbO (4.06), Al(2)O(3) (3.56), C (2.26), MnO (1.44), Na(2)O (0.27), S (0.37), K(2)O (0.26), and TiO(2) (0.25). The Cd content of the slag was 57.3mg/kg, which is relatively low. The X-ray diffraction and the electron probe microanalyzer X-ray mapping indicated that the major phases in the slag were wüstite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and franklinite. Only spheroidal metallic Pb was found in the slag. The leaching study showed that the slag was stable at a pH greater than 2.8, and only in an extremely acidic environment was the solubilization of the Pb enhanced significantly. The solubilization of Zn was very limited in the acidic and alkaline environments. These results can be explained by the limited leachability of the metallic Pb and Zn-bearing compounds. The leaching study used TCLP, SPLP, and SWEP and indicated that the lead slag was stable in weak acidic environments for short contact times. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil.

  9. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  10. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  11. Petroleum geology of Solimoes Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, J.N.P.; Meister, E.M.; Pereira, C.A.G.; Murakami, C.Y. )

    1993-02-01

    Solimoes basin is located at the northwestern portion of the South American continent, adjacent to a subandean pericratonic belt. It constitutes a Paleozoic intracratonic basin covering an area of about 600,000 km[sup 2] and displaying a maximum sedimentary thickness of 3400 m. The tectono-sedimentary evolution can be largely related with important events that occurred at the western border of the continent. The regional flexural subsidence and tectonic deformation observed are correlated to two major phases: Pre-Andean (Paleozoic) and Andean (Mesozoic and Cenozoic). In the Andean phase, compression with shear components, of Triassic age, known as the Jurua Tectonism, became very important for oil exploration of the basin. The stratigraphic conditions considered of greatest interest for petroleum exploration comprise Devonian gas and oil sourcing shales and Carboniferous sandstones reservoirs with an evaporitic seal. The main traps are anticlines related to reverse faults. In this context, Petrobras discovered Jurua gas field in 1978 and the Rio Urucu gas and oil field in 1986. These were the first fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum fields discovered in Brazilian Paleozoic basins. Total petroleum reserves discovered represent 400 million bbl of equivalent oil. Present migration and accumulation call for previous accumulation in intrabasinal Paleozoic highs and related stratigraphic traps. Late tectonism seems to have resulted in redistribution and/or escape of fluids into new traps. Less disturbed areas are expected to contain original accumulations.

  12. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have δ13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The δ34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited

  13. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  14. Constitution of ethnozoological semantic domains: meaning and inclusiveness of the lexeme "insect" for the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    This article deals with the sociocultural construction of the 'insect' and 'animal' domains by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca (municipality of Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil). The fieldwork was performed from September 2006 to July 2007. The data was obtained by means of open-ended interviews of 74 individuals of both genders whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the interviewees were unable to say in an accurate and secure way a specific definition for each domain. Depending on how a given animal is culturally interpreted, it could belong to the semantic domain 'animal' or 'insect', being representative of one or another group. However, in practice, such a distinction between these two semantic domains appears as something tenuous and ambiguous. Researchers who carry out biodiversity inventories should pay attention to the ethnocategory 'insect' during their studies, especially if these involve the participation of traditional community representatives.

  15. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  16. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal rivers in the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Sarmento-Soares, Luisa M; Martins-Pinheiro, Ronaldo F

    2015-11-11

    Characidium helmeri, a species of the family Crenuchidae apparently endemic to rivers draining the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species is easily distinguished from congeners by having dark, vertically elongated, irregular spots or dashes on flanks, usually more evident over midlateral stripe and/or ventral half of body, where it may present a somewhat curved or zigzag-shape. Characidium helmeri can be further distinguished from most congeners by having lateral line reduced to 13-22 pored scales, adipose fin absent, isthmus naked on its anteriormost portion, 14 scales around caudal peduncle, 4 scales above lateral line and 4 below, two series of dentary teeth, supraorbital absent or extremely reduced, and basicaudal black spot well defined. The occurrence of reductive characters in Characidium is briefly discussed.

  17. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  18. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  19. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  20. Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Laura J.; Calip, Gregory S.; Novo, Patricia; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

    2013-01-01

    In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia’s Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than five years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P=0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P=0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF’s role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil. PMID:23932060

  1. [Importance of the Teratogen Information Service in Bahia, Brazil, for prevention of congenital malformations: an initial four-year review].

    PubMed

    Toralles, Maria Betânia; Trindade, Bruno Meira Castro; Fadul, Luiza Cavalcanti; Peixoto Junior, Clóvis F; Santana, Marco Antonio Costa Campos de; Alves, Crésio

    2009-01-01

    Teratogenic agents are defined as physical, chemical, or biological agents or nutrient deficiencies that lead to fetal structural or functional alterations. Information on the effects of exposure to teratogens during pregnancy is of the utmost importance. In order to achieve this goal, in 2001, the Bahia State Teratogen Information Service was created in the Medical Genetics Department at the University Hospital of the Federal University in Bahia. The current paper aimed to describe the first four years of operation in the service. From March 2001 to May 2005, the service was consulted by telephone, fax, and e-mail. During this period, 408 queries were made, for a total of 1,091 different reasons. Most queries were made by pregnant women and health care professionals. Hair products, herbal teas, and misoprostol were the most widely investigated agents. The low number of queries (average 1/day) shows the need for more awareness-raising on the risks posed by the various agents.

  2. Correlation between infection rate of triatominies and Chagas Disease in Southwest of Bahia, Brazil: a warning sign?

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eliezer A DA; Ribeiro, Israel S; Amorim, Miguel S; Rocha, Dalva V; Coutinho, Helder S; Freitas, Leandro M DE; Tomazi, Laize; Silva, Robson A A DA

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in South America, and its main method of control is the elimination of triatomines. It is presented here the geographic distribution and the rate of natural infection by T. cruzi of triatomines collected and evaluated from 2008 to 2013 in southwest of Bahia. Triatomines were captured in the intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of five cities located in the southwest of Bahia state, identified, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosomatids in their feces. During the study period the number of patients suspected for acute Chagas disease was recovered from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). 8966 triatomines were captured and identified as belonging to eight species. Twenty-six presented themselves infected, being Triatoma sordida the most abundant and with the highest percentage of infection by T. cruzi. Tremedal was the city with the highest number of cases of acute Chagas' disease reported to SINAN. All cities showed triatomines infected with T. cruzi, so there is considerable risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in the southwestern Bahia state, evidencing the need for vector transmission control programs and preventive surveillance measures.

  3. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  4. Comparing rainfall features in two experimental basins in brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves Almeida, Cristiano; Romero Barbosa, Luis; da Silva Freitas, Emerson; Rabelo Coelho, Victor Hugo; de Araújo, José Carlos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a comparison between rainfall data of two experimental basins in Brazil, both located in the Northeast, but in different climate regimes. The first experimental basin is the Guaraíra river, which is in the Paraíba State, in the coastal region, where the average rainfall is about 1.700 mm/year. According to Köpper the climate is tropical with dry summer. The second experimental basin used was the Aiuaba basin, located in the Ceará State, in the semiarid region, where the average rainfall is about 580 mm/year. Both experimental basins belong to the network for hydrology of the semiarid region (REHISA in Portuguese), that was created in Brazil in 2003. The aim of this paper was to analyze only rainfall events named as non-characterized, once the hyetograph does not have a recognizable shape (triangular or rectangular). In order to define the rainfall event the Minimum Intra-event Time (MIT) criteria was used, in this case equal to thirty minutes and six hours, furthermore, the rainfall events with depths less than 1,016 mm were discarded. The studied period for the Guaraíra experimental basin from 2003 to 2014, while to the Aiuaba EB was from 2004 to 2011. The results showed a good relationship between total rainfall data analysed and the yearly rainfall, but Guaraíra EB presented a better agreement, with determination coefficient equal to 0.95, while Aiuaba EB was 0.78 to MIT= 6 hours. Considering the MIT= 30 minutes, the determination coefficient was equal to 0.83 in Guaraíra EB, while Aiuaba EB was 0.89. Differently the relation above, the intensity in Aiuaba EB always is greater than Guaraíra EB, where to MIT=6 hours, the average intensity was 9.6 mm.h-1 and 7.4 mm.h-1, while to MIT=30 min, the average intensity was 4.5 mm.h-1 and 2.3 mm.h-1, respectively. The rainfall intensities were then classified into five different categories (ranging from very light to extreme). Guaraíra EB presented 90% of the rainfall events classified either

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  6. Petrology of Teofilândia granitoids: An example of 2.1 Ga crustal accretion in the São Francisco Craton (Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, H. S.; Nédélec, Anne; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    Teofilândia granitoids are representative of the Paleoproterozoic plutonic rocks, which intruded the Serrinha block, an Archean crustal fragment of the Sao Francisco Craton (Bahia, Brazil). Three plutons were emplaced, the Teofilândia granodiorite, the Barrocas trondhjemite and the Santa Rosa granite, respectively dated at 2130, 2127 and 2073 Ma. The two first plutons are calc-alkaline rocks following a trondhjemitic trend. They resemble Archean TTGs (tonalites-trondhjemites-granodiorites) by their major and trace element compositions and especially by their fractionated REE patterns, with very low HREE contents. These juvenile magmas resulted from partial melting of a young mafic protolith, likely represented by the nearby Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt. Barrocas trondhjemite and Teofilândia granodiorite derive from similar sources, possibly at different depths and with a different degree of melting. The rocks were deformed at high temperature during the Trans-Amazonian collision and are therefore pre-collisional and ascribed to a subduction stage. The younger Santa Rosa pluton is a small, syn-to post-collisional granite that derived from anatexis of the Archean crust. It is representative of a second, volumetrically minor, plutonic episode of potassic, shoshonitic or alkaline affinities. The large amount of 2.1 Ga granitoids emplaced in Brazil as well as in the West African craton, suggests that, at that time, a global event of possible mantle origin was responsible for the intense magmatic activity that involved both crustal accretion and crustal reworking in many places of the world.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  8. Seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 isolates from HIV-1 co-infected women in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Rego, Filipe Ferreira; Mota-Miranda, Aline; de Souza Santos, Edson; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos

    2010-12-01

    HTLV-1/HIV-1 co-infection is associated with severe clinical manifestations, marked immunodeficiency, and opportunistic pathogenic infections, as well as risk behavior. Salvador, the capital of the State of Bahia, Brazil, has the highest HTLV-1 prevalence (1.74%) found in Brazil. Few studies exist which describe this co-infection found in Salvador and its surrounding areas, much less investigate how these viruses circulate or assess the relationship between them. To describe the epidemiological and molecular features of HTLV in HIV co-infected women. To investigate the prevalence of HTLV/HIV co-infection in surrounding areas, as well as the molecular epidemiology of HTLV, a cross sectional study was carried out involving 107 women infected with HIV-1 from the STD/HIV/AIDS Reference Center located in the neighboring City of Feira de Santana. Patient samples were submitted to ELISA, and HTLV infection was confirmed using Western Blot and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) was performed on HTLV LTR sequences in order to gain further insights about molecular epidemiology and the origins of this virus in Bahia. Four out of five reactive samples were confirmed to be infected with HTLV-1, and one with HTLV-2. The seroprevalence of HTLV among HIV-1 co-infected women was 4.7%. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region from four HTLV-1 sequences showed that all isolates were clustered into the main Latin American group within the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. The HTLV-2 sequence was classified as the HTLV-2c subtype. It was also observed that four HTLV/HIV-1 co-infected women exhibited risk behavior with two having parenteral exposure, while another two were sex workers. This article describes the characteristics of co-infected patients. This co-infection is known to be severe and further studies should be conducted to confirm the suggestion that HTLV-1 is spreading from

  9. Dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of elderly residents in the city of Jequié (Bahia), Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Doane Martins; Vilela, Alba Benemérita Alves; Nery, Adriana Alves; Duarte, Ana Cristina Santos; Alves, Marta dos Reis; Meira, Saulo Sacramento

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to describe the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of the elderly. It is a study of qualitative approach, developed with 32 elderly people registered in the coverage area of a Family Health Program in a city in the state of Bahia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during the first half of 2013, through home visits. We applied to thematic content analysis, and four categories emerged: harmonic intergenerational family relationships; conflicting intergenerational family relationships; family relationships permeated by intergenerational carefor the elderly; intergenerational relationships permeated by elderly caring for their grandchildren. The categories enabled an understanding of the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of elderly, unveiling family relationships guided in the care, support, family unity and even conflicts.

  10. Socio-economic and environmental effects influencing the development of leprosy in Bahia, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Miranda, William; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Barrozo, Ligia V

    2014-12-01

    To investigate spatial clusters and possible associations between relative risks of leprosy with socio-economic and environmental factors, taking into account diagnosed cases in children under 15 years old. An ecological study was conceived using data aggregated by municipality to identify possible spatial clusters of leprosy from 2005 to 2011. Relative risks were calculated accounting for the respective covariate gender. The second stage of the analysis consisted of verifying possible associations between the relative risks of leprosy as a dependent variable, and socio-economic and environmental variables as independent. This was performed using a multivariate regression analysis according to a previously defined conceptual framework. Overall rates have decreased from 0.88/10 000 in 2005 to 0.52 in 2011. Spatial scan statistics identified 4 high-risk and 6 low-risk clusters. In the regression model, after allowing for spatial dependence, relative risks were associated with higher percentage of water bodies, higher Gini index, higher percentage of urban population, larger average number of dwellers by permanent residence and smaller percentage of residents born in Bahia. Although relative risks of leprosy in Bahia have been decreasing, they remain very high. The association between relative risks of leprosy and water bodies in the proposed geographic scale indicates that hypothesis linking M. leprae and humid environments cannot be discarded. Socio-economic conditions such as inequality, a greater number of dwellers by residence and migration are derived from the urbanisation process carried out in this State. Precarious settlements and poor living conditions in the cities would favour the continuity of leprosy transmission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Opportunistic responses of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) populations following the 1997 98 El Niño event in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Kelmo, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We present results from a seven year (1995-2001) study on the coral reefs in Bahia (Brazil), the reef invertebrate community being severely impacted by the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event. Despite local extinction of some taxa, the urchin Diadema antillarum was the only species out of a total of 678 enumerated demonstrating a significant increase in population size following El Niño, indicating a unique response of this species to the stresses associated with these events. Other species of echinoid did not show such a response, most disappearing from the fauna during the two post-El Niño years. The increasing Diadema numbers were most likely due to movement of individuals onto the reef systems from deeper water, exploiting the conditions on the reefs caused by a reduction in competitors and, we speculate, an increase in available space on the reef allowing potential algal settlement to sustain this elevated urchin population. This increased grazing pressure may have prevented algae covering the reef, as seen in other Atlantic reef systems, allowing new coral settlement in 2001.

  12. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  13. [Non-industrial labor, internal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna

    2011-08-01

    Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups.

  14. A focus of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil: characterization and identification of Leishmania stocks isolated from man and dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuba Cuba, C A; Miles, M A; Vexenat, A; Barker, D C; McMahon Pratt, D; Butcher, J; Barreto, A C; Marsden, P D

    1985-01-01

    The characterization and identification to species and subspecies of 20 stocks of Leishmania isolated from the region of Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil, are described: 17 stocks were from patients and three from dogs. The following techniques were used (i) biological (growth in culture, hamster tissues and phlebotomine gut), (ii) biochemical (isoenzyme and kinetoplast DNA analysis) and (iii) immunological (using monoclonal antibodies). All except two stocks belong to the L. braziliensis complex. One of these two corresponded to L. mexicana amazonensis but the other, while clearly in the mexicana complex, showed slight differences from the L. mexicana amazonensis reference strain on isoenzyme analysis. Two stocks from different lesions in the same patient and with different growth characteristics in hamster tissues were both identified as L. braziliensis braziliensis. All the fully characterized stocks of the L. braziliensis complex were identified as L. braziliensis braziliensis. L. braziliensis guyanensis was not identified. Dog and human stocks of L. braziliensis braziliensis were indistinguishable. From these findings and other evidence, L. braziliensis braziliensis seems to be the predominant species transmitted in Três Braços.

  15. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  16. [Prevalence of pre-hypertension and arterial hypertension and evaluation of associated factors in children and adolescents in public schools in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sônia Lopes; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to assess pre-hypertension and hypertension-related factors in 1,125 seven- to-14-year-old subjects enrolled in the public school system in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Exposure variables, namely body mass index, waist circumference, gender, age, physical activity, environmental and housing status, family income, diet, schooling, and maternal age were analyzed by polytomous logistic regression, and the outcome variable was categorized as normal, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.1%, including the prevalence of both hypertension (4.8%) and pre-hypertension (9.3%). An association was shown between pre-hypertension and overweight (OR: 3.13; 95%CI: 1.75-5.57). Hypertension was associated with overweight (OR: 3.02; 95%CI: 1.45-6.28), female gender (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.24-4.98), and high-risk eating patterns (OR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.04-3.56). In short, prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents was higher among girls and individuals with overweight and inadequate diet.

  17. [Dental caries in 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001].

    PubMed

    Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Castellanos, Roberto Augusto; Pinheiro, Márcia Farias; de Albuquerque, Silvana Rodrigues; Pinho, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to identify the access of children to dental services and the coverage of such services, which might be related to differences between the groups. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3,313 clinical exams, which followed the WHO (1997) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. The analysis was carried out by means of the Student's t test, the chi-square test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences regarding DMFT and frequency of caries-free individuals between public and private schools. However, while F (filled teeth) was the most prevalent component of the index in subjects from private schools, M (missing teeth) was the most common in those from public schools. The access to dental services in the last year was the only variable associated to the differences between both groups. Thus, the importance of access to dental services and social benefits must be pointed out in order to guarantee equity in oral health.

  18. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  19. Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tatiana Frederico de; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Cabral, Maria Beatriz Barreto de Souza; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Floriano, Fabiana Raynal

    2012-06-01

    Psychosocial factors influence family care and can jeopardize child development. This study aimed to analyze the association between maternal common mental disorders and incidence of early dental caries in preschool-age children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in a cohort design. A total of 472 children were examined and their mothers were interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Incidence of at least one tooth with caries was 21.19%, while 7.84% of the children showed high risk of caries. The results after adjusting for the child's age and maternal schooling showed that maternal common mental disorders were associated with high caries risk in deciduous teeth (adjusted RR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.05-5.56, among children with 6 or fewer home appliances in the household; adjusted RR = 3.44, 95%CI: 1.06-11.17, among those that brushed twice or less per day). Maternal mental problems were associated with the development of caries in preschoolers.

  20. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  1. [Missed opportunity for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in the southwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Cláudio Lima; Barroso, Sabrina Martins; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of missed opportunities for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in Vitoria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. It involved a population-based cross-sectional study based on a probability sample (n=797), where 548 individuals were eligible for analysis considering the risk criteria: age of 45 years old and above, increased Body Mass Index and hypertension. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was estimated at 42.6%. Logistic regression indicated the following statistically associated factors: self-assessed good/very good health conditions; not measuring blood pressure and not consulting with a physician in the past twelve months; and poor access to health services. The high prevalence was associated with factors related to low utilization and poor access to health services. Actions for the diagnosis and prevention of diabetes should prioritize populations at risk, including better education and training of family health care teams, and improvement of attendance at health care units. Enhanced integration between primary and secondary health care actions can positively impact early diagnosis, treatment and reduction of potential complications associated with diabetes in this population.

  2. Why do people appeal to the courts for access to medication? The case of insulin analogues in Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Erick Soares; Souza, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes de

    2017-06-01

    Insulin analogues have been the object of controversy concerning their therapeutic superiority to human insulin. Perhaps, in part, because of this, insulin analogues are frequently the subject of lawsuits. The judicialization of health has been well studied, but little is known about the reasons that lead people to go to the courts to obtain access to medicines on SUS (the Brazilian National Health System). Therefore, this study aims to analyze the reasons that led people to appeal to the courts to obtain access to insulins analogues in the state of Bahia. This is a case study based on documentary sources. Between 2010 and 2013, 149 lawsuits requiring insulin analogues from the state health authority were filed in the courts. The main reasons for the appeal to the courts, cited in the cases, can be grouped into four categories: the users' lack of finances, an essential need for insulin analogue, the duty and obligation of the state to provide them and bureaucratic difficulties. People turned to the courts, mostly, because doctors who accompany their patients have shifted from the official policy, believing that insulin analogues are better than human insulins. They also recognize that the public health system does not distribute them nor does it give doctors the wherewithal to purchase them with their own resources.

  3. [Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition.

  4. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  5. Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Eraldo M Costa

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

  6. Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect

  7. Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach.

    PubMed

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Silva, Saulo R; Barboza, Raynner R R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2012-03-19

    Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect Blue Land Crabs and the

  8. Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group, from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira

    2013-11-14

    Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group are described from Brazil, where the group was previously unknown. They raise to five the number of species in the group known in South America. An identification key for females of the andra group in South America is included.

  9. Symbiotic N fixation is not down-regulated in mature versus secondary tropical forests in Bahia, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winbourne, J. B.; Daniel, P.; Porder, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon accumulation in secondary tropical forests is substantial, and thought to be limited at least in part by nitrogen (N) availability. Slash and burn agriculture and grazing remove N from the system, however, the abundance of symbiotic N fixing trees in young tropical forests suggests rapid N accumulation as forests regrow. Here we use statistically robust spatial sampling to quantify symbiotic (SNF) and asymbiotic N fixation across a chronosequence of re-growing tropical forests in the Mata Atlântica of Bahia, Brasil. The Mata Atlântica once stretched 1500 km along the east coast of Brasil, is currently 85% deforested, and is a target of national and international restoration efforts that rely heavily on the planting of legume species to facilitate forest regrowth. As expected, we found the highest rates of SNF early in forest succession, but these rates were low compared with prior estimates (16-year-old forests fixed 5.75 ± 2.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and did not significantly decline in older stands. Mature forests (>100 years old) fixed 4.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1. This rate is similar to measurements using the same method in intact forests in Costa Rica, and both estimates are 5 times lower than previous estimates of SNF inputs into mature tropical forests. In our study, SNF accounted for > 99% of the total N inputs via biological N fixation. Several intriguing possibilities emerge from these data: 1) contrary to expectations, abundant legumes early in succession do not dramatically increase N inputs in these regrowing tropical forests and 2) the hypothesis that N fixation is down regulated by facultative fixers once forests reach maturity is not consistent with our observations.

  10. [Risk factors related with occupational and environmental exposure to organochlorine insecticides in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1985].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W A

    1991-12-01

    In the cacao-growing region in the southern part of the state of Bahia, the organochlorine insecticides, mainly gamma-benzene hexachloride (BHC) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been used for about 40 years on cacao crops and in public health programs for control of the insect vectors of different diseases, especially malaria. This paper presents the results of tests performed on 127 persons, all males, between the ages of 15 and 52 years, divided into eight groups as follows: three groups consisted of persons occupationally exposed to 1.5% BHC, that is, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); two groups consisted of individuals who had had occasional contact with the products or worked in areas near those in which they were used; two groups were appliers of DDT, and the last group--the control group--consisted of 50 individuals who had had no history of occupational exposure to insecticides. All the participants underwent testing to determine the parameters of biochemistry, hematology, and organochlorine insecticide residues in the blood. It was found that improper handling of the products and failure to use individual protective equipment, together with longer time of exposure, significantly increased the rates of GOT and GPT in the appliers of DDT and technical HCH, and in the latter the rates of alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and cholesterol were also found to be higher. In view of the high morbidity among pesticide appliers in agriculture and public health campaigns, it is important to institute programs to teach these workers to avoid contamination of their persons and of the environment by developing good hygiene habits, using individual protective equipment, and correctly handling the products. Rural workers and public health authorities must become aware of the importance of protective equipment, periodic health examinations, and reduced environmental pollution in order to lessen occupational risks of field workers and promote improved

  11. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  13. Study of the association between the interleukin-1 β c.3954C>T polymorphism and periodontitis in a population sample from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Samir A; Teixeira, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Kamilla M; Santos, Djanilson B; Marques, Lucas M; Amorim, Maise M; Gestinari, Raquel De S

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. Different factors are associated with the onset and prognosis of this disease, both environmental and genetic. The latter particularly relate to molecules secreted as a function of the host immune response, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies indicate that the polymorphism c. 3954C > T in the interleukin-1 β encoding gene (IL1B) can be considered as an aggravating factor in the periodontitis condition. This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between the IL1B c. 3954C > T gene polymorphism and the prevalence of periodontitis in the population from Vitória da Conquista-Bahia, Brazil. A total of 347 subjects (134 cases and 213 controls) who provided epithelial tissue of the oral cavity and saliva samples for DNA extraction and quantification of IL1B, respectively, were selected. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by electrophoresis in agarose gel. The evaluation of the cytokine concentration was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical calculations involved in this work include Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Our findings revealed that: (i) No statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and the polymorphism studied was observed; (ii) no significant difference between the concentrations of IL1B in saliva between the case and control subjects and between the genotypes of these individuals and the concentrations of this cytokine. We conclude that, in the sample evaluated, the IL1B c. 3954C > T polymorphism did not present as an etiological factor for periodontitis.

  14. Study of the association between the interleukin-1 β c.3954C>T polymorphism and periodontitis in a population sample from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Samir A.; Teixeira, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Kamilla M.; Santos, Djanilson B.; Marques, Lucas M.; Amorim, Maise M.; Gestinari, Raquel De S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. Different factors are associated with the onset and prognosis of this disease, both environmental and genetic. The latter particularly relate to molecules secreted as a function of the host immune response, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies indicate that the polymorphism c. 3954C > T in the interleukin-1 β encoding gene (IL1B) can be considered as an aggravating factor in the periodontitis condition. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between the IL1B c. 3954C > T gene polymorphism and the prevalence of periodontitis in the population from Vitória da Conquista–Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: A total of 347 subjects (134 cases and 213 controls) who provided epithelial tissue of the oral cavity and saliva samples for DNA extraction and quantification of IL1B, respectively, were selected. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by electrophoresis in agarose gel. The evaluation of the cytokine concentration was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations involved in this work include Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Our findings revealed that: (i) No statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and the polymorphism studied was observed; (ii) no significant difference between the concentrations of IL1B in saliva between the case and control subjects and between the genotypes of these individuals and the concentrations of this cytokine. Conclusions: We conclude that, in the sample evaluated, the IL1B c. 3954C > T polymorphism did not present as an etiological factor for periodontitis. PMID:26097351

  15. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  16. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    D’Sousa’ Costa, Cinara Oliveira; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Loureiro, Marta Bruno; Simões, Rafael Conceição; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26246739

  17. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection and spontaneous clearance in HTLV-1 and HIV co-infected patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Le Marchand, Chloe; Bahia, Fabianna; Page, Kimberly; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    While 20-40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection will spontaneously clear the virus, less is known regarding clearance with coinfections. HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) coinfection occurs due to shared routes of transmission and is prevalent in Brazil. To compare the proportion of patients who have spontaneously cleared HCV in patients with HCV monoinfection to patients coinfected by HCV/HIV, or HCV/HIV/HTLV-1. Using medical records from two clinics in Salvador, Brazil, including demographic data and serological markers of HCV, HIV and HTLV-I/II, cross-sectional data was obtained from 197 patients. Patients who were anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA negative, and who did not receive HCV treatment were defined as having cleared infection. Nineteen patients (9.5%) showed evidence of spontaneous HCV clearance; with clearance in 9 of 108 (8.3%) patients in the HCV monoinfected group, 5 of 68 (7.4%) patients with HCV/HIV, and 5 of 21 (23.8%) patients with HCV/HIV/HTLV. Demographic data were not associated with HCV clearance status. Patients coinfected with both HIV and HTLV-1 had increased odds (5.50; 95% CI 1.00, 30.17) of spontaneous clearance of HCV compared with patients who were HIV negative or of unknown HIV status. Our study found that patients coinfected with HIV and HTLV-1 were more likely to spontaneously clear hepatitis C virus than patients with HIV/HCV or HCV alone. The effects of HTLV coinfection on the immune response of such patients may be associated with these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of salt tectonics by young basement tectonics in Brazil`s offshore basins

    SciTech Connect

    Szatmari, P.; Mohriak, W.

    1995-08-01

    The Campos basin (offshore SE Brazil) is one of the most successful areas of oil exploration in South America. Discovered 20 years ago, its production (500,000 b/d) and reserves (2.9 billion barrels) are second only to Venezuela`s. This richness is due, to a large extent, to intense salt tectonics and the abundance of turbidites. Reactivated basement structures onshore provide a unique opportunity to understand the role of young basement tectonics in controlling salt tectonics and petroleum occurrence. The mountains of SE Brazil, over 1500 m high, formed by the reactivation of late Precambrian thrust and wrench zones under E-W compression, presumably caused by Mid-Atlantic ridge push. Coastal mountain ranges, up to 3000 m high, are limited to the segment of the Atlantic between the Vitoria-Trindade hotspot chain and the Rio Grande Rise. The coastal ranges formed as this segment of oceanic crust and adjacent continental margin were pushed WSW along a reactivated Precambrian wrench zone. To the north of this segment, salt tectonics is mostly due to basinward sliding on a tilted salt layer. Along the coastal ranges, to this is added basinward escape of the salt from beneath prograding sediments derived from the rising mountains. Extension above the salt tends to be compensated by compression farther basinward. Salt canopies, frequent in the Gulf of Mexico, occur only near the Abrolhos hotspot, where high temperatures during volcanic activity sharply reduced the viscosity of the salt.

  20. Evidence of abyssal eddies in the Brazil Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherly, Georges; Arhan, Michel; Mercier, Herle; Smethie, William

    2002-04-01

    We report evidence of two deep cyclonic and two deep anticyclonic submesoscale eddies from World Oceanographic Circulation Experiment hydrographic casts made in the Brazil Basin. We infer that three of these were likely formed in or near the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and thus had traveled eastward after formation. These eddies appear to be a new way for transporting NADW away from the DWBC to the ocean interior. One of the apparent cyclonic eddies appeared to be laterally in contact with one of the anticyclonic eddies. About 10 days later an attempt was made to resample the apparent eddies that had been in contact. These observations, although limited, are interpreted to indicate that they survived the encounter, that the cyclonic eddy had now moved to be beneath the anticyclonic one with each being somewhat thinner, and that they produced a new anticyclonic eddy by partially merging. Deep float observations [Hogg and Owens, 1999] partially support the second inference.

  1. Petroleum migration and mixing in the Potiguar basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, L.A.F.; Santos Neto, E.V. ); Brassell, S.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Regional studies of petroleum samples from both offshore and onshore reservoirs of the Potiguar basin, Brazil, reveal compositional differences, with discernible landward trends, attributable to oil mixing. These chemical discrepancies can be related to a combination of source rocks, maturity, and migration history. The source rocks are classified in two groups based on their geochemical and molecular characteristics: (1) Neocomian and Aptian lacustrine freshwater shales, and (2) Aptian marine evaporitic shales and marls. Both lie in an offshore structural low. The geochemically contrasting oils derived from these source beds migrated updip, constrained by a monoclinal structure, through Aptian carrier beds to thermally immature strata. Evaluation of compositional heterogeneities in the oils and an investigation of migration effects on their compositions reveal trends related to the amount of mixing which, in turn, reflects the timing of both oil generation and migration, and the direction of migration. The more migrated oils contain greater contributions from freshwater sources, whereas the less migrated oils display more pronounced contributions from the younger and shallower hypersaline source beds. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate that the most migrated oils are less mature, consistent with their early generation from the deeper lacustrine freshwater source beds and migration to fill the shallower reservoirs first. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  3. Stigma and violence in dealing with madness: narratives from psychosocial care centers in Bahia and Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mônica; Torrenté, Maurice de

    2009-08-01

    To analyze stigmatization processes and types of violence experienced by individuals with mental disorders. A qualitative study was carried out, based on individual interviews with users and focus groups with family members and professionals at five psychosocial care centers in the municipalities of Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Vitória da Conquista, and Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil, in 2006-2007. The analysis categories were constructed based on the stigma concept proposed by Goffman, and four types of violence were systematized: interpersonal, institutional, symbolic and structural. Users and family members recounted examples of disqualification, reprimands, embarrassment, humiliation, negligence and physical aggression that had the aims of domination, exploitation and oppression. Professionals reported that people who suffer from mental disorders remain the target of prejudice that is culturally ingrained and naturalized. The main consequence is continuation of their isolation from social life as a form of 'treatment' or as an excluding attitude manifested by discriminatory reactions in the form of rejection, indifference and verbal or physical aggressiveness. The various ways of expressing stigma denote a sociocultural situation of violence against individuals with mental disorders. It is proposed that state monitoring bodies capable of planning and evaluating countermeasures against stigmatization should be set up.

  4. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  5. Levels and spatial distribution of trace elements in macroalgae species from the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Bressy, Fernanda C; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined in ten species of macroalgae collected from six sites in the Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, between May and July of 2010. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A wide range of metal concentrations were observed between the species analysed. Somewhat higher concentrations of Cd (5.99μg g(-1)), Co (372μg g(-1)), Mn (640μg g(-1)), Ni (17.2μg g(-1)) and Zn (51.4μg g(-1)) were found in the brown macroalgae species Padina spp., whereas elements, such as As (19.7μg g(-1)) and Pb (8.27μg g(-1)), were mainly concentrated in the species Sargassum spp. and Bostrychia montagnei, respectively. Statistical analyses (ANOVA) of the Padina data showed significant inter-site differences for all metals examined except nickel.

  6. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  7. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size

  8. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class

  9. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen's ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen's profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach's Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = -0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H = 8.33; p = 0

  10. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Martha Eloy Bandeira; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2012-05-14

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen's reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40'59"S and 38°56'38"W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary --the region's main river--at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours

  11. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia

    2007-08-01

    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  12. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size

  13. The bivalve Neithea from the Cretaceous of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus Andrade, Edilma; Seeling, Jens; Bengtson, Peter; Souza-Lima, Wagner

    2004-09-01

    On the basis of new collections from the Sergipe and Camamu (Bahia) basins, revision of previously described material from the Pernambuco-Paraı´ba Basin and a reassessment of previous descriptions, five species of the pectinid bivalve Neithea are described from the Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil: N. ( N.) alpina (d'Orbigny, 1847) from the Albian of the Camamu Basin; N. ( N.) coquandi (Peron, 1877) from the Aptian-Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin, the Albian of the Camamu Basin, broadly mid-Cretaceous beds of the Tucano Sul Basin (Bahia), and the Cenomanian of the São Luı´s Basin (Maranhão); N. ( N.) hispanica (d'Orbigny, 1850) from the Albian-lower Turonian of the Sergipe Basin; N. ( N.) bexarensis (Stephenson, 1941) from the Campanian of the Pernambuco-Paraı´ba Basin; N. ( Neithella) notabilis (Münster in Goldfuss, 1833) from the Cenomanian of the Sergipe Basin. All species show a wide geographical distribution, in sharp contrast to previous studies that have indicated a highly endemic mollusc fauna in the Cretaceous of Brazil.

  14. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of "Reserva Ecológica Michelin", "RPPN Serra Bonita" and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2014-02-01

    The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita' (RSB) and 'Reserva Ecológica Michelin' (REM), and a forest fragment inside the campus of the 'Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz', were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996-one of the rarest orchid bee species-was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river.

  15. Deep seismic reflection profiling of sedimentary basins offshore Brazil: Geological objectives and preliminary results in the Sergipe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster Ueipass; Lira Rabelo, JoséHenrique; De Matos, Renato Darros; De Barros, Mozart C.

    1995-12-01

    The first deep seismic reflection profiles offshore Brazil were acquired in Campos Basin and processed to 10 s TWT in 1984. Starting in 1989, Petrobrás acquired an extensive data set of deep seismic profiles using special acquisition equipment capable of effectively penetrating through the sedimentary layers and imaging the whole crustal architecture. These deep (18 s TWT) seismic reflection profiles extend across the Atlantic-type marginal basins, from the platform to the deepwater province, presently considered frontier regions for petroleum exploration. This work addresses the geological objectives of a deep seismic profile in the Sergipe Basin and discusses the results obtained by integrating regional seismic, gravity and magnetic data. When combined, these data provide evidence that deep seismic reflectors observed in the Sergipe Basin are related to intracrustal-upper mantle structures rather than sedimentary features. The deep seismic reflection profile in the Sergipe Basin also suggests that, rather than a non-volcanic passive margin, the deepwater extension of this basin is marked by several magmatic structures, including thick wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors and volcanic plugs. These magmatic features are associated with basinforming processes resulting from lithospheric extension during the breakup of Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous and subsequent emplacement of oceanic crust. These results are compared to the crustal scale structures observed in the Campos Basin, in the southeastern margin of Brazil. The interpretation of the deep structure of these basins indicates that final separation between the South American and African plates formed passive margins characterized by different patterns of crustal attenuation underlying the rift blocks.

  16. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  17. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm

  18. Checklist of the Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from central Bahia State (Brazil), with the description of two new species and new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Botero, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Freddy

    2016-05-11

    A list of Cerambycidae species from three municipalities of central Bahia (Milagres, Maracás and Iaçu) is presented. A total of 108 species are registered, 17 of which are new geographical records for the state, are listed, including two new species of Aerenicini (Lamiinae), Suipinima flavumtuberculata sp. nov. and Aereniphaula bandana sp. nov. which are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Suipinima and taxonomic notes on Suipinima eccentrica (Galileo & Martins, 1992) are provided.

  19. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, A C; Vilela, M L; Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Barbosa, A F; Firmo, A L; Rangel, E F

    1996-01-01

    The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in other types of collections. Females fed readily on humans and were attracted to domestic animals. Our evidence suggests that L. whitmani is a probable vector.

  20. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  1. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Geology and major oil plays, Coastal Margin basins, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mosmann, R.; Fisher, W.L.

    1984-04-01

    Six major tectonic-depositional sequences, reflecting rift and passive margin evolution, variously characterize the filling of Brazilian coastal margin basins: (1) Late Jurassic prerift, (2) Early Cretaceous tectonic rift, (3) Early Cretaceous quiescent stage (evaporitic or calcilutitic), (4) middle Cretaceous platform/deltaic progradational and deep marine retrogradation, and (6) Tertiary main passive margin progradation. Habitat of oil discovered to date meets two regional geologic conditions: (1) in tectonic rifts known to have basin core of starved, lacustrine shales, and (2) in basins which developed a quiescent phase during the transition from tectonic rift to passive margin. Two major plays characterize the central core rifts, including (I) underlying prerift sediments in fault contact with the central core, and (II) sublacustrine fans overlying the central core. These plays, typified in the Reconcavo basin, constitute about half the recoverable oil found to date. Exploration implications of the established plays are: (1) source is from tectonic or quiescent stage fill (Aptian or older); (2) structural integrity of the quiescent stage seals is critical to oil migration; and (3) tectonic rifts are productive when a core of deep lacustrine shales was developed.

  3. Oil migration examples in Irati Formation, Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Mizuta, K.; Carvalho, T.E.M.; Triguis, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Irati Formation (Late Permian), in the Parana basin, is a source rock with high oil generating potential. The TOC contents range from 0.5 to 13% according to the quality of the organic matter. Pyrolysis analysis indicates that the area where the Irati has the highest oil-generating source rock is in the north and south of the Parana basin. In these areas petroleum potential can reach 90 kg HC/t of rock. In the central part of the basin the Irati Formation might reach a depth of about 3200 m (10,498 ft). In many wells diabase intrusions have more or less completely cooked this formation, thus generating oil or gas, and leaving residual organic matter. The phenomenon of migration into the Irati Formation has been observed in many wells. In certain places, oil is accumulated in shales embedded between intrusion levels; in other places oil is accumulated into limestone beds, intercalated in the Irati Formation. It seems safe to assume that the oil accumulated in the deeper beds resulted from the effect of thermal intrusions and also from the effects of normal burial. Oil migration occurred after diabase intrusions (Late Cretaceous) during the increasing subsidence of the basin. In the Parana basin, the Irati Formation may be compared to a drain with a lateral oil migration. Vertical migration was hindered by the lack of enough porosity and permeability in the shales above the Irati source rock. Consequently, migration and accumulation of oil above and below the formation might have resulted from changes in facies of the Irati itself, by faulting, or by fractures due to diabase intrusions.

  4. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  5. Structural Styles Related to the Instalation and Deformation of the Jaibaras Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román García, L. C.; Riccomini, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Jaibaras Basin, in northeastern Brazil, is a real window into the Ediacaran to Cambrian rift system that branches under Parnaiba sag basin. These basinal elements were intrinsically related to the reactivations of the Transbrasiliano Lineament fault system, a Neoproterozoic 7400 km-long megasuture related to Western Gondwana assemblage. Based primarily in field data, the present study aimed to the characterization of the volcano-sedimentary structural architecture, reconstruction of the paleostress field during the evolution of the basin and revision of seismic lines, gravimetric and magnetometric maps. Thus we intended to contribute to the discussion of the classification of the basin, a topic with implications both in the formation of Parnaiba basin and the comprehension of the widespread extensional event in Western Gondwana in Ediacaran-Cambrian period. The installation of the basin occurred under an extensional NNW-SSE-oriented paleostress field which reactivated the inherited NE-SW-trending basement discontinuities and was responsible for the intrusion of the Coreaú dyke swarm. Associated with this extension in the Ediacaran to Cambrian Pacujá Formation occur: longitudinal faults, sin-sedimentary transverse normal faults with related fault-propagation-folds, as well as transfer faults. In the Ordovician Aprazível Formation were identified clastic dykes, coherent with a NW-SE-oriented extension. An approximate E-W-oriented compressive paleostress field acting from the Late Ordovician generated transpressive structures along certain fault segments in the Pacujá Formation, related with the mild inversion of the basin. The importance of the activity of the transverse faults, caused by the strike-slip displacements along de Transbrasiliano fault system leads to consider that were these kinematics the commanders of the formation and inversion of the basin. Therefore, it is here considered that the Jaibaras is more closely related to a pull-apart basin than

  6. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  7. Regional magnetotelluric surveys in hydrocarbon exploration, Parana' Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Ohofugi, W.; Saad, A.R.

    1985-03-01

    The magnetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with soundings spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. In the survey area, MT interpretations show that basalts have aggregate thicknesses of as much as 2 km (6,600 ft), and basement may be as much as 6 km (20,000 ft) below the surface. Over most of the basin, the basalts are covered by Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments of a few hundred meters thickness and are underlain by 2 to 4 km (6,600 to 13,100 ft) thick Paleozoic sediments with possible hydrocarbon potential. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas.

  8. Using magnetotellurics in regional hydrocarbon exploration of Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Saad, R.A.; Ohofugi, W.

    1984-04-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has been utilized in a multidisciplinary exploration program recently completed in the Parana basin by the State of Sao Paulo. In the deeper portions of the Parana basin, MT interpretations show that basalts have thicknesses of up to 2 km (6500 ft) and that basement may be as much as 6 km (19,700 ft) below the surface. In most of the basin, the basalts are covered by thin units of Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments and are underlain by 2-4 km (6500-13,000 ft) of prospective Paleozoic sediments. In addition, interpretation of the MT sounding data with layered and fault-dike models outlines a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. Permian Irati sediments are an important source unit classified as mostly in the oil window. Good electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that MT measurements can indicate the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments for use in interpretation of migration patterns and possible traps. In addition to providing this stratigraphic information, MT and aeromagnetic surveys have delineated the influence of the Sao Francisco craton in truncating uplift and tensional features of the Ponta Grossa arch.

  9. Role of fault rejuvenation in hydrocarbon accumulation and structural evolution of Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    From a geometric analysis of the fault pattern in the Reconcavo basin, Brazil, supported by a reinterpretation of the early opening history of the South Atlantic Ocean, it is inferred that the basin formed as a result of Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) motion on a major N40/sup 0/E-striking left-lateral transform fault located offshore between Salvador and Recife. Left-lateral movement along the inferred transform created three fault sets. Geohistory curves for Early Cretaceous units in the Reconcavo basin indicate that the syn-tectonic Valanginian shales of the lacustrine Candeias Formation began to generate hydrocarbons during the earliest subsequent deposition of the Ilhas Formation (.Hauterivian). Rejuvenation as normal faults of earlier formed strikeslip and normal faults occurred in the latest Aptian. Rejuvenated faults tapped earlier filled Sergi Formation reservoirs, which then leaked earlier reservoired hydrocarbons up these fault planes into higher reservoirs in the Ilhas and Sao Sebastiao Formations.

  10. Petroleum geology of Campos Basin, Brazil: A successful case history of deep water exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, M.R.; Lugon, H.A.F.; Beraldo, W.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Campos Basin, the most prolific Brazilian basin, produces almost 400,000 bbl of oil per day and contains 70% of the national reserves. The basin is located on the southeastern coast of Brazil, covering a prospectable area of 100,000 km{sup 2} Campos is a passive continental margin basin originated by the breakup of Pangea and the rifting of the South American and African plates in the Early Cretaceous. The basin's sedimentary section encompasses three megasequences: nonmarine, transitional, and marine, ranging in age from Neocomian to Holocene. Hydrocarbon generation is related to nonmarine organic-rich shales and marls, and hydrocarbon entrapment assumes ascendent migration along fault planes and through salt gaps toward reservoirs ranging in age from Neocomian to Tertiary (mainly turbiditic sandstones). The first onshore stratigraphic well was drilled based on gravity surveys in 1958. The acquisition of new geophysical data, mainly seismic reflection data, followed after 1968. The first offshore well was drilled in 1971, and in 1974, the first oil field, Garopua, was discovered. Giant hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in water depths ranging from 400 to 1,800 m since 1984. As of mid-1989, 35 offshore oil fields have been discovered, 760 million bbl of oil, and 490 bcf of gas have been produced. The basin oil and equivalent gas reserves are estimated in 6.0 billion bbl, 60% of which is located in the deep-water giant oil fields.

  11. Magnetotelluric Evidence of Deep Mesozoic-Paleozoic Sediments beneath Parecis Basin, West Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, S. L.; Maurya, V. P.; La Terra, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated Parecis basin, an intracratonic rifted sag basin, evolved with opening of weakness zones of the basement during an extensional event in the Amazonic craton after Rodinia break-up, by regional scale MT/AMT surveys to understand its behavior and tectonic set up environment. Parecis Basin is located in the southwestern portion of the Amazonian Craton between the Rondônia and Guaporé shear belts in the western-central Brazil and is divided into three tectono-sedimentary domains: 1) a western tectonic depression; 2) a central gravimetric low; and 3) an eastern "sag-basin". We covered the main sedimentary and conglomerate formations of Parecis basin by four regional MT/AMT profiles PC02 (central part of basin), PC03 (western part of the basin), PC07 (eastern part of the basin) and PC9+10 (eastern part of basin) having 101, 80, 101 and 100 MT sites respectively. Phase tensor dimensionality criterion (β > ±1o) for these sites confirms the existence of very shallow (shorter periods) and deep 3-D structures (longer periods). Subsequently, 3-D inversion was carried out for each MT profile, to obtain the conductivity images best suited in such environment. We found several important structures such as variation in basement depths, sedimentary formations depth extent, existence of alternating conductive and resistive features, which were unclear from previous geophysical studies over there. Parecis basin depocenter found at its central part below Pimenta Bueno Graben is filled up with Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments, having depth extent up to 8 km and basin shallows up mostly at northern, western and eastern end while it deepens towards southcentral region. We found deep crustal conductors beneath the southern end of PC02 and PC03 whose dimension is not clearly resolved and require some resolution studies before final interpretation. Granitic basement rocks have uniform thickness 25km at the eastern end, while it shallows up for western and central part of

  12. Salt tectonics and oil accumulation in Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, A.M.F.; Pereira, M.J.; Mohriak, W.U.; Gaglianone, P.C.; Trinidade, L.A.F.

    1985-02-01

    Salt tectonics were responsible for the development of optimum conditions for accumulation of large hydrocarbon reserves in Campos basin. The salt movements, triggered by basin tilting and differential loading, initially formed low-relief salt pillows that controlled the porous facies of the shallow-water Macae limestones. The continuous evolution of halokinetic processes produced growth faults, rollover crests, and faulted anticlines. Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstones were channelized in the downthrown blocks of growth faults. Salt-collapse, residual, and relief-inversion features were formed in areas where the salt was sufficiently thick. The oil, generated in the Neocomian shales of Lagoa Feia Formation, migrated to upper formations through normal faults associated with the rift phase, stratigraphic conduits such as porous rocks and regional unconformities, and gaps created by salt flowage in the Aptian evaporite section. Oil migration to the post-salt rocks was favored by active growth faults and by the presence of a regional unconformity developed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and covered by turbidite sheet sands. The oils underwent progressive alteration along their paths to the post-salt reservoirs. Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations suggest that the hydrocarbons trapped in many diverse plays, although affected by bacterial degradation and water washing, belong to only one oil family. The oil degradation was probably enhanced by meteoric water invasions during Tertiary low stands of sea level in areas close to the paleocoastline. These phenomena resulted in large amounts of oil becoming heavier and enriched in sulfur, resins, asphaltenes, and cycloparaffins.

  13. Water environments: anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem changes in the Atlantic drainage basins of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcia; da Costa, Monica F; Mayorga, Maria Irles de O; Pinheiro, Patrícia R

    2004-02-01

    Densely occupied drainage basins and coastal zones in developing countries that are facing economic growth are likely to suffer from moderate to severe environmental impacts regarding different issues. The catchment basins draining towards the Atlantic coast from northeastern to southern Brazil include a wide range of climatic zones and diverse ecosystems. Within its borders lies the Atlantic rain forest, significant extensions of semiarid thorn forests (caatinga), vast tree and scrub woodlands (cerrado) and most of the 6670 km of the Brazilian coast and its marine ecosystems. In recent decades, human activities have increasingly advanced over these natural resources. Littoralization has imposed a burden on coastal habitats and communities. Most of the native vegetation of the cerrado and caatinga was removed and only 7% of the original Atlantic rainforest still exists. Estuaries, bays and coastal lagoons have been irreversibly damaged. Land uses, damming and water diversion have become the major driving forces for habitat loss and aquatic ecosystem modification. Regardless of the contrast between the drought-affected northeastern Brazil and the much more prosperous and industrialized southeastern/southern Brazil, the impacts on habitat and communities were found equally severe in both cases. Attempts to halt environmental degradation have not been effective. Instead of focusing on natural resources separately, it is suggested that more integrated environmental policies that focus on aquatic ecosystems integrity are introduced.

  14. Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future.

  15. [Combined nutritional indicators and associated factors in the Quilombo population (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) in southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the combination of Body Mass Index (BMI) plus Waist Circumference (WC) and of BMI plus Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and to investigate associated factors. A two-stage random sample of adults (>20 years) living in former African slaves communities (Quilombos) was taken in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia in 2011. Combined BMI+WHR nutritional risk was defined by the simultaneous presence of BMI > 25.0Kg/m2 or > 27.0Kg/m2, if aged > 60 years and WHR > 0.5. BMI + WC nutritional risk was defined by elevated BMI in addition to WC > 80cm for women, or > 94cm for men. Among the 739 participants, the prevalence of combined nutritional indicators were 35.3% (BMI + WHR) and 26.8% (BMI + WC). Female sex and hypertension increased the chances of a combination of both indicators, while being unmarried decreased the chances. The prevalence of BMI + WHR was higher in the 40-59 year age range and the prevalence of BMI + WC was higher in the 40-49 year age range. Less schooling increased the chances of the combined BMI + WHR indicator and watching television for more than two hours/day increased the chances of the BMI + WC indicator. The high prevalence of combined nutritional indicators indicate the need of diet promotion actions to prevent obesity.

  16. Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997–8 El Niño Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  17. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  18. Three-Dimensional Oil Dispersion Model in Campos basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bernardo Lopes Almeida de; Netto, Theodoro Antoun; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents the physical and mathematical formulation of a three-dimensional oil dispersion model that calculates the trajectory from the seafloor to the sea surface, its assumptions and constraints. It was developed by researchers that are familiar with oil spill dispersion and mathematical analysis. Oil dispersion is calculated through two computational routines. The first calculates the vertical dispersion along the water column and resamples the droplets when the oil reaches the surface. The second calculates the surface displacement of the spill. This model is based on the Eulerian Approach, and it uses numerical solution schemes in time and in space to solve the equation for advective-diffusive transport. A case study based on an actual accident that happened in the Campos Basin, in Rio de Janeiro State, considering the instant spill of 1.000 m(3) was used to evaluate the proposed model. After calculating the vertical transport, it was estimated that the area covered by the oil spill on the surface was about 35.685 m². After calculating the dispersion at the surface, the plume area was estimated as 20% of the initial area, resulting in a final area of 28.548 m².

  19. Stress magnitude and orientation in the Potiguar Basin, Brazil: Implications on faulting style and reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Álvaro F. C.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Ferreira, Joaquim M.; Nascimento, Aderson F.; Lima, Cláudio C.

    2013-10-01

    analyzed borehole breakout data and drilling-induced tensile fractures derived from resistivity image logs run at 10 oil wells to derive the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax from the Potiguar Basin in the continental margin of Brazil. Stress magnitudes are derived from density logs for the vertical stress, mini-frac tests for the minimum horizontal stress Shmin, and rock strength laboratory analysis to estimate the SHmax magnitudes. We compared these results with the stress regime and SHmax orientation derived from nine earthquake series located in the crystalline basement, where seismicity is concentrated, and previous breakout data from the basin. In the basin, the SHmax gradient is 20.0 MPa/km, and the SHmax/Shmin ratio is 1.154, indicating a normal tectonic stress regime from 0.5 to 2.0 km, whereas the SHmax gradient of 24.5 MPa/km and SHmax/Shmin ratio of 1.396 indicate a transition from a normal to strike-slip stress regime at 2.5 to 4.0 km. The deeper stress regime in the basin is similar to that in the basement at 1-12 km depth. This transition of the tectonic stress regime is consistent with an incipient tectonic inversion in the basin. We note that the SHmax orientation rotates from NW-SE in the western part of the Potiguar Basin to E-W in its central and eastern parts, roughly following the shoreline geometry, indicating that local features such as flexural stresses influence the local (scale < 100 km) stress pattern. We also conclude that the basement is critically stressed, but not the basin.

  20. Deep Structure and Subsidence History of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicky; Coelho, Diogo; Julià, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Cratonic sedimentary basins constitute some of the largest sedimentary basins on Earth. They are typically underlain by thick (i.e. 200 km) lithosphere and are characterized by slow, punctuated subsidence that occurs over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphic records mainly consist of sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks bounded by basin-wide erosional unconformities. Despite the importance of these basins, their origin and evolution remain poorly understood, mainly due to scarcity of well-constrained geological and geophysical data. In order to address this problem, an integrative study of the Parnaíba Cratonic basin in NE Brazil has been carried out within the framework of a multidisciplinary investigation. Here, we combine the analysis of a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile that crosses the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 12 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed across the basin. Our main goal is to constrain the basin's subsidence history in the context of its deep crustal structure and sedimentary architecture. Joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group dispersion measurements has been used to calculate 1D shear wave velocity models for crust and upper mantle beneath each seismic station. Combined interpretation of these velocity profiles and the deep seismic reflection profile has been carried out. Our results suggest Moho depths of approximately 35 km and 38 km beneath Precambrian basement east and west of the Parnaíba basin, respectively. In contrast, the Moho occurs at approximately 39 km beneath the city of Teresina, located on the eastern region of the basin, and at depths between 40 km and 42 km beneath the central and western areas of the basin. These results are combined to construct a sub-surface model underneath Parnaíba, and gravity modeling is used to test its validity. Average

  1. Plant-arthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Sommer, Margot Guerra

    2009-02-01

    Plant-arthropod interactions provide the first relevant data for addressing evidence of phytophagy for an assemblage of coniferous silicified woods from the pre-rift phase in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. A complex system of borings, sometimes filled with small, oval to hexagonal coprolites, allow inferences to be made about the activities of termites (Isoptera). Previous dendrological data indicated that the climate during the Early Cretaceous on the landmasses of the northern Afro-Brazilian Depression was dry and savanna like, where termite borings were common. Features of wood preservation demonstrate that the damage was probably caused by herbivores, not detritivores.

  2. A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2014-10-08

    Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.

  3. Visan miospore biostratigraphy and correlation of the Poti Formation (Parnaba Basin, northern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Melo; Loboziak

    2000-10-01

    The Poti Formation, which consists mainly of sandstones with minor proportions of carbonaceous shales and other siliciclastic lithologies, represents all the Viséan strata thus far recorded in the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil.Well-preserved miospores featuring species with both Southern Euramerican and Gondwanan affinities have been recovered from this formation in four well sections. The most characteristic species are listed in this paper, and brief systematic descriptions are presented for the most significant species, along with comments on their biostratigraphy. A new generic combination is proposed: Cordylosporites magnidictyus (Playford and Helby) Loboziak and Melo comb. nov. Comparisons with miospores illustrated from the Grand Erg Occidental, Algerian Sahara, are tentatively proposed.In terms of the Western European Carboniferous palynozonation, miospore assemblages from the Poti Formation are assignable to the Perotrilites tessellatus-Schulzospora campyloptera (TC)-Raistrickia nigra-Triquitrites marginatus (NM) zonal range. This corresponds to the upper part of the Holkerian and the whole Asbian, which are British regional stages for the lower to middle parts of the upper Viséan. The Viséan age formerly attributed to biostratigraphic interval XII of Petrobras' regional palynostratigraphic scheme is therefore confirmed. As already noted in our recent investigations of the Faro Formation in the Amazon Basin and equivalent strata of the Solimões Basin, latest Tournaisian and early to middle Viséan sections are either absent or barren of characteristic miospores in the Parnaíba Basin as well.

  4. Cassiopidae gastropods, influence of Tethys Sea of the Romualdo Formation (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Cassab, Rita de Cassia Tardin; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-10-01

    The Cassiopidae family belongs to a group of gastropods of the Tethyan Realm, whose origin and dispersion are related a transgression of the Tethys Sea during the Early Cretaceous. The Romualdo Formation in the Araripe Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, presents fossil assemblages with echinoids, bivalves and cassiopid gastropods, indicating a marine sedimentation at the top of the formation. This research reveals three new species of this fauna: Gymnentome (Craginia) beurleni sp. nov., 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') mennessieri sp. nov and 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') santanensis sp. nov. We also review two other species: Craginia araripensisBeurlen, 1964 and Gymnentome romualdoiBeurlen, 1964, which we reclassify taxonomically as Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) araripensis and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) romualdoi, respectively; Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) lyrica Maury, 1936 and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) carregozica Maury, 1936 were the first recorded species in the Araripe Basin. The occurrence of these cassiopid gastropod fauna in other basins, such as Sergipe, Potiguar and Parnaíba, indicate the influence of waters coming from the north through the Tethys Sea in the Aptian-Albian and in the marginal continental basins of the Brazilian Northeast.

  5. Crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the Potiguar basin - Northeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R.M.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The combined analysis of potential field and seismic reflection data suggest that the Potiguar basin of northeast Brazil developed as a consequence of northwest-southeast extension, resolved in the upper crust by hanging-wall block rotation along a system of linked faults. This extension developed during the Early Cretaceous rifting associated with the separation of South America and Africa. The basic basin architecture includes two main parallel northeast-trending half-grabens (Umbuzeiro and Boa Vista) separated by intervening basement highs and northwest-trending transfer faults. A three-dimensional crustal-scale model of the basin was generated by combining deep and shallow seismic reflection data, borehole and outcrop information, and potential field data. The deep seismic profiles reveal a highly reflective crust underlain by a high-amplitude reflection Moho around 10 seconds (roughly 30 km depth). Moreover, it seems that the basin-bounding normal faults terminate at a mid-crustal detachment surface, suggesting that the basin architecture is mainly controlled by two parallel listric normal fault ones that follow pre-existing upepr crustal weaknesses, partially reactived during the main rift episode (Neocomian). Whereas the pre-existing northeast-trending planar fabrics within the basement (schistosities, gneissosity, and shear zones) apparently controlled the main normal faults, internal conjugate and synthetic transfer faults are probably related to major discontinuities in basement rock fabrics. Seismic reflection data together with gravity and magnetic modeling, show that the basin architecture is directly related to a linked system of northeast-trending listric normal faults and a mid-crustal detachment surface.

  6. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96

  7. Changes in precipitation extremes in Brazil (Paraná River Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandonadi, Leandro; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Zavattini, João Afonso

    2016-02-01

    This research was aimed at addressing aspects related to variation in the amount of precipitation during the period from 1986 to 2011 in the Paraná River Hydrographical Basin, Brazil, for 32 meteorological stations using 11 climate indices created by the ETCCDI (Expert Team, ET, on Climate Change Detection and Indices, ETCCDI). The daily rainfall data were organized in spreadsheets, which were subjected to an intense quality control and an accurate historical research. For each pluviometric index, we have estimated the trends and the statistical significant of the slopes have been calculated. The results confirm that an increase in total precipitation in almost all analyzed stations was registered, and the extreme precipitations were the main contributors to such additions. In fact, the significant increase in total annual rainfall in north-central sector of the basin are related to higher rates of heavy rain, mainly above 95th percentile, as well as to the highest event of rainfall above 10 mm. Instead the northern part of the region, showed declining trends of extreme rainfall, caused mainly by the reduction in the rainfall occurrences over 95th percentile. In order to evaluate the impact that the increasing extreme rainfall may cause in large urban centers, we have investigated the data of two municipalities (Curitiba, PR and Goiânia, GO-Brazil), where the positive trend can cause inconvenience to the population (floods and inundations) suggesting, at least, the need of implementation of more effective urban planning for the future.

  8. Hydrology of the Upper Capibaribe Basin, Pernambuco, Brazil - A reconnaissance in an Area of Crystalline Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chada Filho, Luiz Goncalves; Dias Pessoa, Mario; Sinclair, William C.

    1966-01-01

    The upper Capibaribe basin is the western three-fourths, approximately, of the valley of the river that empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Recife, the capital of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It is the part of the drainage basin that is within the Drought Polygon of northeast Brazil, and it totals about 5,400 square kilometers. It receives relatively abundant precipitation in terms of the annual average, yet is regarded as hot subhumid to semiarid because the precipitation is uneven from year to year and place to place. The dependable water supply, therefore, is small. The basin has water, which could be put to better use than at present, but the opportunities for augmenting the usable supply are not great. The streams are intermittent and therefore cannot be expected to fill surface reservoirs and to keep them filled. The ground-water reservoirs have small capacity--quickly filled and quickly drained. A rough estimate based on the records for 1964 suggests that, of 4,700 million cubic meters of precipitation in the upper Capibaribe basin, 2,700 million cubic meters (57 percent) left the basin as runoff and 2,000 million cubic meters {43 percent) went into underground storage or was evaporated or transpired. The bedrock of the upper Capibaribe basin is composed of granite, gneiss, schist, and other varieties of crystalline rocks, which have only insignificant primary permeability. They are permeable mainly where fractured. The principal fracture zones, fortunately, are in the valleys, where water accumulates and can feed into them, but the volume of fractured rock is small in relation to the basin as a whole. A well in a large water-filled fracture zone may yield up to 20,000 liters per hour, but the average well yields less than one-fourth this amount, and some wells yield none. The saprolite, or weathered rock, is many meters thick at some places especially in the eastern half of the upper Capibaribe basin. It contains water locally, but ordinarily will yield

  9. Diversity of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in the Jacuí River Basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  10. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  13. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  14. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  15. Integrative assessment of sediment quality in lower basin affected by former mining in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Buruaem, Lucas M; Morais, Lucas G; Araujo, Giuliana S; Abessa, Denis M S; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Ángel DelValls, T

    2017-06-13

    The Ribeira de Iguape River (Southeast Brazil) is metal contaminated by mining activities. Despite it has been cataloged as "in via of restoration" by the literature, this basin is still a sink of pollution in some segments of the fluvial system. This study aimed to assess the sediment quality in the lower part of the RIR basin. The employed approach was based on biological responses of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after 7-day exposure bioassays using as the reference site the Perequê Ecological Park. Toxic responses (burial activity and lethality) and biochemical biomarkers (GST, GR, GPx, LPO, MTs, AChE and DNA damage) were evaluated and then integrated with metal bioavailability and chemical concentrations to address the sediment quality in the area through the weight-of-evidence approach. A multivariate analysis identified linkages between biological responses and contamination. Results pointed that, despite being below the benchmarks of the US Environmental Protection Agency, there is slight metal contamination in the lower part of the basin which induces oxidative stress in C. fluminea; other toxic responses were sometimes attributed to As and Cr bioaccumulation. The sediment quality values (TEL-PEL values in mg/kg) were calculated for the current study for As (0.63-1.31), Cr (3.5-11.05), Cs (1.0-1.17), Cu (6.32-7.32), Ni (6.78-7.46), Ti (42.0-215), V (1.77-8.00). By comparison with other international guidelines, the sediment quality of the lower basin of the Vale de Ribeira does not identify a significant environmental risk.

  16. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process

  17. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast--Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Harildon M; Reuss-Strenzel, Gil M; Alves, Johnatas A; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2014-06-25

    Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. The Knowledge of 24 "experts" was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of

  18. Estimation of Phosphorus Emissions in the Upper Iguazu Basin (brazil) Using GIS and the More Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Porras, E. A.; Kishi, R. T.; Fuchs, S.; Hilgert, S.

    2016-06-01

    Pollution emissions into the drainage basin have direct impact on surface water quality. These emissions result from human activities that turn into pollution loads when they reach the water bodies, as point or diffuse sources. Their pollution potential depends on the characteristics and quantity of the transported materials. The estimation of pollution loads can assist decision-making in basin management. Knowledge about the potential pollution sources allows for a prioritization of pollution control policies to achieve the desired water quality. Consequently, it helps avoiding problems such as eutrophication of water bodies. The focus of the research described in this study is related to phosphorus emissions into river basins. The study area is the upper Iguazu basin that lies in the northeast region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, covering about 2,965 km2 and around 4 million inhabitants live concentrated on just 16% of its area. The MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions) model was used to estimate phosphorus emissions. MoRE is a model that uses empirical approaches to model processes in analytical units, capable of using spatially distributed parameters, covering both, emissions from point sources as well as non-point sources. In order to model the processes, the basin was divided into 152 analytical units with an average size of 20 km2. Available data was organized in a GIS environment. Using e.g. layers of precipitation, the Digital Terrain Model from a 1:10000 scale map as well as soils and land cover, which were derived from remote sensing imagery. Further data is used, such as point pollution discharges and statistical socio-economic data. The model shows that one of the main pollution sources in the upper Iguazu basin is the domestic sewage that enters the river as point source (effluents of treatment stations) and/or as diffuse pollution, caused by failures of sanitary sewer systems or clandestine sewer discharges, accounting for about 56% of the

  19. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae) from Amazon basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Isabel Matos; Bührnheim, Cristina Motta

    2016-12-18

    A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the lower Amazon basin, Pará State, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to Moenkhausia collettii, M. copei, and M. venerei by the presence of a dark horizontal stripe across the middle portion of the eye, a conspicuous slightly rounded humeral blotch, a dark longitudinal midlateral stripe and a dark stripe along the anal-fin base. However, the new species can be distinguished from M. collettii, M. copei, and M. venerei mainly by the number of cusps on the inner row of the premaxillary, maxillary and dentary teeth, and by the number of scales in transversal series above and below the lateral line.

  20. Early Cretaceous coniferous woods from a paleoerg (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Santos, Adriano Rodrigues dos; Cardoso, Edivane

    2011-07-01

    We report here the occurrence of an assemblage of silicified coniferous wood within aeolian sandstones of the Early Cretaceous Botucatu Formation, a paleoerg along the margins of the Paraná Basin (Brazil). The characteristics of this monotypic wood assemblage indicate the occurrence of some more humid periods during the prevailing arid climate of a semi-desert biome. The growing conditions were seasonal and stressed during the life cycle of the trees. Quantitative parameters controlling growth ring development might be closely related to local environmental conditions and not just only a single consequence of climate. The conifer assemblage, developed in an arid desert biome during the climax of a greenhouse phase with increasing atmospheric CO 2 does not have modern analogues in present icehouse world.

  1. [Description of a new species of the genus Astyanax Baird & Girard from Araguaia River basin, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Garutti, V

    1999-11-01

    Astyanax argyrimarginatus sp. n. is described from the Araguaia River basin, Brazil. The new species may be diagnosed by a humeral dark spot horizontally oval, and an elongated caudal peduncle dark spot, continued to the tip of the mid caudal rays, two dark brown vertical bars on the humeral region, and a single black lateral stripe with silvered border. Forty-two to forty-six scales on lateral line; fourteen to sixteen vertical scales rows. Twenty-seven to thirty-one anal fin rays. Dentary large teeth quincuspid, inner row of pre-maxilar teeth quincuspid or hexacuspid, and one maxillary tooth. Comments on the characters which permit to recognize the new species from others with the same color pattern are made.

  2. Moenkhausia celibela: a new species from the Amazon basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Marinho, M M F; Langeani, F

    2010-09-01

    A new species of Characidae, Moenkhausia celibela, is described from the Rio Amazonas at Santarém, Rio Maraú, several localities in the Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari, all from the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except species included in Géry's 1992 Moenkhausia lepidura group, by presenting a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, and the lower lobe is hyaline or light grey. Moenkhausia celibela is distinguished from the species of the M. lepidura group by the absence of a humeral spot and the presence of a roughly triangular and dark spot at the caudal-fin base, extending posteriorly along the middle caudal-fin rays, and distinctly separate from the spot on the upper caudal-fin lobe.

  3. Spectral analysis and modeling of microcyclostratigraphy in late Paleozoic glaciogenic rhythmites, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Daniel R.; Hinnov, Linda A.; Ernesto, Marcia

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the depositional time scale of lithological couplets (fine sandstone/siltstone-siltstone/mudstone) from two distinctive outcrops of Permo-Carboniferous glacial rhythmites in the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin, Brazil). Resolving the fundamental issue of time scale for these rhythmites is important in light of recent evidence for paleosecular variation measured in these sequences. Spectral analysis and tuning of high-resolution gray scale scans of sediment core microstratigraphy, which comprises pervasive laminations, reveal a comparable spectral content at both localities, with a frequency suite interpreted as that of short-term climate variability of Recent and modern times. This evidence for decadal- to centennial-scale deposition of these lithological couplets is discussed in light of the `varvic' character, i.e., annual time scale that was previously assumed for the rhythmites.

  4. [Evaluation of the National Program of Integrated and Referential Actions (PAIR) to confront the child and adolescents sexual violence, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; de Santana, Marcos Antonio Oliveira; da Silva, Luciano Macêdo Santos; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2010-03-01

    In Brazil, sexual violence against children and adolescents is a challenge for the public policies of prevention and intervention. The objective of this article is to present the evaluation of PAIR actions implemented in Feira de Santana city, on political and institutional integration, strength and performance of the Network Care for the violence victims in the period of 2003-2006. It was used a descriptive study with primary data based on interviews with professionals from the Institutions of care (38), Municipal Committee of PAIR (11) and key community informants (78), using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The evaluation of the PAIR capabilities, as the political and institutional integration was deemed appropriate, highlighting the support of state, federal and municipal managers. The processes of training were considered strategic to the individual professional performance with the Network (attitudes, participation). The results of the three segments of the community suggest the need of a social Network integration (Rights and Guardianship Councils), programs of assistance and protection, the work with the media (qualified training and information), involvement of managers and technicians and the continuity of actions, as strategies to face the sexual violence in Feira de Santana.

  5. Spatial-temporal variation in orchid bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in remnants of arboreal Caatinga in the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, A C R; Nemésio, A; de Oliveira, F F; Nascimento, F S

    2012-08-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of organisms is a fundamental aspect of biological communities. The present study focused on three remnants of arboreal Caatinga in northeastern Brazil between May, 2009 and April, 2010. A total of 627 euglossine males were captured in traps baited with artificial aromatic compounds. The specimens belonged to 14 species and four genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, Eufriesea Cockerell, and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (41.6), Euglossa carolina Nemésio (15.3%), Eulaema marcii Nemésio (13.6%), and Euglossa melanotricha Moure (12.8%) were the most common species sampled. The distribution of collected specimens per fragment was as follows: Braúna (280 ha)--259 individuals belonging to 14 species; Cambuí (179 ha)--161 individuals from eight species; and Pindoba (100 ha)--207 individuals represented by seven species. Braúna had the highest diversity (H' = 1.91) and estimated species richness. The largest fragment was the main source of the observed variation in species richness and abundance, indicating a non-random pattern of spatial distribution. The analysis of environmental factors indicated that seasonal variation in these factors was the principal determinant of species occurrence and abundance.

  6. Survival and Prognostic Factors for AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Bahia, Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Iguaracyra; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the benefits of HAART, HIV-infected patients are increasingly affected by different malignancies. We compared a 5-year-period survival time and prognostic factors for HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in a nested case-control study, with non-HIV-infected individuals in Salvador, Brazil. Survival time and prognostic factors were compared to HIV-negative patients. 31 cases (versus 63 controls) had a significantly more advanced NHL at diagnosis and lower mean CD4 count (26 cells/mm3) than controls. Mean overall survival (OS) was 35.8 versus 75.4 months, for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001), while mean event-free survival time (EFS) was 34.5 months for cases, versus 68.8 for controls (P = 0.002). Higher IPI, increased LDH levels, bone marrow infiltration, lower absolute lymphocyte counts (<1,000 cells/mm3), and type B symptoms were associated with a shorter survival time for cases. Although patients without poorer prognostic factors at baseline had an OS comparable to controls, the mean CD4 cell count for cases was similar for patients with favorable and nonfavorable response to therapy. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 infection is significantly associated with a shorter survival time for patients with NHL, independently of other predictive factors and of disease stage. PMID:24288620

  7. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  8. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  9. Cretaceous intracontinental rifting and post-rift inversion in NE Brazil: Insights from the Rio do Peixe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Francisco C. C.; Marques, Fernando O.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; de Castro, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The breakup of Pangea in the Mesozoic placed the South American and African plates under horizontal extension, which triggered rifting and the formation of intracontinental basins in NE Brazil. The subsequent geodynamic evolution changed the forces acting upon the South American plate because of the simultaneous development of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Andes. The problem we address in this work is the effect of the changing stress field on intracontinental deformation in NE Brazil, and we used the intracontinental Rio do Peixe Basin (RPB) as case study. We used remote sensing, shuttle radar topography, geophysical data, and detailed structural geology to address this problem. Based on the integrated analysis of brittle deformation within the basin, at the basin boundaries, and in the host basement, we conclude the following: (1) In the Cretaceous, the Rio do Peixe Basin formed from an approximately NW-SE tension, as deduced from brittle deformation in sedimentary rocks within the RPB and bounding master faults. (2) Subsequently, the maximum compressive stress that acted upon the study area shifted from vertical to horizontal, and was oriented approximately ENE-WSW. The new compressive stress field inverted the RPB, which is recorded in the basin at all scales. (3) The inversion of the RPB is consistent with the stress field imposed by the MAR push (to the west) and the Andean push (to the east), which have kept the South American plate under ENE-WSW horizontal compression since the late Cretaceous.

  10. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  11. Soil moisture behavior in an experimental basin in Northeast of brazil - the case of Guaraira river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura Ramos Filho, Geraldo; das Neves Almeida, Cristiano; da Silva Freitas, Emerson

    2017-04-01

    In 2003, a hydrological network of the semiarid region (REHISA in Portuguese) was created in Brazil. Since then, experimental watersheds in this region have been providing hydro meteorological data collected in automatic gauges. One of these basins is the Guaraíra river basin, which is operated and maintained by the Federal University of Paraíba. This experimental watershed is located in the coastal region of Paraíba state, where the average annual rainfall is 1.700 mm. According to Köppen its climate is tropical with dry summer, and the drainage area is 5,84 km2. At this experimental basin four rainfall and one climate gauges were installed in 2003. In all of these gauges the soil moisture is monitored hourly with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe representing the 30 cm layer. According to previous analysis the spatial distribution of rainfall in the experimental basin is very low and also soil texture, which is sandy. However, the land use is different and the behavior of the soil moisture is also different. Thus, this paper present part of a study that tries to understand the difference between two gauges, in terms of soil moisture. In order to do this, two years data base were used of different gauges, gauges 2 and 4. In the first part of the study, just the descendent part of the soil moisture curve were used. Different data periods were select from a peak to a stabilization point and then the soil moisture Drying Rate (DR) was calculated to show the speed that a peak reaches the stabilization point. The data analysis was carried out considering the whole data together, then the data were shared into dry and wet periods. The results show that for the gauge 2 the DR range from 0.0335 to 2.772x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.632x10-3 kg/kg.h. On the other hand, the gauge 4 present values that range from 0.0139 to 3.617x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.375x10-3 kg/kg.h. As can be seen, both gauges presented different DR. When the data set is share into

  12. Technical knowledge and water resources management: A comparative study of river basin councils, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Bell, Andrew R.; Engle, Nathan L.; Formiga-Johnsson, Rosa Maria; Nelson, Donald R.

    2010-06-01

    Better understanding of the factors that shape the use of technical knowledge in water management is important both to increase its relevance to decision-making and sustainable governance and to inform knowledge producers where needs lie. This is particularly critical in the context of the many stressors threatening water resources around the world. Recent scholarship focusing on innovative water management institutions emphasizes knowledge use as critical to water systems' adaptive capacity to respond to these stressors. For the past 15 years, water resources management in Brazil has undergone an encompassing reform that has created a set of participatory councils at the river basin level. Using data from a survey of 626 members of these councils across 18 river basins, this article examines the use of technical knowledge (e.g., climate and weather forecasts, reservoir streamflow models, environmental impact assessments, among others) within these councils. It finds that use of knowledge positively aligns with access, a more diverse and broader discussion agenda, and a higher sense of effectiveness. Yet, use of technical knowledge is also associated with skewed levels of power within the councils.

  13. Atmospheric precipitation and chemical composition of an urban site, Guaíba hydrographic basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, D.; Teixeira, E. C.; Wiegand, F.; Machado, A. C. M.; Sanchez, J.

    The purpose of the present work was to study the chemical composition of bulk and wet atmospheric precipitation in the Guaíba Hydrographic Basin, in South Brazil. The samples were analyzed from January to December 2002 at three different stations, i.e., 8° Distrito and CEASA stations in the city of Porto Alegre, and Charqueadas station, located in the city of same name. The bulk and wet precipitation were analyzed for conductivity, pH, Cl -, NO 3-, F -, SO 42-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, NH 4+, Ca 2+, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Al. The pH values in the samples of atmospheric precipitation ranged between 4.75 and 7.45. The analysis of linear regression applied to the set of studied variables showed that neutralization occurred in samples of bulk and wet precipitation. It was found that the Cl present in samples of atmospheric precipitation originated from sea salts and anthropogenic sources. The principal components analysis (PCA) identified the main anthropogenic sources within the Guaíba Hydrographic Basin (GHB). Cluster analysis grouped the events identified for each station in the PCA in association with the meteorological data.

  14. Use of geothermal methods in outlining deep groundwater flow systems in Paleozoic interior basins of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Elizabeth Tavares; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2013-11-01

    Results of regional-scale geothermal studies are presented, providing new insights into the characteristics of deep groundwater flow systems in the Paleozoic sedimentary basins in the Amazon, Paraná and Parnaíba regions of Brazil. The study makes use mainly of bottom-hole temperature data sets for oil wells, the depths of which vary from 1,000 to 4,000 m. The techniques employed in data analysis have allowed identification of non-linear features in vertical distributions of temperature, produced by deep groundwater flows in the study area. According to the results obtained, vertical velocities of subsurface flows are found to fall in the range 10-10 to 10-9 m/s, while the horizontal velocities are significantly higher, of the order 10-8 m/s. Identification of large-scale down flows has allowed inferences as to the existence of lateral movements of groundwater. The basins in the Amazon region are found to be characterized by widespread down flow of groundwater, implying the existence of distributed recharge systems operating on regional scales. There is a systematic decrease in horizontal velocities along the direction from west to east. This feature is considered indicative of gravity driven flows induced by episodes of uplift, since Miocene times, in the Andean region.

  15. The microbial nature of laminated limestones: Lessons from the Upper Aptian, Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Bruno; Jahnert, Ricardo Jorge; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Varejao, Filipe Giovanini; Assine, Mario Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Araripe Basin, located in northeastern Brazil, originated during the Gondwana continental break-up responsible for the opening of the South Atlantic during the Early Cretaceous. In the Araripe Basin, the post-rift Aptian sequence corresponds to the Santana Group, which is composed, in upward succession, of mostly clastic continental and rare carbonate layers of the Barbalha, Crato, Ipubi and Romualdo Formations. The laminated limestones of the Crato Formation were deposited in a lacustrine environment preceding the deposition of the Ipubi Formation evaporites. They are age-equivalent to the limestones of the pre-salt interval of the east coast of Brazil, which contains large petroleum reserves. The excellent preservation of its macrofossils has made the Crato Formation known worldwide as a Fossil Lagerstätte. The limestones are macroscopically homogeneous, and their deposition has been previously attributed to chemical precipitation. Although the carbonate laminites are macroscopically undifferentiated, mineralogical variations, microscopic texture and distinctive biotic aspects supported the characterization of four microfacies: planar laminated, crustiform, nodular and rhythmic. The microfacies analysis indicated a strong and pervasive biological activity in the Crato limestone morphogenesis. Organominerals precipitated by the metabolic action of cyanobacteria and/or sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic-oxidizing archea are represented by calcite and pyrite. Calcified coccoid and filaments are common, furthermore, the presence of calcified biofilms composed of exopolymeric substances (EPS) is ubiquitous. The presence of amorphous organic matter (AOM) and gypsum, particularly in the rhythmic microfacies, indicates anoxic/dysoxic conditions and stressful environments during periods of drought and low lake levels which favored the development and preservation of microbial biofilms. Phytoclasts and miospores when present in the succession indicate an

  16. Precipitation and river water chemistry of the Piracicaba River basin, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Williams, M R; Filoso, S; Martinelli, L A; Lara, L B; Camargo, P B

    2001-01-01

    Annual precipitation and river water volumes and chemistry were measured from 1995 to 1998 in a mesoscale agricultural area of southeast Brazil. Precipitation was mildly acidic and solute concentrations were higher in the west than in the east of the basin. Combustion products from biomass burning, automobile exhaust, and industry typically accumulate in the atmosphere from March until October and are responsible for seasonal differences observed in precipitation chemistry. In river waters, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major solutes at 10 sites across the basin were generally lower at upriver than at downriver sampling sites for most solutes. Mass balances for major solutes indicate that, as a regional entity, the Piracicaba River basin was a net sink of H+, PO4(3-), and NH4+, and a net source of other solutes. The main stem of the Piracicaba River had a general increase in solute concentrations from upriver to downriver sampling sites. In contrast, NO3- and NH4+ concentrations increased in the mid-reach sampling sites and decreased due to immobilization or utilization in the mid-reach reservoir, and there was denitrification immediately downriver of this reservoir. Compared with tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, the Piracicaba River is affected more by point-source inputs of raw sewage and industrial wastes than nonpoint agricultural runoff high in N and P. Inputs of N and C are responsible for a degradation of water quality at downriver sampling sites of the Piracicaba River drainage, and water quality could be considerably improved by augmenting sewage treatment.

  17. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  18. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  19. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  20. Habitat of petroleum in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil: A look back, a comparison, a look forward

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.; Campos, J.N.P.; Filho, C.B.; Brazil, I.R.; Neves, C.A.O.; Goes, A.M.O.; Milani, E.J. )

    1991-03-01

    It took almost a century of intermittent petroleum exploration in Brazil's vast Paleozoic basins before continuous production of about 5000 bbl per day of light oil, together with gas, could be established in one of them. Proved volumes of oil equivalent in place so far discovered in Paleozoic reservoirs amount to only 0.6% of the domestic total, but hopes of substantial new finds are great. In the Rio Urucu field of Solimoes basin (Upper Amazon), hydrocarbons are being produced from Early Carboniferous Monte Alegre formation sandstones roofed by evaporites and carbonates of the Carboniferous Itaituba formation which were intruded by thick Juro-Triassic igneous sills and folded during a Cretaceous reactivation event into the present-day shape of gentle anticlinal trends controlled by reverse faulting. The widespread occurrence of igneous intrusions and extrusions in the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana basins is a major problem met by explorationists throughout the years but can be faced with presently available technology, seismic and other. Further investigations in these four basins are needed in order to better define details of basin architecture, configuration of basement, location of the oil kitchens, main carrier beds, windows in the dyke walls through which hydrocarbons could find their way to the traps, etc. Examples from the various basins, along with a comparison to some successful exploration cases in the USA, suggest that the habitat of other commercial oil and gas in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil may be localized in the deeper basinal positions - like in the Rio Urucu trend - but also in the shallow flank areas, where igneous rocks tend to be scarcer and exploration baroquely started.

  1. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  2. The family Caprellidae (Amphipoda: Caprelloidea: Caprellidae) from Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic, with a key of species occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Fábio Da Motta; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2015-08-21

    Caprellid material of the present study was collected between 25-3000 m depth from the Campos Basin area, Southwestern Atlantic. As a result, Deutella incerta was found as a new record to the Southwestern Atlantic and two new species are described: Liropus guerragarciai sp. nov. and Mayerella sittropiae sp. nov. Besides, Paracaprella pusilla is herein redescribed as a common component of the Campos Basin amphipod community. Caprellids are a diverse and abundant group that can be found among algae and general biological substrates of the continental shelf area. As more deep sea samples are coming into light, they are turning out to be also a common component in this habitat. Including the present data, there are 25 caprellid species recorded in Brazil, being four of them restricted to the slope areas and 14 endemic to the Brazilian coast. A key to the Caprellidae species from Brazil is provided.

  3. A new species of the genus Pareiorhina (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Santos, Valter M; Roxo, Fábio F

    2015-03-25

    Pareiorhina pelicicei sp. n., a new Loricariidae, is described from the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from its congeners by combination of the following characters: teeth with a minute lateral cusp; absence of small plates scattered on the thorax and abdomen; tip of the snout naked; lower predorsal length; higher number of premaxillary and dentary teeth.

  4. Palynofacies patterns of the Devonian of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil: Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Viviane Segundo Faria; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    To help describe the paleoenvironmental interpretation of one the most extensive marine Devonian successions in Brazil, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 46 samples from the Itaim (Pragian-Givetian), Pimenteira (Givetian-Frasnian) and Cabeças (Famennian) formations of the Parnaíba Basin in north-central Brazil. For the palynofacies analyses, kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Five palynofacies associations were identified for three studied sections: PseudoAOM palynofacies, which consists of amorphous organic matter (AOM), pseudoamorphous and coenobial algae Quadrisporites; Transl/Nbiostr. palynofacies, which consists of translucent non-biostructured phytoclasts (well-preserved and degraded), cuticles (well-preserved and degraded), Spongiophyton and Botryococcus; Marine microplankton palynofacies, which consists of acritarchs, prasinophytes and translucent biostructured phytoclasts; Opaque palynofacies, which consists of opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); and Sporomorphs palynofacies, which consists of zoomorphs (e.g., Chitinozoa) and sporomorphs (e.g., spores). The stratigraphic distribution of the five palynofacies associations reflects a continuous terrestrial influx throughout marine succession. At the Pragian-Emsian age, the woody material of Transl/Nbioestr. palynofacies prevails, suggesting a marine depositional paleoenvironment (presence of marine palynomorphs), but under deltaic influence due to the input of terrigenous material. An increasing trend of marine elements of Marine microplankton palynofacies is recorded for the Givetian, which suggests a progressive marine influence. However, during the Frasnian, the highest abundance of marine elements was recorded (Marine microplankton palynofacies). Moreover, a bloom of Maranhites spp. and prasinophytes (e.g., Tasmanites and Cymatiosphaera) was also recorded. The abrupt increase of marine palynomorphs in the Frasnian - here termed the "Maranhites

  5. Ensemble Streamflow Predictions in the Três Marias Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Kuwajima, Julio; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Collischonn, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the main electricity source of Brazil. The related hydropower reservoirs are multi-purpose thus besides efficient and reliable energy production, they are relevant for flood control. In this context, the present study shows results of an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) for supporting the operational decision making implemented at Três Marias hydroelectric power project located in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. It is a large tropical river basin with approximately 55,000km² up to the Três Marias dam. The hydrological model used in the study is the MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias from Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas), a large scale distributed hydrological model. Applied in an operational forecasting mode, it uses an empirical data assimilation method to take into account real time streamflow observations to update its state variables. We present results of a hindcast experiment with observed precipitation and streamflow data from the local energy utility, CEMIG (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais), and from the Brazilian water agency, ANA (Agencia Nacional de Água),. Probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) from CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are used to generate the ESP. The data products and the MGB-IPH model are integrated into an open shell forecasting platform based on the software package Delft-FEWS. Inside the forecasting platform a hindcast mode over a forecast lead time of 10-16 days in recent rainfall periods is applied in. The ESP results are compared to deterministic forecasts of the Três Marias reservoir inflow. The results assessment verifies the added value of the ESP in general in comparison to the use of deterministic forecasts by means of different performance indicators. The ESP derived from the ECMWP ensemble shows the best performance. A future

  6. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  7. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  8. Complex intrasalt deformation in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil: the role of density inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Tim; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Martin; Hudec, Mike; Rodriguez, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Understanding intrasalt structure may elucidate the fundamental kinematics and, ultimately, the mechanics of diapir growth. However, there have been relatively few studies of the internal structure of salt diapirs outside the mining industry because their cores are only partly exposed in the field and poorly imaged in seismic reflection data. 3D seismic reflection from the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil reveal enigmatic allochthonous salt sheets of older evaporites emplaced above an overlying stratified evaporite sequence. Seismic-stratigraphic observations form the basis for a kinematic model invoking: (i) initial inward flow and thickening of the lower mobile salt within the rising wall, and arching of stratified overburden; (ii) breaching of the overburden, ascent of mobile lower evaporites along single or multiple feeders, and emplacement of upper-wall sheets or canopies; and (iii) later diapir squeezing due to regional shortening. We designed and ran physical models to explain how and why these structures occur, and to provide a mechanical basis for our kinematic model. Our first two models simulated salt having uniform internal density, with walls growing by (i) initially symmetric differential loading; and (ii) initially symmetric differential loading plus shortening. These models reproduced anticlines and injection folds seen in the simpler deformed walls in the Santos Basin. However, neither model reproduced the most complex structures (e.g. allochthonous intrusions, steep feeders, recumbent synclines) seen within the Santos evaporites. Thus, we argue differential loading and shortening alone are insufficient to generate these complex structures. In our third model, a less-dense lower evaporite was overlain by denser upper evaporites, similar to the density structure found in Santos Basin wellbores. In this model the wall rose solely by differential loading, with the lower mobile unit breaching the overlying stratified evaporites to form vertical diapirs

  9. Carbonaceous aerosol characterization in the Amazon basin, Brazil: novel dicarboxylic acids and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubátová, Alena; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Cafmeyer, Jan; Maenhaut, Willy; Roberts, Greg; Artaxo, Paulo

    High-resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) were employed for the quantitative determination of dichloromethane-extractable organic compounds in total and size-fractionated aerosol samples which were collected in the Amazon basin, Brazil, during the wet season, as part of the LBA-CLAIRE-98 experiment. Special emphasis was placed on the characterization and identification of several novel unknown dicarboxylic acids and related oxidative degradation products. This class of acidic products was enriched in the fine size fraction, suggesting that they were secondary organic aerosol products formed by gas-to-particle conversion. Some of the unknowns contributed more to the class of dicarboxylic acids than the major known compound, nonadioic acid (azelaic acid). The same unknowns were also observed in urban aerosol samples collected on hot summer days in Gent, Belgium. For the characterization and structure elucidation of the unknowns, various types of derivatizations and fractionation by solid-phase extraction were employed in combination with GC/MS. Four unknowns were identified. The most abundant were two derivatives of glutaric acid, 3-isopropyl pentanedioic acid and 3-acetyl pentanedioic acid. The other two identified unknowns were another oxo homologue, 3-acetyl hexanedioic acid, and, interestingly, 3-carboxy heptanedioic acid. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these four compounds in atmospheric aerosols has not yet been reported. The biogenic precursors of the novel identified compounds could not be pinpointed, but most likely include monoterpenes and fatty acids.

  10. Mechanically infiltrated clays: recognition and influence in fluvial reservoirs of Reconcavo basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, M.A.S.; De Ros, L.F.

    1989-03-01

    Fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the Sergi Formation (Jurassic) are the main reservoirs of the Reconcavo basin in northeastern Brazil. These reservoirs contain significant amounts of interstitial detrital clays resulting from early diagenetic mechanical infiltration. The infiltration developed under arid/semiarid conditions, where the lowered water table allowed muddy waters of episodic runoff to infiltrate through the coarse alluvium. The main clay concentrations occurred in the upper phreatic zone and in proximity to sources of influent seepage. It is difficult to identify infiltrated clays in ancient sedimentary rocks due to a lack of well-established petrographic criteria. In this work, a series of petrographic criteria is proposed to recognize these clays in clastic reservoirs. These criteria include the anisophachous coatings of tangentially accreted lamellae and the geometric patterns developed due to shrinkage. The infiltrated clays are among the main controls of reservoir properties, and the horizons of maximum clay concentration are the main internal barriers in most Sergi reservoirs. In general, infiltrated clays damage reservoir quality by creating macroheterogeneities and microheterogeneities, by decreasing recovery efficiency and permeability, and by increasing water saturation. Also, they can cause formation damage either by their swelling properties or through the migration of loose particles left by shrinkage. As demonstrated in the Sergi Formation, infiltrated clays must be adequately identified for the definition of proper procedures for drilling, completion, reservoir development, and EOR programs.

  11. [Work-related accidents on oil drilling platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, C M; Souza, C A; Machado, J M; Porto, M F

    2001-01-01

    The offshore oil industry is characterized by complex systems in relation to technology and organization of work. Working conditions are hazardous, resulting in accidents and even occasional full-scale catastrophes. This article is the result of a study on work-related accidents in the offshore platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State. The primary objective was to provide technical back-up for both workers' representative organizations and public authorities. As a methodology, we attempt to go beyond the immediate causes of accidents and emphasize underlying causes related to organizational and managerial aspects. The sources were used in such a way as to permit classification in relation to the type of incident, technological system, operation, and immediate and underlying causes. The results show the aggravation of safety conditions and the immediate need for public authorities and the offshore oil industry in Brazil to change the methods used to investigate accidents in order to identify the main causes in the organizational and managerial structure of companies.

  12. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from the aquatic basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nilma Cintra; de Araújo Figueiroa, Angela Cristina Torres; Cavalcanti, Valdelúcia Oliveira; da Silva, Soraya Cavalcante; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Hofer, Ernesto

    2008-03-01

    Through a continuous bacteriological monitoring programme carried out by the Health Secretariat of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, two isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa were discovered in an endemic area in 2001, during a cholera inactive period, along with six V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains and two Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strains showing an unusual characteristic of agglutination with O1 antiserum. Between that time and 2005, eight other O1 isolates were found. The virulence genes present in the V. cholerae differed among strains, with only three O1 strains harboring the ctxA gene. The O1 and some non-O1/non-O139 strains displayed identical patterns of amplification of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. RAPD of the 10 V. cholerae O1 strains, with the two primers used, revealed heterogeneity. The presence of V. cholerae carrying virulence genes in the aquatic basins examined confirms that they constitute a vibrio reservoir during a cholera inactive period, thus strengthening the argument for a continuous monitoring programme and preventative measures for cholera, mainly in the areas where the supply of drinking water is deficient.

  13. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  14. Communications Technology and the Crisis in Education. A Report on the Bahia Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Higher Education in the American Republics, New York, NY.

    A summary of the workshop convened in May 1971 in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil by the Council on Higher Education in the American Republics to assess current applications of communications technology for the improvement of educational systems in Latin America is given in this document. Against a background which includes: 1) technological asymmetry in…

  15. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  16. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Davi de C. D.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Wendland, Edson; Yin, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 %) of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB), a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people) of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20-50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997-April 2001) to 25 km3 yr-1 (May 2011-April 2015). Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  17. Stratigraphy and reservoir potential of glacial deposits of the Itarare Group (Carboniferous-Permian), Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, A.B. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Drilling in the Parana basin of Brazil in the mid-1980s discovered gas and condensate in the Itarare Group, and showed that glacial deposits in Brazil can contain hydrocarbons. The reservoir potential of the Carboniferous-Permian Itarare Group of the basin is analyzed using new subsurface data from 20 deep wells drilled in the early to middle 1980s. Central to the analysis was the construction of over 3000 km of cross sections based on more than 100 wells, the description of more than 400 m of core, and study of 95 thin sections. Subsurface exploration and mapping of the Itarare are greatly aided by the recognition of three recently defined and described formations and four members, which are traceable for hundreds of kilometers. These units belong to three major glacial cycles in which the pebbly mudstones and shales are seals and glacially related sandstones are reservoirs. The best sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface belong to the Rio Segredo Member, the upper-most sandy unit of the Itarare. The Rio Segredo Member is the best petroleum target because it is overlain by thick seals and massive pebbly mudstones and shales, and because it is shallower and less compacted than underlying, more deeply buried sandstones. This member has little detrital matrix and much of its porosity is secondary, developed by carboxylic acid and CO{sub 2} generated when Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts, sills, and dikes were intruded into the Parana basin as Gondwana broke up.

  18. Shallow properties of faults in carbonate rocks - The Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, F. H.; Bertotti, G.; Rabelo, J.; Silva, A. T.; Carneiro, M. A.; Cazarin, C. L.; Silva, C. C.; Vieira, M. M.; Bisdom, K.; Moraes, A.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the development of shallow faults in the Jandaíra Formation, a Turonian-Campanian carbonate platform in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil. Our main goal was to characterize fault geometry and properties such as porosity and permeability, and associate these results with fluid flow in shallow conditions. We used an integrated multidisciplinary approach, which combined Quickbird satellite and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, drone) imagery, structural and sedimentary-facies mapping, and petrographic and petrophysical analyses. The Jandaíra Formation presents a variety of carbonate facies, which include mudstones to bioclastic, peloidal, intraclastic, and oolitic grainstones. We modeled our remote sensing and structural data using a finite element analysis system for 2D deformation modeling. We applied the magnitudes and directions of the present-day stress field to simulate depths as deep as 500 m. These stress data were derived from borehole breakout data and drilling-induced tensile fractures observed in resistivity image logs. Our results indicate the occurrence of dilation processes along three sets of joints that were reactivated as faults in the upper crust: N-S, NE-, and E-W-striking faults. These faults provided preferential leaching pathways to fresh water percolation, contributing to localized dissolution and increased secondary porosity and permeability. The results also indicate that the tectonic stresses are concentrated in preferred structural zones such as fault intersection and termination, which are sites of increased fracturing and dissolution. Dissolution by fluids increased permeability in carbonate rocks from primary values of 0.0-0.94 mD to as much as 1370.11 mD. This process is mostly Cenozoic.

  19. Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Forest and Pasture Ecosystems of the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J. R.; Ometto, J.; Ometto, J.; Flanagan, L. B.; Martinelli, L. A.; Moreira, M. Z.; Higuchi, N.

    2001-12-01

    Our objective was to measure the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue and CO2 released by respiration (\\deltaR), and to use this information as an estimate of changes in ecosystem isotopic discrimination that occur in response to seasonal and interannual changes in environmental conditions, and land-use change (forest-pasture conversion). We made measurements in primary forest and pastures in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. At the Santarem forest site \\deltaR values showed a seasonal cycle varying from less than -29\\permil to approximately -26\\permil. The observed seasonal change in \\deltaR was correlated with variation in the average monthly precipitation. In contrast there was no significant seasonal variation in \\deltaR at the Manaus forest site (average δ _{R} approximately -28‰ ), consistent with a narrower range of variation in monthly precipitation than occurred in Santarem. Despite substantial (9‰ ) vertical variation in leaf δ ^{13}C, the average δ _{R} values observed for both forest sites were similar to the δ ^{13}C values of the most exposed, sun foliage of the dominant tree species. This suggested that the major portion of recently respired carbon dioxide in these forests was metabolized carbohydrate fixed by the sun leaves at the top of the forest canopy. There was no significant seasonal variation observed in the δ ^{13}C values of leaf organic matter for the forest sites. We sampled in pastures dominated by the C_{4} grass, Brachiaria spp., which is planted after forest vegetation has been cleared. The carbon isotope ratio of respired CO_{2} in pastures was enriched in ^{13}C by approximately 10‰ compared to forest ecosystems. A significant temporal change occurred in δ _{R} after the Manaus pasture was burned. Burning removed much of the encroaching C_{3} shrub vegetation and so allowed an increased dominance of the C_{4} pasture grass, which resulted in higher δ _{R}$ values.

  20. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Paraná sedimentary basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Paraná sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²³⁸U, ²³⁴U, ²²⁶Ra, ²²²Rn, ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at São Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dolomitized cells within chert of the Permian Assistência Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calça, Cléber P.; Fairchild, Thomas R.; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Hachiro, Jorge; Petri, Setembrino; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; Toma, Henrique E.; Araki, Koiti

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitic microscopic structures in the form of microspheres, "horseshoe- shaped" objects, and thin botryoidal crusts found within microfossiliferous chert within stromatolites of the Evaporite Bed (EB) of the Permian Assistência Formation, Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The microspheres were identified as dolomitized coccoidal cyanobacteria based on similarity in size, spheroidal and paired hemispheroidal morphologies and colonial habit to co-occurring silicified organic-walled cyanobacteria embedded within the same microfabric and rock samples. The co-occurrence of dolomite, pyrite framboids, and abundant dispersed carbonaceous material and silicified cells is consistent with a hypersaline depositional environment with abundant cyanobacterial mats and elevated Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratios and reducing conditions with active anoxic microbial processes near the water-(bio)sediment interface. The abundance of extracellular polymeric substances facilitated anoxic microbial processes (sulfate reduction), providing essential conditions for possible primary microbially induced dolomitization. In most of the dolomitized cells dolomite occurs only as an external layer; in fully dolomitized cells magnesium is richest in the outermost layer. Presumably, the dolomitization process was favored by the presence of anoxic microbial degraders and negatively charged functional groups at the surface of the cyanobacterial cells. Botryoidal dolomite rims of silica-filled fenestrae formed by a similar process and inherited the botryoidal morphology of the cell as originally lining the fenestrae. Silicification interrupted the dolomitization of the largely organic biosediment, mostly by permineralization, but locally by substitution, thereby preserving not only dolomitic microspheres, but also huge numbers of structurally

  2. 2.5D Modeling of TEM Data Applied to Hidrogeological Studies in PARANÁ Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    The transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is used all over the world and has shown great potential in hydrological, hazardous waste site characterization, mineral exploration, general geological mapping, and geophysical reconnaissance. However, the behavior of TEM fields are very complex and is not yet fully understood. Forward modeling is one of the most common and effective methods to understand the physical behavior and significance of the electromagnetics responses of a TEM sounding. Until now, there are a limited number of solutions for the 2D forward problem for TEM. More rare are the descriptions of a three-component response of a 3D source over 2D earth, which is the so-called 2.5D. The 2.5D approach is more realistic than the conventional 2D source previous used, once normally the source cannot be realistic represented for a 2D approximation (normally source are square loops). At present the 2.5D model represents the only way of interpreting TEM data in terms of a complex earth, due to the prohibitive amount of computer time and storage required for a full 3D model. In this work we developed a TEM modeling program for understanding the different responses and how the magnetic and electric fields, produced by loop sources at air-earth interface, behave in different geoelectrical distributions. The models used in the examples are proposed focusing hydrogeological studies, once the main objective of this work is for detecting different kinds of aquifers in Paraná sedimentary basin, in São Paulo State - Brazil. The program was developed in MATLAB, a widespread language very common in the scientific community.

  3. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum (Characiformes: Characidae), a new species from the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian M; Lima, Flávio C T

    2015-06-13

    A new species of characid is described from the upper rio Machado, a tributary of the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum can be distinguished from all congeners by the unique combination of the presence of a conspicuous rounded humeral blotch and a broad and diffuse longitudinal stripe. The new species is included within the Hyphessobrycon agulha group. The high number of endemic species of fishes occurring in the headwater tributaries of three river systems (rio Madeira, rio Tapajós, and rio Paraguai) draining the watershed defined by the Chapada dos Parecis is discussed.

  4. A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Graça, W J; Oliveira, C A M; Lima, F C T; da Silva, H P; Fernandes, I M

    2017-10-01

    A new species of Astyanax is described from the upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the body intensely yellowish in life (v. silvery, reddish or lightly yellow) and by morphometric and meristics traits. Astyanax dolinae n. sp. cannot be assigned to any of the Astyanax species complex currently recognized for the genus. It is only known from the Dolina Água Milagrosa, a karstic sinkhole lake, entirely fed by groundwater, surrounded by Cerrado, the savannah-like vegetation of central South America. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 (Nuculanidae) and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 (Pristiglomidae) (Pelecypoda) in the Campos Basin off Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, Natalia Pereira; Absalão, Ricardo Silva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a secondary result of oil prospecting in Brazil, samples from the Campos Basin continental slope became available. In these samples, specimens of the genera Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 were found. This contribution provides the southernmost record of the genus Microgloma, the first record of Microgloma mirmidina (Dautzenberg & Fischer 1897) from the western Atlantic, the descriptions of Microgloma macaron sp. n. and Microgloma nhanduti sp. n.as new species, and the shallowest record of Pristigloma alba Sanders & Allen 1973. PMID:22287903

  6. Composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a disturbed watershed of southeast Brazil (Piracicaba River basin).

    PubMed

    Krusche, Alex V; Martinelli, Luiz A; Victoria, Reynaldo L; Bernardes, Marcelo; de Camargo, Plinio B; Ballester, Maria V; Trumbore, Susan E

    2002-06-01

    The elemental and isotopic composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter was investigated in the Piracicaba River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Comparison of riverine organic matter from the Piracicaba River basin, a region where rivers and streams receive urban sewage and industrial effluents, with data reported for the pristine Amazon system revealed significant differences associated with anthropogenic impacts. One important difference was N enrichment in the particulate organic material of the Piracicaba basin rivers, due to (a) urban and industrial effluents, and (b) enhanced phytoplankton growth, which results from the combination of nutrient enrichment and damming of sections of the rivers. Radiocarbon concentrations were overall more depleted (older 14C age) in the Piracicaba basin rivers than in the Amazon, which may reflect the importance of soil erosion in the former. Analyses of stable and radioactive carbon isotopes and lignin-derived compounds indicated that coarse particulate organic material is composed of a mixture of soil particles and degraded organic matter from C3 and C4 vascular plants. Fine particulate organic material was composed mainly of soil particles and phytoplankton cell remains, the latter especially during low water. Ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter was the most degraded fraction according to its lignin oxidation products, and showed the greatest influence of C4 plant sources.

  7. Modelling of point and diffuse pollution: application of the Moneris model in the Ipojuca river basin, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima Barros, Alessandra Maciel; do Carmo Sobral, Maria; Gunkel, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants and nutrients are causing several problems in aquatic ecosystems, and in general an excess of nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, is responsible for the eutrophication process in water bodies. In most developed countries, more attention is given to diffuse pollution because problems with point pollution have already been solved. In many non-developed countries basic data for point and diffuse pollution are not available. The focus of the presented studies is to quantify nutrient emissions from point and diffuse sources in the Ipojuca river basin, Pernambuco State, Brazil, using the Moneris model (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). This model has been developed in Germany and has already been implemented in more than 600 river basins. The model is mainly based on river flow, water quality and geographical information system data. According to the Moneris model results, untreated domestic sewage is the major source of nutrients in the Ipojuca river basin. The Moneris model has shown itself to be a useful tool that allows the identification and quantification of point and diffuse nutrient sources, thus enabling the adoption of measures to reduce them. The Moneris model, conducted for the first time in a tropical river basin with intermittent flow, can be used as a reference for implementation in other watersheds.

  8. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee.

  9. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  10. The tectonic evolution of Cenozoic extensional basins, northeast Brazil: Geochronological constraints from continental basalt 40Ar/39Ar ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Vasconcelos, Paulo Marcos; Knesel, Kurt Michael; da Silveira Dias, Luiz Gustavo; Roesner, Eduardo Henrique; Cordeiro de Farias, Paulo Roberto; de Morais Neto, João Marinho

    2013-12-01

    The Boa Vista and Cubati Basins, Paraíba, Brazil, are NW-SE extension-related intracratonic basins that resulted from tectonic stresses after the opening of the South Atlantic. These basins contain lacustrine fossiliferous sediments, bentonite beds, and basalt flows that preserve Cenozoic continental records. 40Ar/39Ar ages for six whole-rocks from two distinct basaltic flows underlying the sediments in the Boa Vista basin are 27.3 ± 0.8 and 25.4 ± 1.3 Ma, while three grains from a basaltic flow overlying the sediments yield 22.0 ± 0.2 Ma. The sediments at the nearby Cubati Basin are overlain by a basalt flow with ages of ˜25.4 Ma. Three whole-rocks from an NE-SW-trending trachytic dyke cross cutting the sediments at the Boa Vista Basin yield 40Ar/39Ar ages of ˜12.45 ± 0.06, 12.59 ± 0.07, and 12.58 ± 0.07 Ma. Three whole-rocks from a nearby volcanic plug (Chupador) yield an age of 23.4 ± 0.1 Ma. The geochronological results combined with stratigraphic correlations between the two basins allow bracketing the age of the main sedimentary and bentonic units within the Boa Vista and Cubati Basins between 25.5 ± 1.3 and 24.9 ± 0.1 Ma. The ages, combined with field observations reveal that the formation of the Boa Vista and Cubati basins is associated with mantle-derived magmas channelled through reactivated Precambrian shear zones. Our geochronological results suggest that a temporal link with the Fernando de Noronha and Saint Helena hot spots can be excluded as possible sources of the Boa Vista and Cubati magmas. Rather, the extensional tectonics in the 30-20 Ma interval, long after Gondwana break-up, may be associated with the re-activation of continental-scale shear zones that channelled small batches of mantle-derived magmas.

  11. A history of basin inversion, scarp retreat and shallow denudation: The Araripe basin as a keystone for understanding long-term landscape evolution in NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peulvast, Jean-Pierre; Bétard, François

    2015-03-01

    At the border between the states of Ceará and Pernambuco (northeast Brazil), the Chapada do Araripe is a high plateau (800-1000 m a.s.l.) formed by a slab of Cenomanian fluvial sandstone. This caprock is underlain by lacustrine or marine Albian layers and older rift deposits. During the Cretaceous, the Araripe basin lay at a palaeoelevation close to sea-level. Through a presentation and discussion of original field and cartographic data we analyse the mechanisms of topographic inversion in this sedimentary basin in relation to local or regional crustal upwarp. The contrast between the plateau - a weakly dissected structural surface - and the surrounding lowlands is explained through a study of the erosional scarps - cuesta-like landforms and their outliers - that fringe the Chapada. No evidence of local tectonic inversion is found. River incision, spring sapping, landslides and other forms of mass movement are listed as efficient processes of topographic inversion and scarp retreat, the rates and patterns of which appear to be controlled by lithological contrasts and conditions of exhumation of the basement. Geometric relationships with regional stepped surfaces (e.g., the low-elevation Sertaneja Surface), exhumed palaeosurfaces and regional drainage systems are analysed. Our estimation of the amplitude of denudation and topographic inversion (0.6-0.7 km) differs significantly from apatite fission-track-derived estimates reported in recent literature, which would imply burial by considerable thicknesses of younger sediments followed by 1.5 km or more of post-rift denudation - not just in the study area, but also in the Tucano-Jatoba basin to the south. The exhumation and reworking of surrounding basement surfaces probably began during the early Cenozoic, as shown to the northwest of the Chapada by the presence of widespread laterites of probable Palaeogene age. A second stage of topographic inversion occurred during the Oligocene or later. This would correspond to

  12. The role of major rift faults in the evolution of deformation bands in the Rio do Peixe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilario Bezerra, Francisco; Araujo, Renata; Maciel, Ingrid; Cezar Nogueira, Francisco; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio; Souza, Jorge Andre; Carvalho, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Many studies have investigated on the evolution and properties of deformation bands, but their occurrence and relationships with basin-boundary faults remain elusive when the latter form by brittle reactivation of structural inheritance in crystalline basements. The main objective of our study was to systematically record the location, kinematics, geometry, and density of deformation bands in the early Cretaceous Rio do Peixe basin, NE Brazil, and analyze their relationship with major syn-rift fault zones. Reactivation in early Cretaceous times of continental-scale ductile shear zones led to the development of rift basins in NE Brazil. These shear zones form a network of NE- and E-W-trending structures hundreds of kilometers long and 3-10 km wide. They were active in the Brasiliano orogeny at 540-740 Ma. Brittle reactivation of these structures occurred in Neocomian times ( 140-120 Ma) prior the breakup between the South American and African plates in the late Cretaceous. The Rio do Peixe basin formed at the intersection between the NE-SW-striking Portalegre shear zone and the E-W-striking Patos shear zone. The brittle fault systems developed by the shear zone reactivation are the Portalegre Fault and the Malta Fault, respectively. In this research we used field structural investigations and drone imagery with centimetric resolution. Our results indicate that deformation bands occur in poorly sorted, medium to coarse grain size sandstones and localize in 3-4 km wide belts in the hanging wall of the two main syn-rifts fault systems. Deformation bands formed when sandstones were not completely lithified. They strike NE along the Portalegre Fault and E-W along the Malta Fault and have slip lineations with rake values ranging from 40 to 90. The kinematics recorded in deformation bands is consistent with that characterizing major rift fault systems, i.e. major extension with a strike-slip component. Since deformations bands are typical sub-seismic features, our findings

  13. Seismic activity triggered by water wells in the Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AssumpçãO, Marcelo; Yamabe, Tereza H.; Barbosa, José Roberto; Hamza, Valiya; Lopes, Afonso E. V.; Balancin, Lucas; Bianchi, Marcelo B.

    2010-07-01

    Triggered seismicity is commonly associated with deep water reservoirs or injection wells where water is injected at high pressure into the reservoir rock. However, earth tremors related solely to the opening of groundwater wells are extremely rare. Here we present a clear case of seismicity induced by pore-pressure changes following the drilling of water wells that exploit a confined aquifer in the intracratonic Paraná Basin of southeastern Brazil. Since 2004, shallow seismic activity, with magnitudes up to 2.9 and intensities V MM, has been observed near deep wells (120-200 m) that were drilled in early 2003 near the town of Bebedouro. The wells were drilled for irrigation purposes, cross a sandstone layer about 60-80 m thick and extract water from a confined aquifer in fractured zones between basalt flow layers. Seismic activity, mainly event swarms, has occurred yearly since 2004, mostly during the rainy season when the wells are not pumped. During the dry season when the wells are pumped almost continuously, the activity is very low. A seismographic network, installed in March 2005, has located more than 2000 microearthquakes. The events are less than 1 km deep (mostly within the 0.5 km thick basalt layer) and cover an area roughly 1.5 km × 5 km across. The seismicity generally starts in a small area and expands to larger distances with an equivalent hydraulic diffusivity ranging from 0.06 to 0.6 m2/s. Geophysical and geothermal logging of several wells in the area showed that water from the shallow sandstone aquifer enters the well at the top and usually forms waterfalls. The waterfalls flow down the sides of the wells and feed the confined, fractured aquifer in the basalt layer at the bottom. Two seismic areas are observed: the main area surrounds several wells that are pumped continuously during the dry season, and a second area near another well (about 10 km from the first area) that is not used for irrigation and not pumped regularly. The main area

  14. Carbon isotope discrimination in forest and pasture ecosystems of the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Moreira, Marcelo Z.; Higuchi, Niro; Ehleringer, James R.

    2002-12-01

    Our objective was to measure the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue and CO2 released by respiration (δr), and to use this information as an estimate of changes in ecosystem isotopic discrimination that occur in response to seasonal and interannual changes in environmental conditions, and land-use change (forest-pasture conversion). We made measurements in primary forest and pastures in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. At the Santarém forest site, δr values showed a seasonal cycle varying from less than -29‰ to approximately -26‰. The observed seasonal change in δr was correlated with variation in the observed monthly precipitation. In contrast, there was no significant seasonal variation in δr at the Manaus forest site (average δr approximately -28‰), consistent with a narrower range of variation in monthly precipitation than occurred in Santarém. Despite substantial (9‰) vertical variation in leaf δ13C, the average δr values observed for all forest sites were similar to the δ13C values of the most exposed sun foliage of the dominant tree species. This suggested that the major portion of recently respired carbon dioxide in these forests was metabolized carbohydrate fixed by the sun leaves at the top of the forest canopy. There was no significant seasonal variation observed in the δ13C values of leaf organic matter for the forest sites. We sampled in pastures dominated by the C4 grass, Brachiaria spp., which is planted after forest vegetation has been cleared. The carbon isotope ratio of respired CO2 in pastures was enriched in 13C by approximately 10‰ compared to forest ecosystems. A significant temporal change occurred in δr after the Manaus pasture was burned. Burning removed much of the encroaching C3 shrub vegetation and so allowed an increased dominance of the C4 pasture grass, which resulted in higher δr values.

  15. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  16. Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry

  17. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  18. The Quantification and Identification of Land Use Change Impacts to Hydrology in Brazil from Headwater to Large Basin Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.; Lopes, A. V.; Cohn, A.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid agricultural expansion and intensification has characterized the land use/cover change (LUCC) dynamics of a large region spanning the southern rainforest and savanna biomes of Brazil. Despite a plethora of modeling analyses and small-scale investigations, the cumulative effects of this transformation on hydrological processes at multiple scales remain unclear. Yet quantifying the links between LUCC and hydrological response is essential to support evidence-based sustainable development of industry, society, and environment, particularly in this region, which includes the headwaters of Brazil's major rivers, the climatically-crucial Amazon transition region, and Brazil's agricultural breadbasket. Empirical analyses that can inform land use policy in this region and are sensitive to climate, agriculture and hydrological outcomes are critically needed. This study leverages the increased availability of remotely-sensed data products and a spatially dispersed gauging network to investigate the effects of a decade of LUCC on streamflow in over 150 river basins. Using a collection of statistical techniques to identify causal relationships and isolate LUCC effects from confounding variables such as climate, we quantify the sensitivity of hydrological dynamics to LUCC from small watersheds to regional scales.

  19. Reflection Response of the Parnaíba Basin (NE Brazil) from Seismic Ambient Noise Autocorrelation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julià, Jordi; Schimmel, Martin; Cedraz, Victória

    2017-04-01

    Reflected-wave interferometry relies on the recording of transient seismic signals from random wavefields located beneath recording stations. Under vertical incidence, the recordings contain the full transmission response, which includes the direct wave as well as multiple reverberations from seismic discontinuities located between the wavefields and the receiver. It has been shown that, under those assumptions, the reflection response of the medium can be recovered from the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the transmission response at a given receiver, as if the wavefields had originated themselves at the free surface. This passive approach to seismic reflection profiling has the obvious advantage of being low-cost and non-invasive when compared to its active-source counterpart, and it has been successfully utilized in other sedimentary basins worldwide. In this paper we evaluate the ability of the autocorrelation of ambient seismic noise recorded in the Parnaíba basin - a large Paleozoic basin in NE Brazil - to recover the reflection response of the basin. The dataset was acquired by the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte during 2015 and 2016 under the Parnaíba Basin Analysis Project (PBAP), a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort funded by BP Energy do Brasil aimed at improving our current understanding of the architecture of this cratonic basin. The dataset consists of about 1 year of continuous ground motion data from 10 short-period, 3-component stations located in the central portion of the basin. The stations were co-located with an existing (active-source) seismic reflection profile that was shot in 2012, making a linear array of about 100 km in aperture and about 10 km inter-station spacing. To develop the autocorrelation at a given station we considered the vertical component of ground motion only, which should result in the P-wave response. The vertical recordings were first split into 10 min-long windows, demeaned, de

  20. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  1. New occurrences of fossilized feathers: systematics and taphonomy of the Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin (Cretaceous), NE, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Petri, Setembrino; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe three fossil feathers from the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, Brazil. Feathers are the most complex multiform vertebrate integuments; they perform different functions, occurring in both avian and non-avian dinosaurs. Despite their rarity, fossil feathers have been found across the world. Most of the Brazilian feather fossil record comes from the Santana Formation. This formation is composed of two members: Crato (lake) and Romualdo (lagoon); both of which are predominantly reduced deposits, precluding bottom dwelling organisms, resulting in exceptional preservation of the fossils. Despite arid and hot conditions during the Cretaceous, life teemed in the adjacency of this paleolake. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs have not yet been described from the Crato Member, even though there are suggestions of their presence in nearby basins. Our description of the three feathers from the Crato laminated limestone reveals that, despite the small sample size, they can be referred to coelurosaurian theropods. Moreover, based on comparisons with extant feather morphotypes they can be identified as one contour feather and two downy feathers. Despite their rareness and low taxonomic potential, fossilized feathers can offer insights about the paleobiology of its owners and the paleoecology of the Araripe Basin. PMID:27441102

  2. Magnetic fabric and rock-magnetic character of the Mesozoic flood basalts of the Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrat, Endale; Ernesto, Marcia

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the magnetic fabric of Mesozoic basaltic flows from five sequences of the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP), southern Brazil, to infer paleoflow direction and to locate possible magma feeders. A well defined orientation pattern, indicative of the flow direction has been evidenced by the low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). One sequence from the southern part of the basin, JS (27 flows, 513 specimens), shows maximum AMS ellipsoid trending approximately NW-SE. Two sequences from the west-central part of the basin, IC (13 flows, 173 specimens), and PA (17 flows, 324 specimens), trend E-W. Two sequences from the south-eastern part of the basin, CV (24 flows, 436 specimens) and BV (20 flows, 103 specimens) show maximum AMS ellipsoid trends approximately NE-SW. In all cases the minimum axes of the AMS ellipsoids are tightly grouped vertically or sub-vertically to the bedding with a relatively weak degree of anisotropy, indicative of the primary origin of the magnetic fabric. Rock-magnetic parameters of some representative samples, such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), high field hysteresis loops and thermomagnetic curves suggests that the dominant magnetic mineral is a pseudo-single to small multi-domain grain size of magnetite. These and other observations are consistent with the conclusions that flows emanating from different sources may align their maximum susceptibility directions parallel to drainage that channel the flow or they will reflect regional preflow topographic structure and magma-source distributions.

  3. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 5 billion barrels of oil and 47 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Paleozoic Solimões, Amazonas, and Parnaíba Basin Provinces, Brazil

  4. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  5. Reassessment and Relationships of †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis (Teleostei, Clupeomorpha, †Ellimmichthyiformes) from the Neocomian of Recôncavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Francisco J DE; Ribeiro, Douglas R M

    2017-02-06

    Clupeomorphs are found in many assemblages of the northeastern Brazil, whose ages range from the Neocomian to Paleogene. Ten species were described. Among them †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis, a torpedo-like fish found in shales of the Marfim Formation from Bahia, remains poorly known. At first it was positioned within †Scutatuspinosinae and indicated as closely related to †Diplomystus. Diagnoses for the subfamily and genus were based on certain characters masking relationships. Recently it was placed in †Ellimmichthyiformes, but its systematic position remains controversial. We furnish additional data and restorations together with a parsimony analysis with TNT program, using 60 unordered and unweighted characters from selected species of 13 genera. Our analysis produced 12 trees with 158 steps, a consistency index (CI) of 0.44 and retention index (RI) of 0.52. Low support indices still indicate insufficient data for many taxa and uncertain status for clades. According to the majority rule consensus, †Scutatuspinosus itapagipensis is placed within a "†paraclupeine" group with †Ezkutuberezi carmenae, †Ellimma branneri, †Ellimmichthys longicostatus, and †Paraclupea chetunguensis. Its minimum age and position among †paraclupeids indicate an early history of the group older than it was thought to be, supporting a biogeographical hypothesis based on generalized track from China to northeastern Brazil during the Lower Cretaceous.

  6. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  7. Geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphy of the offshore Pelotas Basin, southeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Brazilian marginal basins have been studied since the beginning of the 70s. At least nine large basins are distributed along the entire Eastern continental margin. The sedimentary infill of these basins consists of lower Cretaceous (continental/lacustrine) rift section underlying marine upper Cretaceous (carbonate platforms) and marine upper Cretaceous/Tertiary sections, corresponding to the drift phase. The sedimentary deposits are a direct result of the Jurassic to lower Cretaceous break-up of the Pangea. This study will focus on the geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pelotas basin (offshore), located in the Southeast portion of the Brazilian continental margin between 28{degrees} and 34{degrees} S, covering approximately 50,000 Km{sup 2}. During the early Cretaceous, when the break-up of the continent began in the south, thick basaltic layers were deposited in the Pelotas basin. These basalts form a thick and broad wedge of dipping seaward reflections interpreted as a transitional crust. During Albian to Turonian times, due to thermal subsidence, an extensive clastic/carbonate platform was developed, in an early drift stage. The sedimentation from the upper Cretaceous to Tertiary was characterized by a predominance of siliciclastics in the southeast margin, marking an accentuate deepening of the basin, showing several cycles related to eustatic fluctuations. Studies have addressed the problems of hydrocarbon exploration in deep water setting within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thus Pelotas basin can provide a useful analogue for exploration efforts worldwide in offshore passive margins.

  8. Geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphy of the offshore Pelotas Basin, southeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, V.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian marginal basins have been studied since the beginning of the 70s. At least nine large basins are distributed along the entire Eastern continental margin. The sedimentary infill of these basins consists of lower Cretaceous (continental/lacustrine) rift section underlying marine upper Cretaceous (carbonate platforms) and marine upper Cretaceous/Tertiary sections, corresponding to the drift phase. The sedimentary deposits are a direct result of the Jurassic to lower Cretaceous break-up of the Pangea. This study will focus on the geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pelotas basin (offshore), located in the Southeast portion of the Brazilian continental margin between 28[degrees] and 34[degrees] S, covering approximately 50,000 Km[sup 2]. During the early Cretaceous, when the break-up of the continent began in the south, thick basaltic layers were deposited in the Pelotas basin. These basalts form a thick and broad wedge of dipping seaward reflections interpreted as a transitional crust. During Albian to Turonian times, due to thermal subsidence, an extensive clastic/carbonate platform was developed, in an early drift stage. The sedimentation from the upper Cretaceous to Tertiary was characterized by a predominance of siliciclastics in the southeast margin, marking an accentuate deepening of the basin, showing several cycles related to eustatic fluctuations. Studies have addressed the problems of hydrocarbon exploration in deep water setting within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thus Pelotas basin can provide a useful analogue for exploration efforts worldwide in offshore passive margins.

  9. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-05-03

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers.

  10. Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

  11. Influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover in urban river basin: case study in Campinas/SP, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite Silva, Alessandra; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: In most Brazilian municipalities, urban development was not based on adequate planning; one of the consequences was the reduction of the original vegetation, limiting the forest formations to scarce and isolated fragments. In Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, the vegetation fragmentation was mainly related to the expeditions and to the cycles of sugar cane and coffee. In this way, the present study aims to identify, quantify and evaluate the remaining arboreal vegetation spatial distribution in the Anhumas River Basin - Campinas/SP, Brazil. This study was developed with the aid of GIS software and field visits in order to construct a diagnosis of these areas and subsidize future actions required and to discuss the influence of urbanization on the original vegetation cover. The area was initially occupied by the Atlantic Forest (semi-deciduous forest) and drains one of the oldest urban occupation areas in the municipality; according to researchers, based on the water and geomorphological conditions of the basin, it can be subdivided into high, medium and low course. With a total area of 156,514 km2, only 16.74% are classified as green areas; where just 1.07% and 6.17% of total area represents forests and reforestation areas, respectively. The remaining green areas consists of: wetlands close to water bodies, but with no presence of trees and shrubs (area of 0.12% of the basin); urban green space, including parks and squares (2.19%); and natural field, constituted by natural non-arboreous vegetation (7.18%). In a scenario like this, a characteristic situation is the forest fragmentation; this process results in native vegetation remnants, isolated and more susceptible to external interference, coming from, for example, the proximity to agricultural areas or others land uses. The ecological knowledge of the remnants and their correct management can not only make it possible to diagnose current problems and to estimate future influences, but also to point out the

  12. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  13. Patterns of Woody Growth for Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) Trees in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappia, A. J.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, locally known as cerrado, is a major ecosystem that covers a vast majority of central Brazil. Little is known about how woody growth within the cerrado is affected by soil properties such as texture and/or nutrient availability. Thus, in this study we assessed the relationship between woody growth and soil properties in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We sampled 4-5 vegetation stands in each site that varied in hydrology, soil type, and vegetation composition and structure, and measured diameter at breast height, wood density, and soil nutrient concentration and physical properties every 5-10 m along a 100 m long transect. We hypothesized that as tree diameter at breast height increases, annual tree growth rate will decrease and that woody carbon (C) storage will increase as a function of soil nutrient availability. Our preliminary data support our hypotheses. Tree growth rates declined with tree size in both the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal. Rates of woody C storage, both on a per tree basis (kgC tree-1 year-1) and on a per unit ground area basis (kgC m-2 year-1) were significantly positively correlated with soil extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and clay content, while only woody C storage on a per tree basis was positively correlated with potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These data suggest that rates of woody C storage in cerrado are nutrient limited, while correspondence between C storage and soil physical properties could indicate both nutrient and water limitations to C storage.

  14. Systematic and taphonomic insights of fossilized feathers: A new occurrence from the Oligocene of Taubaté Basin (SE, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Gustavo M. E. M.; Anelli, Luiz E.; Pacheco, Mírian L. A. F.; Petri, Setembrino; Romero, Guilherme R.

    2016-12-01

    Feathers are rare in the fossil record because they have a low fossilization potential. Despite their palaeobiological significance, they also provide important palaeoecological and taphonomic information. Here, we report a new occurrence of three isolated feathers from the shales of the Oligocene Tremembé Formation (Taubaté Basin, SE Brazil). Their possible taxonomic affinities and taphonomic features are also discussed. Analyses identified the specimens as representatives of two pennaceous morphotypes (i.e., a contour and a rectrice feather). Both are preserved as carbonized traces, although, due taphonomic processes, they show different degrees of preservation. Since the Tremembé Formation is responsible for the most diverse record of Cenozoic birds, and because water-adapted birds (e.g., anseriformes and phoenicopteriformes) occur in this unit, it is highly possible that these feathers belonged to these aquatic taxa. Further investigations should concentrate on geochemical and microscopic techniques in order to reveal additional taxonomic and paleoecological features currently unknown in Paleogene birds of Brazil.

  15. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ≥ 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits.

  16. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  17. Geochemical and biostratigraphic characterization of an upper Cretaceous organic-rich condensed section in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, L.A.F., Porsche, E.; Penteado, H.L.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian section is worldwide recognized as an organic- rich interval associated with a widespread anoxic event. Samples from this interval, representing proximal sedimentary conditions have been well characterized in the Santos Basin, Brazil, where it reaches 300m thickness. The main objective of this study is to characterize the geochemical and paleoecological attributes as well as to ascertain the biostratigraphic position of this organic-rich section in a more distal location, at ODP Site 356. Biostratigraphic analyses identify die interval at ODP Site 356 as a condensed section ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian (11 m), deposited under anoxic conditions associated with a warm, and climate in the adjacent continental areas. Geochemical analyses indicate high total organic carbon contents (up tp 6.7%), dominance of algal derived material, high relative abundances of homohopanes and methylsteranes, [delta][sup 13]C around -27[per thousand], indicating a typical marine anoxic section. Despite the high content of oil-prone organic matter, this section has not attained thermal evolution appropriated for hydrocarbon generation due to its shallow burial. In proximal areas of the basin, this section is interpreted as a transgressive system tract which is composed by a series of sequences, that are enriched in organic material at their bases. Basinward the interval is thinner, but presents higher organic carbon contents according to geochemical data of ODP Site 356, typical of a condensed section.

  18. Geochemical and biostratigraphic characterization of an upper Cretaceous organic-rich condensed section in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, L.A.F., Porsche, E.; Penteado, H.L.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Cenomanian-Turonian section is worldwide recognized as an organic- rich interval associated with a widespread anoxic event. Samples from this interval, representing proximal sedimentary conditions have been well characterized in the Santos Basin, Brazil, where it reaches 300m thickness. The main objective of this study is to characterize the geochemical and paleoecological attributes as well as to ascertain the biostratigraphic position of this organic-rich section in a more distal location, at ODP Site 356. Biostratigraphic analyses identify die interval at ODP Site 356 as a condensed section ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian (11 m), deposited under anoxic conditions associated with a warm, and climate in the adjacent continental areas. Geochemical analyses indicate high total organic carbon contents (up tp 6.7%), dominance of algal derived material, high relative abundances of homohopanes and methylsteranes, {delta}{sup 13}C around -27{per_thousand}, indicating a typical marine anoxic section. Despite the high content of oil-prone organic matter, this section has not attained thermal evolution appropriated for hydrocarbon generation due to its shallow burial. In proximal areas of the basin, this section is interpreted as a transgressive system tract which is composed by a series of sequences, that are enriched in organic material at their bases. Basinward the interval is thinner, but presents higher organic carbon contents according to geochemical data of ODP Site 356, typical of a condensed section.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction of trunk fossils from the Parnaíba Basin, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Wemerson J; Santos, F Eroni P; Cisneros, Juan C; da Silva, João H; Freire, Paulo T C; Viana, Bartolomeu C

    2015-01-25

    The Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin is of the Paleozoic age and is located in Northeast Brazil, covering the states of Piauí, Maranhão and Tocantins and a small part of Ceará and Pará. In this work we applied several chemical analytical techniques to characterize trunk fossils found in the Parnaíba Sedimentary Basin, collected from four different sites, and discuss their fossilization process. We performed a study of the trunk fossils through X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The analysis allow us to identify the different compositions which are present in the trunk fossils: kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), hematite (Fe2O3) and quartz (SiO2). Based in these results we were able to identify that the main fossilization mechanism of the trunk fossil was silicification. Furthermore, through Raman spectroscopy, we have observed the presence of carbonaceous materials in the Permian fossils, as evidenced by the D and G Raman bands. The relative intensities and bandwidths of the D and G bands indicated that the carbon has a low crystallinity. Thus, most of trunk fossils analyzed were permineralized and not petrified, because there is the presence of carbon that characterizes the partial decomposition of the organic matter in some trunks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface water quality in the Sinos River basin, in Southern Brazil: tracking microbiological contamination and correlation with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Andréia; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500 ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples.

  1. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-07-28

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented.

  2. Stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Cenomanian Turonian boundary succession in the Japaratuba area, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Simone; Herrmann, Achim D.; Bengtson, Peter

    2005-08-01

    A facies analysis of the Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) boundary beds was carried out in the Japaratuba area, Sergipe Basin, north-eastern Brazil, on the basis of seven outcrop sections. The lower part of the succession is represented by dolomitic limestones and marly limestones, whereas the upper part is dominated by chalky, nodular limestones and bedded and coquinoid limestones. Three microfacies types are recognized in the upper part of the succession, where biostratigraphic work has indicated the position of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. Two of these microfacies types (foraminiferal mudstone, wackestone) occur only in the nodular limestone unit and are referred to an outer carbonate ramp setting. The uppermost part of the succession is dominated by echinoderm-inoceramid packstones, which probably were deposited in a mid-ramp setting. In the late Cenomanian, deposition took place in the outer-ramp distal area of an open-marine basin, which gradually became shallower during the Cenomanian-Turonian transition, as evidenced by the increase in macrofaunal debris to the northeast. In addition to macrofossil fragments, some thin sections contain abundant planktic and benthic foraminifers, calcispheres, and roveacrinids; the latter are potentially useful for stratigraphic purposes. Biostratigraphic data suggest that the lowermost Turonian is missing in the southern part of the Japaratuba area.

  3. Species richness of fern and lycophyte in an urban park in the Rio dos Sinos basin, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Goetz, M N B

    2010-12-01

    In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.

  4. Syngenetic and diagenetic features of evaporite-lutite successions of the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Santana do Cariri, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Daniel Rodrigues, Jr.; da Silva Filho, Wellington Ferreira; Freire, José Gervásio, Jr.; dos Santos, Felipe Holanda

    2016-12-01

    The Ipubi Formation in the Araripe Basin (Northeast Brazil) has evaporite-lutite successions rich in gypsum, a mineral of great regional economic relevance, a highlighted stratigraphic mark, and also a natural boundary for underlying successions potentially analogous to "Pre-Salt" hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Brazilian coastal basins. In this study, syngenetic and diagenetic aspects of the Ipubi Formation at Santana do Cariri (Ceará State) were investigated by means of facies analysis, petrography, and mineralogical/chemical analyses of evaporites and shales. The results show that the contact relationship between evaporites and marly shales, without signs of subaerial exposure and laterally adjacent, was associated with shallow, calm and somewhat anoxic waterbodies, locally salt-supersaturated (brines) but under seasonal variations of water levels. This scenario could have shared place with hydrothermal phenomena in a playa lake depositional system. Regarding diagenesis, although there is evidence supporting pseudomorphic replacement of gypsum by anhydrite, the burial of the Ipubi Formation would have been limited due to the frequent occurrence of gypsum without any trace of chemical replacement.

  5. Water budget comparison of global climate models and experimental data in Onça Creek basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. C. D.; Marin, I. S. P.; Wendland, E.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the hydrological cycle, accounting for more than 25% of human needs on the global scale. As a result of aquifer overexploitation associated with climate change, even in the most conservative future climate scenarios, mean water-table levels can experience drastic drops. Although there are efforts to include groundwater dynamics in global climate models (GCMs), its influence is still not taken into full account in GCM water budgets, although it is as important as the other water sources considered. To assess the role of percolation in the water balance, we compared the water budget from climate forcing scenarios using 10 GCMs with the water budget from experimental data of a basin in São Paulo state, Brazil. We used the delta factor approach to correct the bias of the model's temperature and precipitation for a control period from 1970 to 1999, and calculated evapotranspiration using the Thornthwaite method. Experimental data for runoff and interception were derived for the basin's representative crops (sugar cane and pasture) for both water budgets. As the GCMs ignore subsurface flow and the only input considered is precipitation and snow melt, the excess surface water is assumed to be redistributed among the other water budget components. The experimental data shows that there is enough available water for infiltration, indicating that recharge cannot be ignored in the water balance. This leads to the possibility of the models' overestimating the other components to compensate for the ignored recharge.

  6. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: the case of the Sorocaba River basin, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Welber Senteio; Petrere Júnior, Miguel; Barrella, Walter

    2003-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio.

  7. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed.

  8. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais.

  9. Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2010-03-01

    Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

  10. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast.

  11. Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental considerations for the concentrations of macroinvertibrate fossils in the Romualdo Member, Santana Formation, Late Aptian - Early Albian, Araripe Basin, Araripina, NE, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Ludmila Alves Cadeira Do; Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Sales, Alexandre Magno Feitosa; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2015-10-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate fossils can be seen towards to the top of the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, in the Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil, and can provide paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical information regarding the Cretaceous marine transgression which reached the interior basins in Northeast Brazil. We analyse taphonomic characteristics of macroinvertebrate concentrations of two outcrops (Torrinha and Torre Grande) within the municipality Araripina, Pernambuco, in order to enhance our understanding of the Cretaceous paleoenvironment in the western portion of the Araripe Basin. At the outcrop Torrinha, proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified. These predominantly consist of ceritid, cassiopid, and later, naticid gastropods as well as undetermined bivalves. Given this lack of variability it can be deduced that there were no significant paleoenvironmental changes during the successive stages tempestitic sedimentation. In the Torre Grande outcrop distal to proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified from the base to the top respectively pointing to a decrease in paleodepth. Asides from the macroinvertebrates present in Torrinha, there are also echinoids - unequivocal evidence for marine conditions. These occurrences appear to be restricted to Romualdo Member outcrops in the Araripina municipality (the Southeast portion of the Araripe Basin) confirming a previously published hypothesis suggesting that the Cretaceous marine transgression originated from the neighbouring Parnaíba Basin to the west. This study identified marine molluscs of a similar age to those in the Romualdo Member's equivalent rock units in the Parnaíba and Sergipe-Alagoas (SE-AL) basins suggesting a marine connection between these basins and the Araripe Basin during the Early Cretaceous.

  12. Dinosaurs remains from western São Paulo state, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, C. R. A.; Abranches, C. T.; Abrantes, E. A.; Avilla, L. S.; Martins, V. C.; Moreira, A. L.; Torres, S. R.; Bergqvist, L. P.

    2004-12-01

    In this contribution is presented the preliminary results of a paleontological expedition to five Upper Cretaceous fossil sites in the western part of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Although the material is fragmented, the recovered fossils constitute an important record of the theropod dinosaur; some isolated teeth are the first record of Carcharodontosauridae in the Upper Cretaceous period in Brazil. The authors group the teeth of the theropod into five morphological groups on the basis of the general morphology of each tooth's cross-section and the presence of wrinkles on the crown. Spinosaurid and abelisaurid are also represented in this assembly, though other morph groups remain undetermined. One tooth in particular and a caudal vertebra indicate the presence of sauropods from the family Titanosauridae family.

  13. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s-1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m- 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  14. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  15. Early Devonian (Late Emsian) shark fin remains (Chondrichthyes) from the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martha; Bosetti, Elvio P; Horodyski, Rodrigo S

    2017-01-01

    We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials). No elements such as teeth or prismatic cartilage have been preserved with the fins rays. This can be attributed to the dissolution of calcium-phosphatic minerals at the early stages of fossilization due to diagenetic processes possibly linked to strong negative taphonomic bias. This may have contributed to the fact that fishes remained elusive in the Devonian strata of this basin, despite substantial geological work done in the Paraná State in recent decades. In addition, the scarcity of fish fossils may be explained by the fact that the Devonian rock deposits in this basin originated in a vertebrate impoverished, cold marine environment of the Malvinokaffric Realm, as previously suspected.

  16. Rift border system: The interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in the Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, L.P.; Silva, T.F. da

    1995-11-01

    A geometric and depositional model is proposed to explain the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the main border of the Reconcavo basin. The architecture of the rift margin is characterized by a rift border system constituted by (1) a master fault, (2) a step, and (3) a clastic wedge. This footwall-derived clastic wedge is interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas composed of conglomerates that interfinger with hanging-wall strata. The analysis of the vertical distribution of coarse-grained components of this wedge suggests that its composition is geographically controlled, and no regular inverted stratigraphy is commonly described for this type of succession. During an initial lacustrine phase, turbidites accumulated farther from and parallel to the rift margin. The mapping of marker beds that bound these lacustrine turbidite deposits may be used to infer major periods of clastic influx and, therefore, to correlate with periods of fault-related subsidence or climatic fluctuations in the depositional basin and erosion of the sediment source area. Periods of limited back-faulting and basin expansion toward the main border are distinguished through patterns of progradation and aggradation indicating progressive retreat of the rift border and younging; in the footwall direction. The overall evolution of the rift border seems to be related to extension, block rotation, hanging-wall subsidence, and footwall uplift associated with the initial master fault, with limited propagation of faults away from the basin into the footwall.

  17. Lagoa Feia Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Campos basin, offshore Brazil - Rift-Valley-Stage Lacustrine carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Petrobras, T.; Carozzi, A.V.

    1985-02-01

    The Lagoa Feia Formation, buried in excess of 3000 m, is the exploration frontier of the prolific Campos basin. It contains the source beds of all the basin's oil in addition to having its own potential carbonate reservoirs. The faulted margins of the basin fed a system of alluvial fans, sand flats, and mud flats. Alternating dry and rainy period regulated the size and nature of contemporaneous basinal alkaline lakes. Dry periods corresponded to contracted playa lakes with ostracod carbonates and euxinic shales; rainy periods corresponded to expanded pluvial lakes with pelecypod banks. Subaqueous intrusions of basaltic magma generated hyaloclastites with kerolitic ooids and hyalotuffs. Petrographic analysis reveals 5 diagenetic stages: (1) syndepositional alteration of lithoclasts to trioctahedral smectites; (2) early dolomitization, early silicification, and cementation by bladed-rim calcite and zeolites; (3) freshwater-vadose dissolution of bioclasts and lithoclasts, freshwater-phreatic sparite cementation, and neomorphism; (4) mixed saline-freshwater silicification; and (5) burial with compaction, late dolomitization, and partial conversion of smectites to illite. Pelecypod limestones with primary interparticle, secondary intraparticle, moldic, and moldic-enlarged porosities are the potential reservoirs. Ideal conditions for porosity generation and preservation were subaerial exposure followed by rapid lake expansion and burial.

  18. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  19. Explaining the thick crust in Paraná basin, Brazil, with satellite GOCE gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla; Ussami, Naomi

    2013-08-01

    Seismologic observations in the last decades have shown that the crustal thickness in Paraná basin locally is over 40 km thick, which is a greater value than expected by the simple isostatic model considering the topographic load. The goal of this work is to explain this apparent discrepancy by modeling the internal crustal density anomalies through the gravity field. We use the latest Earth Gravity Model derived from the observations of the GOCE satellite mission, to retrieve the gravity anomaly and correct it for topographic effects, thus obtaining the Bouguer field. We then model the gravity effect of known stratigraphic units and of the seismological crustal thickness. The large Paraná basin comprises over 3500 m of Paleozoic sedimentary sequence with density between 2400 and 2600 kg/m3. During the Early Cretaceous the same basin was affected by a large amount of igneous activity with a volume of over 0.1 Mkm3. The flood basalt volcanism is known as the Serra Geral Formation, and has a maximum thickness of 1500 m. The stratigraphic units of the basin are topped by post-volcanic deposits of the Bauru Group, of about 300 m thickness, located in the northern part of the basin. The density and thickness of the sedimentary sequence are constrained by sonic logs of drill-holes and exploration seismic. We use the crustal thickness estimated from the newest seismological results for South America to calculate its gravity effect. Further we model the isostatic crustal thickness variation, allowing the comparison between a seismological Moho, an isostatic Moho, and a gravity-based Moho. We find that there is a clear positive Bouguer residual anomaly located in the northern and southern part of the Paraná basin, indicating the presence of a hidden mass, not considered up to now. We propose a model that explains this mass as magmatic rock, probably gabbro in lower crust, with density contrast of 200 kg/m3 and thickness of more than 10 km, thus demonstrating that the

  20. Reinterpretation of the tectonics and formation of the Pernambuco Plateau Basin, NE Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Reston, Timothy; Barbosa, Antonio; Biondo, Vanessa; Mort, Haydon P.

    2017-04-01

    The continental margin from Alagoas to Natal represents arguably the most frontier region for exploration on the Brazillian margin. High quality seismic data was not collected in the region for many decades as it was believed that only a few kilometers of sediment existed, and thus there was no exploration potential. Here we present the results of work done as part of an IODP virtual site survey. The work has resulted in a total reinterpretation of the basin structure and tectonics, including finding sediment filled half grabens holding up to 8km thick stratigraphic sections. The two deepest grabens likely represent rift jumps during breakup, which may imply different age sediments in the different grabens. The basin is also found to contain a sizable salt accumulation, previously uninterpreted due to hard overlying carbonates hampering seismic imaging. This salt can be seen to have been highly mobile in the past, and has developed into kilometer scale diapirs flanked by typical rollover anticlines. For the first time we show the basin has all the elements needed for a working petroleum system, with the exception a source rock - which cannot be speculated on further as the basin is undrilled. However source rock sequences are present in the Alagoas basin to the south, and recent released seep data show evidence for both biogeneic and thermogenic seeps over the plateau basin, which could also signal source rock presence. We present seismic and potential fields data, including forward potential fields models and seismically derived crustal stretching and thinning estimates, to show that the half grabens terminate abruptly at the latitude of the Pernambuco Shear Zone, a major crustal scale Precambrian shear zone. Onshore boreholes, well away from the deep seismically imaged half grabens offshore, find crystalline basement to drop away rapidly across the shearzone, revealing a third graben to terminate at the shear zone. We interpret this as that the preexisting

  1. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-11-10

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments.

  2. Biostratigraphic analysis based on palynomorphs and ostracods from core 2-JNS-01PE, Lower Cretaceous, Jatobá Basin, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Luiz R. D. S. L.; Tomé, Maria E. T. R.; Barreto, Alcina M. F.; Holanda de Oliveira, David; Neumann, Virgínio H. M. L.

    2017-07-01

    This manuscript presents a biostratigraphic analysis based on non-marine palynomorphs and ostracods during the interval corresponding to the Aptian - lower Albian (local Alagoas stage) in the Jatobá Basin, northeastern Brazil. The data used for the analysis were from 179 samples collected in core 2-JSN-01-PE, which was drilled in the locality of Serra Negra, municipality of Ibimirim, Pernambuco. Of the 179 samples collected and prepared, only 23 presented ostracods, whereas 64 levels were carriers of organic waste, which aided in the biostratigraphic correlation of the studied core. From the palynological data, it was possible to identify the upper limit of the Inaperturopollenites turbatus (P-260) palynozone and the Sergipea variverrucata (P-270) palynozone and the lower limit of the Complicatisaccus cearensis (P-280) palynozone in the core 2-JSN-01-PE. Among the palynozones, the upper limit of P-260, whose record is difficult to track in northeastern Brazil and has been identified only in the Sergipe/Alagoas basin, and the limit of P-270 and P-280 in the Jatobá Basin, which had not yet been identified, can be highlighted. From the data based on non-marine ostracods, it was possible identify the ;Cytheridea;? spp. ex. Group 201/218 Biozone (herein designated Damonella grandiensis), code 011. Such record in the Jatobá Basin is represented for a diverse fauna when compared with the record of monospecific fauna initially proposed in the Sergipe/Alagoas Basin.

  3. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  4. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. )

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  5. [The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].

    PubMed

    Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction.

  6. Seismites in continental sand sea deposits of the Late Cretaceous Caiuá Desert, Bauru Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; de Castro, Alice Bonatto; Basilici, Giorgio

    2007-07-01

    Two large-scale sediment deformation structures, minor fold occurrences in cross-bedded sand dune deposits and complex convolute folds, are observed in red sandstones, in a zone about 1.5 km long in floodway cuts at the Sérgio Motta/Porto Primavera dam, São Paulo state, Brazil. The most important structures are confined to planar zones, up to 10 m thick, in undeformed dune foreset strata were they can be traced laterally for about 50-60 m. The sandstones are part of the Rio Paraná Formation, Caiuá Group, which accumulated in a great sand sea of about 100,000 km 2. The Caiuá Desert developed during the Late Cretaceous in the southern part of the Bauru Basin, an intracontinental subsiding area in the central-southern part of the South-American Platform. The basin was filled by a sandy sequence about 300 m thick. The sand sea deposits correspond to the Caiuá Group and comprise: a) deposits of dry sand sheets (Santo Anastácio Formation), b) deposits of medium-sized dunes and humid interdunes of the sand sea peripheral zones (Goio Erê Formation), and c) deposits of large-sized complex aeolian dunes and draas, that correspond to the central part of the inland sand sea (Rio Paraná Formation). The deformations in the sediments are attributed to the effects of fluidization, liquefaction and shear stress, which are interpreted as being earthquake-induced structures, mainly because: (1) the deformed horizons are confined between undeformed cross-bedded strata, (2) the complex convolute folds sometimes include nappe-like structures that overlie foreset facies, (3) during the Bauru Basin infilling there was tectonic activity associated with alkaline volcanism on the borders of the basin and related silicification in the central-southern part. The main silicification zones are aligned to regional lineaments that cross the area near the large-scale sedimentary deformation structures.

  7. The transgressive-regressive cycle of the Romualdo Formation (Araripe Basin): Sedimentary archive of the Early Cretaceous marine ingression in the interior of Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Michele Andriolli; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Perinotto, José Alexandre J.; Assine, Mario Luis

    2017-08-01

    Geologic events related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean deeply influenced the sedimentary record of the Araripe Basin. As consequence, upper stratigraphic units of the basin record a marine ingression in northeastern Brazil during the late Aptian. The timing and stratigraphic architecture of these units are crucial to understand the paleogeography of Gondwana and how the proto-Atlantic Ocean reached interior NE Brazil during the early Cretaceous. This marine ingression is recorded in the Araripe Basin as the Romualdo Formation, characterized by a transgressive-regressive cycle bounded by two regional unconformities. In the eastern part of the basin, the Romualdo depositional sequence comprises coastal alluvial and tide-dominated deposits followed by marine transgressive facies characterized by two fossil-rich intervals: a lower interval of black shales with fossil-rich carbonate concretions (Konservat-Lagerstätten) and an upper level with mollusk-dominated shell beds and shelly limestones. Following the marine ingression, an incomplete regressive succession of marginal-marine facies records the return of continental environments to the basin. The stratigraphic framework based on the correlation of several sections defines a transgressive-regressive cycle with depositional dip towards southeast, decreasing in thickness towards northwest, and with source areas located at the northern side of the basin. The facies-cycle wedge-geometry, together with paleocurrent data, indicates a coastal onlap towards NNW. Therefore, contrary to several paleogeographic scenarios previously proposed, the marine ingression would have reached the western parts of the Araripe Basin from the SSE.

  8. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  9. A snapshot on prokaryotic diversity of the Solimões River basin (Amazon, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Toyama, D; Santos-Júnior, C D; Kishi, L T; Oliveira, T C S; Garcia, J W; Sarmento, H; Miranda, F P; Henrique-Silva, F

    2017-05-18

    The Amazon region has the largest hydrographic basin on the planet and 
is well known for its huge biodiversity of plants and animals. However, 
there is a lack of studies on aquatic microbial biodiversity in the 
Solimões River, one of its main water courses. To investigate the 
microbial biodiversity of this region, we performed 16S rRNA gene clone 
libraries from Solimões River and adjacent rivers and lakes. Our question was which microorganisms inhabit the different types of aquatic 
environments in this part of the basin, and how diversity varies among 
these environments (rivers and lakes). The microbial 
diversity generating 13 clone libraries of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene 
and 5 libraries of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene was assessed. Diversity measured by several alpha diversity indices (ACE, Chao, Shannon and Simpson) revealed significant differences in diversity indices between lake and river samples. The site with higher microbial diversity was in the Solimões River (4S), downstream the confluence with Purus River. The most common bacterial taxon was the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter genus, widely observed in all samples. The phylum Thaumarchaeota was the prevailing archaeal taxon. Our results provide the first insight into the microbial diversity of the world's largest river basin.

  10. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  11. Factors controlling the abundance of organic sulfur in flash pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous kerogens from Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmo, A.M.; Stankiewicz, B.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Pratt, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene + dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in the type of primary organic input and/or to variations in rates of bacterial sulfate reduction. A concomitant increase in S/C and O/C ratios determined in situ using the electron microprobe is observed in AOM and alginites and may be related to a progressive oxidation of the organic matter during sulfurization. The S/C ratio of the AOM is systematically higher than the S C ratio of the alginites. Combined with a thiophene distribution characteristic of pyrolyzates of Type II organic matter, the higher S/C of AOM in Sergipe kerogens suggests that sulfurization and incorporation of low-molecular weight lipids derived from normal marine organic matter into the kerogen structure predominated over direct sulfurization of highly aliphatic algal biomacromolecules.The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene+dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in

  12. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's Hydroelectric Development of the Xingu River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Phillip M.

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil’s proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country’s national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  13. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; Brink, Uri ten; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353–865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  14. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, U.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353-865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  15. Broad band and long period magnetotellurics for imaging the onshore portion of Santos basin and orogenic belts of southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, F. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Miquelutti, L. G.; La Terra, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    Between October 2011 and April 2012, we carried out 81 broad band and 40 long period magnetotelluric soundings covering the frequency range 1000 Hz - 0.0001 Hz. These soundings are distributed into two parallel 210km long profiles, approximately 50 km apart, spaced 5 km with EM field components oriented to the magnetic north and east directions. Both ADU07 (Metronix) and LEMI 417 (Lviv) systems were used. Typically, three to four MT soundings were measured simultaneously for this study. Both profiles initiate at the coast and continues to the continent direction. These profiles crossed two major Neoproterozoic Orogenic Belts, Brasilia and Ribeira, as well as several geosutures in the basement of the marginal basins of southeastern Brazil. The geophysical survey associated with the available geological information brought important contributions to the understanding of the main geosutures presents in the area. One located at the southeast end of the MT profiles, separating the tectonic domains of Ribeira Belt from the Pre-cambrian lands of Santos Basin. The other one situated in the extreme northwest of the MT profiles, limiting the Ribeira and Brasilia Belts. Data were processed using a robust remote-reference technique. Strike and dimensionality analysis along with G-B decomposition support a general 2-D regional character of the conductivity distribution in the area, allowing us to create a 2-D inversion model. Good misfit can be observed between the measured and calculated transfer functions projected onto the profile direction. Very preliminary results imaged the two main suture zones between the orogenics belts and allow inferences about the geographic position of their lateral limits.

  16. Mesozoic lacustrine system in the Parnaíba Basin, northeastern Brazil: Paleogeographic implications for west Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Alexandre Ribeiro; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Abrantes, Francisco Romério; Rabelo, Cleber Eduardo Neri

    2017-03-01

    The fragmentation of the West Gondwana during Early Triassic to Cretaceous was marked by intense climatic changes, concomitant with the establishment of extensive desertic/lacustrine systems. These deposits succeeded the emplacement and extrusion of lava flows, related to the pre-rift phase and initial opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The thermal phase is recorded in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Pastos Bons Formation, exposed mainly in southeast parts of the Parnaíba Basin, Northeastern Brazil. The sedimentary facies of this unit were grouped in two facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system, influenced by episodic hyperpycnal and oscillatory flows. Central lake facies association (FA1) is composed by laminated mudstone (Ml), sandstone/mudstone rhythmite (S/Mr) and sandstone with even-parallel lamination (Sel). Flysch-like delta front (FA2) consists in sandstones with wave structures (Sw), sandstones with even-parallel stratification (Ses), massive sandstones (Sm), sandstones with soft-sediment deformation structures (Sd) and laminated mudstones (Ml). FA1 was deposited in the deepest portions of the lake, characterized by low energy, episodically disturbed by siliciclastic influx. FA2 presents sandy deposits generated by unconfined flow, probably fed by ephemeral stream flows that generated thickening upward of tabular sandstone beds. The progressive filling of the lake resulted in recurrent shoaling up of the water level and reworking by wave action. The installation of Pastos Bons lakes was controlled by thermal subsidence, mainly in restricted depocenters. The siliciclastic fluvial inflow can be related to the adjacent humid desertic facies, formed under climatic attenuation, typical of post-Triassic period, with reduced biological activity. Smectite and abundant feldspars, in lacustrine facies, corroborate an arid climate, with incipient chemical weathering. The new facies and stratigraphic data present in this

  17. Many objective optimization and impact assessment of water management options in the Jaguaribe Basin of North East Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jaguaribe river basin in the north east of Brazil lies in the country's driest state, Ceará. Rainfall is concentrated in six months of the year, evapotranspiration can reach 2000 mm per year and a high proportion of the population relies on irrigated agriculture for their subsistence or livelihood. The current water management strategy involves negotiating monthly release rates from each of the basin's three major reservoirs twice a year. The state water management company leads these negotiations with representatives of various water user groups; releases are decided based on the currently stored volume and limited modelling of release scenarios. Presently reservoirs are managed such that municipal demands are guaranteed for 30 months from the date of negotiation. We use multi-objective optimization to search for the pareto-optimal number of months of municipal demand to be guaranteed, and the shape of release rules (based on stored volume). System performance is assessed by comparing flow-duration curves and livelihood factors, such as riparian farm land availability and fishery quality , in addition to the satisfaction of demands in the region supplied by each reservoir. Historical monthly flows are used to simulate the system over 90 years. Results shows the trade-offs between different performance measures and the effects of management option combinations on different water users. A few climate change projections of reservoir inflows are used to assess how a selection of the resulting release rules might perform against the same measures under altered future hydrological conditions. The proposed approach helps planners evaluate the impacts of management options and allows finding balanced stakeholder-backed ways to reduce negative impacts on the environment and the region's vulnerable groups while maintaining overall system performance.

  18. New petrified forest in Maranhão, Permian (Cisuralian) of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, Domingas Maria; de Andrade, Luiz Saturnino; Cisneros, Juan Carlos; Iannuzzi, Roberto; Pereira, Agostinha Araújo; Machado, Francisco Carlos

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a new fossil plant-bearing area located in the municipalities of Duque Bacelar and Coelho Neto, Maranhão State, Brazil, recovered from lower Permian (Cisuralian) strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, northeastern portion of the Parnaíba Basin. The area comprises more than five exposures with assemblages formed mostly of large gymnosperm woods, a number of them in life-position (reaching up to ∼2.30 m in height and 1.15 m in diameter) and, in lesser degree, of horizontal tree-fern stems (up to 5 m in length), some of them being referable to Psaronius sp. The fossils are recorded in sedimentary beds of continental origin that accumulated in shallow, nearshore areas of large lakes, which eventually were affected by rapid burial episodes generated by non-channelized, high energy fluvial systems. The new fossil assemblages are included within lacustrine rocks placed at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, i.e., Sílex Basal Member, near the contact with the underlying Piauí Formation (Pennsylvanian). This observation contrasts with previous studies at the southwestern portion of the basin, where the stratigraphic position of plant fossils is referred to the upper Pedra de Fogo Formation (Trisidela Member) or even to the overlying Motuca Formation. The new sites currently suffer damage from human activities and require urgent actions in order to protect them. Based on the current laws, some measures of protection for these sites are discussed and proposed herein. xml:lang="pt"

  19. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is

  20. Delimitation and analysis of environmental protection areas in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Rosim, Sergio; Jimenez Ortiz, Manoel; de Freitas Oliveira, João. R.; Morais, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Fernando R.

    2014-10-01

    This work establishes a semi-automatic methodology to define and evaluate the Environmental Protection Areas (EPA), in the Paraíba River Basin, Brazil, taking account the land use and the water quality. The development of this work started from the water capitation point of Guaratingueta city located on the stream that runs through the city. From ASTER GDEM data the drainage network and the basin catchment was automatically extracted. Landsat images for the dates of 1989, 2001 and 2014 were digitally classified and the land uses were mapped, considering the area of permanent protection (APP) for drainage, respecting the limits indicated by Brazilian forest code. Scenes from the RapidEye satellite were used to answer questions of classification, due to good image definition. The study showed that in 1989, the total area classified as APP, 37.59% were anthropized, reaching 37.98% in 2001 and 36.98% in 2014. In a few years it was possible to associate data from water quality, measured directly at the capitation. In 2001 the water quality data showed that the intensive use of fertilizers drained into the Guaratingueta stream by rice paddies was seriously affecting the water supply of the municipality. In 2008 measures for water quality at the capitation point showed that the water resources were still impacted by agricultural activities from the rice fields. So, this work indicates the need for revitalization of the APP inside the EPA Guaratingueta in order to meet the law, protect watersheds and also avoid large investments in water treatment arriving for public consumption.

  1. Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

    2013-05-01

    Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 μg l(-1)) and Mn (12 μg l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results.

  2. Early Permian post-glacial bivalve faunas of the Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil: Paleoecology and biocorrelations with South American intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Jacqueline Peixoto; Anelli, Luiz Eduardo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães

    2014-07-01

    The uppermost portion of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil, records a succession of depositional environments tied to the demise of late Paleozoic glaciation. In the study area, Teixeira Soares county, state of Paraná, the unit is dominated by massive to laminated diamictites with inclusions of sandstones and other coarse-grained lithotypes, representing re-sedimented material in proximal areas. These are succeeded by fine to medium-grained sandstones with tabular cross-stratification and pectinid-rich shell pavements, interpreted as nearshore deposits. Above this, laminated and intensely bioturbated siltstones with closed articulated bivalve shells are recorded, probably deposited in inner shelf settings. Fine to very fine sandstones/siltstones with hummocky cross-stratification and intercalated mudstones, including infaunal in situ shells, are interpreted as stacked storm deposits, generated in distal shoreface environments. These are succeeded by fossil-poor, massive to laminated siltstones/mudstones or gray shales (=Passinho shale) that are inferred to be outer shelf deposits, generated in organic-rich, oxygen-deficient muddy bottoms. In this sedimentary succession dropstones or ice-rafted debris are missing and locally the Passinho shale marks the maximum flooding surface of the Itararé succession. These are capped by the fluvio-deltaic deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation (Sakmarian-Artinskian). Six facies-controlled, bivalve-dominated assemblages are recognized, representing faunal associations that thrived in aerobic to extreme dysaerobic bottoms along a nearshore-offshore trend. Within these assemblages, nineteen bivalve species (three of them new) were recorded and described in detail. The presence of Myonia argentinensis (Harrington), Atomodesma (Aphanaia) orbirugata (Harrington) and Heteropecten paranaensis Neves et al. suggests correlation with bivalve assemblages of the Eurydesma-bearing Bonete Formation, Pillahuincó Group

  3. Effects of deforestation and climate variability on the hydrological balance of the Xingu River Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, P. K.; Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Castanho, A. D. D. A.; Lefebvre, P.

    2014-12-01

    High historical deforestation rates and a rapidly changing agricultural landscape are altering the energy and water balance of the eastern Amazon basin. The headwaters of Xingu River Basin (XB; Area: 510,000 km2) in the southeastern Amazon have seen some of the highest rates of deforestation, resulting in a decrease of average basin forest cover from about 90% in the 1970s to 75% in the 2000s. This study examines the water balance of the XB and attributes the influences of climate variations and deforestation using a diverse set of observational and modeling tools including; long-term observations of rainfall and discharge, satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration (MODIS) and surface water storage (GRACE), and numerical model output (IBIS) of the set of hydrological components (evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and discharge). This water budget of the 2000s is first estimated by explicitly including deforestation over the 2001-2010 through integration of the modeled outputs with forest cover information from MODIS. Modeled outputs from the 1970s to the 2000s are then used to estimate the effects on the Xingu water budget due to climate variability, historical deforestation, or both. The decadal mean water balance components of the IBIS simulation over the 2001-2010, compares well with the satellite-derived and field-based observational estimates. Analysis of the individual components of change from the 1970s to the 2000s indicates that climate variability and land cover change have had opposite influences with climate effects masking the changes in water budget due to historical deforestation. Changes in land cover due to deforestation have decreased ET by ~3% and increased soil moisture by ~1% in XB, leading to increased discharge on average by 8% from the 1970s to the 2000s.

  4. Influence of Neoproterozoic tectonic fabric on the origin of the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil and its links with West Africa based on gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Sousa, Maria O. L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2012-03-01

    The Potiguar Basin is a ˜6,000 m thick aborted NE-trending rift that was formed during the Cretaceous in the continental margin of northeastern Brazil. Its ˜E-W-trending offshore faults form part of the successful continental margin rift that evolved into the South Atlantic Ocean. The region represents one of the most significant pre-Pangea breakup piercing points between eastern South America and West Africa. We used gravity, aeromagnetic, and geological data to assess the role of reactivated Precambrian shear zones and major terrain boundaries in the development of the Potiguar Basin from the Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. We also looked for possible links between these structures in northeastern Brazil and their continuation in West Africa. Our results indicate that the major fault systems of the Potiguar Basin were superimposed on the Precambrian fabric. Both gravity and magnetic maps show lineaments related to the shear zones and major terrain boundaries in the Precambrian crystalline basement, which also characterize the architecture of the rift. For example, the Carnaubais fault, the master fault of the rift system, represents the reactivation of the Portalegre shear zone, the major tectonic boundary between Precambrian terrains in the crystalline basement. In addition, part of the Moho topography is controlled by these shear zones and developed during the period of main rift extension in the Neocomian. The shear zones bounding the Potiguar rift system continue in West Africa around and underneath the Benue Basin, where fault reactivation also took place.

  5. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F

    2016-03-24

    Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided.

  6. Cytherellid species (Ostracoda) and their significance to the Late Quaternary events in the Santos Basin, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergue, C.T.; Coimbra, J.C.; Cronin, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Four autochthonous cytherellid species (Cytherella serratula (BRADY, 1880), C. hermargentina WHATLEY et al. 1998, C. pleistocenica sp. nov. and C. santosensis sp. nov.) have been identified from two offshore cores (44 samples) within the Santos Basin. The distribution of these ostracodes is controlled by local hydrological conditions such as the temperature and, possibly, the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, these factors cannot explain completely the species occurrence in the analysed cores, and relative sea level changes and productivity variation driven by climatic changes are proposed as additional explanations for the faunal distribution pattern. ?? E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Na??gele u. Obermiller), 2007.

  7. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistruskayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrusasurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrusbarbatus, Pseudancistruscorantijniensis, Pseudancistrusdepressus, Pseudancistrusnigrescens, Pseudancistrusreus, and Pseudancistruszawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistruskayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrusreus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrusasurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  8. Stress variability in the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil, during Cretaceous rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, Delano M.; Pestilho, André L. S.; Turra, Bruno B.; Destro, Nivaldo; Miranda, Fernando P.; Riccomini, Claudio; Lammoglia, Talita; Dubois, Daniel S.; Schmidt, Jaques S.

    2017-03-01

    The Cretaceous section of the Parnaíba Basin, designated as Grajaú Basin, represents an intracontinental half-graben formed during the Early Cretaceous due to the separation between the South American and African continents during the final dispersal of Western Gondwana. Here, through a synergetic approach between fluid inclusion planes (FIPs), outcropping geologic structures, borehole breakouts and remote sensing data, we elucidate in different scales the main structural features and their kinematic indicators. Normal faults strike mainly NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE, while deformation bands and extension joints trend to NW-SE and NE-SW, and FIPs to NE-SW and WNW-ESE. In addition, normal fault-generated scarps border geomorphological units and constitute dense zones of deformation bands and fluidization. Microthermometric FIP analyses suggest this fracturing event occurred at shallow basin levels, at temperatures below 50 °C. Furthermore, joints, bands and FIPs present mutually cross-cutting relationships, thus indicating contemporaneity. The numerical inversions applied to striated faults, non-striated faults, joints, deformation bands and FIPs suggest the occurrence of an extensional event characterized by variable direction of extension (σ3) trending from NW-SE to WNW-ESE or NE-SE to NNE-SSW. This event probably started in the Albian during the final Gondwana fragmentation stages. The quasi-perpendicular σ3 trend could be caused by one or all of the following phenomena: a) stress ratio R values obtained (< 0.4) indicate the possibility of radial extension (σ2 ≈ σ3), perhaps in response to the deformation partitioning due to kinematic simple-shearing constraints along the Equatorial Atlantic transform margin; b) along the WNW-oriented release normal faults, the local extension (NNE-SSW) switch positions in relation to the regional extension (WNW-ESE) by rotating 90°; c) influence of the pre-existing structures on the regional stress field. Thus, the spatial and

  9. New insights into Gondwana paleography based on palinological data from Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves Garcia, Gustavo; Vasconcellos Garcia, Antônio Jorge; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    The Sergipe-Alagoas basin (NE Brazil) has been widely studied in the frame of oil exploration, because it displays the most complete exposition of the stratigraphic sequences from the basins of the Brazilian continental margin. In this context, the aim of this workis to present the results of the bio-stratigraphic and paleo-environmental analysis of Morro do Chaves Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in Alagoas Sub-basin, part of the transitional section situated between the rift phase and restricted marine environment associated with the South Atlantic ocean opening. The material was analyzed from the palynological point of view and was collected in the InterCement quarry, located in São Miguel dos Campos, State of Alagoas. From 17 outcrop rock samples collected, nine had palynological content; among these only six were considered for biostratigraphic analysis purposes. In addition to outcrop samples, 28 samples were processed from four core drill. The paleoenvironmental analysis was based on the palynological content of the collected samples and on the paleontological and geological information available. The studied sedimentary package corresponds to carbonate and fine siliciclastic deposits, with approximately 70.0 m in thickness. The unit in question is formed by carbonatic "coquinóides" rocks interspersed with shale levels of dark green color. Palinofloristic assemblages were recuperated between 5.0 m and 70.0 m of the outcropping section. In the recovered material it was possible to identify 9 kinds of spores and 8 kinds of pollen grains, and two genera of fungi. Due to the degree of preservation of the material, age was established by the occurrence of Dicheiropollis etruscus specimens, which has enabled the recognition of the Dicheiropollis etruscus palinozone (upper Barremian). In microscopic observations under fluorescent light some algalic vesicles components were also recognized and classified as possible algae of the Prasinophyceae class, indicating

  10. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Pereira, Marcos Paulo; Justino, Flavio; Mendes Malhado, Ana Claudia; Barbosa, Humberto; Marengo, José

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate-vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere.

  11. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  12. First ediacaran fauna occurrence in northeastern Brazil (jaibaras basin, ?ediacaran-cambrian): preliminary results and regional correlation.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Francisco R G; Viana, Maria Somália S; de Lima Filho, Mario F; Agostinho, Sonia M O

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the first known occurrence of the Ediacaran fauna in northeastern Brazil (at Pacujá Municipality, northwestern state of Ceará) and presents preliminary interpretations of its significance. Regional correlation indicates that the fossils originated in the Jaibaras Basin and that they may represent a new geological system. The depositional environment can be attributed to a fluviomarine system. Nine Ediacaran species can be identified, including members of pandemic groups (e.g., Charniodiscus arboreus Glaessner, 1959; ?Charniodiscus concentricus Ford, 1958; Cyclomedusa davidi Sprigg, 1947; Ediacaria flindersi Sprigg, 1947; and Medusinites asteroides Sprigg, 1949) and endemic groups (e.g., Kimberella quadrata Glaessner & Wade, 1966; Palaeophragmodictya reticulata Gehling & Rigby, 1996; Parvancorina minchami Glaessner, 1958; and Pectinifrons abyssalis Bamforth, Narbonne, Anderson, 2008). Three ichnogenera are also present: Arenicolites Salter, 1857; Palaeophycus Hall, 1987; and Planolites Nicholson, 1873. The relative age of the deposits is between ?Ediacaran and Cambrian, and the fauna resembles the White Sea Assemblage. The bioturbation presents typical unbranched Ediacaran ichnogenera with little depth in the substrate. This previously unknown occurrence of the Ediacaran fauna reinforces the importance of the state of Ceará to Brazilian and global palaeontology.

  13. Heavy metals and DNA damage in blood cells of insectivore bats in coal mining areas of Catarinense coal basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    José Zocche, Jairo; Dimer Leffa, Daniela; Paganini Damiani, Adriani; Carvalho, Fernando; Avila Mendonça, Rodrigo; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Appel Boufleur, Liana; Ferraz Dias, Johnny; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the content of heavy metals in the liver and the DNA damage in blood cells of insectivore bats in the Catarinense Carboniferous Basin, Southern Brazil. Three bats species (Molossus molossus, Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus diminutus) were collected in a coal mining area and in a control area. The heavy metal content in bats was detected according to the PIXE technique and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. The contents of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb in M. molossus and of Cu and Fe in T. brasiliensis from the coal mining area was higher than in the animals from the control area. In both areas differences in metal contents in the liver were observed between the bat species. The parameters assessed by the Comet assay were significantly higher in E. diminutus as compared to M. molossus and T. brasiliensis. Values of both Comet assay parameters were significantly higher in the mining area as compared to the control area only for T. brasiliensis.

  14. Rovearinids (stemless crinoids) in the Albian carbonates of the offshore Santos Basin, southeastern Brazil: stratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic and palaeoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias-Brito, D.; Ferré, B.

    2001-06-01

    Microfacies analysis of marine carbonates cored by Petrobras well 1-SPS-6 in the offshore Santos Basin (southeastern Brazil) has revealed a remarkable fossil assemblage of calpionellids (colomiellids), favusellids, hedbergellids, globigerinelloidids, buliminids, radiolarians, inoceramid prisms, roveacrinids, and saccocomids(?) preserved in lower Albian calcimudstones-wackestones of the lower part of the Guarujá Formation. This assemblage represents an allochtonous accumulation in a deep neritic to shallow bathyal hypoxic environment. Besides 'saccocomid-like' sections, the only determinable sections of roveacrinids are thecal plates of Poecilocrinus dispandus elongatus Peck, 1943. This species was previously only known from the Weno Formation of Texas. The Brazilian material extends its records farther south from at least the lower Albian, which then represents the earliest occurrence of this peculiar family in the South Atlantic region. Taking into account their Albian global distribution and the location of their oldest representative (Hauterivian near Alicante, Spain), the Roveacrinidae dispersed westward throughout all of Cretaceous Tethys. The Tethyan origin of Roveacrinidae is further evidence that, during late Aptian-Albian times, the northern South Atlantic (north of the Walvis-São Paulo Ridge) was supplied by a Tethyan water mass.

  15. Biochronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment analysis of Neogene deposits from the Pelotas Basin (well 2-TG-96-RS), Southernmost Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wagner G; Zerfass, Geise S A; Souza, Paulo A; Helenes, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the integration of micropaleontological (palynology and foraminifera) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of a selected interval from the well 2-TG-96-RS, drilled on the onshore portion of the Pelotas Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of eight samples of the section between 140.20 and 73.50 m in depth was selected for palynological analysis, revealing diversified and abundant palynomorph associations. Species of spores, pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts are the most common palynomorphs found. Planktic and benthic calcareous foraminifera were recovered from the lowest two levels of the section (140.20 and 134.30 m). Based on the stratigraphic range of the species of dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, a span age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene is assigned. The relative age obtained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of calcareous foraminifers indicates a Late Miocene (Messinian) correspondence, corroborating the biostratigraphic positioning performed with palynomorphs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the quantitative distribution of organic components (palynomorphs, phytoclasts and amorphous organic matter) throughout the section and on foraminiferal associations indicate a shallow marine depositional environment for the section. Two palynologicals intervals were recognized based on palynofacies analysis, related to middle to outer shelf (140.20 to 128.90 m) and inner shelf (115.75 to 73.50 m) conditions.

  16. Mercury (Hg) in fish consumed by the local population of the Jaguaribe River lower basin, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, B G B; Lacerda, L D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of Hg concentrations in fish is of considerable interest since these organisms are a major source of protein to coastal human populations and fishing communities. The main source of human exposure to Hg contamination occurs through the consumption of fish. In this paper, we compare Hg concentration in 13 fish species from Jaguaribe River lower basin and an adjacent coastal region in the northeastern coast of Brazil. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: fluvial, estuarine, and marine regions. We tested the hypothesis that Hg concentration in muscle tissue vary according to species, location, and trophic level. Significant differences were observed among species and trophic level, but these could not be observed among the regions studied. As expected, the highest concentrations were observed in carnivorous fish (5.6-107.5; 26.9 ± 18.8 ng g(-1)). Hg concentrations observed in this study are similar to those observed in regions of low environmental contamination. We estimated Hg intake to vary between 0.02 and 0.22 ng Hg kg body weight(-1) week(-1), for the average body weight of 56.7 kg, which was considered as low exposure and therefore, a low risk to consumers of fish from the regions studied.

  17. Water quality and diversity of yeasts from tropical lakes and rivers from the Rio Doce basin in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Adriana O.; Missagia, Beatriz S.; Brandão, Luciana R.; Callisto, Marcos; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast communities were assessed in 14 rivers and four lakes from the Doce River basin in Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons of the years 2000 and 2001. Water samples were collected at the subsurface in all sites. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, ortho-phosphate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and total nitrogen and the counts of faecal coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were carried out to characterize the aquatic environmental sampled. The yeast counts were higher in aquatic environments with the highest counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. These environments receive a high influx of domestic and industrial waste. A total of 317 isolates identified in forty eight yeast species were recorded in the sites sampled and the specie Aureobasidium pullulans were found in eleven out of eighteen sites sampled and some opportunistic pathogens such as the yeast species Candida krusei were isolated only in the polluted rivers with a positive correlation with the biotic and abiotic parameters that indicate sewage contamination. PMID:24031990

  18. Water quality and diversity of yeasts from tropical lakes and rivers from the Rio Doce basin in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriana O; Missagia, Beatriz S; Brandão, Luciana R; Callisto, Marcos; Barbosa, Francisco A R; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-10-01

    Yeast communities were assessed in 14 rivers and four lakes from the Doce River basin in Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons of the years 2000 and 2001. Water samples were collected at the subsurface in all sites. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, ortho-phosphate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and total nitrogen and the counts of faecal coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were carried out to characterize the aquatic environmental sampled. The yeast counts were higher in aquatic environments with the highest counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. These environments receive a high influx of domestic and industrial waste. A total of 317 isolates identified in forty eight yeast species were recorded in the sites sampled and the specie Aureobasidium pullulans were found in eleven out of eighteen sites sampled and some opportunistic pathogens such as the yeast species Candida krusei were isolated only in the polluted rivers with a positive correlation with the biotic and abiotic parameters that indicate sewage contamination.

  19. The role of gravitational collapse in controlling the evolution of crestal fault systems (Espirito Santo Basin, SE Brazil) - Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Bell, Rebecca E.

    2017-05-01

    Ze and Alves (2016) use 3D seismic reflection data to describe the geometry and throw characteristics of a salt-related normal fault population in the Espirito Santo Basin, offshore SE Brazil. As part of their analysis they test two competing fault growth models; (i) the isolated model, which states that faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length, an inference seemingly consistent with displacement-length (D-L) scaling relationships (e.g. Watterson, 1986; Walsh and Watterson, 1988; Dawers et al., 1993; Cartwright et al., 1995; Dawers and Anders, 1995); and (ii) the constant-length model, which states that faults grow via establishment of their near-final length relatively early in their slip history, prior to the accumulation of significant displacement (Fig. 1) (e.g. Morewood and Roberts (1999); Morley, 2002; Walsh et al., 2002, 2003; Childs et al., 2003; Nicol et al., 2005; Schlagenhauf et al., 2008; Giba et al., 2012; Jackson and Rotevatn, 2013). Because they make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution and earthquake hazard potential of rifts, critically testing these models is important for structural geologists, geomorphologists and stratigraphers, amongst many others. However, in our view, such critical testing has rarely been undertaken, thus the study of Ze and Alves (2016) is most welcome.

  20. Ichthyofauna of two streams (silted and reference) in the Upper Paraná river basin, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casatti, L

    2004-11-01

    In this study the fish assemblages of the silted Aguas Claras stream (AC) was compared with that of a reference, the São Carlos stream (SC), so as to identify potential fish indicators of integrity or degradation. Both streams, located about 5 km from one another, are part of the Upper Paraná river basin, Brazil, and present similar physiographical features. Twenty-one species were collected in AC (1,271 specimens) and 18 in SC (940 specimens). In AC, dominant species e.g., Corydoras aeneus (sandy pools), Serrapinnus notomelas, and Pyrrhulina australis (warm marginal shallow pools) were those favored by new microhabitats linked to siltation and removal of the riparian vegetation. Changes in the composition of the marginal vegetation resulted in dominance of species such as Hisonotus francirochai (marginal grasses). In SC the dominant species was Phalloceros caudimacultus, abundant in marginal shallow pools, and Trichomycterus diabolus. and Hypostomus nigromaculatus, exclusively riffle-dwelling species, which were absent in AC. Fish assemblage monitoring is recommended for use in riparian management programs in order to evaluate negative instream sedimentation effects.

  1. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Silveira Filho, Vladimir da Mota; da Costa, Ana Paula Rocha; Nunes, Mariana de Lira; da Silva Filho, Sandoval Vieira; Figueirôa, Ângela Cristina Torres de Araújo; Hofer, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1) positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR); 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin) positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR), and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012) and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region. PMID:23533357

  2. Mercury in sediments from gold and copper exploitation areas in the Camaquã River Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, M. H. D.; Lechler, P.; Formoso, M. L. L.; Miller, J.

    2000-11-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in stream sediments from the Camaquã River Basin, located in the shield region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The resulting geochemical data show that overbank floodplain deposits exhibit higher concentrations than sediments collected from the active channel bed. In addition, higher Hg concentrations were measured in the fine(<63 μm) sediment fraction of the samples. Total Hg concentrations in the fine fraction of active stream sediments from Lavras do Sul County, which have been influenced by past gold mining activities, have decreased during the last five years to values ≤142 ng g -1. However, in a settling pond containing abandoned mine wastes, the Hg concentration of a bulk sample remained exceptionally high (5220 ng g -1). Preliminary speciation results show that Hg 0 is the predominant species in most of the samples. This was the form of Hg released by the gold amalgamation activities in the area, and appears to be relatively stable under the existing Eh and pH conditions.

  3. Composition, structure, origin, and evolution of off-axis linear volcanic structures of the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the conditions and mechanisms of the formation of linear volcanic structures in the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic. Among these objects, those related to the ascent of deep mantle plumes predominate. It is shown that the ascent of melts from plume sources leads to the formation of (a) hot spot tracks in the form of linear volcanic ridges and (b) active hot lines in the form of submarine mountain chains with trends differing from those of hot spot tracks and with a more variable character of the age distribution of volcanic rocks. Fault tectonics affects the character of plume activity. In addition, plume material from a hot spot area is dragged by a moving plate as a flow or a sublithospheric lens, which leads to the long-term existence of particular independent segments of linear structures and sometimes to late volcanism reactivation within their limits. Decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle in zones where thin lithosphere undergoes tension causes the formation of passive hot lines. The main mantle source for the considered volcanic rocks was a mixture of DMM and HIMU mantle components, with the latter abruptly dominating. In marginal oceanic regions, the EM1 component is also present (the EM2 component is found more rarely) within fragments of tectonically delaminated continental mantle that was trapped by the oceanic mantle during the breakup of Gondwana.

  4. Paleogene-Neogene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecological inferences from northern Campos Basin, Brazil (well Campos-01)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Thamara Daniel; Cooper, Maurice Kevin Edward; Rios-Netto, Aristóteles de Moraes

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossils were performed on 50 ditch-cuttings samples from a well drilled in the northern Campos Basin, Brazil. Nine zones and two subzones were recognised in the Paleogene-Neogene section. The absence of zones NN9-NN7 (earliest late-latest middle Miocene), NP25-NP21 (Oligocene) and NP18-NP1 (earliest late Eocene-Paleocene) implies the occurrence of three stratigraphic breaks/unconformities within the studied interval. Nannofossil assemblages present suggest an open-ocean depositional environment under oligotrophic-surface water conditions for the Miocene section of the well. Hughesius spp. and Umbilicosphaera spp., here named the ;small dark; group, were recognised as an index of high nutrient concentration. We suggest that small coccolith/nannolith size is a better indicator of eutrophic condition than taxonomic affinity. Morphometric analysis of specimens of Sphenolithus belemnos and Sphenolithus disbelemnos showed that size tends to decrease within the highstand system tract. The influx of nutrients associated with the highstand could explain this size reduction and may also support our hypothesis that small specimens are indicative of high nutrient concentrations in the surface water.

  5. 3.3 Ga SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of a felsic metavolcanic rock from the Mundo Novo greenstone belt in the São Francisco craton, Bahia (NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucat, J. J.; Mascarenhas, J. F.; Barbosa, J. S. F.; de Souza, S. L.; Marinho, M. M.; Fanning, C. M.; Leite, C. M. M.

    2002-07-01

    Felsic metavolcanics associated with supracrustal rocks provide U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd TDM ages of approximately 3.3 Ga, which establish an Archean age of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt. A granodioritic gneiss from the Mairi complex, located on the eastern boundary of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt, exhibits a zircon evaporation minimum age of 3.04 Ga and a Nd model age of 3.2 Ga. These results constrain the occurrence of at least three major geological units in this area: the Archean Mundo Novo greenstone belt, the Archean Mairi gneisses, and the adjoining Paleoproterozoic (<2.1 Ga) Jacobina sedimentary basin. The Jacobina basin follows the same trend as the Archean structure, extending southward to the Contendas-Mirante belt, in which a similar Archean-Paleoproterozoic association appears. We postulate that during the Paleoproterozoic in the eastern margin of the Gavião block, these Archean greenstone belts constituted a zone of weakness along which a late-stage orogenic sedimentary basin developed.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858) (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Edson Lourenço; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Centofante, Liano; Miyazawa, Carlos Suetoshi; Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia Pasquali

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of Thoracocharax stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for Thoracocharax stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m), 6 submetacentric (sm), 2 subtelocentric (st) and 40 acrocentric (a), for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR) system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family. PMID:24260672

  7. EM modeling of the central northern portion of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Paulo de Tarso L.; Travassos, Jandyr Menezes

    2005-05-01

    Broadband remote-referenced magnetotelluric data were collected at 16 sites along a SW-NE profile across one of the main tectonic features of Paraná Basin, the Ponta Grossa Arch. This major structure was uplifted before the voluminous flood basalt event occurred during the Early Cretaceous. Here we present a 2D model for the crustal structure of Paraná Basin traversing the Ponta Grossa Arch. The geoelectrical strike is controlled by NW structures that cut through the crust as indicated by Groom-Bailey decomposition. Several smooth 2D inversions were used as a starting point to a 2D forward modeling exercise where a priori shallow information was used as constraints. That modeling strategy allowed the interpretation of two important regional features, a crustal-scale sub-vertical shear zone (200 Ω m) in a resistive (1000 Ω m) crust and a 30 Ω m lower crustal conductor confined within 25-40 km. We have interpreted the enhanced conductivity in these two features as caused by fluids originated in mantle-derived material. Crustal-scale shear zones are considered elsewhere to be important conduits for the connection of upper and lower crustal fluids. In the studied area the interpreted shear zone can be associated to main lava conduits at the time of the basalt flows. The lower crustal conductor is associated to the hydrated material that intruded, in the base of the crust, during the Mesozoic (crustal underplating).

  8. A 4D-variational ocean data assimilation application for Santos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha Fragoso, Mauricio; de Carvalho, Gabriel Vieira; Soares, Felipe Lobo Mendes; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Toste, Raquel; Sancho, Lívia Maria Barbosa; Passos, Elisa Nóbrega; Böck, Carina Stefoni; Reis, Bruna; Landau, Luiz; Arango, Hernan G.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to achieve systematic ocean forecasting for the southeastern Brazilian coast, an incremental 4D-Var data assimilation system is applied to a regional ocean model focused mainly in the Santos Basin region. This implementation is performed within the scope of The Santos Basin Ocean Observing System (or Project Azul), a pilot project designed to collect oceanographic data with enough frequency and spatial coverage so to improve regional forecasts through data assimilation. The ocean modeling and data assimilation system of Project Azul is performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The observations used in the assimilation cycles include the following: 1-day gridded, 0.1° resolution SST from POES AVHRR; 1-day gridded, 0.3° composite of the MDT SSH from AVISO; and surface and subsurface hydrographic measurements of temperature and salinity collected with gliders and ARGO floats from Project Azul and from UK Met-Office EN3 project dataset. The assimilative model results are compared to forward model results and independent observations, both from remote sensing and in situ sources. The results clearly show that 4D-Var data assimilation leads to an improvement in the skill of ocean hindcast in the studied region.

  9. Mercury in the environment and riverside population in the Madeira River Basin, Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Gomes, João Paulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Cavalcante; Almeida, Ronaldo; Nascimento, Elisabete Lourdes; Bernardi, José Vicente Elias; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; da Silveira, Ene Glória; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Christian

    2006-09-01

    This work presents quality control results on the mercury concentrations in different environmental (river sediments, forest soils, river suspended matter and fish) and human samples from the lower Madeira River, Amazon sampled between 2001 and 2003, about 15-20 years after the nearly cessation of gold mining activities in the region, which reached its peak in the late 1980s. The study aimed to compare mercury concentrations in these environmental samples with those reported by other authors during the gold rush of the Madeira River Basin. Today, in the Madeira River the releases of mercury register a sudden reduction due the gold price fall in the international trade. However, about 100 t of Hg were released to the atmosphere and to aquatic systems in the region during the gold rush. The present survey shows that notwithstanding the reduction of Hg emissions to the Madeira River Basin from gold mining proper, concentrations in fish and humans are similar to those measured during the gold rush. Reduction in Hg concentrations is restricted to areas close to old point sources and only for abiotic compartments (air and sediments). Remobilization of Hg from bottom sediments plus re-emission from soils due to land use changes are probably responsible for keeping high Hg concentrations in biological samples.

  10. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1) a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2) odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3) a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4) a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5) by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6) a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7) lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8) higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso. PMID:25931967

  11. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    elements provide a hint at a prevailing subsidence regime and effective sediment supply into the basin that clearly contrast with the conveyed idea of a sediment-starved and tectonic stable shelf. They naturally raise questions about the nature and origin of sediment supply, since no significant point siliciclastic fluvial source flows directly into the shelf. Stemming from that, we are forced to speculate about: (A) the role of neotectonic movements involving the Serra do Mar coastal mountain ranges to potentially source clastic influx into the basin during the Quaternary, or about the real importance of secondary drainage basins debouching today; and (B) the mechanical nature of a supposed subsidence during the Pliocene and the Quaternary time span (overloading ? sediment compaction ? thermal cooling ?). The interpretation of industrial seismic lines can provide the answers of many of these questions. The next step of this work is to make a stratigraphy model of the sedimentary systems of Santos basin to understand how the ancient creation of accommodation space can influence the recent sedimentary architecture and how is the change in sedimentary influx and the sedimentary records of different orders of cyclicity.

  12. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males.

  13. Microfacies, depositional models and diagenesis of Lagoa Feia Formation (lower cretaceous), Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, R. T.

    The Lagoa Feia Formation consists of the sediments deposited during the rift valley stage of the Campos Basin, varying from 200m to more than 1500m in thickness. In this unit seventeen microfacies were recognized, grouped into four main sequences, respectively dominated by terrigenous supplies, ostracods, pelecypods, and basic volcaniclastics. The vertical sequence of microfacies and the associations of syndepositional diagenetic minerals were used to reconstruct the general environment of deposition. Five diagenetic stages were recognized. Pelecypod rich microfacies present the highest potential for development of intraparticle and moldic secondary porosity. Two types of fabric selective porosity were experimentally developed in low porosity samples under simulated burial conditions. Intercrystal microporosity was formed by preferential dissolution of micrite size calcite compared to coarse calcite crystals of sparite and neomorphosed bioclasts, and intraparticle porosity was developed in pelecypod shells by selective dissolution of neomorphic calcite compared to sparite cement.

  14. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistrus kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrus asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrus barbatus, Pseudancistrus corantijniensis, Pseudancistrus depressus, Pseudancistrus nigrescens, Pseudancistrus reus, and Pseudancistrus zawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrus reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults. PMID:25709528

  15. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve) in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability) and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems' performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June). The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  16. Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carmen Baur; de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Kay, David; Vargha, Marta; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-03-01

    The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.

  17. Selenium and aflatoxin levels in raw Brazil nuts from the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ariane M; Scussel, Vildes M

    2007-12-26

    Whereas selenium (Se) is an important antioxidant in human metabolism to prevent cancer, aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic. Brazil nuts from Eastern and Western Amazon regions were evaluated to find any relationship between Se and aflatoxins levels. A total of 80 (in-shell and shelled) nuts samples were collected directly from different forest sites and analyzed for Se by atomic emission spectrometry and aflatoxins by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for Se was 2.0 mg/kg, and LOQ for total aflatoxins was 0.390 microg/kg. Nut Se levels from the Eastern region were higher than the Western, in addition to the aflatoxins. The moisture content (mc) and water activity (aw) of the raw nuts from the two regions did not present a significant difference, for either in-shell or shelled. The mc was 24.5% (minimum of 20.1% and maximum of 30.4%) and 22.1% (minimum of 14.6% and maximum of 28.9%) and a w of 0.85 for both regions. Further studies need to be carried out to discover the role of Se on fungi growth stress and aflatoxin production mechanisms.

  18. A New Species of Tiger Pleco Panaqolus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Xingu Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Christian Andreas; Melo de Sousa, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Panaqolus tankei is described from the Xingu River, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from P. albomaculatus, P. dentex, P. nix, P. nocturnus, and P. koko by its color pattern consisting of dark and light diagonal bars on the body and bands on the fins (vs. body and fins without bars or bands); from P. albivermis, P. maccus, and P. purusiensis by the width of the dark bars being more or less the same of the light bars (vs. dark bars at least two or three times wider than light bars) and from P. changae by the absence of vermiculation on the head (vs. vermiculation present on head). The new species differs from P. gnomus by the orientation of the bars from posterodorsal to anteroventral direction (vs. anterodorsal to posteroventral direction), and from P. claustellifer by the orientation of the bands in the dorsal fin that are not parallel to the margin (vs. parallel to the margin). The barcoding region (COI) was sequenced for the new species, sequences were deposited in GenBank and were compared with congeners from other drainages. With regard to the current construction of a hydroelectric power plant (a so-called mega dam) in the Xingu River, herewith we increase knowledge of the river Xingu's ichthyofauna and, thus improve the assessment of the impacts of that construction on the river.

  19. A New Species of Tiger Pleco Panaqolus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Xingu Basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Melo de Sousa, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Panaqolus tankei is described from the Xingu River, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from P. albomaculatus, P. dentex, P. nix, P. nocturnus, and P. koko by its color pattern consisting of dark and light diagonal bars on the body and bands on the fins (vs. body and fins without bars or bands); from P. albivermis, P. maccus, and P. purusiensis by the width of the dark bars being more or less the same of the light bars (vs. dark bars at least two or three times wider than light bars) and from P. changae by the absence of vermiculation on the head (vs. vermiculation present on head). The new species differs from P. gnomus by the orientation of the bars from posterodorsal to anteroventral direction (vs. anterodorsal to posteroventral direction), and from P. claustellifer by the orientation of the bands in the dorsal fin that are not parallel to the margin (vs. parallel to the margin). The barcoding region (COI) was sequenced for the new species, sequences were deposited in GenBank and were compared with congeners from other drainages. With regard to the current construction of a hydroelectric power plant (a so-called mega dam) in the Xingu River, herewith we increase knowledge of the river Xingu’s ichthyofauna and, thus improve the assessment of the impacts of that construction on the river. PMID:27828981

  20. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  1. New field evidence for silicic ignimbrites and proximal lavas and their distribution in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontano, S.; Harmon, L. J.; Gravley, D. M.; Gualda, G. A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silicic ignimbrites and lavas are sometimes very difficult to distinguish from one another in the field. Their accurate identification provides the basis for a better understanding of the origin of these deposits, including processes related to magma extraction, fragmentation and eruption style. We are studying the silicic volcanics in the Paraná Rift Basin in southern Brazil (the ~130 to 135 Ma Palmas member of the Serra Geral Formation), the counterpart to the Etendeka silicic volcanics in Africa. We present new field evidence for the identification of tabular-shaped ignimbrite-like packages, which contrast with dome-shaped proximal viscous lavas and domes. The tabular-shaped packages are highly welded and devitrified, but primary feldspar and pyroxene crystals can still be identified in outcrops. Flow/cooling unit boundaries can be seen at outcrop scale as well as at the kilometer scale where successive flat-topped terraces have been cut into the volcanic landscape. These packages bear conspicuous swarms of vesicle-poor black lens-shaped features set in a light colored matrix. The lenses range in their aspect ratio (2D height vs. length) and can be > 2 m long. Horizontal jointing is superimposed on the black lens-bearing outcrops and their spacing appears to coincide with the aspect ratio of the lenses, i.e. thinner lenses have a narrower joint spacing. Locally wider lenses grade down into completely stretched and/or flattened lenses that resemble conventional flow banding. We interpret these tabular packages as ignimbrites and the vesicle-poor black lenses as juvenile magma blobs (distinct from typical pumice or fiamme). A notably different flow-banded, irregularly deformed, and sometimes obsidian-bearing lithology appears in a number of locations. It supports topography characterized by rolling hills that contrasts markedly with the tilted plateaus supported by ignimbrites. The difference in morphology between ignimbrites and lavas is most readily observed in

  2. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  3. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  4. Spatial patterns of water quality in the Cuiabá River basin, Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Lima, Eliana Beatriz Nunes Rondon; Lima, Gilson Alberto Rosa

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates the spatial patterns of land occupation and their relationship to water quality in the Cuiabá River watershed, one of the main affluents of the Pantanal floodplain. The impact of farming and other land occupation forms were studied using a three year time series. Monitoring included 15 parameters at 21 stations with a total of 1266 different samples. Ten stations along the Cuiabá River were ordinated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). For an exploratory analysis in the spatial domain, sub-basins of the Cuiabá watershed were classified according to mean concentrations of selected water quality parameters. Supervised classification of digital Landsat ETM imagery and standard GIS techniques were applied to parameterize land use and occupation according to a watershed scale. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was then used to evaluate impacts of environmental and socio-economic factors on water quality. A Cuiabá headwater station only shows slightly elevated total coliform counts and concentrations of nutrients in the river after it passes regions of extensive cattle farming. After the confluence with the Manso River, nutrient and COD concentrations increase significantly, receiving loads from sub-basins under intensive agricultural land use, with mean annual concentrations up to 1.74 mg/L of total nitrogen (Kjedahl). Sub-watersheds with intensive fishing culture activities were shown to have significant impact on nitrogen concentrations, reaching mean concentrations of 2.66 mg/L of total nitrogen in the affluents. Most serious biological and chemical water pollution can be observed at stream outlets in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá/Várzea Grande. Affluent pollution is reflected in the water quality of the Cuiabá River: subsequent monitoring stations in the urban area are ordinated on a gradient of increasing degradation of chemical and biological water quality. The auto-depuration capacity of the Cuiabá River is intact, but elevated

  5. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  6. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  7. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  8. Shear-strength signatures of mass movements, continental slope of Campos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsmann, R. O.; da Costa, A. M.; Amaral, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    Downhole shear-strength profiles, obtained from cone-penetrometer and lab tests were tied to sedimentary facies from adjacent continuous cores. The geotechnical response of mass-transport deposits was investigated. In the Campos Basin, sediments have evacuated from the upper continental slope and have accumulated as folded deposits on the middle slope. Sediment removal is recognised by an abrupt step-like increase in shear-strength at the level of the unconformity. The folded deposits are characterised by a belly-shaped increase in shear-strength coinciding with a zone of intense lamination within the deposit, induced by internal shearing and fluid loss (strain hardening). In contrast, highly disintegrated muddy debris-flow deposits are indistinguishable, in terms of shear-strength, from normal hemipelagic slope sediments. Debris-flow tongues emanating from canyon mouths, which contain a significant amount of more consolidated mud clasts can however be differentiated from in situ sediments by their serrated signature and higher shear-strength.

  9. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  10. Sedimentation of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in São Paulo, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula e Silva, Flavio; Kiang, Chang Hung; Caetano-Chang, Maria Rita

    2009-07-01

    The post-basaltic sediments of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin cover an area of 117,000 km 2 in São Paulo State, and are subdivided into the Caiuá, Pirapozinho, Santo Anastácio, Birigüi, Araçatuba, Adamantina and Marília formations. The sedimentation of Bauru Group was controlled by a combination of post-basaltic tectonism (responsible for the migration of the depocenters), erosion and climatic changes. Three main depositional phases are separated by two erosive/non-depositional phases defining depositional sequences. The fluvial-lacustrine deposition represented by the Caiuá/Pirapozinho formations (first sequence), initially filled the basaltic substratum troughs. After an erosional interval, the Santo Anastácio Formation was deposited and overlapped (eastward) underlying beds (second sequence). Renewed erosion and tectonism initiated the last depositional sequence, with the migration of the depocenter to the Queiroz depression. High topographic gradients initially favored the accumulation of fluvial deposits of braided systems of the Birigüi Formation. With the enlarging of the depositional area, a lacustrine system was formed (Araçatuba Formation) and overlapped by a fluvial system with progradation of lacustrine deltas (Adamantina Formation). The sedimentation of the Bauru Group ceased with deposition of marginal fans of Marília Formation.

  11. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcelo C.; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13–19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  12. Shallow lacustrine system of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, Western Gondwana, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Raphael Neto; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Bandeira, José; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Period of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil, represented here by deposits from the Pedra de Fogo Formation, records important events that occurred in Western Gondwana near its boundary with the Mesozoic Era. The analysis of outcrop based facies from the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation, which is 100 m thick, carried out along the eastern and western borders of the Parnaiba Basin, allowed the identification of eleven sedimentary facies, which were grouped into three distinct facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system associated with mudflats and ephemeral rivers. Bioturbation, desiccation cracks, silcretes and various siliceous concretions characterize the Pedra de Fogo deposits. The FA1 mudflat deposits occur predominantly at the base of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and consist of laminated claystone/mudstone, mudcrack-bearing sandstones/mudstones and sandstones exhibiting cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding. Popcorn-like silicified nodules and casts indicate evaporite deposits. Other common features are silica concretions, silicified tepees and silcretes. FA2 represents nearshore deposits and consists of fine-grained sandstones with evenly parallel lamination, climbing ripple cross-lamination, massive and megaripple bedding and mudstone/siltstone showing evenly parallel lamination. FA3 refers to wadi/inundite deposits, generally organized as fining-upward cycles of metric size, composed of conglomerates and medium-grained pebbly sandstones showing massive bedding and cross-stratification, as well as claystone/siltstone showing evenly parallel to undulate lamination. Scour-and-fill features are isolated in predominantly tabular deposits composed of mudstones interbedded with fine to medium-grained sandstones showing planar to slightly undulate lamination. Silicified plant remains previously classified as belonging to the Psaronius genus found in the uppermost levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, near the

  13. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmão, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10' South Latitude and 52° 15' and 52° 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km² in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km² in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated.

  14. [The protagonist microbe: notes on the communication of bacteriology in the Gazeta Médica da Bahia journal, nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Malaquias, Anderson Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Germ theory, derived particularly from the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, shook the foundations of medical knowledge in the second half of the nineteenth century and triggered a revolution in the "art of healing." The search for specific microbes for diseases guided the investigations of the researchers converted to the Pasteurian tenets. This paper aims to show what role the Gazeta Médica da Bahia journal played in spreading knowledge about bacteriology to the medical communities in Bahia and throughout Brazil. Some works and reflections by the newspaper's authors at the time are presented, as are some of the controversies that help depict the way germ theory was divulged in Brazil throughout the nineteenth century.

  15. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  16. Paleohistology and Lifestyle Inferences of a Dyrosaurid (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from Paraíba Basin (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Rafael César Lima Pedroso; Sayão, Juliana Manso

    2014-01-01

    Among the few vertebrates that survived the mass extinction event documented at the Cretaceous–Paleocene boundary are dyrosaurid crocodylomorphs. Surprisingly, there is little information regarding the bone histology of dyrosaurids, despite their relatively common occurrence in the fossil record, and the potential to gain insight about their biology and lifestyle. We provide the first description of the long bone histology of the dyrosaurids. Specimens were collected from the Maria Farinha Formation, in the Paraíba Basin of northeast Brazil. Thin sections of a right femur and left tibia were made. In the left tibia, the cortex consists of lamellar-zonal bone with five lines of arrested growth (LAGs), spaced ∼300 µm apart. The tibia contains a small to medium-sized organized vascular network of both simple vascular canals and primary osteons that decrease in density periostially. The femur exhibits a similar histological pattern overall but has double-LAGs, and an EFS layer (the latter is rare in living crocodylians). Secondary osteons occur in the deep cortex near and inside the spongiosa as a result of remodeling in both bones. This tissue pattern is fairly common among slow-growing animals. These specimens were a sub-adult and a senescent. Patterns in the distribution of bone consistent with osteosclerosis suggest that these animals probably hada fast-swimming ecology. Although these results are consistent with the histology in anatomically convergent taxa, it will be necessary to make additional sections from the mid-diaphysis in order to assign their ecology. PMID:25032965

  17. Biophysical indicators based on satellite images in an irrigated area at the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leivas, Janice F.; Teixeira, Antônio Heriberto C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Ronquim, Carlos Cesar; Ribeiro da Silva Reis, João. Batista

    2016-10-01

    The Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter is a large irrigated agriculture area, located in the region Forest Jaíba between the São Francisco and Verde Grande rivers, in the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 2014, irrigators this the region face losses in the interruption of new plantings in irrigated areas due to water scarcity. The objective of this study is combine the model to estimate the Monteith BIO with the SAFER algorithm in the case of obtaining ET, to analyze the dynamics of natural vegetation and irrigated crops in water scarcity period. For application of the model are necessary data from meteorological stations and satellite images. Were used 23 satellite images of MODIS with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal 16 days, of 2014 year. For analyze the results, we used central pivots irrigation mask of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In areas with irrigated agriculture with central pivot, the mean values of BIO over the year 2014 were 88.96 kg.ha-1.d-1. The highest values occurred between April 23 and May 8, with BIO 139 kg.ha-1.d-1. For areas with natural vegetation, the average BIO was 88.34 kg.ha-1.d-1 with lower values in September. Estimates of ET varied with the lowest values of ET observed in natural vegetation 1.91+/-1.22 mm.d-1 and the highest values in irrigated area is observed 3.51+/-0.97 mm.d-1. Results of this study can assist in monitoring of river basins, contributing to the management irrigated agriculture, with the trend of scarcity of water resources and increasing conflicts for the water use.

  18. Petrographic approach to the study of organic microfossils from the Irati Subgroup (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calça, Cléber Pereira; Fairchild, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Early diagenetic chert, infrequently exploited in Phanerozoic micropaleontology, was examined for organic-walled microfossils in petrographic thin sections of silicified dolostones from diverse levels and localities of the Assistência Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In contrast to previous palynological studies of this formation, the use of thin sections allowed direct observation in three dimensions of common palynomorphs, as well as benthic microbial mats preserved in situ in various stages of their life cycles and degradation. As in palynological residues from the more well-known shale of this formation, the chert contains wind-dispersed pollen grains and phytoclasts derived from terrestrial sources and planktonic cryptarchs (unornamented coccoidal unicellular or colonial palynomorphs). However, only in the chert is it possible to see much more delicate microfossils, such as abundant cyanobacteria of the in situ benthic microbiota as well as chlorophycean microalgae of the microphytoplankton. Post-depositional processes affecting the formation have destroyed all but the most resistant organic remains in the other lithologies, such that only rare, degraded pollen grains are seen in the unsilicified dolostone of the formation, and in the shale the vast majority of microfossils have been compacted to flattened disks. On the other hand, early silicification not only preserved organic remains at an incipient stage of decomposition but also impeded significant further degradation due to compaction, recrystallization, and oxidation. Thus, the petrographic study of such chert can complement traditional palynological investigations in Phanerozoic rocks by furnishing hitherto unavailable information, especially with regard to benthic organic microfossils and fragile organic-walled phytoplankton normally absent from organic residues.

  19. Use of the hydrogen and carbon stable isotopes in the characterization of oils from the Potiguar Basin (onshore), Northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos Neto, E.V.; Hayes, J.M. ); Trindade, L.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of marine-evaporitic, lacustrine, and mixed oils were measured in selected samples from the onshore Potiguar Basin, Brazil. The isotopic data, together with GC and GC/MS results and geological information, were used to investigate the relationship between [delta]D and [delta][sup 13]C in the assessment of source rock facies, thermal maturity, biodegradation, and distance of secondary migration. The marine-evaporitic oils are depleted in D (-l 17[per thousand] to -136[per thousand]), and enriched in [sup 13]C (-25.6[per thousand] to - 26.4[per thousand]), whereas the lacustrine oils are enriched in D (-88[per thousand] to -101[per thousand]) and depleted in [sup 13]C (-30.1[per thousand] to -33.6[per thousand]). Values of [delta]D for mixed oils are intermediate between those of marine- evaporitic and lacustrine oils. The results suggest that [delta]D is a reliable tool for identification of oils that differ genetically, and the hydrogen isotopic compositions of the oils can be related to the [delta]D of the water in the paleoenvironments where the organic matter was produced. Therefore