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Sample records for basin czech republic

  1. Properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    Although shale gas-bearing deposits have a markedly lower gas content than coal deposits, great attention has recently been paid to shale gas as a new potential source of fossil energy. Shale gas extraction is considered to be quite economical, despite the lower sorption capacity of shales, which is only about 10% of coal sorption capacities The selection of a suitable locality for extracting shale gas requires the sorption capacity of the shale to be determined. The sorption capacity is determined in the laboratory by measuring the amount of methane absorbed in a shale specimen at a pressure and a temperature corresponding to in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption. According to the principles of reversibility of adsorption/desorption, this amount should be roughly related to the amount of gas released by forced degassing. High pressure methane sorption isotherms were measured on seven representative samples of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic. Excess sorption measurements were performed at a temperature of 45oC and at pressures up to 15 MPa on dry samples, using a manometric method. Experimental methane high-pressure isotherms were fitted to a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum measured excess sorption parameter and the Langmuir sorption capacity parameter were used to study the effect of TOC content, organic maturity, inorganic components and porosity on the methane sorption capacity. The studied shale samples with random reflectance of graptolite 0.56 to 1.76% had a very low TOC content and dominant mineral fractions. Illite was the prevailing clay mineral. The sample porosity ranged from 4.6 to 18.8%. In most samples, the micropore volumes were markedly lower than the meso- and macropore volumes. In the Silurian black shales, the occurrence of fractures parallel with the original sedimentary bending was highly significant. A greater proportion of fragments of carbonaceous particles of graptolites and bitumens in the

  2. Subsidence, erosion and thermal history of the West Carpathian Foredeep Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francu, J.; Šafanda, J.; Cermak, V.; Krejci, O.; Andriessen, P.

    2012-04-01

    The present shape of the West Carpathian Foredeep Basin (WCFB) in the Czech Republic is strikingly narrower than the Alpine Molasse Basin in Austria and Carpathian Foredeep in Poland. Our study presents data on heat flow and thermal maturity patterns in the WCFB and compares them with the relevant data in the underlying units and adjacent West Carpathian Flysch Belt in order to evaluate the extent of erosion. In general the heat flow is very low in the Vienna Basin and moderately increases to NE, where the highest values are observed above the coal-bearing Upper Silesian Basin. Lower to Middle Miocene rocks of the WCFB show very mild increase of thermal maturity of kerogen and low decrease in porosity with depth down to 5 km. Organic matter is thermally immature as deep as 4 km where the strata enter early oil window. The underlying Paleogene, Cretaceous, and Jurassic follow a very similar diagenetic trend and suggest only local erosion in incised valleys, where Eocene sediments replaced the removed Mesozoic rocks. Marked offset in thermal maturity is observed between the top of Carboniferous and younger units evidencing regional erosion of 1.8-5 km of Late Paleozoic strata. Significant difference in thermal maturity exists between the Miocene of the WCFB and West Carpathian Flysch Belt (FlB). The application of basin modeling suggests that the deepest burial and catagenesis of the Mesozoic to Tertiary sedimentary rocks occurred prior to imbrication and stacking of the tectonic slices. The uplift and erosion in the FlB increases from the frontal Zdanice and Subsilesian units to Silesian and Raca nappes situated closer to hinterland, while the Bile Karpaty nappe does not follow this rule and is less mature than Raca (Magura). The erosion and transport of sediments to the sink areas of the Vienna and Danube Basins occurred during the final phases of thrust propagation in the Early Miocene and continued to Middle (Upper?) Miocene. The fission track data suggest that

  3. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Marsik, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Židková, Monika; Kramulová, Barbora; Tauchen, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) belong to most used pharmaceuticals in the human and veterinary medicine. The widespread consumption of NSAIDs has led to their ubiquitous occurrence in water environment including large river systems. In the present study, concentrations of the five most frequently used NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, ketoprofen and indomethacin) were determined in the watercourses of the river Elbe basin in Czech Republic. The presence of the pharmaceuticals was measured at 29 sampling sites including urban and rural areas, small creeks and main tributaries of the Elbe monthly from April to December of 2011. For the NSAIDs quantitation, the comprehensive analytical method combing pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) derivatization with highly sensitive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) was developed. Although the content of all NSAIDs varied at the particular sampling points significantly, total amount of particular compounds was relatively stable during all monitored periods with only non-significant increase in the spring and autumnal months. Ibuprofen was found to be the most abundant drug with maximum concentration of 3210 ng/L, followed by naproxen, diclofenac and ketoprofen (1423.8 ng/L, 1080 ng/L and 929.8 ng/L, respectively). Indomethacin was found only at several sampling sites (maximum concentration of 69.3 ng/L). Concentrations of all compounds except ibuprofen were significantly higher at sampling sites with low flow rates (creeks), followed by the biggest watercourses.

  4. What cycles are recorded in continental Most Basin (Czech Republic, late Burdigalian)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Mach, Karel; Laurin, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Understanding to climate dynamics requires identification of orbital forcing as a piece of a jigsaw puzzle. High-frequency climate changes could be the reason of discrepancies among Miocene climate reconstructions from sediment archives. Nearly all continental sediment sequences have some repetitive patterns, of which causes can be manifold; orbital forcing (climatic cycles) is only one option. There are two main reasons for this uncertainty: 1) recording mechanisms of climate changes in a real sediment basin are site-specific and ambiguous (and usually not known, or not reported) and 2) autocyclic behaviour (inherent chaos) and tectonics can also produce repetitive patterns and statistics itself is not capable to reveal that their nature is not climatic. On the other hand, most paleontological climatic reconstructions have temporal resolution in order of Myr (or at best in tenths of Myr), which cannot really reflect the expected climate dynamics. We have studied about 250 m thick clastic syn-rift sediment sequence in the Most Basin in the Ohře Graben (Czech Republic). In the mature-rift stage, a basin-wide lake existed there for <1 Myr during the late Burdigalian (before Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum). The palaeogeography of the lake watershed changed due to rift evolution, which is an important but still only roughly described variable. Tectonic pulses probably affect the accomodation space, a network of feeding rivers and/or a basin outflow pathway during the lake existence. The clear and well-correlated variations in Sr and K concentrations in the sediments suggest orbital components (multitaper spectral estimation and misfit relative to theoretical Milankovitch frequencies). There is a question, whether the formal statistics (without understanding the actual recording mechanism and excluding other repetitive environmental changes) is sufficient to confirm climatic basis for these variations, although such approach can be found in numerous current studies. The

  5. Attitudes of stakeholders towards the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cihar, Martin; Stankova, Jindriska

    2006-11-01

    In August 2000, a survey of public opinion was carried out among visitors, local residents and representatives of local self-governments in the territory of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National Park in the Czech Republic. The goal was to obtain stakeholders' opinions and attitudes towards nature conservation, the National Park and tourism within the territory which used to be closed to the public for 40 years due to the Iron Curtain. Without the knowledge of opinions of stakeholders it is not possible to manage nature conservation and development in the protected area properly. Using the method of direct interviews, 646 questionnaires where collected, of which 523 were from visitors and tourists, 115 from local residents and 8 from mayors of towns/villages. The questionnaires were analysed in order to detect differences in attitudes among the respondent groups in the following thematic areas: (a) the National Park, its environment and perception of it by respondents; (b) relationship of respondents to the territory; (c) tourism and attitudes towards recreational activities; (d) the Administration of the National Park and evaluation of its work; and (e) economic impact of tourism for local communities. One section of the study focused on comparing the attitudes between local inhabitants and mayors and the other section presents a collation of opinions from locals, mayors and tourists. Although a positive evaluation of the national park dominated the results, some negative attitudes and experiences were identified among locals. In addition, the situation also differed within communities. Results also indicated a relatively strong relationship to the territory by locals, but low job opportunities and income from tourism. The level of tourism intensity was perceived as an increasing and sometimes disturbing factor for local communities; motoring was observed as being the most negative activity for nature. The Administration of the Podyji/Thaya River Basin National

  6. Chemostratigraphy of lacustrine siliciclastics: how to process 200 m of monotonous mudstones (Most Basin, Czech Republic, Early Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, T.; Mach, K.; Novakova, T.; Laurin, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the W to NW of the Czech Republic there are remnants of sedimentary basins (Cheb, Sokolov and Most Basins), which were part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. These basins were filled during the Burdigalian in purely terrestrial environment. Extensive peatlands (which produced economically important coal measures) in the Most Basin were covered by whole-basin Libkovice Lake after increase of the basin subsidence, and finally the lake covered more than 1000 km2. The sedimentation was terminated in the upper Early Miocene probably shortly before the Middle Miocene climatic optimum (MMCO). The resulting monotonous, siliciclastic, fossil-barren deltaic and lacustrine sediments have total thickness of up to 250 m; there is no datable material in them and hence their age is based on biostratigrahy of the basin fill. The detailed stratigraphy including correlation over the entire Most Basin (dimensions about 20x50 km), has not yet been established. We have started our research to extract its palaeoenvironmental information content from the Most Basin. The first step of our work was a chemostratigraphic correlation of the sediments obtained from five long cores (~200 m) provided by Severoceske doly (a coal-mining company). We use EDXRF element analysis and chemical analysis by ion exchange with [Cu(trien)]2+. Analysis of exchangeable/water soluble cations revealed that the Libkovice Lake was freshwater with only moderately mineralized water. Slight and smooth variations of major element content proved very stable sedimentary environment. Variations in K/Al element ratio, changes in the expandable clay mineral content (CEC), and Sr accumulations allow a detailed correlation of boreholes from different parts of the basin. Three crandallite-containing horizons formed by alteration of volcaniclastic fallouts (or mass flows) were found that supports our chemostratigraphic correlation. Spectral analysis suggests that Sr and K/Al variations possibly record orbitally driven

  7. Ecological persistence in the Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, Namurian A) Megafloral record of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Purkynova, E.; Simunek, Z.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2009-05-15

    The Serpukhovian (Namurian A) stratigraphy of the Ostrava Formation, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Czech Republic, consists of coal-bearing paralic sediments underlain by marine deposits in a cyclothemic nature similar to those in the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica. The thickness of the formation exceeds 3000 m, in which >170 coals are identified in a foreland basin setting. Fifty-five genetic cycles are identified in the present study, using transgressional erosional surfaces as lower and upper boundaries. Terrestrial plant-macrofossil assemblages are preserved within each cycle, mostly associated with coals, and these represent a sampling of the coastal plain vegetation. New high-precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb ages on zircons from tonsteins of two coals provide chronometric constraints for the Serpukhovian. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean clustering and Bayesian statistical classification group macrofloral assemblages into four distinct stratigraphic clusters, with assemblages persisting for <18 cycles before compositional change. Cycle duration, based on Ludmila (328.84{+-}0.16 Ma) and Karel (328.01{+-}0.08 Ma) tonsteins, overlaps the short-period (100 kyr) eccentricity cycle at the 95% confidence interval. These dates push the beginning of the Serpukhovian several million years deeper in time. An estimate for the Visean-Serpukhovian boundary is proposed at similar to 330 Ma. Late Mississippian wetland ecosystems persisted for >1.8 million years before regional perturbation, extirpation, or extinction of taxa occurred. Significant changes in the composition of macrofloral clusters occur across major marine intervals.

  8. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  9. Gambling in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Zdeněk; Mravčík, Viktor; Fiedor, David; Černý, Jakub; Smolová, Irena

    2015-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and associated problems in the Czech Republic, including an overview of the historical context, legislation, prevalence, treatment and research base and agenda. A review of literature and relevant sources. The trajectory of gambling patterns in the territory of the Czech Republic in the 20th century reflected broad socio-political changes. Those included significant expansion between the wars, strict state control and bans on some gambling activities during the communist regime and finally dynamic development characterized by a boom in electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and increasing accessibility of gambling facilities after 1989, which aggravated gambling-related problems. Many municipalities have banned EGMs, which has created conflict in regulation at state and municipal levels. The draft gambling law prepared in 2014 aims to clarify the regulatory framework. Before 2012 there was only sporadic research interest in gambling, but in 2012 the first complex research on gaming and problem gambling in the Czech population took place. The estimated prevalence of problem gambling is currently 2% in the population aged 15-64 years. Preventive measures, counselling and treatment services for problem gamblers are limited. Weak and ineffective regulation of the gambling market in the Czech Republic during the past 20 years, despite the large growth in gambling, has led to inadequate prevention and response to problem gambling which has become a considerable public health, social and political issue. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Aging in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Andel, Ross

    2014-12-01

    The goal was to provide an overview of main issues relevant to aging in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is a former Eastern Bloc nation of about 10.5 million. Older adults are overrepresented relative to those under age 15. Life expectancy currently hovers around 78 years (75 for men/81 for women), a number slightly higher than most of Eastern Europe but lower than most of Western Europe. Cardiovascular diseases account for about 50% of all mortality, which is one of the highest rates in Europe and therefore of particular concern. Lifestyle habits, especially high alcohol consumption, a high rate of smokers, and high-fat diet relative to most other European countries and the United States, combined with relatively low expenditures for health promotion, appear important in the context of high cardiovascular mortality. Long-term care is funded mostly by state and local governments. The country has tried to address issues associated with insufficient capacity and low quality in long-term care, a particularly prominent problem in the Czech Republic compared with other European countries. The recently established International Clinical Research Center brings new possibilities for collaborative research in the Czech Republic, including research specific to aging. Improving long-term care and establishing methodologically sound longitudinal data sets are among the most pressing issues, although sustaining the pension system strained by increasing life expectancy, low retirement age, and extensive government-sponsored benefits has also recently emerged as a critical issue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Isotopic composition of salt efflorescence from the sandstone castellated rocks of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigstillová, Jana; Přikryl, Richard; Novotná, Miroslava

    2009-07-01

    The origin of sulphates in sulphate-rich efflorescences on quartz sandstones with a clay matrix, exposed in rural areas of the Czech Republic is interpreted, based upon an isotopic study of S and O. Sulphates such as gypsum and/or alums exhibit δ34S ranging from +1.3 to +6.1‰ and δ18O from +5.3 to +8.8‰. The low variability of S and O isotopes indicates a common source of the sulphur and a similar mode of sulphate formation. Atmospheric sulphates with a similar isotopic signature occur in the area, due to the combustion of sulphurous coal in power plants, located a few tens of kilometres from the sampling points. The sulphates crystallize from supersaturated pore waters that represent atmospheric precipitation, rich in sulphates, having percolated through the porous sandstone system. The previously proposed model of efflorescence growth (that it is due to the oxidation of pyrite) can be excluded, due to both the rare occurrence of pyrite and also to its different isotopic signature (δ34S about -22‰). Although gypsum prevails in the central and eastern part of the studied area, the north and north-west of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (the most polluted region) exhibits a significant presence of alums (NH4 + or K+-NH4 +-rich). Formation of alums can be explained by the partial dissolution of clay minerals or feldspars present in the sandstone matrix. Release of alumina from these phases is facilitated by the low pH of the precipitation (pH 4-4.5) and also locally by organic acids, traces of which were found in the studied efflorescences by the use of infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Czech Republic: health system review.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this.

  13. Geochemical characterization of moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Mizera, Jiří; Frána, Jaroslav; KuČera, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-three moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin in Western Bohemia, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for 45 major and trace elements. Detailed comparison of the Cheb Basin moldavites with moldavites from other substrewn fields in both major and trace element composition shows that the Cheb Basin is a separate substrewn field. The geochemical data obtained are discussed with respect to the source materials and processes leading to formation of moldavites. The data show that three groups of Cheb Basin moldavites exist. Ten samples of group 1 are characterized by the lowest content of Al, Fe, Na, and other elements representing phyllosilicate minerals, and by high Ca + Mg contents related probably to carbonates. They resemble the "poisonous green" moldavites, a subgroup of the Southern Bohemian moldavites. Seven samples of group 2 and 6 samples of group 3 are similar to typical moldavites of the Southern Bohemian substrewn field. These two groups differ from each other mainly in Al contents; with higher contents of Al and the elements associated with phyllosilicate minerals (namely Ba and Sr), group 3 also resembles the Moravian moldavites. Significant positive correlations between K, Ca, Mg, and Mn found in group 2 of the Cheb Basin moldavites and the enrichment in these elements observed generally in all moldavites, as well as other facts, e.g., high K/Na and K/Rb ratios and the reduced conditions during formation of moldavites, have been attributed to possible contribution to the moldavite source materials of the ash produced by burning of vegetation and soil organic matter present at the pre-impact area.

  14. Geochemical characterization of moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řanda, Zdeněk.; Mizera, Jiří.; Frána, Jaroslav; Kučera, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-three moldavites from a new locality, the Cheb Basin in Western Bohemia, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for 45 major and trace elements. Detailed comparison of the Cheb Basin moldavites with moldavites from other substrewn fields in both major and trace element composition shows that the Cheb Basin is a separate substrewn field. The geochemical data obtained are discussed with respect to the source materials and processes leading to formation of moldavites. The data show that three groups of Cheb Basin moldavites exist. Ten samples of group 1 are characterized by the lowest content of Al, Fe, Na, and other elements representing phyllosilicate minerals, and by high Ca + Mg contents related probably to carbonates. They resemble the “poisonous green” moldavites, a subgroup of the Southern Bohemian moldavites. Seven samples of group 2 and 6 samples of group 3 are similar to typical moldavites of the Southern Bohemian substrewn field. These two groups differ from each other mainly in Al contents; with higher contents of Al and the elements associated with phyllosilicate minerals (namely Ba and Sr), group 3 also resembles the Moravian moldavites. Significant positive correlations between K, Ca, Mg, and Mn found in group 2 of the Cheb Basin moldavites and the enrichment in these elements observed generally in all moldavites, as well as other facts, e.g., high K/Na and K/Rb ratios and the reduced conditions during formation of moldavites, have been attributed to possible contribution to the moldavite source materials of the ash produced by burning of vegetation and soil organic matter present at the pre-impact area.

  15. Quantitative allochem compositional analysis of Lochkovian-Pragian boundary sections in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinerová, Hedvika; Hron, Karel; Bábek, Ondřej; Šimíček, Daniel; Hladil, Jindřich

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative allochem compositional trends across the Lochkovian-Pragian boundary Event were examined at three sections recording the proximal to more distal carbonate ramp environment of the Prague Basin. Multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, correspondence analysis, cluster analysis) of point-counted thin section data were used to reconstruct facies stacking patterns and sea-level history. Both the closed-nature allochem percentages and their centred log-ratio (clr) coordinates were used. Both these approaches allow for distinguishing of lowstand, transgressive and highstand system tracts within the Praha Formation, which show gradual transition from crinoid-dominated facies deposited above the storm wave base to dacryoconarid-dominated facies of deep-water environment below the storm wave base. Quantitative compositional data also indicate progradative-retrogradative trends in the macrolithologically monotonous shallow-water succession and enable its stratigraphic correlation with successions from deeper-water environments. Generally, the stratigraphic trends of the clr data are more sensitive to subtle changes in allochem composition in comparison to the results based on raw data. A heterozoan-dominated allochem association in shallow-water environments of the Praha Formation supports the carbonate ramp environment assumed by previous authors.

  16. [Imported viral hepatitis in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Dlhý, J; Benes, C

    2007-04-01

    Through the analysis of notified viral hepatitis, trends in the occurrence of imported cases in the Czech Republic have been specified, the aim of which was to draw attention to the epidemiologically important aspects of travelling abroad. In the software environment of Epi Info version 6.04d, nationwide databases of communicable diseases over the period of 1993-2005 were analysed. The period was defined with respect to the availability of necessary data in the Epidat information system for communicable disease reporting in the Czech Republic. During the years 1993-2005, 12,091 cases of communicable diseases were imported into the Czech Republic of which viral hepatitis accounted for 5.7 % (685). The rates by diagnosis were as follows: viral hepatitis A 61 %, acute viral hepatitis B 15 %, chronic viral hepatitis C 11 %, viral hepatitis E 5 %, acute viral hepatitis C 3 %, chronic viral hepatitis B 3 % and other cases of viral hepatitis 2 %. The rates by the "imported by" variable: Czech tourists 47.2 %, foreigners 32.8 %, Czech business travellers 20.0 %. The diseases were most commonly imported from the following countries: Ukraine 13 %, Slovakia 8 %, Southern Europe 6 %, Egypt 6 % and Russia 5 %. In the Czech Republic, communicable diseases are reported using the Epidat system. The Epidat database analysis focused on reported cases of imported viral hepatitis represents an important starting point for assessing health risks associated with travelling abroad.

  17. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  18. Teacher Training in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamere, Patricia

    This paper describes the procedures for developing and delivering a training program designed to enhance the language ability and teacher training skills of lead teachers of English in the Czech Republic. The described program was funded by PHARE, a European Commission funding source dedicated to strengthening and enhancing the skills, knowledge,…

  19. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  20. Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2016-01-01

    The study contributes to the literature on private supplementary tutoring by shedding light on this phenomenon in the Czech Republic. The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons for seeking out private supplementary tutoring and to assess the factors underlying its demand. In the representative sample of 1,265 senior upper-secondary school…

  1. Biogerontology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Holmerová, Iva; Vanková, Hana; Jurasková, Bozena

    2011-02-01

    Authors provide results of their review of research in the field of biogerontology. Despite the fact that the term "biogerontology" is not commonly used in Czech scientific practice, there have been many research efforts in this field. Up to present, the Czech research teams have focused on the theoretical and biological models of ageing, its immunological aspects, the risk factors of unsuccessfull human ageing, and also metabolic and nutritional factors. Many research teams are dealing with the mechanisms of the neurodegeneration. The authors conclude that better coordination and systematic funding of research in gerontology is needed because of the actual demographic challenges.

  2. [Solid organ transplantation in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Kuman, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, small interesting and their combinations) are standard therapy of terminal organ failure. Czech Republic belongs to the states with developed transplantation program. The results correspond with current knowledge and results of leading centers in the world, as demostrated in this article. Organ donor shortage is major factor limiting development of organ transplantations as elsewhere in the Europe or in the world.

  3. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  4. Extreme wind climate in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, L.; Hanslian, D.; Jiri, H.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme wind events belong to the most damaging weather-related hazards in Czech Republic. Therefore a complex survey is performed to exploit the wind data available over the period of industrial measurements in Czech Republic for extreme wind analysis. The object of the survey is to find the limitations of wind data available, to analyze the conditions for extreme wind events and to try to enhance the knowledge about the statistical behavior of extreme wind. The data quality showed itself as a major issue. The homogeneity of extreme wind data is broken in many cases as the extreme wind values are highly dependent on the measuring instrumentation and changes in neighborhood. It also may be difficult to distinguish between correct high wind data and erroneous values. The individual analysis and quality assessment of wind data used in extremal analysis is therefore essential. There are generally two basic groups of extreme wind events typical in the Czech Republic and generally over the mid-latitudes: The "convective" events (can be also called as "squalls") are primarily initiated by deep convection, whereas the primary cause for "non-convective" (synoptic) events is large-scale pressure gradient. The subject is, however, a bit more complex, as the pressure gradient inducing high wind in higher atmospheric levels or wind shear can be a significant factor in convective events; on the other hand, convection may increase wind speeds in otherwise "non-convective" synoptic-scale windstorms. In addition, there are some special phenomena that should be treated individually: the physical principle and climatological behavior (frequency, magnitude and area affected) of tornadoes make them very different from common convective straight winds; this is in lesser scale also the case of "foehn" or "bora" effects belonging to non-convective events. These effects, however, do not play major role over the Czech Republic. In Czech Republic, the overall impact of convective and non

  5. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přaídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    1996-06-01

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shaledominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400 µm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite ( δ 18O=-4.64 to -3.40‰ PDB; δ 13C=+1.05 to +1.85‰ PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite ( δ 18O=-8.04 to -5.14‰ PDB; δ 18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were post-dated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160°C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath

  6. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shale-dominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400μm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite (δ18O=-4.64 to -3.40ö PDBδ13C=+1.05 to +1.85ö PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite (δ18O=-8.04 to -5.14ö PDBδ18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were postdated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160 °C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath approximately 3

  7. Evolution of the passive margin of the peripheral foreland basin: an example from the Lower Miocene Carpathian Foredeep (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francírek, Michal; Nehyba, Slavomír

    2016-02-01

    The Karpatian deposits of the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep in Moravia, which are deeply buried under the Outer Western Carpathians, provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct the former evolutionary stages of this peripheral foreland basin and its paleogeography. A succession of three depositional units characterized by a distinct depositional environment, provenance, and partly also foreland basin depozone, have been identified. The first depositional unit represents a proximal forebulge depozone and consists of lagoon-estuary and barred coastline deposits. The source from the "local" crystalline basement played here an important role. The second depositional unit consists of coastline to shallow marine deposits and is interpreted as a forebulge depozone. Tidalites recognized within this unit represent the only described tide-generated deposits of the Neogene infill of the Carpathian Foredeep basin in Moravia. The source from the basin passive margin (the Bohemian Massif) has been proved. The third depositional unit is formed by offshore deposits and represents a foredeep depozone. The provenance from both passive and active basin margin (Silesian Unit of the Western Carpathian Flysch Zone) has been proved. Thus, both a stepwise migration of the foredeep basin axis and shift of basin depozones outwards/cratonwards were documented, together with forebulge retreat. The shift of the foreland basin depozones more than 50 km cratonward can be assumed. The renewed thrusting along the basin's active margin finally completely changed the basin shape and paleogeography. The upper part of the infill was deformed outside the prograding thrust front of flysch nappes and the flysch rocks together with a strip of Miocene sediments were superposed onto the inner part of the basin. The width and bathymetric gradient of the entire basin was changed/reduced and the deposition continued toward the platform. The basin evolution and changes in its geometry are interpreted

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  9. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  10. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  11. Vocational Education and Training Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the Czech Republic. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET,…

  12. Forest health monitoring and forestry implications in the Czech Republic

    Treesearch

    Martin Cerny; Pavel Moravcik

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a forest monitoring program in the Czech Republic was extended into more detailed monitoring that aimed to describe the extent of changes in forest vitality and identify the nature and the main causes of these changes on local and regional scales. Studies were undertaken in six mountain areas in the Czech Republic. The program of regional forest...

  13. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  14. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  15. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic, April 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...

  16. Family therapy in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Chvala, Vladislav; Trapkova, Ludmila; Novak, Tomas; Lattova, Zuzana

    2012-04-01

    Political, economic and cultural transformations in the Czech Republic after 1989 were reflected in a number of demographic indicators, including those that characterize family behaviour. The main features of these changes are declining birth and marriage rates, postponement of first marriage and first birth ages, and a growing proportion of children born outside of marriage. These changes are comparable to those that have taken place in western Europe since the 1960s; however, some of them are abrupt and cause rapid shift in the family structure. Over the last two decades, significant changes have also occurred in the organization of family therapy. Earlier less coordinated activities underwent institutionalization, and guidelines for training and supervision were established. Family therapy in the Czech Republic is covered by a national organization, the Society of Family Therapy (SOFT). Standards of training and supervision correspond to European standards. The problem remains the lack of support for family therapy from state institutions, especially in the health service. There are only a few healthcare facilities providing family therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders or chronic somatic diseases. The capacity of these centres is substantially inadequate.

  17. Two species of Selaginella cones and their spores from the Bohemian Carboniferous continental basins of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bek, J; Oplustil, S; Drábková, J

    2001-03-01

    Two species of Selaginella cones from the Bohemian Upper Carboniferous continental basins of the Bolsovian and Westphalian D age are described, together with their in situ spores. Two specimens of Selaginella gutbierii yielded microspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Cirratriradites saturnii and megaspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Triangulatisporites vermiculatus. Microspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Cirratriradites annulatus and megaspores resemble the dispersed species Triangulatisporites tertius were isolated from cones of Selaginella cf. leptostachys. All the spores isolated from one cone are of the same type and would be referred to one dispersed micro- and megaspore species if found as Sporae dispersae. The paper contains a review of all palynologically studied Carboniferous Selaginella and Selaginella-like cones and reviews of all in situ and dispersed Cirratriradites and Triangulatisporites spores.

  18. Post-Variscan thermal history of the Moravo-Silesian lower Carboniferous Culm Basin (NE Czech Republic - SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Dunkl, István; Anczkiewicz, Aneta; Mazur, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    Apatite fission track analysis (AFT) and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology (ZHe) have been carried out for a lower Carboniferous greywacke succession of the Moravo-Silesian Culm Basin in the Nízký Jeseník Mountains. The range of apparent zircon helium ages is 303-233 Ma (late Carboniferous to Early Triassic) in the eastern part of the basin, whilst they are significantly younger in the western part, ranging from 194 to 163 Ma (Early-Middle Jurassic). Apatite fission track central ages range from 152 (Latest Jurassic) to 44 Ma (Eocene), with the majority being grouped between 114 (Aptian) and 57 Ma (Paleocene). All samples experienced substantial post-depositional thermal reset; both the AFT ages and the ZHe are considerably younger than the depositional ages. The mean track length varies in the range between 12.5 and 15.4 μm. The unimodal track length distribution, the relatively short mean track length (in most samples), and their rather low standard deviation values (1.2 to 2.1 μm) indicate that their thermal history was determined by Variscan and post-Variscan heating event(s) followed by a prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone in the Mesozoic and finally by cooling in the Paleogene. Geological evidence combined with thermal modeling based on AFT and ZHe data indicate that the lower Carboniferous strata had already reached maximum palaeotemperatures in the late Carboniferous, however, they were presumably later re-heated during the Permian-Triassic. Post-Variscan extensional tectonics events were responsible for high heat flow that together with Carboniferous burial could account for the reset of both thermochronometers. A major phase of cooling occurred in the Late Cretaceous. Finally, exhumation was probably faster in the Paleogene, causing the present-day exposure of the studied rocks.

  19. Laboratory-scale experimental burning of selected Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): re-evaluation of properties of historical raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Prikryl, Richard; Stastna, Aneta

    2013-04-01

    Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) have been quarried and utilized, among others, for manufacturing of inorganic binders. Certain beds, e.g. Devonian dvorecko-prokopské limestones were historically burnt for high quality hydraulic lime which is not produced recently. Aiming to evaluate potential of this specific raw material for small-scale production of restoration hydraulic lime, we have conducted some laboratory experimental burning tests in an electrical furnace up to 1200°C. Prior to the burning, all studied lithotypes (4 in total) have been examined for their mineralogy (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence study, X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue) and geochemistry (wet chemical analyses). Studied biomicritic limestones can be classified as wackstones to packstones. Carbonate content varies from 80 to 90 %, the rest is due to dominant illite and silica, and subordinate kaolinite, feldspars, and/or chlorite. Specific composition of non-carbonate component (specifically high content of illite and silica) positively influences formation of CS, Ca, and/or CAS phases when burnt at calcination temperatures from 850 to 1200°C (in steps of 50°C). In the products formed during firing, mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime, such as larnite, brownmillerite, and gehlenite, along with free lime, quartz and silica phases, and portlandite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The amount of the dominant hydraulic phase, larnite, increased with higher firing temperature. On the other hand, content of free lime, quartz and silica decreased. The amount of portlandite was almost independent of the firing temperature. Higher amounts of larnite and other hydraulic phase were detected during the peak firing temperature of 1200°C in specimens containing higher amount of insoluble residue. From the study performed, it is evident that studied dvorecko-prokopské limestone, which included favourable amount of

  20. Human and climatic impact on the Morava River behavior during last millennium (Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlik, Filip; Man, Otakar; Benes, Vojtech; Svetlik, Ivo; Rybnicek, Michal; Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena

    2010-05-01

    The floodplain of the lower course of the Morava River in the Straznicke Pomoravi area located in the Lower Moravian Basin is an excellent example of an environmental archive of which a detailed study could help understanding of the interplay between regional environmental changes, global climatic changes and human activities. The length of the meandering course of the Morava River through the study area is approximately 12 km and it is one of the last river segment modified by minimal channel regulations. River behavior and changes of the fluvial styles are reconstructed based on floodplain architecture analysis supported by geophysical survey. The age of sediments is specified using radiocarbon and dendrochronological datings completed with 137Cs and persistent organic pollutant concentrations. Pollen analyses allow us to reconstruct the local vegetation changes. Lithology of the floodplain deposits is conformable along a modern river channel. Sections exposed in erosional river banks reveal basal sands and sandy gravels often containing tree trunk or branch fragments. Charcoal or tree branches are preserved in overlaying greenish, sandy clay or clayey sand, usually with reductimorphic stains. The upper part of the sections is composed of sandy or clayey silts with intercalated smaller lenses or sand layers up to 20 cm thick. Geophysical survey suggests that the clayey cohesive sediments are present in whole area of the studied floodplain overlaying basal sand and sandy gravel. Most of these fine sediments were deposited in a low-energy river system during last millennium based on radiocarbon dating. These deposits were later partly eroded and replaced by medium-energy river system sediments in the northern part of the studied floodplain. First human impact on the river behavior should be traced back to 9th century AD when people of the Great Moravian Empire constructed their fortified settlements in the Morava River floodplain. However, we did not find

  1. Privatization and Business Education Needs in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    1996-01-01

    As the Czech Republic undergoes massive economic restructuring, education and training in capitalism and management are needed. The Czechoslovakian Management Center uses international advisors in developing its master's of business administration programs for executive development. (SK)

  2. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  3. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  4. Assessment in the School Systems of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strakova, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Student assessment in the Czech Republic is still rather traditional, with classroom practice continuing to focus on summative assessment. The country has regularly participated in international surveys, but the findings from these only started to influence educational policy during the past decade, when Czech students' performance fell markedly…

  5. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  6. Human biomonitoring system in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cerná, Milena; Spĕvácková, Vĕra; Batáriová, Andrea; Smíd, Jirí; Cejchanová, Mája; Ocadlíková, Dana; Bavorová, Hana; Benes, Bohuslav; Kubínová, Růzena

    2007-05-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) is an integral part of Environmental Health Monitoring System in the Czech Republic since 1994. Selected biomarkers of the internal dose (heavy metals, PCBs) and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes as a biomarker of the exposure/effect to/of environmental genotoxic factors are systematically followed up in the blood and urine of adults (blood donors), in children aged 8 to 10 years, and in the breast milk of nursing mothers. Selected outputs documented the declining trend of blood lead levels, with the recent reference value of 80 mg/l for men, and the rising trend of blood selenium levels in adults, but not in children. PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in human milk show a long-term downward trend, but still higher than in neighbouring countries. The frequency of aberrant cells revealed a downward trend, but the increase obtained in the last monitored period needs to be explained. Further HBM activities are required to demonstrate the corresponding trends and to reduce human exposure and health risks.

  7. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented.

  8. Epidemiology of Multiple Myeloma in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Maluskova, D; Svobodová, I; Kucerova, M; Brozova, L; Muzik, J; Jarkovský, J; Hájek, R; Maisnar, V; Dusek, L

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells with an incidence of 4.8 cases per 100,000 population in the Czech Republic in 2014; the burden of MM in the Czech Republic is moderate when compared to other European countries. This work brings the latest information on MM epidemiology in the Czech population. The Czech National Cancer Registry is the basic source of data for the population-based evaluation of MM epidemiology. This database also makes it possible to assess patient survival and to predict probable short-term as well as long-term trends in the treatment burden of the entire population. According to the latest Czech National Cancer Registry data, there were 504 new cases of MM and 376 deaths from MM in 2014. Since 2004, there has been a 26.9% increase in MM incidence and an 8.3% increase in MM mortality. In 2014, there were 1,982 persons living with MM or a history of MM, corresponding to a 74.4% increase when compared to MM prevalence in 2004. The 5-year survival of patients treated in the period 2010-2014 was nearly 40%. The available data make it possible to analyse long-term trends in MM epidemiology and to predict the future treatment burden as well as treatment results.Key words: multiple myeloma - epidemiology - Czech National Cancer Registry - Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies - Czech Republic.

  9. Family formation in the Czech and Slovak Republics.

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes family formation trends in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Information is included on first marriage rates, divorce, remarriage, and fertility. "Procreative behaviour in each of the birth-cohorts in the Czech Republic (starting with the birth-cohort 1930) is at the level of simple reproduction. In Slovakia, the completed fertility rate continued declining so that today the two parts of the former federation show very similar levels of reproduction. Marriage is a very wide-spread institution in Czechoslovakia and it is situated in the younger age groups.... The popularity of legal unions in the Czech and Slovak Republics and the relatively higher fertility rate in the European context can be ascribed to the young age at which those events occur." (SUMMARY IN CZE)

  10. Verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Matolín, Milan

    2017-01-01

    The radiometric map of the Czech Republic is based on uniform regional airborne radiometric total count measurements (1957-1959) which covered 100% of the country. The airborne radiometric instrument was calibrated to a (226)Ra point source. The calibration facility for field gamma-ray spectrometers, established in the Czech Republic in 1975, significantly contributed to the subsequent radiometric data standardization. In the 1990's, the original analogue airborne radiometric data were digitized and using the method of back-calibration (IAEA, 2003) converted to dose rate. The map of terrestrial gamma radiation expressed in dose rate (nGy/h) was published on the scale 1:500,000 in 1995. Terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, formed by magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Proterozoic to Quaternary age, ranges mostly from 6 to 245 nGy/h, with a mean of 65.6 ± 19.0 nGy/h. The elevated terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, in comparison to the global dose rate average of 54 nGy/h, reflects an enhanced content of natural radioactive elements in the rocks. The 1995 published radiometric map of the Czech Republic was successively studied and verified by additional ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements and by comparison to radiometric maps of Germany, Poland and Slovakia in border zones. A ground dose rate intercomparison measurement under participation of foreign and domestic professional institutions revealed mutual dose rate deviations about 20 nGy/h and more due to differing technical parameters of applied radiometric instruments. Studies and verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic illustrate the magnitude of current deviations in dose rate data. This gained experience can assist in harmonization of dose rate data on the European scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic in 1999].

    PubMed

    Trnka, L; Danková, D; Krejbich, F; Svandová, E

    2000-11-08

    Report is given on the tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and the new diseases monitoring in Czech Republic (CR) in 1999 using the register of notifiable TB diseases. 1631 new TB cases and relapse were notified (15.9/100,000 citizens). Majority TB cases, 1369 (13.3/100,000 citizens) were of the respiratory system and 262 TB cases were in other locations. 63% of the respiratory system diseases were bacteriologically verified. In comparison with the year 1998, the number of newly notified TB patients was 9.6% lower, number of TB cases of the respiratory system which were bacteriologically verified was 12.3% lower, cases of microscopically positive TB were 17.4% less frequent. Among the notified TB patients there were 91 foreigners. TB relapse was identified in 61 patients. Among the notified TB cases, 987 (60.5%) were males and 644 (39.5%) were females. In both sexes patients over 65 predominated. Prevalence of TB cases higher than the average for the whole state was found in Prague, northern and western Bohemia. Groups with TB prevalence higher than 50/100,000 citizens were identified (the risk groups). They include homeless people, drug addicts, asylum applicants, and prisoners. Due to subjective troubles of patients TB was diagnosed in 70.2% cases, by active investigation in 13.9% patients. Late TB diagnosis at autopsy came in 6.8% cases. Decease due to TB was notified in 79 patients. In 77 of them TB had not been diagnosed premortally. 106 new cases and relapses of non-TB mycobacterial disease were notified in 1999. The case of tuberculosis in CR was in 1999 restrainable. In comparison with 1998 significant decrease of TB prevalence in individual subgroups of TB disease was described (10 to 17%). Also the decrease of the long-term trend (10 years) of newly notified TB patients and TB of the respiratory system was depicted. It is necessary to maintain the quality and extend of the TB control program in order to prevent the new outbreak of TB disease.

  12. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  13. Identification of Novel Cryptosporidium Genotypes from the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Una; Xiao, Lihua; Read, Carolyn; Zhou, Ling; Lal, Altaf A.; Pavlasek, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Cryptosporidium from the Czech Republic were characterized from a variety of different hosts using sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S ribosomal DNA and the heat-shock (HSP-70) gene. Analysis expanded the host range of accepted species and identified several novel genotypes, including horse, Eurasian woodcock, rabbit, and cervid genotypes. PMID:12839819

  14. Pragmatism and Civic Education Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter S.; Hamot, Gregory E.

    1999-01-01

    A three-year project to reform civics curriculum in the Czech Republic tested a progressivist model by stressing behavioral objectives. A shift was made from subject-centered civic education to skill-based citizenship education based on the abilities needed for democracy. (SK)

  15. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  16. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  17. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  18. Situation of School Self-Evaluation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Vastatkova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on school self-evaluation in the Czech Republic. It offers the overview of main changes which took place after 1989 and provided a broad social framework for operation of schools. Also, it links self-evaluation to recent legislation which explicitly determines its state of art and also steps to be taken in the near future.…

  19. Innovative Physics Teaching Conferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrandt, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Even today, with all of the instant communication technologies available, we are still often unaware of all that happens in other parts of the world. In the middle of Europe, in the Czech Republic, physics teachers have created a couple of innovative conferences--or "workshops" might be a better term. Having attended two of each, I think…

  20. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  1. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  2. Parasitic helminths of reptiles (Reptilia) in South Moravia (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Borkovcová, M; Kopriva, J

    2005-01-01

    An helminthological investigation of 104 reptile species was carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic). We examined Lacerta viridis, L. agilis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. Twelve species of parasites were found. Among these, Nematoda occurred most often, followed by Trematoda and Cestoda. No Acanthocephala were detected.

  3. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  4. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  5. [Occupational tuberculosis in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Svihrová, V; Legáth, L; Bátora, I; Záborský, T; Rozborilová, E; Fenclová, Z; Urban, P; Zibolenová, J; Osina, O; Janoušek, M; Hudečková, H

    2014-09-01

    To conduct a retrospective 15-year study to monitor trends in the number of employees at risk for occupational tuberculosis (TB) (levels III and IV) in the Slovak Republic, and in particular in the sector of economic activities Q (health care and social assistance). Furthermore, to analyze reported cases of occupational TB and to compare the incidence and sex-specific and age-specific prevalence with the data reported in the Czech Republic. Data on the number of employees at risk of exposure to occupational TB were derived from the Automated Risk Classification System of the Slovak Republic. Data on cases of occupational TB were taken from health statistics (Institute of Health Information and Statistics/National Health Information Center in the Slovak Republic and the National Institute of Public Health in the Czech Republic). A retrospective analysis was conducted (for 1998-2012) of reported cases of occupational TB, selected from Article 24 of the List of occupational diseases (infectious and parasitic diseases except tropical infectious and parasitic diseases and diseases transmissible from animals to humans). The selection criterion was a TB diagnosis according to ICD-10. In the Czech Republic, the data were derived from Article 5.1.02 (tuberculosis), Chapter V. of the List of Occupational Diseases. The data obtained were analyzed by methods of descriptive statistics. The numbers of employees with a level III risk of exposure to occupational TB in the Slovak Republic declined by 30% over the 15 years of study and by 40% in category Q. In 2012, 2027 employees were classified in category III and 1442 of them belonged to group Q. Females accounted for 81-84% of employees at risk of exposure to occupational TB. Eighty-six and 181 cases of occupational TB were reported in the Slovak Republic and in the Czech Republic, respectively, in 1998-2012, with the incidence showing a downward trend in both countries. TB of the respiratory tract was reported most often (83

  6. Islamic Extremism in the Czech Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    20th century . The first Czech contacts with Islam occurred in the Middle-Ages around end of the 15th century . Since the time of the Crusades, the...from Hasistein ( *1450 – †1517), Peregrinate to Holy Tomb, 1505. The book provides author’s experience from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1493. Václav...země (Islam and the Czech Lands ), Praha, Votobia, 1998. 12 17. 9. 2004, available from http://www.mkcr.cz/cz/cirkve-a-nabozenske- spolecnosti/odkazy

  7. 77 FR 38736 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Czech Republic (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Czech Republic (DFARS Case 2012-D043) AGENCY: Defense... final rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to add the Czech... DFARS to add the Czech Republic as a qualifying country. On April 18, 2012, the Secretary of Defense...

  8. [Familial hypercholesterolemia in the Czech Republic in 2016].

    PubMed

    Freiberger, Tomáš; Vaclová, Martina; Tichý, Lukáš; Soška, Vladimír; Bláha, Vladimír; Fajkusová, Lenka; Češka, Richard; Vrablík, Michal

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent autosomal dominant hereditary disease which is characterized by a decreased LDL-cholesterol catabolism and early clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis affecting blood vessels. The MedPed (Make early diagnosis to Prevent early deaths) project aims to diagnose patients with FH as early as possible, so that they can profit the most from a therapy started in a timely manner and avoid premature cardiovascular events. Currently, as of 31 October 2016, the Czech national database keeps records of 6 947 patients with FH from 5 223 families. Considering the prevalence of FH equalling 1 : 250, this represents 17.4 % of the overall expected number of patients with FH in the Czech Republic. Determining the mutation responsible for FH, now using a next generation sequencing technology in the Czech Republic, brings with it higher diagnostic accuracy, better cooperation of patients and in particular facilitation of cascade screening in families. Although we are among the most successful countries in the world with regard to FH detection, the majority of patients are still undiagnosed. Moreover, as it turns out, most FH patients do not reach the target values with the current therapeutic possibilities. In this regard the newly approved hypolipidemic drugs, PCSK9 inhibitors, to be hopefully available also in the Czech Republic in the near future for chosen patients with FH at high risk, hold great promise.Key words: cascade screening - familial hypercholesterolemia - LDL-cholesterol - MedPed.

  9. Drought events in the Czech Republic: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jiří; Tolasz, Radim; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Dolák, Lukáš

    2017-04-01

    Droughts are, together with floods, the most important natural extremes in the Czech Republic. In the last c. 20 years even some irregular alternations of years with severe droughts on the one hand (2000, 2003, 2007, 2011-2012, 2014-2015) and severe floods on the other (1997, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2013), reflecting greater variability of the water cycle, can be observed. Great attention devoted to the study of past, present and future of droughts in the Czech Republic in a few last years allowed to obtain basic knowledge related to long-term spatial-temporal variability of droughts, combining dendrochronological, documentary and instrumental data, synoptic causes and climate forcings of droughts, case studies of important drought anomalies with significant social-economic consequences (like drought of 1947), impacts of droughts in agriculture, forestry or water management, and future droughts according to model estimates. Basic results obtained are summarised and documented by several typical examples. Such level of drought knowledge became a basis for formulation of the new research project, trying to analyse the climate forcings and triggers involved in the occurrence, course and severity of drought events in the Czech Republic in the context of Central Europe and explanations of their physical mechanisms, based on a 515-year series of drought indices reconstructed from documentary and instrumental data. Presentation of this new project for 2017-2019 is included in the second part of the paper. (This work was supported by Czech Science Foundation, project no. 17-10026S "Drought events in the Czech Republic and their causes".)

  10. Comparison of particular logistic models' adoption in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbová, Petra; Cempírek, Václav

    2016-12-01

    Managing inventory is considered as one of the most challenging tasks facing supply chain managers and specialists. Decisions related to inventory locations along with level of inventory kept throughout the supply chain have a fundamental impact on the response time, service level, delivery lead-time and the total cost of the supply chain. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the share of a particular logistic model adopted in the Czech Republic (Consignment stock, Buffer stock, Safety stock) and also compare their usage and adoption according to different industries. This paper also aims to specify possible reasons of particular logistic model preferences in comparison to the others. The analysis is based on quantitative survey held in the Czech Republic.

  11. Cost-effective energy efficiency in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.; Secrest, T.J.; Zemen, Z.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    Energy efficiency is a particularly important issue in the emerging economies of Eastern Europe. Much of the energy used in the Czech Republic is supplied by lignite, a soft brown form of coal. Its combustion is largely responsible for an extreme acid rain problem and other forms of air pollution and land use complications. Additionally, inefficient energy use is prevalent, placing additional stresses on an already fragile economy. This paper reports on a project in the mid-sized (250,000 residents) and industrial city of Plzen, in the Czech Republic. The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, developed by PNL for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), was applied to the city to determine the level of cost-effective energy efficiency potential in the city. Significant potential was found to exist, primarily in large, cooperatively owned apartment buildings heated by district systems.

  12. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  13. [Cross-border healthcare in European Union and Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Barták, Miroslav; Rogalewicz, Vladimír; Jílková, Jiřina; Jeřábková, Silvie

    Currently, the cross-border healthcare still represents a marginal part of the Czech healthcare system's performance, though. Compared to the total healthcare expenditures in the Czech Republic that accounted for CZK 299.9 billion in 2014, the costs of the treatment provided to Czech patients abroad constitute mere 0.27%, and the (subsequently refunded) costs of the treatment provided to foreign patients in the Czech Republic 0.24%.Although data on changes in the volume and reimbursements of healthcare due to the Directive 2011/24/EU have not been published yet, we can expect rather evolutionary than revolutionary development of cross-border healthcare volumes. Taking into account all available data, we can conclude that the cross-border healthcare, as specified by the directive currently in force, is important in our conditions above all in relation to our neighbours, i. e. Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Poland.Key words: cross-border healthcare, patient mobility, international reimbursements EU health policy, Directive 2011/24/EU.

  14. The future market in electricity in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Vacik, J.

    1998-07-01

    The Czech Republic has signed the Association Agreement with the European Union in early nineties and it has been the Republic's goal to accede to full membership in the European Union. In the power sector, the Directive 96/92/EC is, in this respect, the most important document. The Czech Energy Law was become effective from 1995 in a compromise form which proved to stay well short of perfection. Unfortunately, a number of articles and provisions fail to be consistent with the relevant EU documents, and even far less so with Directive 96/92/EC. The draft Energy Policy of the Czech Republic as presented officially in May 1997, has already definitely stressed some basic features of the future market in electricity. Regrettably, also in the draft Energy Policy some pressing long-term problems fail to be recognized or addressed and also areas failing to conform with the European power industry laws can be found in it. For the Czech Republic, it will be useful to utilize the experience of mainly the smaller EU countries and to proceed in pursuance of the findings of a thorough analysis and in a stepwise manner. In the first phase, it will be enough to make those moves which are common for all the conceivable solutions. Directive 96/92/EC does not prescribe a change in the structure of the existing electric power sector and far less any change in the ownership relation. In the same token, Directive 96/92/EC does not charge the member states with any duty to launch a wholesale market in electricity (pool of exchange). That is reserved under the discretion of the member states. Nowhere throughout the Directive is encountered any requirement to reduce the market strength of the dominant entities, if such exist.

  15. Social Costs of Gambling in the Czech Republic 2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Bejdová, Markéta; Csémy, Ladislav; Weissová, Aneta

    2016-12-17

    Evidence about social costs of gambling is scarce and the methodology for their calculation has been a subject to strong criticism. We aimed to estimate social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic 2012. This retrospective, prevalence based cost of illness study builds on the revised methodology of Australian Productivity Commission. Social costs of gambling were estimated by combining epidemiological and economic data. Prevalence data on negative consequences of gambling were taken from existing national epidemiological studies. Economic data were taken from various national and international sources. Consequences of problem and pathological gambling only were taken into account. In 2012, the social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic were estimated to range between 541,619 and 619,608 thousands EUR. While personal and family costs accounted for 63% of all social costs, direct medical costs were estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.28% of all social costs only. This is the first study which estimates social costs of gambling in any of the Central and East European countries. It builds upon the solid evidence about prevalence of gambling related problems in the Czech Republic and satisfactorily reliable economic data. However, there is a number of limitations stemming from assumptions that were made, which suggest that the methodology for the calculation of the social costs of gambling needs further development.

  16. Geochemical study of calcite veins in the Silurian and Devonian of the Barrandian Basin (Czech Republic): evidence for widespread post-Variscan fluid flow in the central part of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, V.; Heijlen, W.; Sykorova, I.; Muchez, Ph; Dobes, P.; Hladikova, J.; Jackova, I.; Safanda, J.; Zeman, A.

    2000-03-01

    Carbonate fracture cements in limestones have been investigated by fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis to provide insight into fluid evolution and deformation conditions of the Barrandian Basin (Silurian-Devonian) of the Czech Republic. The fractures strike generally north-south and appear to postdate major Variscan deformation. The most common fracture cement is calcite that is locally accompanied by quartz, natural bitumen, dolomite, Mn-oxides and fluorite. Three successive generations of fracture-filling calcite cements are distinguished based on their petrographical and geochemical characteristics. The oldest calcite cements (Stage 1) are moderate to dull brown cathodoluminescent, Fe-rich and exhibit intense cleavage, subgrain development and other features characteristic of tectonic deformation. Less tectonically deformed, variable luminescent Fe-poor calcite corresponds to a paragenetically younger Stage 2 cement. First melting temperatures, Te, of two-phase aqueous inclusions in Stages 1 and 2 calcites are often around -20°C, suggesting that precipitation of the cements occurred from H 2O-NaCl fluids. The melting temperature, Tm, has values between 0 and -5.8°C, corresponding to a low salinity between 0 and 8.9 eq. wt% NaCl. Homogenization temperatures, Th, from calcite cements are interpreted to indicate precipitation at about 70°C or less. No distinction could be made between the calcite of Stages 1 and 2 based on their fluid inclusion characteristics. In some Stage 2 cements, inclusions of highly saline (up to 23 eq. wt% NaCl) brines appear to coexist with low-salinity inclusions. The low salinity fluid possibly contains Na-, K-, Mg- and Ca-chlorides. The high salinity fluid has a H 2O-NaCl-CaCl 2 composition. Blue-to-yellow-green fluorescing hydrocarbon inclusions composed of medium to higher API gravity oils are also identified in some Stages 1 and 2 calcite cements. Stage 1 and 2 calcites have δ18O values between -13.2‰ and -7.2‰ PDB

  17. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Chrdle, Aleš; Mallátová, Nad'a; Vašáková, Martina; Haber, Jan; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We have estimated the number of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. All published epidemiology papers reporting Czech fungal infection rates were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations. Population statistics were obtained from the 2011 Census data, prevalence and incidence data for at-risk conditions were obtained from publicly accessible healthcare statistics and relevant surveys. We estimate that 152,840 Czech women suffer with recurrent vaginal thrush. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is likely in 4739 adults and 6581 more have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Hypersensitivity pneumonitits secondary to fungi is estimated in 1050 cases and 365 people may have chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Oesophageal candidiasis is estimated in 210 HIV-positive people. There are 12 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV population and 60 more cases in non-HIV population. There are an estimated 526 cases of candidaemia, 79 cases of Candida peritonitis and 297 cases of invasive aspergillosis a year. About 176,000 (1.67%) Czech people suffer from severe fungal infections each year, predominantly from recurrent vaginitis and allergic respiratory conditions. Substantial uncertainty surrounds these estimates except for invasive aspergillosis in haematology and candidaemia in critical care.

  19. 2D shear wave velocity mapping of the Hartoušov CO2 degassing area in the Cheb Basin, NW Bohemia (Czech Republic), using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Estrella, H.; Henke, M.

    2015-12-01

    For the characterization of the subsurface of the Hartoušov CO2 degassing area in the Cheb Basin, NW Bohemia, Czech Republic several different approaches have been made. However, no active seismic characterization has been presented, nor published. The Multi­channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) offers an useful tool to estimate vertical and horizontal velocity changes of the shallow subsurface. This can correlate to variations on rock elastic properties and/or fluid content, and represents the subsurface-layering.Surface waves were stimulated using a sledgehammer as source, and were measured with 48 vertical geophones with spacing of 1 m and the roll along method with a setup dis­placement of 2 m. Two source offsets, 10 m and 30 m, were used to increase the data quality and the resolution.The analysis of propagation velocities leads to dispersion curves from which 1D shear wave velocity profiles can be inverted. Those will be interpolated to create a 2D ground stiffness map. The measurements were taken in the NW area of the main degassing zone and are partially in the same spot of former investigations, i.e. CO2 concentration and gas flux measurements, electric and gravimetric surveys and continuous seismic noise mea­surements.Changes in the structure of the 2D velocity maps can be explained potentially with the oc­currence of fluid paths and their diffusion in the subsurface or the existence of the Počatky-Plesná fault zone, which position is not fully understood yet or both features in combination.

  20. The White Book Launched: On the Prospects of Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Rabusicova, Milada

    2003-01-01

    This article wants to present the National Education Development Programme of the Czech Republic, also known as the White Book, to large international audiences. The vision of Czech education is hereunder discussed within the framework of the development of the Czech educational policy in the 1990's, pointing out the Programme's essential ideas.…

  1. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  2. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dusek, L; Muzik, J; Maluskova, D; Májek, O; Pavlík, T; Koptíková, J; Melichar, B; Büchler, T; Fínek, J; Cibula, D; Babjuk, M; Svoboda, M; Vyzula, R; Ryska, A; Ryska, M; Petera, J; Abrahámová, J

    2014-01-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with the highest cancer burden in Europe as well as worldwide. The purpose of this study is to summarize longterm trends in the cancer burden and to provide up-to-date estimates of incidence and mortality rates after 2011. The Czech National Cancer Registry (CNCR) was instituted in 1977 and contains information collected over a 34-year period of standardized registration covering 100% of cancer diagnoses within the entire Czech population. The CNCR analysis is supported by demographic data and by the Death Records Database. An overview of the epidemiology of malignant tumors in the Czech population is available online at www.svod.cz. All neoplasms, including nonmelanoma skin cancer, reached a crude incidence rate of almost 802 cases per 100,000 men and 681 cases per 100,000 women in 2011. The annual mortality rate exceeded 258 deaths per 100,000 individuals; in other words, more than 27,000 individuals die of cancer each year. The overall incidence of malignancies has increased with a growth index of +27.6% during the last decade (2001- 2011), while the mortality rate has been stabilized over the time span (growth index in 2001- 2011: - 5.0%). Consequently, the prevalence has significantly increased in the observed period and exceeded 475,000 cases in 2011. In addition to demographic aging of the Czech population, the cancer burden has also increased due to the growing incidence of multiple primary tumors (recently more than 15% of the total incidence). The most frequent diagnoses include colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Although some neoplasms are increasingly diagnosed at an early stage (e. g. the proportion of stage I or II was 75.3% for female breast cancer and 84.2% for skin melanoma), the numbers of early diagnosed cases are generally insufficient, even in the case of highly prevalent cancers such as colorectal carcinoma (only 46.1% of incident cases are diagnosed at stage I or II

  4. Pharmacy Practice and Education in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nachtigal, Petr; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-10-09

    The PHARMINE ("Pharmacy Education in Europe") project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic. Czech community pharmacies sell and provide advice on Rx and Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; they also provide diagnostic services (e.g., blood pressure measurement). Pharmacists (lékárník in Czech) study for five years and graduate with a Magister (Mgr., equivalent to M.Pharm.) degree. The Mgr. diploma is the only requirement for registration as a pharmacist. Pharmacists can own and manage community pharmacies, or work as responsible pharmacists in pharmacies. All practising pharmacists must be registered with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. The ownership of a community pharmacy is not restricted to members of the pharmacy profession; the majority of pharmacies are organised into various pharmacy chains. There are two universities providing higher education in pharmacy in the Czech Republic: the Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, which was established in 1969, and the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, which was established in 1991. The pharmacy curriculum is organized as a seamless, fully integrated, five-year master degree course. There is a six-month traineeship supervised by the university, which usually takes place during the fifth year. Thus, the pharmacy curriculum is organised in accordance with the EU directive on sectoral professions that lays down the

  5. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...-1237 (Preliminary)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea... China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel... from Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly, effective September 18...

  6. TRAJECTORIES OF FETAL LOSS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    PubMed Central

    CARLSON, ELWOOD; HOEM, JAN M.; RYCHTARIKOVA, JITKA

    2009-01-01

    Using data for 555,038 pregnancies conceived in the Czech Republic in 1987-1990, we show that pronounced differences in fetal survival in the middle trimester of pregnancy by marital status, educational level, and labor force attachment become much smaller at full term; survival differences by age at conception and number of previous deliveries show relatively constant proportional hazards throughout gestation. Social inequalities in postpartum life chances have been documented previously, but we show that similar inequalities exist before birth. PMID:10472497

  7. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    PubMed

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  8. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  9. Effects of global change in the Czech Part of the River Elbe Basin and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Hagen; Kaltofen, Michael; Kaden, Stefan; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In Integrated Water Resources Management planning the effects of changing natural conditions (natural water availability) and socio-economic development (water demand) must be taken into consideration. Climate change will influence the water availability. In some sectors, e.g. agricultural irrigation, also the water demand is influenced by climatic conditions. Both, the development of natural water availability and water demand, are connected with certain levels of uncertainty. Therefore, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change are required for Integrated Water Resources Management planning. The river Elbe basin (catchment area approximately 150,000 km²) is located in central Europe. The river Elbe basin is a trans boundary river basin. One third is located in the Czech Republic upstream of Germany, where two thirds of the basin is located. Therefore, inflows from the Czech part are important for instance for navigation in the German part. For navigation an inflow to Germany of 100 m3/s is required. Due to climate change the inflows are expected to decline. In the project GLOWA-Elbe a water management model for the whole river Elbe basin was developed. The model for the Czech part includes among others 52 reservoirs, 20 thermoelectric power plants, 70 hydroelectric power plants, 30 industrial users, 15 agricultural irrigation users, 40 public water utilities, and 160 waste water treatment plants. Two global socio-economic trends are renationalized and used in the simulations. Renationalized climate data are used to simulate the effects of climate change on natural discharges. Using the water management model the effects of global change on inflows from the Czech Republic to Germany are simulated. Using this model is it analyzed, if reservoir management in the Czech part can sustain a required inflow of 100 m3/s to Germany.

  10. Oral health status of drug addicts in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pilinová, A; Krutina, M; Salandová, M; Pilin, A

    2003-12-01

    Over the last decade, illicit drug use has become a very pronounced problem in the Czech Republic. Some branches of medicine such as psychiatry, internal medicine and neurology have tried to confront the situation by joint treatment of addicted patients. Dentistry has so far remained outside this multi-disciplinary care despite the fact that the status of dental and other tissues in the oral cavity influences general health and vice versa. The aim of the survey on the oral health of drug addicts that was conducted in the Czech Republic from 2000 to 2002 was to collect data to help dental professionals contribute to the complex care of drug addicts. The number of addicted persons examined was 400 and the subgroup of drug addicts consisted of 217 subjects (mean age 23.87 yrs, SD 6.70), all being treated in long term hospitals. Among other oral health features observed, the DMFT and CPITN indices are presented in this paper. The results show severe dental and periodontal tissue destruction in young addicts and two case reports are included. The above survey indicates that dental treatment should become a part of standard care for addicted patients in long-term hospitals. Furthermore, if severe oral tissue impairment in young persons whether in dental practice or during autopsy is encountered a drug addiction should be suspected. If so, the treatment of the person or examination of the dead body should accordingly be adjusted.

  11. Trends in substance abuse by teenagers in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Seblova, Jana; Polanecky, Vladimir; Sejda, Jan; Studnickova, Bela

    2005-01-01

    Drug Epidemiology Headquarters of the Hygienic Station of the Capital Prague has created a complex drug information system in the Czech Republic. This department collects and analyzes data concerning problem drug users, non-fatal emergencies, and occurence of infectious diseases, and all these surveys are provided on a routine basis. Data are gathered from the national network of treatment and contact centers for drug users, through repeated representative epidemiological surveys, obligatory reports on infectious diseases (hepatitis A, B and C, HIV/AIDS), and a sentinel system of data collection is used for non-fatal emergencies. In 1994, 1997, and 2000, a repeated study concerning trends of substance abuse by teenagers (aged 14 to 19 years of age) from all types of schools and from all regions of the Czech Republic was carried out by this department in order to study changes in substance abuse and teenagers' opinions related to drugs. In 1994 there were 8334 respondents in the study, in 1997 there were 14,282 respondents, and in 2000 there were 13,018 respondents, which is about 1.5% of the population group of teenagers from 14-19 years old in each year of the study. Recommendations of EMCDDA (European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction in Lisbon, Portugal), a body of European Council, are followed by Drug Epidemiology Headquarters.

  12. Experiences of the first PICC team in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Katerina; Paulinova, Vendula; Zemanova, Katerina; Hromadkova, Jaroslava

    The first specialist nursing team placing peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in the Czech Republic was established in September 2012. During 2013 the team placed 167 PICCs and 162 midline catheters. In another 6 patients the insertion was not successful. PICCs were inserted mainly for oncology patients; while midline catheters were inserted for patients admitted to general wards. Average duration of catheter insertion was 91 days (range 7-285 days) for PICCs and 14 days (range 2-40 days) for midline catheters. During follow up of PICCs, catheter infection rate was 0.3/1000 days, vein thrombosis rate 0.4/1000 days, catheter occlusion 0.4/1000 days, and catheter displacement 0.33/1000 days. For midline catheters infection rate was 1.4/1000 days, vein thrombosis 5.2/1000 days, catheter occlusion 2.6/1000 days, and catheter displacement 2.2/1000 days. The authors hope that these results will motivate other hospitals in the Czech republic to establish PICC teams, as in other European countries.

  13. Recruitment to psychiatry in the Czech Republic: 'waiting for resuscitation'?

    PubMed

    Dvoracek, Boris; Nawka, Alexander; Nawkova, Lucie; Vevera, Jan; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Farooq, Kitty; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Recruitment to psychiatry is becoming a serious obstacle in providing first-class mental health treatment in many countries worldwide. We attempt to address this burning issue by examining medical student's attitudes towards psychiatry and factors influencing their career choice in the Czech Republic. In 2010, 71 students in their last year of medical school at the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague were recruited in this quantitative cross-sectional online study. From the sample, 16% (n = 11) of students were considering psychiatry as a career path. An important factor in choosing psychiatry as a career path was personal/family presence of mental illness. Longer experience with psychiatry placement also contributed to the choice of psychiatry, as well as participation in elective courses or psychiatric research projects. Students considering psychiatry were less systematic compared to the group not considering psychiatry. Low reported levels of recruitment to psychiatry present a problematic issue in the Czech Republic. To make psychiatry more appealing to medical students, proactive steps by the relevant stakeholders need to be implemented. These strategies should include steps such as allocating more time for psychiatry in the medical curriculum, better quality of lectures, and the inclusion of additional elective courses.

  14. Exposure to lead and human health in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bláha, K; Bencko, V; Cikrt, M

    1996-12-01

    The aim of presented review is to address the most relevant issues related to the health effects caused by the human exposure to lead, as they have been recognized in Czech Republic in the period of 1992-1994 within the framework of the National Integrated Programme on Environment and Health (NIPEH) approved in 1992 and supported by WHO-European Centre for Environment and Health (WHO-ECEH), Bilthoven, The Netherlands and by the Government of the Netherlands. Basic sources of environment exposure to lead are identified and the fate of lead in the individual compartments of the environment is discussed. Relevant methods used for the exposure evaluation are summarized and the highest-risk group of population is defined. Attention is being paid to the effects of the long-term exposure to low lead levels, while other exposure settings are intentionally omitted. Interventional measures developed in the Czech Republic in attempt to reduce the environmental exposure are introduced. Instead of presenting specific data, current state-of-art and general trends are presented; list of references tries to combine the internationally recognized studies with those coming from national sources.

  15. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  16. HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 genotyping of 180 Czech individuals from the Czech Republic pop 3.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Marta; Kotrbova-Kozak, Anna; Cerna, Marie

    2016-04-01

    One hundred and eighty Czech individuals from the Czech Republic pop 3 were genotyped at the HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci using sequence-specific primers PCR methods. HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 genotypes are consistent with expected Hardy-Weinberg (HW) proportions. These genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under identifier AFND. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  18. Unique diversity of acanthothoracid placoderms (basal jawed vertebrates) in the Early Devonian of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic: A new look at Radotina and Holopetalichthys

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy of Early Devonian placoderm material from the Lochkovian and Pragian of the Prague basin, previously attributed to the genera Radotina and Holopetalichthys, is revised. The Pragian species Radotina tesselata Gross 1958 shares detailed similarities with the holotype of the Lochkovian Radotina kosorensis Gross 1950, which is also the holotype of the genus; the assignation of both species to Radotina is supported. However, the Lochkovian material previously attributed to Radotina kosorensis also contains two unrecognised taxa, distinguishable from Radotina at the generic level: these are here named Tlamaspis and Sudaspis. The disputed genus Holopetalichthys, synonymised with Radotina by some previous authors, is shown to be valid. Furthermore, whereas Radotina, Tlamaspis and Sudaspis can all be assigned to the group Acanthothoracii, on the basis of several features including possession of a projecting prenasal region of the endocranium, Holopetalichthys lacks such a region and is probably not an acanthothoracid. Skull roof patterns and other aspects of morphology vary greatly between these taxa. Radotina has a substantially tesselated skull roof, whereas the skull roofs of Tlamaspis and Holopetalichthys appear to lack tesserae altogether. Tlamaspis has an extremely elongated facial region and appears to lack a premedian plate. Sudaspis has a long prenasal region, but unlike Tlamaspis the postnasal face is not elongated. Past descriptions of the braincase of 'Radotina' and the skull roofs of 'Radotina' and 'Holopetalichthys' incorporate data from more than one taxon, giving rise to spurious characterisations including an apparently extreme degree of skull roof variability. These descriptions should all be disregarded. PMID:28380002

  19. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.

  20. [Listeriosis in pregnant women and newborns in Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Smíšková, Dita; Karpíšková, Renata; Džupová, Olga; Marešová, Vilma

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature, being commonly present in faecal flora of otherwise healthy human population or animals. Clinical manifestation of listeria infection may vary widely from mild to invasive, life-threatening disease. In an immunocompromised host, a rather serious course should be expected. Due to cell-mediated immune insufficiency associated with pregnancy even a short bacteraemia in pregnant women can result in transplacental infection. Most listeria infections are sporadic but outbreaks may occur. An outbreak of listeriosis in the Czech Republic in the autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007 was associated with an increased incidence of perinatal listeriosis. More information on listeriosis prevention in pregnancy should be given and each febrile episode during pregnancy should be carefully examined. Early treatment of listeriosis reduces the risk of vertical transmission.

  1. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Praskova, Ivana; Bezdekova, Barbora; Zeman, Petr; Jahn, Petr

    2011-06-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the aetiological agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA). The aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in the horse population of the Czech Republic (CZ) and to investigate possible links between seropositivity and the geographic origin, age, and/or sex of the tested horses. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody method (IFA). Serum samples from 96 healthy horses from 8 localities (7 within the CZ and one control upland/tick-free locality in Ukraine) were examined. While the controls tested negative, the seroprevalence in the Czech localities was estimated at 73%, which suggests that subclinical EGA is common among horses in the CZ. Significant differences between seropositivity rates in individual stables were demonstrated (explicable by the different environment and/or management styles of the horses stabled therein). Horses in stables from which previous manifest cases had been reported tended to have higher average titres. Mares displayed a somewhat higher seropositivity rate than did stallions; age had no demonstrable effect upon the serological status of the examined horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pharmacoeconomy of diabetes mellitus--trends in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Horák, P

    2009-04-01

    Since 2002, we found relatively stable number of diabetes mellitus cases among clients of General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic. This means, after calculating incidence rate with respect to decline in total numbers of insured during the same period, a 6% increase in real incidence rate. On the doctors side, outpatient, mostly private diabetologists have about the same capacity of their offices, 2.9 physicians (WTE)/100 000 citizens over the last years. Analysis of costs and volume of services provided, clearly demonstrate, that diabetology is medical specialization of a great importance not only from the point of view of number of patients and services provided but also of its influence on the overall health care costs. Data show not only higher average expenses for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to average expenses incurred for treatments of all other diagnoses, but show also a crucial relationship of costs with presence or absence of diabetes mellitus complications. Money spend by the medical insurance system and also and more importantly health profit to patients can thus be substantially influenced via improvements in organization of care, via higher involvement, compliance of patients to the treatment and to necessary change in their lifestyles and last but not least via increase in quality of care. Cost control can be achieved by strengthening the role of pharmacoeconomics in decisions making processes of health insurance companies, importance of which is demonstrated on the past developments on drug market in the Czech Republic. General Health Insurance Company will target these goals in coming years and in its business plans will also include expected increases of costs for organization of care and for higher renumeration of physicians as well.

  3. [Malignant tumors of the esophagus in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Duda, M; Adamcík, L; Dusek, L; Skrovina, M; Jínek, T

    2012-03-01

    Data analysis of the incidence, mortality and basic data regarding therapy of esophageal cancer in the Czech Republic and determining possible ways to improve the current situation. Analysis was performed using data obtained from the Czech National Cancer Registry and from the Registry of Thoracic Procedures from the Section of Thoracic Surgery of the Czech Surgical Society. Analysis of specialized literature provided generally accepted risk factors for the development of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer represents 0.7% of all solid malignant tumours in the Czech Republic (1.1% in males and 0.2% in females). During 1977 to 2008, the incidence increased from 2 to 5.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants and mortality from 1.9 to 4.1 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. In absolute numbers, the incidence was 561 cases (5.4 per 100.000 inhabitants) in 2008. Absolute mortality rate was 452 deaths (4.3 per 100.000 inhabitants) and absolute prevalence (number of patients living with cancer or with its medical history) was 791 subjects(7.6 per 100.000 inhabitants). When compared to international data, the incidence in the Czech Republic is the 84th highest in the world and 17th highest in Europe (mortality rates are at the 85th place in the world and the 18th place in Europe). In the Czech Republic, the highest incidence is in the Moravian-Silesian and Zlin regions (6.1 per 100.000), the lowest in the Plzen (4.2) and Vysocina (4.1) regions. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 62 years in males and 68 years in females, the maximum incidence is between 55 and 69 years in males and between 58 and 79 years in females. Upon diagnosis, advanced stages of the disease predominate. In 2008, 28% of the detected esophageal cancer cases were stage I and II disorders, 60 % were stage III and IV disorders, and in 12% of the cases the stage was not determined. In the treated patient group, the five-year survival rate was 15.5% in total, based on an analysis of data from 2004 - 2007. The

  4. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    PubMed

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  5. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  6. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research…

  7. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  8. Diversity in Language: Outdoor Terminology in the Czech Republic and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcova, Ivana; Martin, Andy; Neuman, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews literature related to outdoor terminology as it is used within the languages of British English and Czech. It provides the background to the outdoors in the Czech Republic where terminology has adopted and adapted many English language outdoor terms. The paper analyses the differences and similarities between terms and deals…

  9. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of human hepatitis E virus strains, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vasickova, Petra; Slany, Michal; Chalupa, Pavel; Holub, Michal; Svoboda, Radek; Pavlik, Ivo

    2011-05-01

    To determine the origin of hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic, we analyzed patient clinical samples. Five isolates of genotypes 3e, 3f, and 3g were obtained. Their genetic relatedness with Czech strains from domestic pigs and wild boars and patient recollections suggest an autochthonous source likely linked to consumption of contaminated pork.

  10. Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Human Hepatitis E Virus Strains, Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Slany, Michal; Chalupa, Pavel; Holub, Michal; Svoboda, Radek; Pavlik, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    To determine the origin of hepatitis E virus in the Czech Republic, we analyzed patient clinical samples. Five isolates of genotypes 3e, 3f, and 3g were obtained. Their genetic relatedness with Czech strains from domestic pigs and wild boars and patient recollections suggest an autochthonous source likely linked to consumption of contaminated pork. PMID:21529412

  11. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  12. Methodological Aspects of Trend Studies and Development of the HBSC Study in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Erik; Baďura, Petr; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Csémy, Ladislav; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to present the theoretical background of trend studies in general, to characterize the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and to describe its methodology and changes of the Czech HBSC study between 1994 and 2014. The first part describes various types of trend research studies including their advantages and disadvantages. The second part summarizes the history of the HBSC study in an international context and particularly in the Czech Republic. The final part presents the basic methodological data from six surveys conducted in the Czech Republic between 1994 and 2014. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  13. Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management projects in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Janouch, F.; Mach, R.

    1995-10-01

    The Czech Republic is almost the only country in the central Europe which continues with the construction of nuclear power reactors. Its small territory and dense population causes public worries concerning the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. The Czech nuclear scientists and the power companies and the nuclear industries are therefore looking for alternative solutions. The Los Alamos ATW project had received a positive response in the Czech mass-media and even in the industrial and governmental quarters. The recent scientific symposium {open_quotes}Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management{close_quotes} convened at the Liblice castle near Prague, 27-29. 6. 1994 and sponsored by the Czech Energy Company CEZ, reviewed the competencies and experimental basis in the Czech republic and made the first attempt to formulate the national approach and to establish international collaboration in this area.

  14. Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navratil, T.; Shanley, J.B.; Skrivan, P.; Kram, P.; Mihaljevic, M.; Drahota, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mn biogeochemistry was studied from 1994 to 2003 in a small forested catchment in the central Czech Republic using the watershed mass balance approach together with measurements of internal stores and fluxes. Mn inputs in bulk deposition were relatively constant during a period of sharply decreasing acidic deposition, suggesting that the Mn source was terrestrial, and not from fossil fuel combustion. Mn inputs in bulk deposition and Mn supplied by weathering each averaged 13 mg m-2 year-1 (26 mg m -2 year-1 total input), whereas Mn export in streamwater and groundwater averaged 43 mg m-2 year-1. Thus an additional Mn source is needed to account for 17 mg m-2 year -1. Internal fluxes and pools of Mn were significantly greater than annual inputs and outputs. Throughfall Mn flux was 70 mg m-2 year-1, litterfall Mn flux was 103 mg m-2 year -1, and Mn net uptake by vegetation was 62 mg m-2 year-1. Large pools of labile or potentially labile Mn were present in biomass and surficial soil horizons. Small leakages from these large pools likely supply the additional Mn needed to close the watershed mass balance. This leakage may reflect an adjustment of the ecosystem to recent changes in atmospheric acidity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. [West Nile virus transmission risk in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vlčková, J; Rupeš, V; Horáková, D; Kollárová, H; Holý, O

    2015-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, capable of sucking blood on birds and mammals, most often by mosquitoes of the genus Culex. In humans, the virus was first identified in 1937 in the West Nile region, Uganda, Africa. Later, the virus spread and caused more or less severe epidemics of West Nile fever in North Africa, Europe, Asia, and North and South America. During the last two decades, WNV has been on the rise and is currently ranked as one of the most prevalent arboviruses in the world. In humans, WNV infection mostly occurs as asymptomatic, but may have a more severe or even fatal course in older and weakened patients. Humans may become infected not only by mosquitoes that acquire the virus from infected birds, but also through a blood transfusion, organ transplant, breast milk and transplacental transmission, or contact with infected animals, their blood, and tissues. The first autochthonous human case of West Nile fever in the Czech Republic was reported from South Moravia in 1997. In 2013, another case of West Nile fever emerged in this country, in the Ostrava area. The issue of WNV has recently been studied from many different perspectives, as evidenced by many original and review papers. This article briefly reviews the essential knowledge about this virus and its spread.

  16. Interdisciplinary Approach for Assessment of Continental River Flood Risk: A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushiyama, Tomoki; Kwak, Youngjoo; Ledvinka, Ondřej; Iwami, Yoichi; Danhelka, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In this research, GIS-based hydrological model-driven approach produces the distribution of continent-level flood risk based on national-level GIS data. In order to reveal flood hazard, exposure, and vulnerability in a large river basin, the system employs the simplified model such as GFiD2M (Global Flood inundation Depth 2-dimension Model) to calculate the differential inundation depth and the economic loss by pixel-based statistical processing, considering climate and socioeconomic scenarios, the representative concentration pathways emissions and the shared socioeconomic pathways, despite current limitations of data collections and poor data availability. We need new approaches to seek the possibility of its national-scale application, so that the framework can bring (1) improved flood inundation map (i.e., discharge, depth, velocity) using rainfall runoff inundation model, based on the in-situ data (rain-gauge and water level), validated with Earth Observation data, i.e., MODIS, (2) advanced flood forecasting using radar and satellite observed rainfall for national-level operational hydrological observations, (3) potential economic impact with the effect of flood hazard and risk under climate and socioeconomic changes based on rainfall from general circulation model. The preliminary examinations showed the better possibility of a nation-wide application for integrated flood risk management. At the same time, the hazard and risk model were also validated against event-based flood inundation of a national-level flood in the Czech Republic. Within the Czech Republic, although radar rainfall data have been used in operational hydrology for some time, there are also other products capable of warning us about the potential risk of floods. For instance, images from Europe's Sentinel satellites have not been evaluated for their use in Czech hydrology. This research is at the very beginning of a validation and its evaluation, focusing mainly on heavy rainfall and

  17. Flash floods in June and July 2009 in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, Petr; Danhelka, Jan; Tyl, Radovan

    2010-05-01

    Several flash floods occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic during the last decade of June and beginning of July 2009. These events caused vast economic damage and unfortunately there were also 15 fatalities. The complete evaluation of flash floods from the point of view of its meteorological cause, hydrological development and impacts was done under the responsibility of Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) coordinated this project. The results of the project contain several concrete proposals to reduce the threat of flash floods in the Czech Republic. The proposals were focused on possible future improvements of CHMI forecasting service activities including all other parts of Flood prevention and protection system in the Czech Republic. The synoptic cause of floods was the extraordinary long (12 days is longest in more than 60 years history) presence of eastern cyclonic situation over the Central Europe bringing warm, moist and unstable air masses from Mediterranean and Black Sea area. Very intensive thunderstorms accompanied by torrential rain occurred almost daily. Storm cells were organized in train effect and crossed repeatedly the same places within several hours. The extremity of the flood events was also influenced by soil saturation due to daily occurrence of rainstorms. The peak flows exceeded significantly 100-year of recurrence time in many sites. The observed and mainly unobserved catchments were affected. The detailed fields of rainfall amounts were gained from the adjusted meteorological radar observation. All of the available rainfall measurements at the climatological and rain gage stations were used for the adjustment. Hydraulic and rainfall-runoff models were used to evaluate the hydrological response. It was proved again, that the outputs from currently used meteorological forecasting models are not sufficient for a reliable local forecast of the strong convective storms and their

  18. Reported and intended behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and England.

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Csémy, L; Janoušková, M; Mladá, K; Bankovská Motlová, L; Evans-Lacko, S

    2015-09-01

    This is one of the first studies, which compares the level of stigmatizing behaviour in countries that used to be on the opposite sides of the Iron Curtain. The aim was to identify the prevalence of reported and intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and to compare these findings with the findings from England. The 8-item Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was used to assess stigmatising behaviour among a representative sample of the Czech population (n=1797). Results were compared with the findings of an analogous survey from England (n=1720), which also used the RIBS. The extent of reported behaviour (i.e., past and present experiences with those with mental health problems) was lower in the Czech Republic than in England. While 12.7% of Czechs reported that they lived, 12.9% that they worked, and 15.3% that they were acquainted with someone who had mental health problems, the respective numbers for England were 18.5%, 26.3% and 32.5% (P<0.001 in each of these items). On the other hand, the extent of intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems is considerably higher in the Czech Republic. Out of maximum 20 points attached to possible responses to the RIBS items 5-8, Czechs had a lower total score (x=11.0, SD=4.0) compared to English respondents (x=16.1, SD=3.6), indicating lower willingness to accept a person with mental health problems (P<0.001). The prevalence of stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic is worrying. Both, further research and evidence based anti-stigma interventions, should be pursued in order to better understand and decrease stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic and possibly across the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiocaesium levels in game in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Rulík, Petr; Fantínová, Karin; Mihalík, Ján; Timková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective (137)Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of (137)Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of (137)Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based (137)Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of (137)Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower (137)Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of (137)Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv.

  20. Variability of droughts in the Czech Republic, 1881-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Dobrovolný, P.; Chromá, K.; Hlavinka, P.; Žalud, Z.

    2009-08-01

    We analyze droughts in the Czech Republic from 1881-2006 based on the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the Z-index using averaged national temperature and precipitation series for the calculations. The standardized precipitation index (SPI), PDSI and Z-index series show an increasing tendency towards longer and more intensive dry episodes in which, for example, droughts that occurred in the mid-1930s, late 1940s-early 1950s, late 1980s-early 1990s and early 2000s were the most severe. Cycles at periods of 3.4-3.5, 4.2-4.3, 5.0-5.1 and 15.4 years exceeded 95% confidence levels in application of maximum entropy spectral analysis. These are expressed at different intensities throughout the period studied. The occurrence of extremely dry and severely dry months is associated with a higher frequency of anticyclonic situations according to the classification employed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Principal component analysis documents the importance of the ridge from the Siberian High over Central Europe when extreme and severe droughts in months of the winter half-year are considered in terms of sea-level pressure. In the summer half-year, the ridge of the Azores High over Central Europe is the most important. Drought episodes have a profound effect on national and regional agricultural production, with yields being consistently lower than in normal years, as is documented through the example of spring barley, winter wheat, forage crops on arable land, and hay from meadows. Seasons with pronounced drought during the April-June period (e.g., 1947 and 2000) show the most significant yield decreases. Forests appear to be very vulnerable to long-term drought episodes, as it was the case during the dry years of 1992-1994. This study clearly confirms the statistically significant tendency to more intensive dry episodes in the region, driven by temperature increase and precipitation decrease, which has already been suggested in other studies.

  1. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  2. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  3. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  4. Canine leishmaniosis in three consecutive generations of dogs in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Vlasta; Svoboda, Miroslav; Friedlaenderova, Lucia; Drahotsky, Petr; Bohacova, Eva; Baneth, Gad

    2017-04-15

    Transmission of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is described in three consecutive generations of female Boxers living in a non-endemic environment in the Czech Republic. Infection of the first generation female likely occurred during a breeding visit to Italy and the dog died with typical clinical signs of the disease but without definitive laboratory diagnosis. The second and third generation offsprings never left the Czech Republic, suffered from clinical CanL confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and serology, and were apparently infected by transplacental transmission. Persistence of CanL in the Czech Republic over 7 years with a suspected origin in an endemic region and progression of infection through subsequent generations in a non-endemic country exemplifies that this disease may establish itself also in areas where no obvious vectors are present.

  5. Monitoring the mycotoxins in food and their biomarkers in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimír; Grosse, Yann; Roubal, Tomas; Skarkova, Jarmila; Ruprich, Jiri

    2006-05-01

    Testing of the presence of toxigenic microfungi and mycotoxins in foodstuffs in the food chain is an important part of the food safety strategy in The Czech Republic. At the national level, control of their presence in the entire food chain is assured by Public Health Protection Agencies, by the Veterinary Administration and by the Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority. This article summarizes surveillance activities of Public Health Protection Agencies and mycotoxins findings in dietary raw materials and foodstuffs from the 1990s to 2004 in the Czech Republic. At present, the health risk from the mycotoxins exposure from foodstuffs is assessed to be relatively low in the Czech Republic, especially as far as the foodstuffs of the Czech origin are concerned. It may result in late toxic effects (e. g., carcinogenic risk) following a single or repeated ingestion of low mycotoxins doses from foodstuffs. Nevertheless, the overall situation may change due to the globalization of the food market. In order to minimize the risk associated with mycotoxins and eliminate their impact on Czech public health, continuous monitoring of the presence of toxigenic moulds, mycotoxins, and their biomarkers is necessary, in conjunction with strict respect to European Union legislation.

  6. 78 FR 65283 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...-3874 (the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and the Russian Federation (Russia)); or Steve Bezirganian... Russia (the Petitions) filed in proper form on behalf of AK Steel Corporation, Allegheny Ludlum, LLC, and... to the Poland Petition, dated September 26, 2013, and Supplement to the Russia Petition, dated...

  7. Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

  8. Selected parameters of social exclusion among immigrants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kajanová, Alena; Vacková, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of social exclusion of immigrants in the Czech Republic. A review of expert sources indicates that immigrants are most often excluded from the labour market, housing market, and in communication with institutions. These areas became the target of our research. We observed how they were affect by knowledge of the Czech language, length of residence and type of work performed. The study was conducted using quantitative research strategies, interviews, and a questionnaire, the clarity of which was ensured by a double translation. The research group consisted of immigrants, namely Vietnamese, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish nationalities, living in selected regions of the Czech Republic. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences among the immigrant groups. The Vietnamese were least satisfied with housing conditions; they often reported living in overcrowded apartments and dormitories, and saw little chance of changing their situation because of discrimination by landlords. With regard to Czech language skills, the greater difference between Czech and Vietnamese and the relative similarity between Czech and the other studied immigrant languages also played a role. As a result, this indicator also showed the greatest dissatisfaction among the Vietnamese. For employees, poor knowledge of Czech corresponds to lower socioeconomic status.

  9. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Doruska, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  10. Two basins explored in Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.M.

    1996-04-29

    Exploration companies are exploring two tracts in separate basins of the Dominican Republic. Drilling is under way or planned in the eastern Cibao basin in the northeastern part of the country, where Petrolera Once Once SA holds a 1,001,287 ha concession, and the Azua-Bani basin in the southwester, where Mobil-Murfin holds a 2,266,197 ha concession. About 75 wells have been drilled onshore in Dominican Republic, but commercial production has not been established. This paper summarizes the exploration history and geology of the area.

  11. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  12. The Healthy Kindergarten: A Model Project of Health Promotion in the Kindergartens of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havlinova, Miluse; Kopriva, Pavel

    Noting that the preschool period is important for the formation of individual habits and modes of behavior related to health, the Czech Republic initiated the Healthy Kindergarten (HK) Project, thereby expanding the Healthy School Project for primary schools introduced into the country by the World Health Organization. This report describes the HK…

  13. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  14. Professional Preparation of Students of Social Pedagogy in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martincová, Jana; Andrysová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the professional preparation of future teachers of social pedagogy (social educators) in the context of current tasks which the social pedagogy in the Czech Republic still has. Based on the results of the research which aims to present the professional characteristics of students of social pedagogy, we propose an innovation of…

  15. European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) dieback: Disintegrating forest in the mountain protected areas, Czech Republic

    Treesearch

    Stanislav Vacek; Zdenek Vacek; Daniel Bulusek; Tereza Putalova; Murat Sarginci; Otakar Schwarz; Petr Srutka; Vilem Podrazsky; W. Keith Moser

    2015-01-01

    European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is an important tree species in most temperate forests in Europe. Its future is threatened however, especially by an invasive fungus, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, Chalara fraxinea). The current study is focused on the health of ash in the Krkonoše Mountains National Park, Czech Republic. On permanent...

  16. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  17. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in the Czech Republic. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory, Prague (Czech Republic).

    This report provides an overview of the state of vocational education and training systems in the Czech Republic, in the context of the history and the present economic development of the country. The report is organized in nine sections that cover the following topics: (1) political and socioeconomic background information, including economic…

  18. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic: Transitions in Thought and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in the Czech Republic is going through an important transition, both politically and economically. New methods of financing university operations are necessary during the transition to a market economy as government funds are increasingly being drawn to other areas. Government and academic officials have worked together in the…

  19. Project Risk Management in Educational Organizations: A Case from the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eger, Ludvík; Egerová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The past 20 years have been a period of reforms for school systems in Visegrad countries. However, the successful implementation of educational reforms requires effective leaders and managers and, to produce effective leaders, changes in the system of leadership and management programmes need to be adopted. From 2004, the Czech Republic saw a…

  20. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  1. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  2. [Comment on demographic development in the territorial units of the Czech Republic up to 2010].

    PubMed

    Vasicek, P

    1991-01-01

    Population dynamics in the districts of the Czech Republic are estimated for the period 1987-2010. The author finds that "the changes in the territorial dislocation of the population will result above all from migration; a less important role is played...by regional [differences in] natural increase." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. New electrical steel strip grades developed in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    SciTech Connect

    Pacl, P.; Wiglasz, V.; Rosypal, F.

    1994-03-01

    The article gives an overview of the current state of manufacturing and development of electrical silicon steels with the stress on obtaining the best quality of both grain-oriented and non-oriented strips produced in the Czech and Slovak Republics.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Posture in School Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratenova, Jana; Zejglicova, Kristyna; Maly, Marek; Filipova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and the main risk factors of poor posture in school children in the Czech Republic. Methods: The cross-sectional study examined representative sample of children aged 7, 11, and 15 years in the year 2003. From the overall number of 3600 children, 3520 (97.7%) attended and were…

  5. Managing Cognitive Dissonance: Experience from an Environmental Education Teachers' Training Course in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…

  6. Educational Leadership Development in England and the Czech Republic: Comparing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Murden, Brendan; Dering, Ann; Nicolaido, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programmes and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  7. Educational Leadership Training in the Czech Republic and England: A Brief Comparative Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murden, Brendan; Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Dering, Ann; Nicolaidou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programs and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  8. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Czech Republic in 2011.

    PubMed

    Hrabák, J; Papagiannitsis, C C; Študentová, V; Jakubu, V; Fridrichová, M; Zemlickova, H

    2013-11-07

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. are increasingly reported in many countries all over the world. Due to the resistance of those bacteria to almost all antibiotics (e.g.beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones),treatment options are seriously limited. In the Czech Republic, the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae seems to be low, restricted to only three cases detected between 2009 and 2010.Here, we describe molecular typing of 15 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates identified in the Czech Republic during 2011. Five VIM-1-producing isolates belonging to sequence type (ST)11 and one VIM-4-producing isolate of ST1029 have been detected. blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-4 as a part of class 1 integrons were chromosomally located or carried by a plasmid belonging to A/C replicon type (blaVIM-4). KPC-3-producing isolates of ST512, recovered from six patients, caused an outbreak. Three more isolates producing KPC-2 enzyme belonged to ST258. Both blaKPCgenes were part of the Tn4401a transposon carried on plasmids of the pKpQIL type. The isolates were resistant to all antibiotics tested except colistin and/or gentamicin.Four of these 15 strains were recovered from patients repatriated to the Czech Republic from Greece and Italy. This is the first report of outbreaks caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Czech Republic.

  9. Tobacco Cessation Practices and Attitudes Among Nurses in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda P; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Králíková, Eva; Kmetova, Alexandra; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Malá, Katerina; Roubíčková, Eva; Wells, Marjorie J; Brook, Jenny K

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the leading cause of cancer in the Czech Republic. More than one-third of the population older than 15 years smokes, including many nurses. Most smokers want to quit, but the extent of nurses' involvement in tobacco cessation is unknown. The purposes of this study are to describe the frequency of nurses' interventions in helping smokers quit, examine their attitudes and skills, and explore the relationship of nurses' smoking status to level of intervention. A convenience sample of nurses in the Czech Republic completed a survey about their frequency of interventions according to the 5As for tobacco dependence treatment (i.e., ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), their attitudes and perceived skills, and their smoking status (never, former, current). A total of 157 nurses completed the survey; 26% "always" or "usually" assisted patients with smoking cessation. Few (22%) reported that nurses could play an important role in helping patients quit, and 65% rated their ability to help smokers quit as "fair/poor." Nurse who smoked (30%) were less likely to consistently assess smoking status or arrange for follow-up support. Few nurses in the Czech Republic consistently provide smoking cessation support to patients, have the skills to do so, or view this role as an important part of their role. To reduce tobacco-related cancers in the Czech Republic, capacity-building efforts are needed to enhance nurses' skills and confidence in providing smoking cessation interventions. Support is also need to help nurses who smoke quit.

  10. Braconid (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) parasitoids of bark beetles in upland spruce stands of the Czech Republic

    Treesearch

    Aural Lozan; Jiri Zeleny

    2003-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles occur frequently in the upland spruce forests of the Czech Republic; some of them are serious pests that may cause vast destruction of forest stands. In the last decade, a complex of several species from the genera Ips, Pityogenes and Polygraphus contributed to large-scale devastation of thousand...

  11. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  12. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  13. Effects of afforestation on soil structure formation in two climatic regions of the Czech Republic

    Treesearch

    V. Podrazsky; O. Holubik; J. Vopravil; T. Khel; W. K. Moser; H. Prknova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of agricultural land afforestation on soil characteristics. Two sites in two regions of the Czech Republic were evaluated, at lower as well as higher submountain elevations: in the regions of the Orlicke hory Mts. and Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, afforested, arable and pasture lands were compared for basic chemical and...

  14. Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    This report evaluates a project undertaken in the Czech Republic to create lesson scenarios to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary school (ages 17-18) with special reference to the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. These objectives included the elimination of…

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Posture in School Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratenova, Jana; Zejglicova, Kristyna; Maly, Marek; Filipova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and the main risk factors of poor posture in school children in the Czech Republic. Methods: The cross-sectional study examined representative sample of children aged 7, 11, and 15 years in the year 2003. From the overall number of 3600 children, 3520 (97.7%) attended and were…

  16. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  17. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis:…

  18. Private Tutoring Lessons Supply: Insights from Online Advertising in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štastný, Vít

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of the world, shadow education has become a major enterprise. Such is the case of the countries of the former Eastern Bloc, including the Czech Republic, which is in scope of this article. The study analyses the Internet supply of private tutoring lessons in academic subjects and assesses the micro- and macro-factors influencing the…

  19. Project Risk Management in Educational Organizations: A Case from the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eger, Ludvík; Egerová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The past 20 years have been a period of reforms for school systems in Visegrad countries. However, the successful implementation of educational reforms requires effective leaders and managers and, to produce effective leaders, changes in the system of leadership and management programmes need to be adopted. From 2004, the Czech Republic saw a…

  20. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis:…

  1. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  2. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  3. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  4. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation.

    PubMed

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-06-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution.

  5. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munich, Daniel; Jurajda, Stepan; Cihak, Martin

    The current recession in the Czech Republic is driven by aggregate demand, unsustainable growth of wages, weak enforcement of the legal system, non-operational bankruptcy law, and poor corporate governance. The wage dispersion has been growing continuously, and wage setting has become increasingly more responsive to market forces. Education has…

  6. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012.

  7. Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in the Czech Republic between 1985 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Bruthans, Jan; Cífková, Renata; Lánská, Věra; O'Flaherty, Martin; Critchley, Julia A; Holub, Jiří; Janský, Petr; Zvárová, Jana; Capewell, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has declined substantially in the Czech Republic over the last two decades. The purpose of this study was to determine what proportion of this CHD mortality decline could be associated with temporal trends in major CHD risk factors and what proportion with advances in medical and surgical treatments. The validated IMPACT mortality model was used to combine and analyse data on uptake and effectiveness of CHD management and risk factor trends in the Czech Republic in adults aged 25-74 years between 1985 and 2007. The main sources were official statistics, national quality of care registries, published trials and meta-analyses, and the Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA studies. Between 1985 and 2007, age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in the Czech Republic decreased by 66.2% in men and 65.4% in women in the age group 25-74 years, representing 12,080 fewer CHD deaths in 2007. Changes in CHD risk factors explained approximately 52% of the total mortality decrease, and improvements in medical treatments approximately 43%. Increases in body mass index and in diabetes prevalence had a negative impact, increasing CHD mortality by approximately 1% and 5%, respectively. More than half of the very substantial fall in CHD mortality in the Czech Republic between 1985 and 2007 was attributable to reduction in major cardiovascular risk factors. Improvement in treatments accounted for approximately 43% of the total mortality decrease. These findings emphasize the value of primary prevention and evidence-based medical treatment. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  8. Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to

  9. Dietary intakes, physical activity, and predictors of child obesity among 4-6th graders in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Humeníkova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of child obesity in the Czech Republic has increased in the last several years, especially among school-aged children. While obesity trends are closely monitored in the Czech Republic, very little is known about the dietary habits and exercise behaviors of Czech children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and physical activity, as well as identify predictors of BMI-for-age in a sample of Czech school-aged children. Ninety-seven fourth, fifth and sixth graders and their parents from two large Czech cities participated in the study. Two 24-hour recalls provided total amount of energy, fat, percentage of energy derived from fat, dietary fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables. Physical activity was measured by the Self-administered Physical Activity Checklist (SAPAC). Children consumed less energy and dietary fiber than suggested by Czech dietary recommendations. The proportion of energy that children consumed from fat was 28.5%. Children consumed 1.4 cups of fruit and 1.2 cups of vegetables. Children's physical activity levels fell within the current recommendations. Age was the only significant predictor of higher BMI-for-age. Poor dietary quality may be responsible for increasing rates of child obesity in the Czech Republic. Nutritional professionals in the Czech Republic should focus on increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other high-fiber foods in order to reduce the risk for overweight among Czech children.

  10. Recent and future rainfall erosivity on the territory of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasa, Josef; Stredova, Hana; Stepanek, Petr; Hanel, Martin; Dostal, Tomas; Novotny, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Water erosion is a main factor of degradation of soils used for agriculture in the Czech Republic. For landscape conservation purposes the soil erosion risk is defined here mostly by USLE (Wischmeier and Smith, 1978). Within USLE the precipitation impact on erosion is a function of rainfall kinetic energy and intensity represented by R-factor. In the Czech Republic historically and recently several research teams have analyzed rainfall data to assess R-factor. Till now not many European countries have performed detailed spatially distributed analyses of rain erosivities. Most studies use only simplified methods based on long-term rainfall averages or databases of only several station-datasets. The most recent study on rainfall erosivity spatial distribution over the Czech Republic was based on digital rain gauge data from automatic stations of the Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute. The erosive rains were derived from continuous 1 minute step 10-year rainfall data (2003-2012) from 245 stations. Based on the research recent annual R-factor values in the stations vary from 37 to 239 [N.h-1] (values over 100 are located in mountain regions with minimum of agricultural land). Average value is 69 [N.h-1.year-1]. For the Czech Republic the future prediction is based on 10km resolution ALADIN/CZ regional climate model. Within the EU FP6 project CECILIA it was coupled with GCM ARPEGE to provide a projection of future climate in two time slices, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, according to the IPCC A1B emission scenario. Daily precipitation volumes and percentiles of maximal events allowed authors to develop R-factor maps of present and future scenarios. Based on the analyses we can conclude that average value for the whole territory of the Czech Republic will remain close to 70 [N.h-1.year-1] or even decrease for 2071-2100, but we can expect significant changes (30-40 % rise or decrease) for several large agricultural regions (eg. Southern Moravia). These changes will have impact

  11. The Identification of Landslide Phases Based on Documentary Data in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bíl, Michal; Raška, Pavel; Sedoník, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    This paper focuses on landslide phases, this being a somewhat neglected aspect of landslide research. These are events during which an increased number of individual landslides have been concurrently activated. Landslide phases are an important proxy as their occurrence indicates the presence of a triggering event which predominantly involves thresholding rainfall or snow thaw. The research area corresponds to the Czech Republic (Czechia), herein represented by two regions accounting for the highest socioeconomic impact due to landsliding in the past. The Outer Western Carpathians to the east are built on relatively weak Tertiary flysch rocks, while the areas in the north-west of the Czech Republic have a diverse lithology including Mesozoic sandstone, Tertiary volcanic rocks and basin sediments, thus predisposing both landsliding and rockfall. It should also be noted that the identified landslide phases certainly had a cross-border and even Central European extent. The primary focus was on older events as the most recent landslide phases (1997, 2006 and 2010) have been sufficiently evidenced, while the older ones have not as yet been investigated enough. Identification of those older landslide phases can be carried out using documentary data, including chronicles of the affected villages and towns, newspapers, protoscientific communications or aerial photographs. The database on landslide events currently includes more than 570 records on old (pre- 1989) landsliding. At least 12 old landslide phases (when at least 10 landslides were registered) were identified from this database. Each data source has its own specific drawbacks which will be addressed. Chroniclers occasionally had a different view of the importance of natural processes and their impacts. Newspaper sources are quite sensitive to landslide events, but their availability strongly differs across individual regions as is the case with old maps and protoscientific communications. Eyewitnesses and persons

  12. Methodology of C factor verification in conditions of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorakova, T.; Dostal, T.; David, V.; Kavka, P.; Krasa, J.; Koudelka, P.

    2012-04-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used tool for the assessment of soil erosion in the Czech Republic as well as in many other countries. C factor is one of the six factors composing USLE. This factor represents vegetation cover and management on agricultural land. Its values were derived based on a comparison of the soil loss from a plot with given crops and management and the soil loss which is tilled as continuously fallow. The influence of vegetation cover on the soil loss varies during the vegetation season and it is important to determine the representative value of C factor for each vegetative stage. The year is, according to the original methodology, divided into 5 or 6 periods. Expected protective effect for each of these periods is calculated separately. The value of C factor was first published in the Czech Republic in 1984 and since then has never been revised. The values were taken from a USA catalog and it is uncertain how our conditions were verified. But in fact the C factor is very dependent on the technologies or climates in that particular country. The agriculture crops are cultivated [bred] and their protective effect may be different. For some crops there is no C factor value at all. The Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering CTU in Prague has dealt with the protection of soil and water for many years. For several years it has operated an experimental basin in which there are three erosion plots identical to those where the USLE was derived. On these plots the value of C factor can be measured very easily, but it would take a very long time to compile the new catalog of these values. The Department acquired a mobile rainfall simulator to quickly obtain a larger set of data. Parameters of the instrument and methodology of determination of individual C factor values using the mobile rainfall simulator are subject to contribution. The water erosion affects most the rainfall event

  13. Financing Higher Education: Czech Republic 1990-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Daniel S.; Winkler, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The Czech system of financing higher education is described, tracing trends in various categories of expenditure in the last decade, spending in relation to gross domestic product, 1990 legislation increasing institutional autonomy and responsibility, core financing in the first few years of the law, developments since 1992, the 1995 budget,…

  14. Common features of population climate in the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1991.

    PubMed

    Kolorosova, J

    1993-01-01

    The author reports on a 1991 survey in the Czech and Slovak Republics "concerning the attitudes towards demographic tendencies, family formation and population-related policies.... The objective was to gain a better knowledge of the opinions and perceptions of the Czech and Slovak populations on these matters, as well as the demands to the government arising from society, both regarding its present position on the subject and its future responsibilities." Sections are included on family formation, the meaning of parenthood, and family policy and fertility intentions. (SUMMARY IN CZE) excerpt

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Isolated from a Pet Green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Prasad; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from pus from an abscess of a pet iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of B. pseudomallei strain VB976100. PMID:28280033

  16. [Analysis of the development of metformin and sulfonylurea prescriptions in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Janíčková-Žďarská, Denisa; Honěk, Petr; Dušek, Ladislav; Pavlík, Tomáš; Kvapil, Milan

    2015-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are followed and treated predominantly by specialists (approx. 80% at a specialist diabetology clinic), a minor part by general practitioners (up to 20%). Long-term development of the changes in prescribing metformin and sulfonylurea in the Czech Republic and its concordance with recommended procedures has not been evaluated until now. Comparison of the development of metformin (MET) and sulfonylurea (SU) prescriptions in the period of 2002-2006 with that of 2010-2014 in a representative sample of the patient population with DM kept in the database of the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic (VZP) which provided health care coverage for 63% of Czech Republic population in 2014. We identified all individuals in the VZP database who had a record of DM diagnosis (E10-E16 based on ICD 10) or who had any antidiabetic therapy prescribed (ATC group A10) in the periods of 2002-2006 and 2010-2014. A cohort of patients was extracted for analysis, who had an agent from A10 group prescribed at least once in a relevant year (n=308,962 in 2002; n=426,695 in 2014). A number of patients was evaluated for each year, who had at least once MET or SU prescribed. The number of patients treated with MET or SU was then expressed as a percentage of all who had any therapy from A10 group prescribed in the year in question. Metformin prescriptions have linearly risen from 43% to 77%, while sulfonylurea prescriptions have linearly decreased from 65% to 37%. The analysis presents the first evaluation of the development of metformin prescriptions conducted in the Czech Republic and evaluation of its concordance with the recommended procedures for the treatment of DM. The amount of metformin prescribed in the Czech Republic increased from 43% to 77% while the amount of SU prescribed decreased from 65% to 37% between 2002 and 2014. This development and the current ratio between the prescribed amounts of MET and SU

  17. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... United States, that are alleged to be subsidized by the Government of China and imports from China, Czech...

  18. BW Threat Reduction Medical Prophylaxis in the Czech Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    from a vaccinee `s unhealed vaccination site – by close contact – can lead to the same adverse events as in the vaccinee • Excluded from care of...postexposure medical prophylaxis • Czech vaccination policy 3 Medical Response to BW Threat 4 BW threat Who are 1st Responders? • Primary Care...Prophylaxis The main goal: Minimize potential impact of BW 8 PRE-EXPOSURE MEDICAL PROPHYLAXIS • Immunoprophylaxis – vaccines against a number of

  19. Relationship between drought severity and observed regional yields in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Možný, Martin; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Although the Czech Republic is not generally characterized as a drought prone region within European context, drought occurs and is one of the most important climatic extremes in terms of economic damages. Crop production is highly sensitive to soil water availability and the rainfed agriculture almost dominantly prevails in the Czech Republic. Generally we can observe trends towards drier conditions with more often and more severe drought episodes. Based on this, the impact analyzes are very important. The relationship between drought episodes (with various timing and severity) and observed decrease of yields at district level (NUTS4) during the period from 2000 to 2014 was analyzed within submitted study. The observed yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape from 14 districts were used (210 seasons are included). All districts are positioned within southeastern part of the Czech Republic and represent various agro-climatic conditions. The regressions between various drought indicators (as independent variables) and yields (dependent variable) were established. For this purpose the several drought indicators in monthly time step were derived as spatial average for arable land (each district separately). The difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), average soil moisture content available for crops up to 40 cm and 100 cm depth, percent of time with soil moisture below 50 % and below 30 % of available soil moisture up to 100 cm depth were used. For reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and soil water estimates SoilClim model was used. This software is the main module used within Drought monitoring system in the Czech Republic (www.intersucho.cz). Within this study SoilClim was used in resolution 500 x 500 meters within grids of arable land. The soil water holding capacity as well as vegetation development was considered. By this way the yield losses due to various drought intensity was identified and compared. In case

  20. Spatial interpretation of ambient air quality for the territory of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hunova, I

    2001-01-01

    A method for spatial interpretation and visualisation of measured air quality data is presented that may serve as a tool for ambient air quality characterisation using the least possible number of factors. This method enables comparison of different areas in relative terms and has practical consequences in decision making and public information. The 1996 data for the Czech Republic was used as a database. According to my results, not a single universal indicator can fully describe the ambient air quality albeit the three factors identified as "ambient air pollution", "ground-level ozone" and "wet atmospheric deposition" which are recommended. These selected factors represent three different aspects of ambient air quality and its impact on receptors. For the above factors black and white charts are presented classifying the Czech Republic territory into five categories as to relative ambient air quality. The air quality picture differs for the respective factors considerably.

  1. The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic: the nationwide deployment of an Ushahidi application for disasters.

    PubMed

    Pánek, Jiří; Marek, Lukáš; Pászto, Vít; Valůch, Jaroslav

    2017-01-06

    Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe. It describes the methodologies used in the preparatory work phase and details some practices identified during the creation and actual employment of the map. In addition, the paper assesses its structure and technological architecture, as well as its potential possible development in the future. Lastly, it evaluates the utilisation of the Crisis Map during the floods in the Czech Republic in 2013.

  2. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in pork meat from different production systems in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Reslova, Nikol; Babak, Vladimir; Lorencova, Alena

    2016-12-05

    Toxoplasmosis is a major public health issue, due to the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, mainly in pork. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of T. gondii in pigs and wild boars bred in different production systems in the Czech Republic using ELISA and qPCR methods. Our results show that T. gondii infection is widespread in pigs and wild boars bred and slaughtered in the Czech Republic and that there is a higher exposure to T. gondii in backyard slaughter operations and organic pig farming, indicating a potential risk for meat consumption. Additionally, genotyping of amplified loci for Type II suggests the presence of one clonal genotype circulating in these animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobius creticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobius erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobius evae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobius purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobius tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobius krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymerium hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  4. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  5. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    German patients in search of IVF with egg donation (which is prohibited by German law) are increasingly deciding to travel to clinics in other countries (mostly to the Czech Republic and Spain) that are able to provide them with the eggs of other women. Through three case studies of German couples who crossed international borders for IVF with egg donation, this article provides insight into these transnational practices aiming to circumvent restrictions in reproduction, whatever they may be. The material for this article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in Germany, Spain and the Czech Republic, as well as research undertaken on IVF internet bulletin boards. The concepts of 'reproductive agency' and 'reproductive projects' are used to analyse the ways in which people search for information about treatments and clinics in other countries, how they embed the practice into their daily lives and how they deal with and position themselves regarding the need for reproductive travel.

  6. Annotated checklist of the grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera) of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Holuša, Jaroslav; Kočárek, Petr; Vlk, Robert; Marhoul, Pavel

    2013-02-22

    A checklist is presented of the Orthoptera of the Czech Republic. Based on the critical revision of published data and previous lists of species, which often contained only general or questionable data and which often inaccurately cited each other, we found 96 species of Orthoptera belonging to the fauna of the Czech Republic. We emphasize those changes that are based on comparison with previous checklists. We provide information on missing, unclear, and extinct species and on newly detected species, and we confirm the status of species that have been missing for a long time (Leptophyes boscii, Polysarcus denticauda, Ruspolia nitidula, Eumodicogryllus bordigalensis, Tetrix bolivari, Mecostethus parapleurus). We also note those species for which only several individuals have been detected (Pteronemobius heydenii) or those survived only at a single locality (Platycleis montana, Aiolopus thalassinus, Dociostaurus brevicollis, Omocestus petraeus) or at two localities (Poecilimon intermedius, Platycleis veyseli, Pseudopodisma nagyi). Phaneroptera nana is recorded as new for Bohemia.

  7. National Time Trends in Bullying among Adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1994 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Sarková, Mária; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in school is a public health concern which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in bullying behaviour among school-aged children in the Czech Republic. Data were obtained from cross-sectional self-report surveys in the years 1994-2014 as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) from a representative sample of 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds. The highest proportion of children who bullied others (20-47%) occurred during the years 1994 and 1998. The logistic regression models showed significant decreasing trends in bullying others and also in being bullied, regardless of age and gender. The decreasing trend in bullying may be the consequence of a preventive policy in the Czech Republic, but also a change in the understanding of the concept of bullying in society.

  8. The approaches to the didactics of physics in the Czech Republic - Historical development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žák, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe approaches to the didactics of physics which have appeared in the Czech Republic during its development and to discuss mainly their relationships with other fields. It is potentially beneficial to the understanding of the current situation of the Czech didactics of physics and to the prognosis of its future development. The main part of the article includes a description of the particular approaches of the Czech didactics of physics, such as the methodological, application, integration and communication approaches described in chronological order. Special attention is paid to the relationships of the didactics of physics and physics itself, pedagogy and other fields. It is obvious that the methodological approach is narrowly connected to physics, while the application approach comes essentially from pedagogy. The integration approach seeks the utilization of other scientific fields to develop the didactics of physics. It was revealed that the most elaborate is the communication approach. This approach belongs to the concepts that have influenced the current didactical thinking in the Czech Republic to a high extent in other fields as well (including within the didactics of socio-humanist fields). In spite of the importance of the communication approach, it should be admitted that the other approaches are, to a certain extent, employed as well and co-exist.

  9. The main features of population development in the Czech Republic during the transformation of society.

    PubMed

    Fialova, L; Kucera, M

    1997-01-01

    "The behaviour of the population of the Czech Republic has been changing since 1991. The changes have resulted in a considerable decrease in marriages and births, and a slight fall in mortality rates. The decline in the number of newly-weds and new-born children can be attributed to significant structural changes in society connected with the transformation of the reproductive model established in the post war era. The changes have been initiated most notably by the younger generation...." excerpt

  10. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  11. Ecological conditions of natural foci of tularaemia in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pikula, Jiri; Treml, Frantisek; Beklová, Miroslava; Holesovska, Zdenka; Pikulová, Jarmila

    2003-01-01

    Tularaemia, a zoonosis of veterinary and public health importance, commonly occurs in the Czech Republic as well as other countries of Northern Hemisphere. The objective of this study was to analyse the environmental conditions of distribution of natural foci of tularaemia and their long-term persistence in the Czech Republic. A geographic information system has been used for this purpose. A new variable (chi(t)), the mean number of natural foci in a specific area, has been suggested for the evaluation of diseases occurring in natural foci. Comparing two 15-year periods, a close correlation between the geographic distribution and numbers of natural foci of tularaemia in the Czech Republic in 1971-1985 and 1986-2000 (r = 0.91, n = 1814, t = 92.50, p = 0.01) was found. Natural foci of tularaemia have been persistent, but not stationary, over the period of 30 years and the geographic area of their occurrence has not been considerably growing or diminishing in the Czech Republic. The highest numbers of natural foci of tularaemia were in habitats of alluvial forests (chi(t) = 7.20), geographic areas of up to 200 m of elevation above sea (chi(t) = 9.18), 8.1-10.0 degrees C of mean annual air temperature (chi(t) = 6.24), 450-700 mm of mean annual precipitation (chi(t) = 2.84), and 2001-2200 hour of mean annual sunshine duration (chi(t) = 8.77). It was proved that tularaemia persists in specific areas of natural foci, the general environmental conditions of which can be defined and make it possible to predict the occurrence of tularaemia in other areas of suitable conditions.

  12. [Current status regarding surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Loveček, M; Skalický, P; Ryska, M; Gürlich, R; Hlavsa, J; Čečka, F; Krška, Z; Strnad, R; Peteja, M; Klein, J; Šiller, J; Zajak, J; Krejčí, T; Rupert, K; Kočík, M; Šefr, R; Straka, M; Dušek, L; Jarkovský, J; Havlík, R; Neoral, Č

    The aim is to map the current situation in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer in the Czech Republic. This information has been obtained from surgical treatment providers using a simple questionnaire and by identifying the so called high volume centres. The information has been collected in the interest of organizing and planning research projects in the field of pancreatic cancer treatment. We addressed centres known to provide surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. A simple questionnaire formulated one question about the total number of pancreatic resections, also separately for the diagnoses PDAC - C25, in the last two years (2014 and 2015). Other questions focused on the use of diagnostic methods, neoadjuvant therapy, preoperative assessment of risks, the possibility of rapid intraoperative histopathology examination, Leeds protocol, monitoring of morbidity and mortality including long-term results, and the method of postoperative follow-up and treatment. ÚZIS (Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic) was addressed with a request to analyze the frequency of reported total numbers for DPE, LPE, TPE and to do the same with respect to diagnosis C 25 for the last two years, available for the entire Czech Republic (2013, 2014). Altogether 19 institutions were identified by the preceding audit, which reported more than 10 pancreatic resections annually; these institutions were addressed with the questionnaire. Sixteen institutions responded to the questions, 13 of them completely. The majority of potentially radical surgeries for PDAC in the Czech Republic are carried out at 6 institutions. All of the institutions that participated in the survey collect data about morbidity and mortality and monitor their results. pancreas cancer outcomes surgery.

  13. Validation of Stroke Diagnosis in the National Registry of Hospitalized Patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sedova, Petra; Brown, Robert D; Zvolsky, Miroslav; Kadlecova, Pavla; Bryndziar, Tomas; Volny, Ondrej; Weiss, Viktor; Bednarik, Josef; Mikulik, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in Eastern Europe. However, detailed epidemiological data are not available. The National Registry of Hospitalized Patients (NRHOSP) is a nationwide registry of prospectively collected data regarding each hospitalization in the Czech Republic since 1998. As a first step in the evaluation of stroke epidemiology in the Czech Republic, we validated stroke cases in NRHOSP. Any hospital in the Czech Republic with a sufficient number of cases was included. We randomly selected 10 of all 72 hospitals and then 50 patients from each hospital in 2011 stratified according to stroke diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision [ICD-10] cerebrovascular codes I60, I61, I63, I64, and G45). Discharge summaries from hospitalization were reviewed independently by 2 reviewers and compared with NRHOSP for accuracy of discharge diagnosis. Any disagreements were adjudicated by a third reviewer. Of 500 requested discharge summaries, 484 (97%) were available. Validators confirmed diagnosis in NRHOSP as follows: transient ischemic attack (TIA) or any stroke type in 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79-86), any stroke type in 85% (95% CI, 81-88), I63/cerebral infarction in 82% (95% CI, 74-89), I60/subarachnoid hemorrhage in 91% (95% CI, 85-97), I61/intracerebral hemorrhage in 91% (95% CI, 85-96), and G45/TIA in 49% (95% CI, 39-58). The most important reason for disagreement was use of I64/stroke, not specified for patients with I63. The accuracy of coding of the stroke ICD-10 codes for subarachnoid hemorrhage (I60) and intracerebral hemorrhage (I61) included in a Czech Republic national registry was high. The accuracy of coding for I63/cerebral infarction was somewhat lower than for ICH and SAH. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Krutáková, Helena; Zákoucká, Hana; Vaňousová, Daniela; Kružicová, Zuzana; Machala, Ladislav; Veselý, Dan; Jilich, David; Hercogová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe.

  15. Costs of inguinal hernia repair associated with using different medical devices in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Petra; Peteja, Matus; Lerch, Milan; Zonca, Pavel; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most frequently carried out operations worldwide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the costs of hernia repair and to specify the loss or profit made under the conditions in the Czech Republic with respect to the currently used medical devices and approaches. This article is based on the Drummond and O'Brien methodology, which specifically determines the content of direct and indirect costs in health services. The costs of operations during the period 2010-2014 were specified for a total of 746 patients. The cost details are described for four patients who represent the use of different types of medical devices. The procedure was a laparoscopic surgery in all cases. The total costs of inguinal hernia repairs (as per 2015 currency conversion rate) are €1,248,579; only part is covered from public funds, resulting in a loss of €218,359 for the hospital. The obtained data indicate that this operation is unprofitable for hospitals under the present conditions. The loss in the subject facility amounts to 17% of the total cost, which is the cost incurred by the hospital in the Czech Republic. The study conducted in the Czech Republic refers to different economic results when using various medical device types. So the medical device selection depends on advantages or disadvantages for the patients, as well as on the cost effectiveness for the hospital.

  16. Costs of inguinal hernia repair associated with using different medical devices in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Marešová, Petra; Peteja, Matus; Lerch, Milan; Zonca, Pavel; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most frequently carried out operations worldwide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the costs of hernia repair and to specify the loss or profit made under the conditions in the Czech Republic with respect to the currently used medical devices and approaches. Methods This article is based on the Drummond and O’Brien methodology, which specifically determines the content of direct and indirect costs in health services. The costs of operations during the period 2010–2014 were specified for a total of 746 patients. The cost details are described for four patients who represent the use of different types of medical devices. The procedure was a laparoscopic surgery in all cases. Results The total costs of inguinal hernia repairs (as per 2015 currency conversion rate) are €1,248,579; only part is covered from public funds, resulting in a loss of €218,359 for the hospital. The obtained data indicate that this operation is unprofitable for hospitals under the present conditions. The loss in the subject facility amounts to 17% of the total cost, which is the cost incurred by the hospital in the Czech Republic. Conclusion The study conducted in the Czech Republic refers to different economic results when using various medical device types. So the medical device selection depends on advantages or disadvantages for the patients, as well as on the cost effectiveness for the hospital. PMID:27822052

  17. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Slezáková, Radka; Nágl, Ivan; Sedlák, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are worldwide spread parasites, causing serious illnesses in sensitive animals; toxoplasmosis is also important zoonosis. Although neosporosis is not considered as a zoonosis, it leads to aborted births in cattle, as well as paresis and paralysis in dogs. The aim of this study was to discover the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Czech Republic. Sera of 80 foxes from 8 regions of the Czech Republic were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and indirect ELISA. All samples were simultaneously tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to detect both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were found by IFAT in 3 (3.8%) red foxes with titre 50 and in 2 (2.5%) red foxes with inhibition 42.7% and 30.2 %. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all tested animals in both IFAT (titres 50-6400) and in ELISA (S/P ranging from 34%-133%). This is the first prevalence study of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies in red foxes in the Czech Republic. The results obtained show that red foxes are exposed at different levels to both protozoan infections, and thus could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum and T. gondii in sylvatic cycle.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Vasickova, Petra; Kralik, Petr; Hernandez, Marta; Angeloni, Giorgia; Ostanello, Fabio; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Pavlik, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain during 2010. A total of 337 fecal, liver, and meat samples from animals at slaughterhouses were tested for HEV by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, HEV was higher in Italy (53%) and Spain (39%) than in Czech Republic (7.5%). HEV was detected most frequently in feces in Italy (41%) and Spain (39%) and in liver (5%) and meat (2.5%) in Czech Republic. Of 313 sausages sampled at processing and point of sale, HEV was detected only in Spain (6%). HEV sequencing confirmed only g3 HEV strains. Indicator virus (porcine adenovirus) was ubiquitous in fecal samples and absent in liver samples and was detected in 1 slaughterhouse meat sample. At point of sale, we found porcine adenovirus in sausages (1%–2%). The possible dissemination of HEV and other fecal viruses through pork production demands containment measures. PMID:22840221

  19. [Current situation in clinical trials with vaccines in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Čečetková, B; Smetana, J; Chlíbek, R

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials are an important part of clinical research. The conduction of clinical trials is strictly regulated and has to comply with an approved protocol. Local regulatory authorities, independent ethic committees, sponsors of clinical trials as well as the investigators are involved from the submission until the very end of the trial. All clinical trials performed in the Czech Republic have to be approved by the State Institute for Drug Control and by the Ethics Committee. The regulatory bodies and independent ethics committees evaluate and continuously supervise the justification and protocol of the clinical trial, quality of the investigational medicinal products and, primarily, the safety of the participants (patients and/or healthy volunteers) in clinical trials. In the Czech Republic there are many advanced clinical research centres, either located in private practices or within hospitals. The investigators are able to conduct a wide variety of clinical trials and recruit a high number of subjects for the trials, as well as to comply with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and other regulatory requirements. The aim of this article is to summarise the current situation of clinical trials in the Czech Republic as well as the opportunities for getting involved in clinical trials and obligations arising for health professionals from such an involvement.

  20. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  1. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.).

  2. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2015-09-21

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  3. Environmental assessment of PBDEs contamination in the Svitava River, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jarova, Katerina; Koleckarova, Alice; Kralova, Zuzana; Vavrova, Milada

    2016-12-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the contamination level of aquatic ecosystems of the Svitava River, situated in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic), by residues of selected brominated flame retardants. We isolated and determined seven indicator PBDE congeners in samples of surface water and bottom sediments using optimized analytical methods. Samples were collected from eight locations along the river basin, particularly near the larger cities in order to assess their possible impact on the aquatic ecosystems. Isolation of selected analytes was performed using the methods of liquid-liquid extraction and cold extraction. Column chromatography and rotary vacuum evaporation were used for the purification and pre-concentration of extracts. Final identification and quantification were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The sum of PBDEs was calculated for individual BDE congeners. Average concentrations of the sum of PBDEs ranged from 56.35 to 614.0 µg.kg-1 of the dry matter in sediment, and concentrations under the detection limits (

  4. [Surveillance of West Nile fever in horses in the Czech Republic from 2011 to 2013].

    PubMed

    Sedlák, K; Zelená, H; Křivda, V; Šatrán, P

    2014-11-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) is an important mosquito-borne flavivirus occurring around the world. Occasionally found in Central Europe, the virus spread massively through whole Hungary between 2008 and 2009. The aim of our study was to determine the recent prevalence of the WNV infection in horses in the Czech Republic. Overall, 2349 serum samples, collected from healthy unvaccinated adult horses in the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013, were tested. A commercially available competitive ELISA kit (cELISA) was used for this purpose and positive samples were confirmed by virus neutralisation tests using WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Altogether 271 of 2348 samples (11.5%) were positive by cELISA. Confirmatory VNT revealed 16 WNV positive samples, 11 of which had titres from 8 to 1024; VNTs with TBEV were negative. Three samples had antibodies against both viruses and the WNV antibody titres were less than or equal to the TBEV antibody titres. A cross reactivity of flaviviruses might have had an impact on the results, but in samples with similar WNV and TBEV titres, co-infection with both pathogens cannot be ruled out either. VNT antibody titres in two horses were inconclusive (cut-off titre 4). The place of birth and transfers (if any) were checked for each WNV seropositive horse. Five WNV positive/TBEV negative samples (0.2%) came from five administrative regions (South Bohemian, Karlovy Vary, Central Bohemian, South Moravian, and Moravian-Silesian) and the respective animals were never moved to a foreign country. Four of these horses never left the farm. Other six WNV positive/TBEV negative horses were imported to the Czech Republic from North America or Central and West Europe and therefore, it is not possible to tell unambiguously whether their infection is autochthonous or imported. The results of the present study confirm that WNV antibodies occur sporadically in horses in the Czech Republic. WNV was found to circulate in different parts of the

  5. Alzheimer's disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mohelska, Hana; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases - an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors' own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer's disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be approached with great caution. These are based solely on the facts of various expert estimates and are not usually supported by hard data. Yet, they still illustrate the overall view of our ability to take care of people with dementia. According to experts, care in the Czech Republic significantly lags behind the rest of developed Europe. While services are provided to 26% of people with dementia in Germany and 50% in France, the experts estimate that services are provided to only 10% of the population in the Czech Republic. If we were to offer a similar volume of

  6. [Invasive meningococcal disease in the Czech Republic - analysis of the epidemiological situation and vaccination strategy recommendations].

    PubMed

    Křížová, Pavla; Vacková, Zuzana; Musílek, Martin; Kozáková, Jana

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) surveillance data including molecular epidemio-logy data. Vaccination strategy recommendations based on the current epidemiological situation of IMD in the Czech Republic and availability of meningococcal vaccines. IMD surveillance data are compiled by the National Reference Laboratory for Meningococcal Disease (NRL) from routinely reported data and NRL data after clearing out duplicate data. Neisseria meningitidis (N.m.) isolates referred to the NRL are confirmed and characterized in detail according to internationally validated methods. The current epidemiological situation of IMD is relatively favourable - the incidence rates have been below 1/100,000 population for several years, but show a slightly upward trend over more than 40-year period (1970-2012). A return to the typical prevalence of serogroup B accounting for up to 75% of cases has recently been shown. In this context, the upward trend in IMD caused by serogroup Y associated with a high case fatality rate in the Czech Republic cannot be overseen or even underestimated. The hypervirulent clonal complex cc11 characteristic of N.m.C:2a:P1.2,5 prevailed in this country between 1993 and 2004, but decreased in the following years and currently, hypervirulent clonal complexes characteristic of N.m.B (cc18, cc32, cc41/44, and cc269) are the most common in the Czech Republic. The average overall case fatality rate in the Czech Republic is 10%, but varies between causative serogroups: the highest case fatality rate has been caused by serogroup Y (16.7% ), followed by serogroup C (12.3%), and serogroup W135 (11.7%), while serogroup B only accounts for a case fatality rate of 7.8%. In the age group under one year, the incidence of IMD caused by serogroup B remains three to five times as high as in the age groups 1-4 years and 15-19 years throughout the surveillance period. The highest numbers of IMD cases caused by serogroup B have been reported in 3-7-month

  7. Selected areas of health and health care utilization by immigrants living in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Iva; Kajanová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined to what extent a selected group of immigrants in the Czech Republic receive healthcare for primary prevention and inpatient care. A partial aim of the research was to confirm the connection between immigrant health and their social situation. Using a quantitative study technique, 1,014 legally established immigrants (Vietnamese, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, and Slovak) between 18-65 years of age were interviewed. The selection of respondents was conducted using purposive selection. The stratification of the group was determined by nationality, age, and gender. Long-term illnesses were found significantly more frequently among Ukrainian immigrants and less frequently among Vietnamese immigrants. About half of the respondents had visited a GP and dentist in the previous year and 11.5% of respondents had been hospitalized in inpatient departments. Most of the surveyed immigrants had public health insurance (77.9%), one-fifth had contractual health insurance (19.6%) and 2.5% did not have health insurance. In statistical terms, Vietnamese, Ukrainian, and Russian immigrants had commercial insurance more often than Polish and Slovak immigrants. The utilization of public health insurance and healthcare among immigrants grew significantly in correlation with length of residency. The use of GPs for preventive health care also grew in correlation with knowledge of the Czech language. We found that less than nine percent of immigrants reported needing hospitalization for an illness, but were not hospitalized. Currently, immigration represents one of the most burning and sensitive global challenges. The outcome of this research clearly shows that improving immigrant Czech language skills and giving all legally established immigrants access to Czech public health insurance are important steps needed to increase access to healthcare for immigrants in the Czech Republic.

  8. Remediation of uranium in-situ leaching area at Straz Pod Ralskem, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Vokal, Vojtech; Muzak, Jiri; Ekert, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    A large-scale development in exploration and production of uranium ores in the Czech Republic was done in the 2nd half of the 20. century. Many uranium deposits were discovered in the territory of the Czech Republic. One of the most considerable deposits in the Czech Republic is the site Hamr na Jezere - Straz pod Ralskem where both mining methods - the underground mining and the acidic in-situ leaching - were used. The extensive production of uranium led to widespread environmental impacts and contamination of ground waters. Over the period of 'chemical' leaching of uranium (ca. 32 years), a total of more than 4 million tons of sulphuric acid and other chemicals have been injected into the ground. Most of the products (approx. 99.5 %) of the acids reactions with the rocks are located in the Cenomanian aquifer. The contamination of Cenomanian aquifer covers the area larger then 27 km{sup 2}. The influenced volume of groundwater is more than 380 million m{sup 3}. The total amount of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is about 3.6 million tons. After 1990 a large-scale environmental program was established and the Czech government decided to liquidate the ISL Mine and start the remediation in 1996. The remediation consists of contaminated groundwater pumping, removing of the contaminants and discharging or reinjection of treated water. Nowadays four main remedial technological installations with sufficient capacity for reaching of the target values of remedial parameters in 2037 are used - the 'Station for Acid Solutions Liquidation No. One', the 'Mother liquor reprocessing' station, the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 6' and the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 10'. It is expected that the amount of withdrawn contaminants will vary from 80 000 to 120 000 tons per year. Total costs of all remediation activities are expected to be in excess of 2 billion EUR. (authors)

  9. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  10. [The populations attitudes to colorectal cancer screening in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Král, N; Seifert, B; Suchánek, Š; Zavoral, M; Májek, O

    2015-03-01

    The mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is significant worldwide. There is good evidence for benefits of the CRC screening in mortality reduction. Since 2009, the population of the Czech Republic have had two CRC screening options from which to choose: a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) at the age of 50 to be repeated every two years or primary screening colonoscopy (PSC) at the age of 55. General practitioners play a crucial role in the CRC screening programme. The CRC screening adherence of the Czech population is poor and does not exceed 25%. The aims of the study were to analyse the reasons behind the low CRC screening adherence of the Czech population, to classify the populations attitudes, and to identify the barriers. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a Czech energy company with 13,000 employees in 2011-2012. The questionnaire was administered electronically by e-mail or directly at the workplace. The questionnaire response rate was 31.3% (4070). The pool of respondents consisted of 2804 (68.9%) females and 1266 (31.1%) males. Of the respondents, 1345 (33.1%) were aged over 50 years (73.5% women and 26.5% men). Of the cohort aged over 50, 68.65% of women and 63.2% of men took a FOBT. Ten percent of respondents aged over 50 years have never heard of CRC screening and 32.8% of this age category have never participated in CRC screening. The main reasons for not taking a FOBT were feeling well and having no health problems (38.8%) or FOBT not offered the by the general practitioner (27.8%). Other reasons were no time to do so, fear of the result, unsure of the procedure, unawareness of what FOBT is, or uncomfortable about the test procedure. On the other hand, 8.37% of the participants aged between 15 and 39 years and 20.7% of those aged between 40 and 49 years have already taken a FOBT. Overall, 15.4% of respondents prefer the new alternative, PSC, as the CRC screening option. Significant differences in CRC screening adherence are seen between

  11. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Hanus; Smiskova, Dita; Benes, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61%) had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48%) were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45%) had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%). The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes was 680/μL, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13%) died, and nine (29%) survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients. PMID:24106719

  12. Performances of three R-AN-D-N wastewater treatment plants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bejvl, Z; Matuska, P; Stara, J; Chudoba, P

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of Czech standards requires higher efficiency of nutrient removal from municipal wastewaters. At the beginning of the last decade of 20th century, a new activated sludge configuration called R-AN-D-N process has been described, successfully tested and now largely used at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Czech republic. The main feature of the R-AN-D-N process is the introduction of a regeneration zone in sludge recycle, which enables to increase sludge age in the system without any substantial increase in WWTP volume. Performances of three Czech large WWTP with R-AN-D-N configuration have been monitored and compared within a period of one and a half years. The results confirmed excellent nutrient removal efficiency for wastewaters with different proportion between sewage and industrial effluents. Two of three monitored WWTP received wastewaters from breweries (Budweiser and Pilsner Urquell). The settleability of activated sludge from all three WWTP was correct, with SVI values usually ranging from 50 to 150 ml/g. Monitoring of sludge composition indicated proliferation of several filamentous bacteria, particularly types 0581, 0092 and M. parvicella. No severe bulking events were observed. Finally, the operational costs expressed in CZK (Czech crown: 1 CZK = [see symbol in text]0.0322) per cubic metre of treated sewage or per capita amounts respectively from 2.24 to 6.52, and from 285 to 342.

  13. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy.

  14. Quality of life and needs of hospitalized schizophrenic patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hosakova, Jirina; Jarosova, Darja

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the quality of life and the medicinal and social needs of patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in the Czech Republic to uncover potential issues in these areas. Relevant self-evaluating questionnaires (SQUALA for quality of life; CANSAS for medicinal and social needs) were used in a cohort of hospitalized schizophrenic patients undergoing rehabilitation before discharge from the mental hospital. Two hundred and forty-four patients (women N=115) aged 18-58 years were involved in the study. The quality of life of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia was subjectively assessed as universally worse in comparison with the general Czech population (p<0.05 in most cases; two-sample Student's t-test), but patients were not wholly critical of their own health status and overestimated its quality (arithmetic mean 63.79 in the patients vs the range of 45.5-59.8 as the norm in the general Czech population). Intimate relations, financial matters, treatment of psychotic symptoms, and sexual life were among the most pressing medicinal and social needs in our study subjects. The results of our study should stimulate psychiatric nurses in their effort not only to detect but also address the problems of schizophrenic patients concerning quality of life and unfulfilled needs. This can be done via education, guidance towards a healthy lifestyle, or providing patients with adequate exercise. Overall this issue is of significant importance in the Czech Republic due to the fact that legislative reform of mental health care emphasizing community care and psychiatric nursing has just been implemented.

  15. Cost effectiveness, the economic considerations of prenatal screening strategies for trisomy 21 in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dhaifalah, I; Májek, O

    2012-02-01

    To perform an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis for screening of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in the Czech Republic through a decision tree model designed to evaluate the costs and potential risks involved in using different strategies of screening. METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS: Using decision-analysis modelling, we compared the cost-effectiveness of nine possible screening strategies for trisomy 21: 1. maternal age > or = 35 in first trimester, 2. maternal age > or = 35 in second trimester, 3. second trimester triple test (AFP, hCG, mu E3), 4. nuchal translucency measurement, 5. first trimester serum test (PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG), 6. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) not in OSCAR manner, 7. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) in OSCAR manner, 8. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, nasal bone, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) not in OSCAR manner, 9. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, nasal bone, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) in OSCAR manner. The analysis is performed from a health care payer perspective using relevant cost and outcomes related to each screening strategy in a cohort of 118,135 pregnant women presenting around 12 weeks of pregnancy in the Czech Republic. Using a computer spreadsheet Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash) the following outcomes: overall cost-effectiveness, trisomy 21 cases detected, trisomy 21 live birth prevented and euploid losses from invasive procedures were obtained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were also calculated by a comparison of strategy nine and strategy three (the current practice in the Czech Republic). Under the baseline assumptions, the model favors strategy nine as the most cost-effective trisomy 21 screening strategy. This strategy was the least expensive strategy per trisomy 21 cases averted. Although all the other strategies cost less, they all had lower trisomy 21 detection rates and higher numbers of procedure-related losses (except for

  16. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  17. PERUN system and its application for assessing the crop yield potential of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semeradova, D.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the first version of the computer system PERUN, which has been developed in 2001-2002 (presented in EGS 2002), is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting for a given site. The system is based on the crop growth model WOFOST (version 7, slightly modified) and the six-variate version of the stochastic weather generator Met&Roll. The system is now being enhanced to allow assessment of the crop yield potential of a larger area. As this assessment requires a great amount of meteorological, pedological and crop data to be gathered, but these data are not yet all available to the authors, the presentation will rather focus on the methodological aspects and the results of the sensitivity analysis. The presentation will consist of the following points: (i) Overview of the PERUN system. The results of the validation experiments (spring barley and winter wheat at selected Czech locations) will be presented, too. (ii) Methodology used for a spatial assessment. The assessment is based on integrating model crop yields simulated at multiple sub-regions with region-specific climatic and pedological conditions. The input daily weather series are produced by the stochastic generator. The multi-year crop model simulation is performed for each sub-region to assess the mean and variability of the model yields. (iii) Sensitivity of the regional crop production potential to uncertainties in selected input characteristics: crop cultivar, soil type, hydrological characteristics (e.g. amount of available water at the beginning of the simulation), and climatic conditions (e.g temperature, precipitation). In assessing sensitivity to climate, the climatic characteristics will be varied within the range of values typical for the territory of the Czech Republic. The crops applied in the analysis are spring barley and winter wheat. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN has been developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for

  18. Long-term fluctuations of hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: synthesis of different data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Hailstorms belong to natural phenomena causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of hailstorms, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology, such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence of economic and administrative character (e.g. taxation records) has particular importance. This study aims to create a long-term series of hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (such as taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers which are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1541-2014 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 1770s. The series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. Existing data may be used also for the study of spatial hailstorm variability. Basic uncertainties of compiled hailstorm series are discussed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South-Moravian hailstorm series significantly extends our knowledge about this phenomenon in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  19. Factors Associated with Parental Refusal of Routine Vaccination in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dáňová, Jana; Šálek, Jiří; Kocourková, Aneta; Čelko, Alexander M

    2015-12-01

    Routine vaccination is one of the most important preventive methods which is responsible for the decreasing trend of morbidity and mortality of vaccine preventable infectious diseases, their complications and sequelae. The impact of vaccination on declining trend of these diseases is well known and confirmed by a large number of epidemiological studies. In the Czech Republic, there is high vaccination coverage in regards to most vaccine preventable diseases. However, during the last decade proportion of parents refusing routine vaccination of their children due to different factors is increasing. The presented study evaluates current situation in the Czech Republic and describes the most significant factors in parents decision making. The study was conducted between 1 July 2013 and 31 March 2014 as a questionnaire based survey (cross-sectional study). The questionnaire was created with multiple choice answers. Questions were addressed to parents or legal representatives of children aged 0-18 years. Types of questions were divided into several subgroups. The study was performed in the Czech Republic in two different districts of Prague and Zlín. In the sample size (n=480) we detected 11 parents who refused vaccination of 11 children (2.29%). The most often refused vaccines in the prevalence study were hexavaccine (1st dose) and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (1st dose). The hexavaccine includes tetanic anatoxin, diphtheric anatoxin, acellular pertussis vaccine, conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae b, inactivated polio vaccine, and recombinant vaccine against viral hepatitis B. The measles, mumps, rubella vaccine contains live attenuated viruses of measles, mumps, rubella. We observed increasing trend of routine vaccination refusal in children during the last ten years (compared to situation in the year 2004, p<0.001). The most important factors associated with this progression were distrust to vaccination, fear of some vaccine components and fear of

  20. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  1. [The strategy of the Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně for the organisation of oncological care in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vorlíček, J

    2013-08-01

    The Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně (ČOS ČLS JEP) builds on intensive collaboration at all levels of medical care during the organisation of oncological care. Over 77,000 malignant neoplasms are diagnosed in the Czech Republic annually. Every year, over 27,000 patients with a malignant tumour die in the Czech Republic. A total of over 450,000 patients with malignant tumours or patients with a history of an oncological disease are living in the Czech Republic. The specialised society analyses available data about the treatment history and offers them to the individual regions; it also plans population based treatment costs which are then discussed with the healthcare payers. The Czech National Cancer Control Programme (NOP) presents a strategic outline for the management and development of the treatment, and facilitates the communication with all stakeholders and the public. The ČOS ČLS JEP Society includes a specialised section responsible for data analysis, which provides a complex agenda of population based data, estimated numbers of treated patients, standards for reference of survival analysis and a system of collecting required clinical data. Even with a growing incidence, the Czech Republic shows a stabilised mortality in all cancer diagnoses. Screening programmes for breast, colorectal and cervical carcinoma are ongoing. We have a consolidated and cooperating network of oncology centres. We are able to actively plan diagnostic and treatment needs and we have a system of data collection that is able to respond to the needs of evaluation of cost efficiency. We are currently introducing a hospital care quality assessment.

  2. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) include a number of disorders with heterogeneous etiology that cause predominantly weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In this study, we determined the frequency of LGMD subtypes within a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients using mutational analysis of the CAPN3, FKRP, SGCA, and ANO5 genes. Methods PCR-sequencing analysis; sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Results Mutations of the CAPN3 gene are the most common cause of LGMD2, and mutations in this gene were identified in 71 patients in a set of 218 Czech probands with a suspicion of LGMD2. Totally, we detected 37 different mutations of which 12 have been described only in Czech LGMD2A patients. The mutation c.550delA is the most frequent among our LGMD2A probands and was detected in 47.1% of CAPN3 mutant alleles. The frequency of particular forms of LGMD2 was 32.6% for LGMD2A (71 probands), 4.1% for LGMD2I (9 probands), 2.8% for LGMD2D (6 probands), and 1.4% for LGMD2L (3 probands). Further, we present the first results of a new approach established in the Czech Republic for diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases: sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Using this approach, we identified patients with mutations in the DYSF and SGCB genes. Conclusions We characterised a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients on the basis of mutation analysis of genes associated with the most common forms of LGMD2 in the European population and subsequently compared the occurrence of particular forms of LGMD2 among countries on the basis of our results and published studies. PMID:25135358

  3. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Stehlíková, Kristýna; Skálová, Daniela; Zídková, Jana; Mrázová, Lenka; Vondráček, Petr; Mazanec, Radim; Voháňka, Stanislav; Haberlová, Jana; Hermanová, Markéta; Zámečník, Josef; Souček, Ondřej; Ošlejšková, Hana; Dvořáčková, Nina; Solařová, Pavla; Fajkusová, Lenka

    2014-08-19

    Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) include a number of disorders with heterogeneous etiology that cause predominantly weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In this study, we determined the frequency of LGMD subtypes within a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients using mutational analysis of the CAPN3, FKRP, SGCA, and ANO5 genes. PCR-sequencing analysis; sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Mutations of the CAPN3 gene are the most common cause of LGMD2, and mutations in this gene were identified in 71 patients in a set of 218 Czech probands with a suspicion of LGMD2. Totally, we detected 37 different mutations of which 12 have been described only in Czech LGMD2A patients. The mutation c.550delA is the most frequent among our LGMD2A probands and was detected in 47.1% of CAPN3 mutant alleles. The frequency of particular forms of LGMD2 was 32.6% for LGMD2A (71 probands), 4.1% for LGMD2I (9 probands), 2.8% for LGMD2D (6 probands), and 1.4% for LGMD2L (3 probands).Further, we present the first results of a new approach established in the Czech Republic for diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases: sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Using this approach, we identified patients with mutations in the DYSF and SGCB genes. We characterised a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients on the basis of mutation analysis of genes associated with the most common forms of LGMD2 in the European population and subsequently compared the occurrence of particular forms of LGMD2 among countries on the basis of our results and published studies.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in the Czech Republic -- prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Zabransky, Tomas; Mravcik, Viktor; Korcisova, Blanka; Rehak, Vratislav

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the population of Czech injecting drug users (IDUs). Multicentric cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of injecting drug users was recruited using the snowball sampling method. Sample of 760 IDUs from 9 different Czech regions. We used one-drop instant blood tests to determine the anti-HCV antibodies status; a structured questionnaire was completed during the interview with the researcher. We calculated the ratio of positive findings and performed univariate analyses of correlations between predictors and independent variables. Finally, we created a logistic regression model that controlled for age, region of residence, reported sharing of injection paraphernalia, and length of injection drug use and for the interaction between length of injection use and imprisonment in order to assess the predictive value of imprisonment in an individual's history. 226 participants (29.74% of the tested sample) were found to be anti-HCV positive. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the test, the 'true proportion' was 34.97% (95% CI: 31.56-38.35). Many correlated independent variables were found in the univariate analyses. In our logistic regression model, we have found that imprisonment increases the odds of being anti-HCV positive by a factor of 4.3. Anti-HCV seroprevalence remains relatively low in the Czech IDUs population compared to similar populations in the developed countries. Regional differences exist in anti-HCV prevalence within the Czech Republic. The strong association of anti-HCV prevalence with imprisonment history when controlled for other potentially clinically important factors suggests the need for more effective preventive measures in Czech prisons.

  5. Intercomparison of Radon in Soil Instruments at Reference Site in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghele, Bety D.; Moldovan, Mircea C.

    2013-12-01

    Intercomparison exercises of radon instruments play an important part when it comes to domestic survey as well as international or national mapping in dwellings, soil or water. Therefore, it is of prime interest to improve and standardize technical methods of measurement and also to verify quality assurance through comparison between different instruments and techniques. In the present paper is described the latest intercomparison exercise performed between the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity (hereafter called LER) of our department and other 15 different teams around Europe. The test has been held at two radon reference sites located 60 km SW of Prague, Czech Republic.

  6. Pressure Injuries in Inpatient Care Facilities in the Czech Republic: Analysis of a National Electronic Database.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, Andrea; Benešová, Klára; Jarkovský, Jirˇí; Mužík, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pressure injury (PI) occurrence upon admission and at any time during the hospital course inpatients care facilities in the Czech Republic. Secondary aims were to evaluate demographic and clinical data of patients with PI and the impact of a PI on length of stay (LOS) in the hospital. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. The sample comprised data of hospitalized patients entered into the National Register of Hospitalized Patients (NRHOSP) database of the Czech Republic between 2007 and 2014 with a diagnosis L89 (pressure ulcer of unspecified site based on the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, ICD-10). Electronic records of 17,762,854 hospitalizations were reviewed. Data from the NRHOSP from all acute and non-acute care hospitals in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Specifically, we analyzed patients admitted to acute and non-acute care facilities with a primary or secondary diagnosis of PI. The NRHOSP database included 17,762,854 cases, of which 46,224 cases (33,342 cases in acute care hospitals; 12,882 in non-acute care hospitals) had the L89 diagnosis (0.3%). The mean age of patients admitted with a PI was 73.8 ± 15.3 years (mean ± SD), and their average LOS was 33.2 ± 76.9 days. The mean LOS of patients hospitalized with L89 code as a primary diagnosis (n = 6877) was significantly longer compared to those patients for whom L89 code was a secondary diagnosis (25.8 vs 20.2 days, P < .001) in acute care facilities. In contrast, we found no difference in the mean LOS for patients hospitalized in non-acute care facility (58.7 days vs 65.1 days; P = .146) with ICD code L89. Pressure injuries were associated with significant LOS in both acute and non-acute care settings in the Czech Republic. Despite the valuable insights we obtained from the analysis of NRHOSP data, we advocate creation of a more valid and reliable electronic reporting system that enables policy makers to evaluate the quality and

  7. [10 years of sleeve gastrectomy in the Czech Republic in terms of the surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kasalický, M; Bařinka, A; Čierny, M; Fried, M; Gryga, A; Holéczy, P; Hrubý, M; Malčánková, K; Michalský, D; Procházka, V; Satinský, I; Šimonik, I; Vraný, M; Zonča, P

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) as a single bariatric/metabolic procedure has been performed since 2003 in the world, and since 2006 in the Czech Republic. We report 10 years experience with SG in the Czech Republic from 2006 to 2015. Prospectively collected data from 14 surgical departments was evaluated retrospectively using descriptive statistics for every year from 2006 to 2015 and subsequently evaluated and compared for the entire period. The number of the patients, mean age, mean weight and BMI at the time of surgery, the number of patients with T2DM after SG, mean follow-up, mean %BMIL (% Body Mass Index Loss), distance of the starting point of the resection line from the pylorus, the size of the calibration bougie, the rate of complications, and the number and type of conversion procedures were evaluated. 4134 sleeve gastrectomies were done in the Czech Republic from 2006 to 2015 with the mean follow-up of 32.9 months (range 2145 months) from the procedure. The mean weight at the time of surgery fluctuated between 114.2 kg and 128.9 kg; mean BMI fluctuated between 42.3 and 46.7. Mean %BMIL was 63.2% for the entire evaluated period. The distance of the starting point of the resection line from the pylorus changed from the mean 6.1 cm (range 67 cm) to mean 4.2 cm (range 36 cm) and the size of the calibration bougie changed from the mean 39.2 F (range 3642 F) to mean 37.1 F (range 3542 F). As regards early postoperative complications, bleeding from the resection line occurred in 1.4% and a leak from the staple line occurred in 1.1%. The gastroesophageal reflux disease and hiatal hernia occurred in 17.3% as the most frequent late complications. Conversion to another bariatric procedure was approached in 3.8% in the event of an unsatisfactory effect of the SG. Bariatric or metabolic surgery, respectively, is a safe and effective surgical method for the treatment of severe obesity and T2DM in morbidly obese patients. Currently, SG is the most widely used bariatric

  8. [A case of acute hepatitis E acquired in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Holub, M; Korínková, M; Chalupa, P

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of 54-year-old female, who was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E with uncomplicated anicteric course of the infection. The patient did not have a specific travel history to endemic areas and the infection has been acquired in the Czech Republic. The epidemiologic history was remarkable only because she consumed undercooked pork meat. A differential diagnostic process of acute viral hepatitis in our conditions as well as problems of acute viral hepatitis E as an autochtonous infection in Western and Central Europe are discussed.

  9. International migration in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the outlook for East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Drbohlav, D

    1994-01-01

    This article "is devoted to the international migration issue in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Besides the contemporary trends, the international migration situation is briefly traced back to the communist era. The probable future scenario of international migration development--based especially on migration patterns that Western Europe has experienced--is also sketched, whilst mainly economic, social, political, demographic, psychological and geographical aspects are mentioned." Some consideration is also given to other countries in Eastern Europe. The different types of migration are analyzed, including illegal migration, labor migration, and refugees and asylum seekers.

  10. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: The case study of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Milos Drapalova, Lenka

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, we define lifespan of mobile phones and estimate their average total lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of lifespan distribution is based on large sample of EoL mobile phones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the years 2010-20, about 26.3 million pieces of EoL mobile phones will be generated in the Czech Republic. - Abstract: The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets

  11. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  12. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  13. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  14. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Practice of Nursing Care Provided to Clients from Muslim Countries in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Janků, Tomáš; Linhartová, Lenka; Topinka, Daniel

    2016-06-27

    Authors deal with practice of nursing care provided to Muslim clients in the Czech Republic. They use the explorative research design. By means of analyses of 21 semi-structured interviews with important social actors in the area of health care (spa resorts and hospitals). The study shows that Muslims are not homogeneous in their behaviour in the field of health care. In the spa environment, three interpretation perspectives can be found: the economic interpretation of a Muslim as the source of income of the Czech spa industry, which faces economic problems, the cultural interpretation developed within the spas (the experience capital of the staff and other clients), and the (a) cultural interpretation of Muslims and Islam brought to spas from the outside (the public opinion). However, in the area of hospitals, Muslims are not separated from the remaining categories of students; Muslim patients represent a small group of persons, and their treatment being conditioned by the distance or closeness of cultures, language skills, adaptation, and experiences with treatment in the Czech environment as perceived by the staff.

  16. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  17. Estimation of Biogenic VOC Emissions From Ecosystems in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemankova, K.; Brechler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are one of the crucial elements in photochemical reactions in the atmosphere which lead to tropospheric ozone formation. While modelling concentration of low-level ozone proper information about VOC sources and sinks is necessary. VOC are emitted into the atmosphere both from anthropogenic and natural sources. It has been shown in previous studies (e.g. Simpson et al, 1995) that contribution of volatile organic compounds emitted from biogenic sources to total amount of VOC in the atmosphere can be significant. Our work focuses on estimation of VOC emissions from natural ecosystems, most importantly from forests, and its application in photochemical modelling. Preliminary results have shown that inclusion of biogenic emissions in model input data leads to improvement of resulting ozone concentration which encouraged us to work on detailed biogenic VOC emission estimation. Using grid of 1x1km CORINE Land Cover over the area of the Czech Republic, emissions from deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests were estimated aplying the algorithm of Guenther et al., 1995. According to data from Forest Management Institute each cell of model grid has been assigned a proportional composition of each of thirteen tree species which are the the main forest constituents in the Czech Republic. Aggregating data of tree species composition with land cover category emission factor of particular chemical compound (isoprene, monoterpenes) has been obtained for each cell. Annual emissions of VOC on hourly basis have been calculated for domain of the Czech Republic. Biogenic emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were compared with the emission inventory of anthropogenic sources. The inventory is provided by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and covers emissions from major stationary sources, area sources (including domestic heating) and mobile sources. Our results show that natural emissions are approximately half the amount of organic compounds emitted

  18. Engineering of a 110 MW atmospheric CFB for the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, J.R.; Brzezeina, P.; Strach, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the engineering considerations related to the design of a new 110 MWe atmospheric fluidized bed boiler (CFB) and boiler island auxiliaries for installation at the CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic Utility) Ledvice Power Station. The plant is located in the northwest Bohemia area of the Czech Republic in the foothills of the Krusne Hory Mountains, between the towns of Bilina and Teplice. The type of fuel to be burned in the CFB is brown coal which requires unique design considerations in as well as the particular boiler operational parameters. The impetus behind the addition of this new CFB at the plant is that the existing pulverized coal fired steam generator which was put in service in 1969 is unable to meet new regulations and laws regarding compliance with the protection of the environment and will be replaced once the new CFB unit is brought into service. A technical-economic study conducted by CEZ, a.s. evaluated CFB technology as the most advantageous from a long-term standpoint. The following variations were considered in the study: boiler retrofit and construction of new ash handling equipment; implementation of the combined cycle based upon natural gas; and reconstruction of the boiler equipment with transition to atmospheric fluid-bed combustion. The selection of the supplier of fluid-bed boiler was performed with an emphasis of the bidders` references as for the construction and operation of fluid-bed boilers with the outputs of min. 300 t/hr.

  19. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  20. Association between obesity and cancer incidence in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máchová, Lucie; Cízek, Ludek; Horáková, Dagmar; Koutná, Jirina; Lorenc, Jirí; Janoutová, Gabriela; Janout, Vladimír

    2007-11-01

    Excess body weight was shown to be associated with risk of several types of cancer. In the Czech Republic, malignant tumors are the second leading cause of death. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the most frequent types of cancer and obesity. A case-control study was accomplished, using data from the National Cancer Registry and from a preventive oncologic checkup database. Cases were defined as persons from the studied population who developed skin, breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, kidney, ovarian, urinary bladder, stomach, pancreatic, or gallbladder cancers from 1987 to 2002. Controls were cancer-free men and women from the population. Among the cancer patients and healthy controls, proportions of obese, overweight, and nonobese individuals were compared, and odds ratios (OR) were computed. After adjustment for confounders, obese men had a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.56-2.76) and kidney cancer (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.14-3.24). Obese women were at higher risk of endometrial cancer (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.65-6.37). An inverse association was observed between obesity and lung cancer (in men: OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66; in women: OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80). Obesity is associated with several frequent types of tumors and represents an important preventable cause of cancer in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

  1. Rpas Accuracy Testing for Using it in the Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housarová, E.; Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  2. Monitoring Bridge Deformation in the Czech Republic with Sentinel-1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Lazecky, Milan

    2016-08-01

    In the Czech republic, as well as in other areas, the bridges are of various age and various condition. It seems that more problems can be found on recently- built bridges, but this is due to the fact that the old ones are usually not monitored in such a detail or not at all. The aim of monitoring bridges is to find possible deformations before the deformations get large/significant to endanger the people and/or traffic. However, there are more deformation causes of the bridges, and most of them are reversible, such as thermal dilation, bending with load etc. The problem is to recognize these components from the irreversible deformations, and one needs a large dataset, covering at least 18 month data (to separate the thermal dilation component from the linear deformation component). The direction of the irreversible movements can be arbitrary, and due to the easily accessible Sentinel-1 data, we try to monitor the bridge from various directions.For improving the accuracy we plan to make experiment with corner reflectors to enhance the intensity, and therefore to lower the standard deviation of the movement, however this experiment will be evaluated in future.Our project monitors few bridges in the Czech republic, of various length and age.

  3. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; Steinbauer, Vladimír; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David

    2016-11-01

    Blood samples from 21 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 hunting dogs from the same locality in the Czech Republic were examined for presence of Hepatozoon canis/Hepatozoon sp. The dogs were selected based on their close contact with foxes during fox bolting and because they had not traveled into known endemic areas. Using diagnostic PCR amplifying partial 18S rDNA fragment, Hepatozoon DNA was detected in 20 red foxes (95 %) and 4 dogs (50 %). From 8 positive foxes and 2 positive dogs, we obtained nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed very low variability. Buffy coat smears from positive dogs were prepared and examined. No Hepatozoon gamonts were found. This study provides the first report of autochthonous infection of H. canis/Hepatozoon in dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic. Our study indirectly demonstrates cross infection between red foxes and dogs and confirms autochthonous infection of Hepatozoon canis in dogs living in a geographic area well outside the range of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, which is so far the only known vector of H. canis in Europe.

  4. Occurrence of Potato virus X on hybrid dock in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrzik, K

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid dock of Uteush (Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A. Los., the family Polygonaceae) is a perspective high productive crop and in the last decade its farming area has continuously grown in Czech Republic. However, the introduction of this non-native perennial crop into a present plant production creates a new potential reservoir for some plant viruses. Also, the hybrid dock could become a host of currently uncommon or insignificant viruses. We screened two dock-farming localities situated in south-west and north-east part of the Czech Republic for the presence of potyviruses, potexviruses, and carlaviruses. In the south-west part of the country, we detected a high incidence of Potato virus X (PVX, the genus Potexvirus). In contrast, in the north-east part of the country we did not detect any dock plants infected with PVX. Next, two other viruses, Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) were mechanically inoculated and tested for their survival capacity and multiplication in the hybrid dock. Both viruses were detected 9 months after inoculation in the infected plants.

  5. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in wild boars in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bártová, E; Sedlák, K; Literák, I

    2006-11-30

    Sera collected from hunter-killed wild boars (Sus scrofa) during 1999-2005 from seven different regions of the Czech Republic were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescence antibody test and to Neospora caninum by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by indirect fluorescence antibody test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 148 (26.2%) of 565 wild boars with serum dilutions of 1:40 in 40, 1:80 in 40, 1:160 in 27, 1:320 in 19, 1:640 in 18 and 1:1280 in 4 wild boars. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in 102 (18.1%) of 565 wild boars with 30.1-94.6% inhibition in ELISA; statistical significant differences were observed between sampling regions, ranging from 0% to 31.8%. Sera, positive in ELISA, were examined in IFAT; 58 of 102 (56.9%) were positive with titres 1:40-1:160. Mixed infection (concurrent presence of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies) was found in 38 wild boars. It is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in wild boar. Serological results indicate a common exposure to T. gondii and to N. caninum among wild boars in the Czech Republic.

  7. The system of personal monitoring and the evaluation of occupational exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrová, K; Prouza, Z

    2001-01-01

    New legislation concerning radiation protection, which was effective in the Czech Republic from 1997, followed from the recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 and the IAEA BSS, and included all new basic principles for the protection of radiation workers given in these documents. The requirements for the personal monitoring of category A workers and the recognition of the capacity of dosimetry services were identified as being very significant for radiation practice, and will be licensed by the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS). The license application will include the methodology of effective dose evaluation, the description of QA and QC of the service, the system of customer communication and dose recording and reporting. In accordance with legislation requirements, the licensee is obliged to report the personal and dosimetry data of category A radiation workers to SONS. For the purpose of data collection, SONS is developing the central registration system of occupational radiation exposure (CROE). Personal monitoring is managed for about 20,000 workers in 1500 workplaces. The paper describes in detail all current aspects of external monitoring of workers in the Czech Republic.

  8. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN EVALUATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Vostalová, Lenka; Mazelová, Jana; Samek, Jiří; Vocelka, Milan

    2017-04-25

    In the Czech Republic, the health technology assessment (HTA) approaches have been implemented in evaluation of medicinal products since 2008. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the implementation of HTA and different levels thereof in the evaluation process conducted by the State Institute for Drug Control (SUKL) and to describe the impact of HTA on the entrance of new medicinal entities into out-patient healthcare system including highly innovative and orphan drugs. Materials supporting this overview were collected using the records in the database of administrative proceedings of SUKL, in-house standard operating procedures, and the legislation in force. Based on these sources as well as the hands-on knowledge of the current practice, a brief description of the general rules of administrative proceedings involving HTA of varying complexity was elaborated. Characteristic features of the individual types of proceedings, basic differences in the complexity of HTA employed, and its most important challenges were summarized. In Czech Republic, HTA in the formal administrative proceedings ensures a transparent process of introduction of new medicinal products into clinical practice and leaves space for restriction of reimbursement conditions to minimize budget impact. As a robust as well as pragmatic HTA methodology has been implemented by SUKL, relevant stakeholders (marketing authorization holders, Health Care Funds, clinical expert groups) are now able to influence reimbursement of new technologies.

  9. Genotyping of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) wild-type strains isolated in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bostikova, Vanda; Salavec, Miloslav; Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Kosina, Pavel; Prasil, Petr; Plisek, Stanislav; Splino, Miroslav; Bostik, Pavel

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring of the varicella-zoster virus is becoming an important tool for analysis of the circulation of individual strains of VZV which differ not only at the genomic level, but show a variability in their clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Such data are not available on a large scale from the Czech population and could help understanding the epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of the virus, as well as its potential for reinfection and increased pathogenesis in the population groups at higher risk for complications. The main aim of this study was detection and monitoring of wild-type or vaccine VZV strain isolates in the region of Eastern Bohemia and genotypic characterization of these isolates. A total of 273 clinical samples were obtained from patients exhibiting symptoms of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection manifested as chickenpox or herpes zoster (HZ) treated in the Faculty Hospital of Charles University, Medical School in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Characterization of individual short VZV DNA sequences was performed utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), PCR and sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in open reading frames (ORF) 21, 22 and 50 were used to identify individual VZV strains. All clinical isolates (97 from varicella, 176 from herpes zoster) were VZV positive wild-type strains. Sequencing analysis showed that 89 isolates were of the European E1 genotype, 180 were of the European E2 genotype and 2 were identified as the Mosaic M1 strain. In addition, for the first time in this region two unusual genotypes were identified, both representing a combination of E1 and M2 strain specific SNPs. Our prospective VZV genotyping study which is the first to monitor the VZV epidemiological situation in the Czech Republic using such a large set of clinical specimens, has provided valuable epidemiological data and identified two unique VZV recombinants.

  10. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  11. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  12. Mortality during winter smog episodes 1982, 1985, 1987 and 1993 in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jelínková, J; Branis, M

    2001-10-01

    Severe air pollution episodes were recorded during the 1980s and early 1990s in the Czech Republic as a result of widespread combustion of brown coal. A population-based retrospective study investigated the relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in six highly polluted areas of the Czech Republic during smog episodes in 1982, 1985, 1987, and 1993. Total daily mortality, mortality by gender and age, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, data on weekly incidence of acute respiratory diseases and daily mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter were used in the model. The effects of smog on daily mortality were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Significant increases in mortality were observed for the 1982 and 1987 episodes (6% and 9%). In 1982, mortality was significantly associated with mean concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) of the current and the preceding days and with the 4-day moving average. In the 1985 episode a significant increase in respiratory mortality in men and in both genders together, lagging by 2 and 3 days, was detected. During the 1987 episode significant associations of total daily mortality, mortality in persons over 65 years of age and mortality from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases with 4-day moving average of both pollutants were found. For the 1993 episode a significant association between mortality in women under 65, lagging by 3 days, and mean concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was observed. Most of the results are consistent with other studies aimed at episodic air pollution during the 1950s and 1960s in Western Europe and the USA, in which outdoor air pollution was shown to be a significant predictor of mortality. However, non-significant or opposite associations between air pollution and mortality indicate that other factors may also play an important role. A stronger effect on men under 65 years of age, suggested by a previous Czech study

  13. Student Expectations of the Financial Returns to Higher Education in the Czech Republic and England: Evidence from Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchor, John R.; Fiserova, Jana; Marsikova, Katerina; Urbanek, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the short-cut method is used to estimate expected rates of financial returns to higher education in the Czech Republic and a modified version of the method is used to suit the current English system of deferred tuition fees. First year university students were asked to estimate their expected earnings with and without a university…

  14. An investigation of local and regional sources of fine particulate matter in the Ostrava,the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite efforts to reduce air pollutants, particularly in the coal power plant and industrial sectors, the Ostrava region of the Czech Republic continues to experience episodes of high pollutant concentrations, especially during the fall and winter seasons. A short-term investig...

  15. A new case of the enigmatic Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) in a fox from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mitkovà, Barbora; Modrý, David; Juránková, Jana; Frgelecová, Lucia; Forejtek, Pavel; Steinbauer, Vladimír; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    This study reports a new case of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) infection in a fox from the Czech Republic, and provides confirmatory evidence on the occurrence of this newly identified sequence type. However, further studies are needed to investigate the distribution, host range and possible vector(s) for this bacterium, as well as its impact on animals and humans.

  16. Differentiation in the Making: Consequences of School Segregation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messing, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how various forms of ethnic segregation in education affect everyday life and future aspirations of Roma youth in three Central and Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. It draws on a comparative European investigation about the diverging experiences and paths of ethnic minority youth in…

  17. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  18. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  19. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Primary Education--A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlásná, Pavla; Klímová, Blanka; Poulová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to explore the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in classes at the first stage of primary schools, specifically in the Czech Republic. Firstly, the authors discuss the current state of this research issue, and secondly, they describe their own research which should clarify how, why and how…

  20. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  1. Educational Transformation in the Czech Republic since 1989: Can a North American Model of Educational Change Be Applied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Annabelle; And Others

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine the process of transformation of education in the Czech Republic since the Velvet Revolution of 1989; and (2) to examine this experience within the framework of the educational change and reform literature, especially the work of Michael Fullan, to determine its utility within a Central European…

  2. New Label No Progress: Institutional Racism and the Persistent Segregation of Romani Students in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The over-representation of Romani children in special schools in the Czech Republic is well documented and widely condemned. In 2007 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) found the state guilty of discrimination against Romani children on the basis of disproportionate placement of children in remedial special schools. In 2015 high numbers of…

  3. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  4. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  5. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  6. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    PubMed

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries).

  7. Education As a Strategy for Life Success in the Postcommunist Transformation: The Case of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Rehakova, Blanka

    1996-01-01

    Data from four social surveys in the Czech Republic reveal that higher education is returning as a strategy for life success, after being discarded for decades due to Communist egalitarian ideology. Economic returns to education have increased but college graduates feel underpaid. However, many people still hold the "socialist" belief…

  8. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  9. An investigation of local and regional sources of fine particulate matter in the Ostrava,the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite efforts to reduce air pollutants, particularly in the coal power plant and industrial sectors, the Ostrava region of the Czech Republic continues to experience episodes of high pollutant concentrations, especially during the fall and winter seasons. A short-term investig...

  10. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  11. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  12. From "Cage Beds" to Inclusion: The Long Road for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Barbara H.; Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, individuals with intellectual disabilities continue to be institutionalized in large, remote, state-run institutions and as a result are isolated from community interaction. Some practices associated with these institutions are coming to be seen as human rights violations. Although non-governmental organizations (NGOs) offer…

  13. High-Risk Youth in the Czech Republic: The Diagnostic Institute for Troubled Adolescent Boys in Prague.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Cerna, Marie

    1999-01-01

    Presents interview with the director of an innovative program for troubled and delinquent youth in Czech Republic. Gives examples of developments in the field of high-risk youth including greater freedom given to teachers to develop new curricula, improved communication between diagnostic institutes and regular school systems, legislation to allow…

  14. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in European brown hares in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Sedlák, Kamil; Treml, Frantisek; Holko, Ivan; Literák, Ivan

    2010-07-15

    European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) coming from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria were tested for serum antibodies against Neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In a total of 925 samples, 280 (30%) and 132 (14%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 333 hares in the Czech Republic, 129 (39%) and 71 (21%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 209 hares in Slovakia, 8 (4%) and 13 (6%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 383 hares in Austria, 143 (37%) and 48 (13%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Mixed infection (concurrent presence of both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies) was found in 25 (8%) hares in the Czech Republic, in 14 (4%) hares in Austria and in none hare in Slovakia. It is the first report of antibodies against Neospora caninum in hares in the Czech Republic and Austria.

  15. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  16. Trends in ambient ozone as recorded in the Czech Republic over the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hůnová, Iva; Bäumelt, Vit

    2017-04-01

    Despite several decades of control in North America, Europe and Japan, ambient ozone (O3) remains a serious air pollution problem (O3) of Northern Hemisphere, and still represents a major threat both for human health and ecosystems. In Europe, the critical levels of O3 are permanently exceeded over vast areas (EEA, 2016). In the Czech Republic (CR), monitoring of O3 has been operated since 1993, currently at 50 sites, including both rural and urban stations covering the country (CHMU, 2016). O3 exposures in the CR are relatively high (Hůnová, Schreiberová, 2012), and may result in negative endpoints, both regarding human health (Hůnová et al. 2013) and vegetation (Hůnová et al., 2011). O3 is highly meteorology dependent and shows considerable year-to-year variations. Nevertheless, a two-decade time series allows for a sound trend analysis. The aim of the contribution is to analyse measured O3 concentrations for trends at Czech long-term monitoring sites over 1995-2015. We used real-time O3 concentration data measured in the nationwide monitoring network by UV-absorbance, the EC reference method, with thorough quality control/ quality assurance procedures applied. We considered annual and summer means, the 98th percentiles and exposure index AOT40F. For trend analysis we used Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. Our results show that statistically significant decreasing trends were recorded at about one half of the examined sites, while the other half showed no trends. We obtained similar results both for urban and rural sites. There is an obvious geographical pattern in recorded O3 trends. Most of the sites with no significant trend are situated in North-western region of the CR, with numerous energy-producing large emission sources, which have been partly denitrified in recent years. Decrease in NOx emissions is expected to result in decreased titration of O3, and hence in higher O3 levels in the area. References: CHMU, 2016. Air Pollution in the Czech

  17. A successful strategy for estimating the consumption of needles and syringes by injecting drug users in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Gabrhelík, Roman; Vacek, Jaroslav; Mista, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to: (i) estimate the extent of the injecting equipment (IE) provided by needle exchange programs (NEPs) to injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Czech Republic in 2010; (ii) subsequently validate the recent methodology used for data collection by the Czech National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (CMC), and (iii) estimate the number of syringes provided to Czech IDUs. A simple document analysis was performed in order to collect data on the production, sale, and consumption of injecting equipment in the Czech Republic in combination with questionnaire screening in the NEPs and 21 brief interviews with key informants. Ten types of IE most commonly used for drug injecting by the Czech drug users were identified. Approximately 5,038,000 pieces of sterile IE were marketed in the Czech Republic in 2010. According to four manufacturers (with a market share of 96%) and with reference to the year 2010, 5,430,694 pieces of sterile IE were provided to Czech injecting drug users (487,694 pieces of IE were sold to IDUs in pharmacies and 5,038,000 pieces of IE were distributed by NEPs in 2010). We compared the amount of IE provided to IDUs as reported to the CMC National registry by NEPs (4,943,000) with that of IE distributed by manufacturers and distributors (5,038,000) in the country in 2010 and found a difference of less than two percent using two different methodologies. This study confirms the accuracy of the data on the amount of IE exchanged as collected by the CMC monitoring system. This study opens up important public health practice and policy-making issues. The methodology of this study may be used in regions where no data collection system is present or where confirmation of the data related to IE is needed.

  18. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  19. The economic burden of the care and treatment for people with Alzheimer's disease: the outlook for the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Petra; Zahálková, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to specify the cost of treatment and care for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Czech Republic and also with a view to the future. Data availability is evaluated as well as the quality of cost comparison with other developed countries. Data for the Czech Republic will include data from the health insurance company regarding medicines and treatment, as well as a selected home caring for people with dementia and, ultimately, the Social Security Administration. The basic methods include an analysis of data from publicly available sources, direct interviews with the representatives of nursing homes caring for people with dementia and the representative of the Social Security Administration of the Czech Republic. Items will be specified within the category of direct costs. For the study, the indirect costs related to the loss of patient as well as caring person productivity are not considered. Costs for treatment and care are based from the data on 4162 patients, the costs of a bed from data on 391 beds in homes for the elderly. The average annual cost per patient with AD in the Czech Republic was calculated and came to the amount of 12,783 EUR. These items include outpatient care, inpatient care in a medical facility, inpatient care in homes and medications. In terms of share of these items on the direct costs, the largest item are services provided by special homes which contributes to the direct costs by 94 %, medications create 1 % and treatment (both outpatient and inpatient) 5 %. In the case of home care the total costs are lower at 4698 EUR. The Czech Republic as well as other developed countries are faced with the problem of unified accounting cost of people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This then causes the calculation of the economic burden to be very difficult and indicative values.

  20. USE OF MEDICINES AMONG STUDENTS OF HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Kopecna, Eva; Mica, Martin; Vlcek, Jiri; Svoboda, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and type of medicines used by high school students in the Czech Republic and to analyze association between use of medicines during last 6 months and self medication with different socio-demographic and lifestyle aspects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in high schools from two regions and three towns in the Czech Republic. The study sample was a student population of nine selected high schools. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committees and school board and was conducted in compliance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Questionnaires respecting anonymity were distributed to the students during the regular class period. Students answered closed and open questions divided into six sections focussing on their experience with chronic and irregular use of medicines, medicines use during last six months, conditions treated, type and source of used medicines. A modified log-linear Poisson regression model with a robust variance estimator (sandwich) was used for statistical analysis. In total, 979 students, aged 14-21 years (mean age 17 years) participated in the study: 32% were male and 68% female; 19% of students reported regular use of medicines for chronic disease. The use of medicines during the last 6 months was reported by 83% of students; 42% of them reported the use of both prescription and over the counter (OTC) medicines; 22% the use only of OTC, and 31% only prescription medicines. Allergy, asthma, disorders of the thyroid gland, atopic dermatitis, and hypertensive diseases were among the most frequent long-term diseases. The most frequent groups of medicines used for the treatment of long-term diseases were systemic antihistamines, thyroid preparations, and respiratory drugs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, ibuprofen and paracetamol were the most frequently used medicines during last six months. The study results showed quite extensive use of both

  1. Protection against tetanus in the aged people in the Czech Republic--cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Janout, Vladimir; Matouskova, Ivanka; Machova, Lucie; Cizek, Ludek; Janoutova, Gabriela; Hoskova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    The aged people belong to most vulnerable group for tetanus infection in terms of their vaccination history, frequency of injuries, which may serve as gate of entry for this infection and declared decrease of general as well as specific immunity. The examinations of the aged people for antitetanus antibodies have been done to assess the immunity against tetanus in this particular group of people in the Czech republic. Blood samples were collected from people living in hostels for senior citizens on the bases of signed informed consent. The study focused on people older than 60 years of age. TETANUS ELISA Genzyme Virotech GmbH kit was used for detection of IgG antibodies against tetanus. The level of >0.1 IU/ml was used as protective level of antibodies. Total number of 341 samples was investigated for antibodies against tetanus. Nonprotective (<0.1 IU/ml) titer of antibodies was found in 9.1% of subjects and 90.9% of people possessed protective titers of antibodies against tetanus. The interval between the last vaccination (or revaccination) against tetanus and collection of blood sample was ascertained in 257 subjects and this interval was 10 years or less in 89.9% of subjects. Geometric mean of titers was calculated for different intervals between the last vaccination and collection of blood sample. There was an increasing trend of geometric mean values found with decreasing interval from the last vaccination. But there were also good values of geometric mean of titers found in subjects vaccinated long before collection of blood (intervals up to 27 years). Due to completely different situation in the Czech Republic, where adult people were repeatedly revaccinated in military service (males), in the employment with higher risk of tetanus infection, in context with treatment of injuries and finally during mass vaccination campaigns, organized in the Czech Republic for all adult people in 1974-1976 and in 1984-1986, even the aged people can reach acceptable immunity

  2. Summer half-year hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: a long-term chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Hailstorms are natural phenomena of local or regional significance causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, it is necessary to search for other sources of information in order to create long-term series of hailstorms. Documentary evidence is used in this study to extend the hailstorm information before the period of systematic observations and to complement existing systematic data. It allowed to compile a long-term series of summer half-year hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (out of them taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1435-2015 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 18th century (the frequency of hailstorms increases with the number of surviving documents). The long-term series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. The best temporal coverage of summer half-year hailstorm days in South Moravia starts in 1925 with a general decreasing trend of -0.05 days per 10 years up to 2015, more evident after 1961 (-1.4 days per 10 years). Existing data may also be used for the study of spatial hailstorm variability which is demonstrated on four particularly damaging hailstorms (on 20 June 1848, 1 July 1902, 10 July 1902 and 19 July 1903). Finally, uncertainties in the hailstorm chronology are discussed and differences related to various aspects of hailstorms detected from documentary and meteorological data in three 40 year periods are analysed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South

  3. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zůvala, Robert; Fišerová, Eva; Marek, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  4. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  5. Sub-slab depressurisation systems used in the Czech Republic and verification of their efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M

    2014-11-01

    Design principles for sub-slab depressurisation systems recently used in the Czech Republic for remediating existing buildings are described. Results of an efficiency analysis performed on the basis of data from >60 single-family houses are presented. It was found out that the efficiency varies between 70 and 98 %, which is twice greater than when additionally applied radon-proof insulation is used. The efficiency is mainly influenced by the vertical profile of the soil permeability and by the air-tightness of floors resting on the soil. Higher efficiency was found for houses with greater air-tightness of the floors and with a sub-floor layer with permeability higher than the permeability of the subsoil.

  6. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  7. Absolute Gravity Measurements with the FG5#215 in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálinkás, V.; Kostelecký, J.; Lederer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the absolute gravimeter FG5#215 has been used for modernization of national gravity networks in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Altogether 37 absolute sites were measured at least once. In case of 29 sites, the absolute gravity has been determined prior to the FG5#215 by other accurate absolute meters (FG5 or JILA-g). Differences between gravity results, which reach up to 25 microgal, are caused by random and systematic errors of measurements, variations of environmental effects (mainly hydrological effects) and by geodynamics. The set of achieved differences is analyzed for potential hydrological effects based on global hydrology models and systematic errors of instrumental origin. Systematic instrumental errors are evaluated in context with accomplished international comparison measurements of absolute gravimeters in Sèvres and Walferdange organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures and European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, respectively.

  8. The Results of 45 Years of Atmospheric Corrosion Study in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kreislova, Katerina; Knotkova, Dagmar

    2017-04-07

    Atmospheric corrosion poses a significant problem with regard to destruction of various materials, especially metals. Observations made over the past decades suggest that the world's climate is changing. Besides global warming, there are also changes in other parameters. For example, average annual precipitation increased by nearly 10% over the course of the 20th century. In Europe, the most significant change, from the atmospheric corrosion point of view, was an increase in SO₂ pollution in the 1970s through the 1980s and a subsequent decrease in this same industrial air pollution and an increase in other types of air pollution, which created a so-called multi-pollutant atmospheric environment. Exposed metals react to such changes immediately, even if corrosion attack started in high corrosive atmospheres. This paper presents a complex evaluation of the effect of air pollution and other environmental parameters and verification of dose/response equations for conditions in the Czech Republic.

  9. Application of nuclear analytical techniques to biological and environmental research in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, J.

    1996-12-31

    There is a long tradition in radiochemistry in the present Czech Republic that dates from 1856. However, the modern history of nuclear analytical techniques (NAT) development started after installation of the first experimental nuclear reactor and Van de Graaff accelerator in the mid-sixties at Rez. Since then, the NAT, such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) both instrumental (INAA) and radiochemical (RNAA), gamma activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission (PIXE and PIGE, respectively), Rutherford backscattering, and neutron depth profiling have been continuously developed and applied in various scientific and technological fields. The radiochemical approach has always had a strong position in these investigations and resulted in the discovery of the substoichiometry separation principle in NAA and isotope dilution techniques and extensive utilization of RNAA. The use of INAA and RNAA in the evaluation of biological and environmental materials as well as plants is described.

  10. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  11. Clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of obesity in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Slabá, S; Fried, M; Málková, I

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of obesity include recommendation about diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and bariatric surgery in the comprehensive management of an obese patient. It is emphasized that the treatment of obesity should be individually tailored according to the age of the patient, degree and phase of obesity, body fat distribution and an expression of risk factors and comorbidities. The new realistic goals in obesity management do not focus on the weight loss per se but mainly on the risk factors reduction which accompanies even modest weight loss. The system of obesity management introduced in the Czech Republic includes obesity management centres attached to major teaching hospitals, obesity out-patient clinics (led by an obesity specialist), primary care physicians and weight reduction clubs. Postgraduate training in obesity management should be recognized by health authorities as a function specialty. A time demanding therapeutic strategy in obesity management should be taken into account by both health policy makers and health insurance companies.

  12. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds.

  13. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB's in fresh water sediments.

  14. [The possibilities of innovation of extemporaneous preparation in pharmacies in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Sklenář, Zbyněk; Horáčková, Kateřina

    2012-02-01

    Extemporaneously prepared products still have an irreplaceable role in therapy. In order to boost the magistral preparation, the availability of appropriate substances for the pharmacies must be ensured. This is due to the fact that many commercial pharmaceutical products containing these active ingredients do not comply with the individual requirements of a particular patient. Based on the practice requirements, the most requested substances have been chosen and within two years 16 pure substances with quality certificates have been provided for magistral preparation in pharmacies, and there are other chemicals coming. The increased availability of these chemicals should in particular eliminate the inappropriate and sometimes unlawful use of commercial medicinal products in extemporaneously prepared products. The paper presents 16 substances and formulations created by the authors, some of which are based on foreign formulations; however, they have been adapted to meet the requirements of the domestic environment. These products should create the basis of standardized formulations for preparation in pharmacies in the Czech Republic.

  15. Plesiomonas shigelloides and its serovars in animals in the Czech Republic--region Moravia.

    PubMed

    Bardon, J

    1999-02-01

    In the period of 1994-1997, 4,552 samples of sectional, clinical material and environment were examined for the presence of Plesiomonas shigelloides. In 55 cases (1,21%) Plesiomonas shigelloides was isolated. Within 55 isolated strains, 26 serovars have been successfully identified. Among other secured cases was Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated in pig (Sus scrofa domestica), mouse Mus musculus), binturong (Arctictis binturong) and raccoon (Pocyon lotor). In mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) the strain of Plesiomonas shigelloides with a new 0 antigen-097 was isolated. In regard of the particular biological classes, the isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides in fish (2.63%) predominate, followed by reptiles (1.66%), mammals (0.94%) and birds (0.79%). Plesiomonas shigelloides in amphibians was not demonstrated. This work surveys the incidence of Plesiomonas shigelloides and its serovars in animals in the region Moravia in the Czech Republic.

  16. Occurrence of extractable ink residuals in packaging materials used in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dupáková, Z; Dobiás, J; Votavová, L; Klaudisová, K; Voldrich, M

    2010-01-01

    Residues of printing ink components were determined in 94 samples of packaging materials commercially used in the Czech Republic for food packaging. The samples tested included printed polyethylene and polypropylene films, co-extruded and laminated films, paperboard beverages boxes, foils for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups, and polypropylene cups. Printing ink components were extracted with diethylether, then separated and determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty compounds potentially originating from printing were isolated, identified and quantified. No acute health risk for consumers were identified, even though several findings of high levels of photo-initiators (e.g. in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups) as well as plasticizers (acetyl tributyl citrate, tributyl aconitate, 2-butoxyethyl oleate and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate in co-extruded films) indicate that their real migration into food and/or food simulants needs to be undertaken for a proper safety evaluation.

  17. Genetic and morphological characterization of Trichuris myocastoris found in Myocastor coypus in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rylková, K; Tůmová, E; Brožová, A; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Čadková, Z; Frýdlová, J; Peřinková, P; Langrová, I; Chodová, D; Nechybová, S; Scháňková, Š

    2015-11-01

    Trichuris sp. individuals were collected from Myocastor coypus from fancy breeder farms in the Czech Republic. Using morphological and biometrical methods, 30 female and 30 male nematodes were identified as Trichuris myocastoris. This paper presents the first molecular description of this species. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region, consisting of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1, 5.8 gene and ITS-2, was sequenced. Based on an analysis of 651 bp, T. myocastoris was found to be different from any other Trichuris species for which published sequencing of the ITS region is available. The phylogenetic relationships were estimated using the maximum parsimony methods and Bayesian analyses. T. myocastoris was found to be significantly closely related to Trichuris of rodents than those of ruminants.

  18. Ice hockey lung – a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Ing, Miroslav Stanek

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  19. New approaches to health promotion and informatics education using Internet in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zvárová, J

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes nowadays information technology skills in the Czech Republic. It focuses on informatics education using Internet, ECDL concept and the links between computer literacy among health care professionals and quality of health care. Everyone understands that the main source of wealth of any nation is information management and the efficient transformation of information into knowledge. There appear completely new decisive factors for the economics of the near future based on circulation and exchange information. It is clear that modern health care cannot be built without information and communication technologies. We discuss several approaches how to contribute to some topics of information society in health care, namely the role of electronic health record, structured information, extraction of information from free medical texts and sharing knowledge stored in medical guidelines.

  20. Ribotyping and whole-cell protein analysis of spirochetes isolated from arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bunková, Leona; Svec, Pavel; Halouzka, Jirí; Rudolf, Ivo; Nemec, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work, six Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates were recovered from Ixodes ricinus ticks and one strain of spirochete with uncertain taxonomic position isolated from Culex pipiens mosquito collected in the Valtice area (South Moravia, Czech Republic), as well as representative type strains, were further characterized by ribotyping and whole-cell protein fingerprinting. The ribotype patterns obtained with HindII and EcoRV ribotype patterns showed good correlations with the recently proposed genotypes and grouped each genospecies in a well-separated cluster. The whole-cell protein profiles of genospecies were more heterogeneous than the ribotype patterns. The non-identified spirochetal strain was clearly separated from the Borrelia isolates in both methods thus proving their good capacity to characterize Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.

  1. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    PubMed Central

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Podzemný, P.; Harmat, P.; Hrabák, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  2. Survey of human pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kozisek, Frantisek; Pomykacova, Ivana; Jeligova, Hana; Cadek, Vaclav; Svobodova, Veronika

    2013-03-01

    The first large-scale assessment of pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic (CR) focused on the detection of five substances. Samples were collected from public water systems supplying 5.3 million people, 50.5% of the Czech population. In the initial survey of tap water from 92 major supply zones using mostly surface water, no pharmaceutical exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.5 ng/L). In a second survey, samples were collected from the outlet of 23 water treatment plants (WTPs) considered of high risk because they use surface waters influenced by wastewater. Ibuprofen was the most frequently found pharmaceutical (19 samples), followed by carbamazepine (12), naproxen (8), and diclofenac (3); concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 20.7 ng/L, with medians below 6 ng/L. Concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol were below the LOQ. A follow-up survey included tap and outlet samples from eight of the 23 WTPs with the highest concentrations. Pharmaceuticals were quantified in only three tap water samples. Regarding risks to consumers, these results suggest that a relatively small population (<10%) in the CR is exposed to quantifiable concentrations of pharmaceuticals in tap water and that an extremely high margin of safety (several thousand-fold to several million-fold) is associated with these exposures.

  3. Private fee no barrier to family planning in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Uzel, R; Wynnyczuk, V

    1994-03-01

    Until 1990, contraception was free of charge for women in Czechoslovakia. Condoms were the only contraceptive which had to be paid for. Abortion was also free and was permitted for health and social reasons under certain circumstances. In 1987, Abortion Committees were abolished, and women were given the decision whether or not to have an abortion with only a time limit remaining (12 weeks of gestation). At this time, it was decided to charge fees for abortions performed after eight weeks of gestation. During this period, the use of modern contraceptive methods remained relatively low. When the Czech Republic was established as an independent state, fees were introduced for some health services including abortion and contraception. Abortions for health reasons remain free of charge. Health insurance schemes are being developed which cover the costs of some contraceptive supplies. Despite the initiation of fees, the number of induced abortions has slowly decreased since 1989, the number of births has decreased, and the use of modern contraceptives has increased. The priorities of the Czech Family Planning Association, therefore, are to identify target groups of women who do not use contraception and to increase the effectiveness of sex education.

  4. Radioactivity in mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čadová, Michaela; Havránková, Renata; Havránek, Jiří; Zölzer, Friedo

    2017-03-03

    (137)Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Šumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014. Activities of (137)Cs and (40)K per dry mass were measured by means of a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The (137)Cs values measured range from below detection limit to 4300 ± 20 Bq kg(-1), in the case of (40)K from 910 ± 80 to 4300 ± 230 Bq kg(-1). Differences were found between individual locations, due to uneven precipitation in the course of the movement of the radioactive cloud after the Chernobyl accident. There are, however, also differences between individual species of mushrooms from identical locations, which inter alia result from different characteristics of the soil and depths of mycelia. The values measured are compared with established limits and exposures from other radiation sources present in the environment. In general, it can be stated that the values measured are relatively low and the effects on the health of the population are negligible compared to other sources of ionizing radiation.

  5. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports).

    PubMed

    Matějů, Jana; Chanová, Marta; Modrý, David; Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; Žampachová, Víta; Kolářová, Libuše

    2016-04-19

    Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection that continues to spread to previously unaffected areas of Europe. In the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic (CR), imported as well as autochthonous canine infections were recorded in the last decade, and parasite DNA was detected in mosquitoes of Aedes vexans. In the present paper, human Dirofilaria infections are reported from the country for the first time. The samples from five patients with suspected tissue helminthiases were investigated. In particular cases, nematodes were isolated from various tissues including skin of lower leg, soft tissues of finger, subcutaneous tissue of hypogastrium, lymph node and peritoneum. The diagnosis was based on light microscopic morphology and/or DNA analysis of the worms. In addition, ELISA examination of patients' sera for anti-filaria IgG antibodies was performed. In the CR, five cases of human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens were recorded during 2010-2014 (species determination for three of them was confirmed besides morphological also by DNA analysis). At least, three of the cases were of autochthonous origin (the patients are Czech citizens residing in South Moravian Region who have never travelled abroad). The findings confirm the natural setting of D. repens in South Moravian Region of the CR. Dirofilariasis should be therefore considered as endemic in this area where it may represent a significant risk factor for public health.

  6. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Cervený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Rehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-11-05

    White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  7. Horseweed with reduced susceptibility to glyphosate found in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Chodová, Daniela; Salava, Jaroslav; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

    2009-08-12

    The physiological and molecular basis of apparent resistance to glyphosate in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) plants that had survived being sprayed with the herbicide at Prague-Bubny railway station in the Czech Republic was investigated. For the sake of comparison, plants expected to be susceptible were collected in areas where no herbicides had been used. Plants of both sets were treated, at the rosette stage (10-25 leaves, diameter of 3-5 cm), with herbicide at the rate recommended for use in the Czech Republic to control horseweed (960 g of glyphosate-IPA/ha; Roundup Klasik, Monsanto, 480 g of glyphosate-IPA ae L(-1)). Phytotoxic symptoms of the treated plants varied substantially, both between and within these sets of plants. Leaves of susceptible (S) plants wilted and turned yellow, and the plants subsequently died; leaves of plants with reduced susceptibility (RS) remained green, or new leaves were created in the center of their rosettes a few weeks after glyphosate application. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of shikimate between S and RS plants 3 days after treatment (DAT). However, the time course of changes in shikimic acid contents differed between the two biotypes; from 3 to 10 DAT, they decreased more than 4-fold in RS plants, while in S plants, they increased (3-fold, on average) from 3 to 7 DAT. A conserved region of the epsps gene, in which mutations are known to confer resistance in several plant species, was amplified from samples of both S and RS plants and sequenced, but no changes in the encoded amino acid sequence were found, indicating that mutations at another epsps site were responsible for the observed resistance, or that the mechanism may be at least partially non-target-based. Our results suggest that the reduced susceptibility to glyphosate may be due to impaired herbicide translocation, as previously found in studies of horseweed in the United States.

  8. The use of taxation records in assessing historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-10-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data are often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in the periods 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. A number of uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and restriction to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data have considerable potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  9. [Resistance to macrolides in the species Streptococcus pyogenes in the Czech Republic in 1996-2003].

    PubMed

    Urbásková, P; Jakubů, V

    2004-11-01

    The study of the prevalence of erythromycin resistance in 22 169 S. pyogenes strains in the Czech Republic in 1996-2003 on the background of rough data on the nationwide consumption of macrolide antibiotics confirmed that the exponential growth of resistance observed in 1998-2001 copied with a delay the rise in macrolide antibiotic consumption recorded in 1992-1995. The highest frequency of erythromycin resistance was found in 2001 (16.5%) with a subsequent decrease to 14.5% in 2002 and to 9.1% in 2003. The drop in resistance followed the stagnation in macrolide consumption and its decrease by 17% in 2002. Upward and downward trends in macrolide resistance in different regions and age groups copied the nationwide trends with some quantitative differences that could not be analyzed in view of the lack of detailed data on antibiotic consumption. A 99.5% concordance was found between the results of the phenotypic method and those of detection of genes coding for constitutive, inducible and efflux resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB (MLSB) antibiotics. In 2001 when the highest erythromycin resistance was recorded in the Czech Republic, most of the tested strains (91.2%) showed resistance to all MLSB antibiotics, with macrolide efflux (susceptibility to lincosamides and 16-membered macrolides was conserved) being implicated in resistance of 8.8% of the strains only. In 2003, the number of erythromycin resistant strains decreased and the resistance mechanism was ascribed to macrolide efflux in 26.8% of them. Almost all of the strains with constitutive or induced MLSB resistance are also resistant to either tetracycline or bacitracin or both. In the light of S. pyogenes resistance to bacitracin, the bacitracin disk is not usable in preliminary identification any more.

  10. Distribution and Ecology of Cytotypes of the Aster amellus Aggregates in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    MANDÁKOVÁ, TEREZIE; MÜNZBERGOVÁ, ZUZANA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Polyploidy is viewed as an important mechanism of sympatric speciation, but only a few studies have documented patterns of distribution and ecology of different cytotypes in their contact zone. Aster amellus agg. (Asteraceae) is one of the species with documented multiple ploidy levels. The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and ecology of two cytotypes, diploid (2n = 18) and hexaploid (2n = 54), of Aster amellus agg. at their contact zone in the Czech Republic. • Methods Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 2175 individuals from 87 populations. To test whether some differences in ecology between the two ploidy levels exist, in each locality relevés were recorded and abiotic conditions of the sites were studied by estimating potential direct solar radiation, Ellenberg indicator values and above-ground biomass. • Key Results Together with diploid and hexaploids, minorite cytotypes (triploid, pentaploid and nonaploid) were found. No significant ecological differences between diploid and hexaploid cytotypes were found. In spite of this, no population consisting of both of the two basic cytotypes was found. • Conclusions The results of this study show that the contact zone of diploid and hexaploid cytotypes in the Czech Republic is much more diffuse than indicated in previous records. Although populations of both cytotypes occur in close proximity (the closest populations of different cytotypes were 500 m apart), each individual population consists of only one basic ploidy level. This was unexpected since there are no clear differences in abiotic conditions between populations. Taken together with the absence of an intermediate tetraploid cytotype and with reference to published world distributional patterns of different ploidy levels, this suggests a secondary contact zone. Detailed genetic study is, however, necessary to confirm this. PMID:16870643

  11. Distribution and ecology of cytotypes of the Aster amellus aggregates in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mandáková, Terezie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-10-01

    Polyploidy is viewed as an important mechanism of sympatric speciation, but only a few studies have documented patterns of distribution and ecology of different cytotypes in their contact zone. Aster amellus agg. (Asteraceae) is one of the species with documented multiple ploidy levels. The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and ecology of two cytotypes, diploid (2n = 18) and hexaploid (2n = 54), of Aster amellus agg. at their contact zone in the Czech Republic. Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 2175 individuals from 87 populations. To test whether some differences in ecology between the two ploidy levels exist, in each locality relevés were recorded and abiotic conditions of the sites were studied by estimating potential direct solar radiation, Ellenberg indicator values and above-ground biomass. Together with diploid and hexaploids, minorite cytotypes (triploid, pentaploid and nonaploid) were found. No significant ecological differences between diploid and hexaploid cytotypes were found. In spite of this, no population consisting of both of the two basic cytotypes was found. The results of this study show that the contact zone of diploid and hexaploid cytotypes in the Czech Republic is much more diffuse than indicated in previous records. Although populations of both cytotypes occur in close proximity (the closest populations of different cytotypes were 500 m apart), each individual population consists of only one basic ploidy level. This was unexpected since there are no clear differences in abiotic conditions between populations. Taken together with the absence of an intermediate tetraploid cytotype and with reference to published world distributional patterns of different ploidy levels, this suggests a secondary contact zone. Detailed genetic study is, however, necessary to confirm this.

  12. [Effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Plavcová, E; Kyselý, J

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm for identifying sudden changes in air pressure and temperature over the Czech Republic. Such events were retrieved from the data covering in 1986-2005 and were matched with the daily numbers of all-cause deaths and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases from the national database, separately for the whole population and that aged 70 years and over. Excess daily mortality was determined by calculating deviations of the observed number of deaths from the expected number of deaths for each day in the respective groups. The relative deviation of the mortality the mean was calculated as the ratio of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths. We used 3-hour air pressure data from 10 meteorological stations and hourly air temperature data from 9 stations representative of the Czech Republic. Pressure changes were evaluated on time scales of 3, 6 and 12 hours, separately for summer and winter time. Temperature changes were evaluated on a 24-hour time scale, separately for summer and winter season. Events characterized by pressure or temperature changes above the critical threshold and recorded within 24 hours at more than 50% of meteorological stations were retrieved. The critical thresholds were defined separately for each station using quantiles of distributions of air pressure and temperature changes. Relative mortality deviations for days D-2 (2 days before the change) to D+7 (7 days after the change) were averaged over the retrieved events. Statistical significance of the mean relative deviation was tested using the Monte Carlo method. Increased mortality followed large temperature increases and large pressure drops both in summer and winter months. Decreased mortality was observed after large pressure increases and large temperature drops in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced in the population aged 70 years and over, and cardiovascular diseases account for most deaths after sudden temperature changes.

  13. The perception of spiritual health differences between citizens and physicians in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jirásek, Ivo; Hurych, Emanuel

    2017-05-15

    This paper focuses on a phenomenon known as spiritual health. Although the scientific literature defines the concept of this health component (in relation to other dimensions, i.e. physical, mental and social health), there is no agreement concerning its relation to religiousness. The aim of this research is to find out the views of citizens (n = 1810) and physicians (n = 1200) in the Czech Republic on the potential dimension of health in its spiritual mode, and on the understanding of its content by those who acknowledge its existence. One of the main research findings is that physicians in the Czech Republic acknowledge the existence of spiritual health (47.0%) to a significantly greater extent than citizens of the country (26.4%). In both groups of respondents, the understanding varies in the discourse of psychology (psychiatry), theology, in the preference for harmony, and in medical care. The acknowledgement of spiritual health depends strongly on gender (women acknowledge the existence of this phenomenon more than men), religious belief (religious physicians, as well as religious citizens and members and non-members of churches and religious societies, acknowledge the existence of spiritual health significantly more compared with atheists) and education (with increasing education the proportion of citizens who acknowledge the existence of spiritual health rises considerably-the highest proportion is found in university graduates). Spiritual health is shown to be an important public health issue, even in a strongly secularized society. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  15. The influence of different types of grassland on soil quality in upland areas of Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sarapatka, B; Cizkova, S

    2014-05-01

    The diversity of grassland in upland areas of Czech Republic was studied on selected soil characteristics of these biotopes. In the first phase, 44 soil characteristics were studied and mutual correlations were found between many of them. In the following phase characteristics were chosen which correlated most with other soil characteristics and, at the same time, were easy to evaluate in practise. A great number of correlations were also evidenced between many soil characteristics and the content of humus and nitrogen, which are closely linked to organic matter in soil. In studying these characteristics on selected areas with different types of grassland and consequential cluster analysis and further evaluation, the grassland plots were divided into three groups, from newly established vegetation to species-rich communities. Non-parametric analysis was carried out on the results and a statistically significant difference was proved between the species rich and poorvegetation and carbon and nitrogen content of the soil. Slightly different humus quality (higher amount of HA) was also found under richer vegetation. These results show that at 0-20 cm layer, 58.9 tonnes of carbon ha⁻¹ was measured under species-poor pastureland and 106.1 tonnes of carbon ha under species-rich vegetation. The results showed that besides supporting species diversity, the described quality change can also be important for carbon sequestration. The difference of about 40-50 tonnes of carbon ha and converting 10% of grassland in the Czech Republic to species-rich vegetation would mean sequestration of about 3.9 Mt carbon. If only agroenvironmentally subsidized areas are converted, carbon sequestration in such vegetation could amountto 1.7 Mt.

  16. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  17. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Ehler, Edvard; Vane, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vancata, Václav

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics.

  18. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  19. A study of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Budíková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by ELISAs, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the Czech Republic, and thus to obtain actual data about N. caninum and T. gondii seroprevalence in cattle. In the Czech Republic, sera from 546 clinically healthy dairy cows (Bos primigenius f. taurus) aged > 2 years from 49 farms in 7 districts were collected. Sera were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies by a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 30% inhibition were considered as positive. The same samples were also analysed for Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 50% S/P were considered as positive. Antibodies against N. caninum were found only in 3 cows (0.5%) with inhibitions of 47, 78 and 85. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 53 cows (9.7%) with S/P ranging from 51% to over 211%; positive animals were found in 4 of 7 districts, with prevalences ranging from 8% - 14%. Indication of mixed infections (concurrent presence of both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies) was not proved. The results of the study indicate that dairy cows in the Czech Republic have a relatively low seroprevalence for both N. caninum and T. gondii. Therefore, natural infection with N. caninum and T. gondii seems not to be very common in Czech cattle. These results show actual data about N. caninum and T. gondii infection in healthy dairy cattle from the Czech Republic.

  20. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  1. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  2. Colorectal cancer prevention in the Czech Republic: time trends in performance indicators and current situation after 10 years of screening.

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Stepan; Majek, Ondrej; Vojtechova, Gabriela; Minarikova, Petra; Rotnaglova, Barbora; Seifert, Bohumil; Minarik, Marek; Kozeny, Pavel; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Czech Republic is significant. The National CRC Screening Program started in 2000 and was further enhanced in 2009. In 2010, the European Guidelines were introduced. The aim of the present trend study was to evaluate the quality of the Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program using early performance and long-term impact indicators. The screening program has been assessed using data from three sources: the Czech National Cancer Registry, the Czech National Reference Centre, and the Czech CRC Screening Registry. The data were compared with a set of recommended quality control indicators. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 1 881 299 fecal occult blood tests were performed, of which 87 397 were positive (4.6%). Until 2011, a total of 68 527 fecal occult blood test follow-up colonoscopies were performed. In addition, between 2009 and 2011, a total of 10 309 screening colonoscopies were performed. As a result, a total of 25 255 adenomas (32.0% rate) and 3379 CRCs (4.3% rate) were detected. A trend of cancer detection in earlier stages has been observed. The overall program coverage has increased to 22.7% of the target population in 2010. The majority of European guidelines' quality indicators for nonpopulation-based programs were implemented in the Czech National CRC Screening program. An improvement in program management was accompanied by an increase in coverage as well as other performance indicators.

  3. Current multi-element distribution in forest epigeic moss in the Czech Republic--a survey of the Czech national biomonitoring programme 2000.

    PubMed

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I

    2004-12-01

    The content of 35 elements was determined in moss samples collected at 250 sites in the Czech Republic (CZ) in 2000. Four main areas of increased element contents in moss were revealed in the CZ (southern Moravia, Czech part of the former Black Triangle I territory, industrial northeastern Moravia, and the surroundings of a smelting town in southwestern Bohemia). The bioindicated high levels of Al, Ce, Co, Ga, La, Li, Pr, S, Th, U, V and Y atmospheric deposition loads in southern Moravia have never been reported in any paper before. Correlations were found in element content in moss vs. altitude, precipitation sums and bedrock types of the moss sampling plots. The current variability of element content in the CZ moss samples can be explained by the operation of not more than six factors.

  4. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linne, 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin Hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, with comparisons to contemporary wolverines

    Treesearch

    Cajus G. Diedrich; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2010-01-01

    Wolverine bone material is described from the famous Upper Pleistocene cave Srbsko Chlum-Komin in the Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic, along with an overview of recently known Czech sites. The Gulo gulo Linne material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens in Europe. As a result of non-systematic excavations, the taphonomy is partly unclear. Lower-...

  5. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  6. Proportions - Disposition Relationship Analysis of a Historical Truss in a Rural House in Vápenná Village, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krušinský, Peter; Capková, Eva; Augustinková, Lucie; Korenková, Renáta

    2016-12-01

    We have analysed historical trusses based on previous building-historical researches, particularly focusing on sacral buildings, in chosen regions of Slovakia, with one of the primary goals to examine geometric concepts and proportional relationships used for their construction. The knowledge of proportional principles and relationships used in various historical sacral trusses, additionally supported by contemporary literature, was applied to a village house truss from 1774 in Vápenná, Jeseníky district of the Czech Republic.

  7. Adherence to denosumab in the treatment of osteoporosis and its utilization in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Fuksa, Leos; Vytrisalova, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to analyze adherence and current trends in utilization and prescription practice patterns of the anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody denosumab in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). The prescription-based database of the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic that covers approximately 60% of the Czech population (6 million) was used as the data source. Medication possession ratio (MPR) and persistence were calculated for all patients (both OP medication-naïve and medication-experienced) with postmenopausal OP from the start of their therapy with denosumab 60 mg per ml subcutaneous injection within a period between September 2011, i.e. first denosumab availability, and May 2014. Clinical data such as fractures, co-morbidities and co-medication were not analyzed. A total of 7904 women treated with denosumab were analyzed; 93.8% of patients were identified as compliant (MPR ≥0.8) while 6.2% were non-compliant (MPR < 0.8). Persistence (base case, i.e. refill gap ≤30 days) was 59.1% after 12 months and 34.8% after 24 months. By 2013, i.e. within 2 years, denosumab became the second most utilized and most costly drug after oral bisphosphonates. Despite relatively high MPR and persistence rate observed in denosumab treatment, adherence enhancing strategies, focused on persistence in particular, are still needed. The uptake of denosumab has been rapid, its utilization keeps rising swiftly, and denosumab already represents a significant part of the osteoporosis therapy budget.

  8. PM 10 and black smoke in a small settlement: case study from the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braniš, Martin; Domasová, Markéta

    Twenty-four-hour concentrations of PM 10 and black smoke (BS) were measured during two winter and one summer periods in a small village in the central part of the Czech Republic. Both the PM 10 and BS were highly correlated during the two heating seasons (0.740 in the first and 0.768 in the second winter campaign, respectively). The correlation dropped to 0.567 during the summer period. Negative correlation between winter BS and wind velocity (-0.543 and -0.486) showed a close association between air pollution from combustion and low air mass movement in the locality during heating seasons. No correlation between BS and wind velocity was found during summer (0.057). Both PM 10 and BS were negatively correlated with minimum daily temperature during both winter seasons as well as during the summer season. Comparison of PM 10 data from the village with those from Prague, the Czech capital, showed that average particulate matter concentrations in the rural site were higher during all the three seasons studied. Recommended 24-h limit for PM 10 in the European Union (50 μg m -3) was exceeded in 26% and 33% of days measured in the small village while only in 17% and 15% of days measured in Prague, for the first and second winter, respectively. Good association between data from the village with those from Prague suggests, on the one hand, that some effect of particulate matter transport from the city to the rural site cannot be excluded but, on the other hand, that good accord may be caused by similar climatic conditions of the two settlements. The results of the study support the idea that traditional heating in villages may represent an important air pollution problem.

  9. Changes of meteorological factors and tick-borne encephalitis incidence in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Kríz, B; Danielová, V; Valter, J; Benes, C

    2009-11-01

    The primary objective was to analyze the influence of short-term meteorological changes during the vegetation period on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the 1990s, characterized by a dramatic increase in reported TBE cases in the Czech Republic and other European countries. Furthermore, the relationship between TBE incidence and meteorological conditions in the previous winter season was studied. The TBE incidence data were acquired from the EPIDAT database of the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH). Analyzed were a total of 4637 cases reported in Bohemia (1994-2004). Meteorological data were from the database of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in Prague and originated from 22 meteorological stations located in high TBE incidence areas in Bohemia. A linear relationship was found between TBE incidence and temperature factors in all the years under study. Lagged cross-correlation analysis (with the time lag corresponding to the incubation period from the infected tick bite to the onset of TBE symptoms) revealed a close correlation between TBE incidence and weekly mean air temperature with a lag of 1 to 5 weeks. When considering the previous winter period, the closest relationship was found between TBE incidence and the previous-winter frost index, followed by the minimum air temperature. A review is presented of the effects of the currently observed climate change on TBE incidence as compared with the data reported in the 1950s. Results of parallel analyses of other factors potentially implicated in higher TBE incidence in the 1990s lead to a critical rejection of the conclusion previously drawn by some authors that the collapse of communism and subsequent dramatic socio-economic changes might have a decisive influence on TBE incidence in Central Europe. The rise in TBE cases reported in West European countries where no such political changes took place confirms the refutation.

  10. [Current Progresses in Developing PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Patients in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Demlová, R; Řehák, Z

    In Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI), there is a long-running intensive joint effort of the RECAMO project and commercial entities, involving mainly clinical evaluations of state-of-the-art PET radiopharmaceuticals leading to their future availability for Czech physicians and their patients. Recently, the PET tracers [11C]methionine and [18F]fluorocholine, among others, were developed in this cooperation, both of them tracers with high importance for oncologic positron emission tomography diagnostics. [11C]methionine, labeled by carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 min, is a proteosynthesis marker used primarily for brain tumor visualization, whereas [18F]fluorocholine, labeled by fluorine-18 with a half-life of 109 min, is a marker of synthesis of cellular membranes and cell proliferation, its primary use being PET diagnostics of prostate carcinoma. The results of clinical evaluations of both PET radiopharmaceuticals, performed on the basis of parameters agreed and approved beforehand in cooperation of MMCI, RECAMO and the manufacturer of said radiopharmaceuticals, aimed to prove the efficiency and suitability of both compounds for oncologic PET diagnostics for said tumors. In both cases, the radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated in regard to their major use. The obtained results prove the benefits and efficiency of both compounds in PET diagnostics of respective tumors. The results, in the form of clinical evaluation reports, will be used as part of the documentation required for marketing authorization of these compounds for use in the Czech Republic.Key words: positron emission tomography - radiopharmaceuticals - L-methyl-11C-methionine - 18F-fluorocholineThis work was supported by the project MEYS - NPS I - LO1413.The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 10. 6. 2016

  11. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Čelko, Alexander Martin; Dáňová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  12. Phytotoxicity tests of solid wastes and contaminated soils in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kocí, Vladimír; Mocová, Klára; Kulovaná, Marie; Vosáhlová, Simona

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the suitability of different phytotoxicity testing procedures for the evaluation of toxicity associated with both soil contamination and solid wastes, both of which can be of environmental risk to plants. Ten different representative types of contaminated soils and solid waste samples were chosen from the Czech Republic. Both solid-phase and aquatic toxicity testing procedures on mono- and dicotyledonous plants were performed using Lactuca sativa L., Sinapis alba L., Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L., Lemna minor L., and the chlorococcal algae Desmodesmus subspicatus (syn. Scenedesmus subspicatus), strain BRINKMANN: 1953/SAG 86.81. An innovative classification scheme, using the intensity of toxic effects upon the plants, is presented in the study. Detailed chemical characterizations of both solid samples and their aquatic elutriates were carried out, using the appropriate ISO guidelines. In the solid samples, all the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed, together with 16 U.S. EPA polyaromatic hydrocarbons, the aggregate of C10-C40 hydrocarbons, total organic carbon, extractable organic halogens, as well as the majority of the environmentally toxic metals. In the aquatic elutriates, parameters analyzed were pH, conductivity, dissolved organic content, phenol index, main anions, and the majority of the environmentally relevant metals. Eight out of ten samples tested expressed phytotoxic properties on tested organisms. Only three of the samples were toxic to both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in the tests. This demonstrates how different substances present in different samples can express different types of toxic effects, resulting in the illogical substituting terrestrial bioassays with aquatic ones. Based upon our experience, we propose the following battery of bioassays for use in the characterization of toxic properties of solid wastes and contaminated soils: Aquatic ecosystems were tested by the

  13. [Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as the cause of diarrhea in the Czech Republic, 1965-2013].

    PubMed

    Marejková, M; Petráš, P

    2014-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the cause of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The role of EHEC in the etiology of HUS in the Czech Republic has recently been described, but the prevalence, characteristics, and epidemiology of EHEC causing diarrhea have not been fully known. Therefore, this study analyzed the serotypes, stx genotypes, and virulence factors in EHEC strains isolated in 1965-2013 from patients with diarrhea or bloody diarrhea and their family contacts. In addition, we characterized diagnostically relevant phenotypes of EHEC strains, their antimicrobial susceptibility, seasonal trends, and distribution by administrative region. Serogrouped E. coli isolates from patients were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for E. coli and Shigella for the detection of Stx. Specimens of both human and non-human origin were referred to the NRL for epidemiological investigation. Serotyping was performed by conventional and molecular methods, PCR was applied to stx genotyping and identification of non-stx virulence factors, and standard methods were used for phenotypic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The epidemiological link between the human and animal isolates was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 50 EHEC strains, 24 were recovered from patients with diarrhea without blood, 19 from patients with bloody diarrhea, six from family contacts, and one from an epidemiologically linked animal. EHEC cases were reported during the whole year, with peaks in May through October, most often in the Central Bohemian and Hradec Králové Regions. EHEC outbreaks occurred in three families: in one of them sheep-to-human transmission of EHEC was detected. The EHEC strains were assigned to five serotypes, with more than half of them being non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] and a third being strains O26:H11/NM[fliCH11]; serotypes O111:NM[fliCH8], O118:NM

  14. [Cryptosporidia and other endoparasites in heifers imported into the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I

    1995-10-01

    Totally 887 heifers of Holstein-Friesian breed mostly in late pregnancy imported to the Czech Republic from France (597), Germany (89), Denmark (181) and Holland (20) were examined coprologically from September 1993 to March 1995 in the parasitological laboratory of the National Veterinary Institute (NVI). Prague. Feces were sampled individually, rectally, always on days 1-3 following importation from heifers housed in particular quarantine sheds. In compliance with presently valid veterinary regulations, all animals were examined for liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) and lungworm. Moreover, 634 heifers were submitted to qualitative coprological examination aimed at revealing the presence of cysts and oocysts of protozoa, eggs of taenias and nematodes of gastrointestinal tract. The method according to Pavlásek (1991), especially designed for proving oocysts of the genus Cryptosporidium, was applied in all fecal specimens delivered to the SVI from animals in quarantine (N = 887). From trematodes, 12 heifers imported from France were positive for eggs of Fasciola hepatica and in other two animals eggs of the genus Paramphistomum were found. None of the imported heifers showed lungworm disease. Summary of data on occurrence of endoparasites gained during qualitative examination of samples of feces taken from heifers imported from France, Germany and Denmark is presented in Tab. I. Parasitologically, 91.2 to 100% of imported animals were positive. Taeniasis (the genus Moniezia) was detected in 2.8% of heifers imported from France and in 9.8% animals from Denmark. Protozoal parasites were found in 58.8% (Denmark) and 92.8% (Germany) heifers. Coccidial oocysts most frequently observed represented the genus Eimeria (E. bovis, E. auburnensis and E. zuernii). Gastrointestinal nematodes of nine genera were found in 72.5 to 80.8% of heifers. The most frequent findings were genera Ostertagia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Oocysts, morphologically identical with

  15. Passive sampling methods for monitoring endocrine disruptors in the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Grabic, Roman; Jurcikova, Jana; Tomsejova, Sarka; Ocelka, Tomas; Halirova, Jarmila; Hypr, Dusan; Kodes, Vit

    2010-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are manmade or natural chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of animals. They have not been monitored systematically in the Czech Republic. The goal of the present study was the characterization of aquatic environmental pollution from the Brno (Czech Republic) city agglomeration focusing on EDC. Passive sampling devices, as well as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were used for the pilot assessment of EDC. They were deployed for 21- to 28-d periods at nine locations in the Svratka and Svitava Rivers, Brno, Czech Republic, including at the inlet and outlet of Brno's wastewater treatment plant. The SPMDs were used to monitor nonpolar compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). The POCIS were used to monitor polar compounds such as pesticides and their metabolites, perfluoro-organic compounds (PFOC), and pharmaceuticals. The passive samplers allowed very low detection limits for soluble (bioavailable) fractions of pollutants. The contribution of PAH, PCB, and HCB in sewage water to pollution of the Svratka River was low. The Brno wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main source of pharmaceuticals, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and some polar pesticides.

  16. Investigating the age distribution of fracture discharge using multiple environmental tracers, Bedrichov Tunnel, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, W. Payton; Hokr, Milan; Shao, Hua; Balvin, Ales; Kunz, Herbert; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-10-19

    We investigated the transit time distribution (TTD) of discharge collected from fractures in the Bedrichov Tunnel, Czech Republic, using lumped parameter models and multiple environmental tracers. We then utilize time series of δ18O, δ2H and 3H along with CFC measurements from individual fractures in the Bedrichov Tunnel of the Czech Republic to investigate the TTD, and the uncertainty in estimated mean travel time in several fracture networks of varying length and discharge. We also compare several TTDs, including the dispersion distribution, the exponential distribution, and a developed TTD which includes the effects of matrix diffusion. The effect of seasonal recharge is explored by comparing several seasonal weighting functions to derive the historical recharge concentration. We identify best fit mean ages for each TTD by minimizing the error-weighted, multi-tracer χ2 residual for each seasonal weighting function. We use this methodology to test the ability of each TTD and seasonal input function to fit the observed tracer concentrations, and the effect of choosing different TTD and seasonal recharge functions on the mean age estimation. We find that the estimated mean transit time is a function of both the assumed TTD and seasonal weighting function. Best fits as measured by the χ2 value were achieved for the dispersion model using the seasonal input function developed here for two of the three modeled sites, while at the third site, equally good fits were achieved with the exponential model and the dispersion model and our seasonal input function. The average mean transit time for all TTDs and seasonal input functions converged to similar values at each location. The sensitivity of the estimated mean transit time to the seasonal weighting function was equal to that of the TTD. These results indicated that understanding seasonality of recharge is at least as important as the uncertainty in the flow path distribution in

  17. Investigating the age distribution of fracture discharge using multiple environmental tracers, Bedrichov Tunnel, Czech Republic

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, W. Payton; Hokr, Milan; Shao, Hua; ...

    2016-10-19

    We investigated the transit time distribution (TTD) of discharge collected from fractures in the Bedrichov Tunnel, Czech Republic, using lumped parameter models and multiple environmental tracers. We then utilize time series of δ18O, δ2H and 3H along with CFC measurements from individual fractures in the Bedrichov Tunnel of the Czech Republic to investigate the TTD, and the uncertainty in estimated mean travel time in several fracture networks of varying length and discharge. We also compare several TTDs, including the dispersion distribution, the exponential distribution, and a developed TTD which includes the effects of matrix diffusion. The effect of seasonal rechargemore » is explored by comparing several seasonal weighting functions to derive the historical recharge concentration. We identify best fit mean ages for each TTD by minimizing the error-weighted, multi-tracer χ2 residual for each seasonal weighting function. We use this methodology to test the ability of each TTD and seasonal input function to fit the observed tracer concentrations, and the effect of choosing different TTD and seasonal recharge functions on the mean age estimation. We find that the estimated mean transit time is a function of both the assumed TTD and seasonal weighting function. Best fits as measured by the χ2 value were achieved for the dispersion model using the seasonal input function developed here for two of the three modeled sites, while at the third site, equally good fits were achieved with the exponential model and the dispersion model and our seasonal input function. The average mean transit time for all TTDs and seasonal input functions converged to similar values at each location. The sensitivity of the estimated mean transit time to the seasonal weighting function was equal to that of the TTD. These results indicated that understanding seasonality of recharge is at least as important as the uncertainty in the flow path distribution in fracture networks and that

  18. Effect of agricultural drought on wheat yields in two selected districts located in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jačka, Lukáš; Pavlásek, Jirka; Bašta, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Except for some areas located in Southern Moravia, the Czech Republic is not usually considered as an agricultural drought vulnerable area. This contribution presents an analysis of drought spells influence on wheat yields in two districts (located in the inner part of Bohemia) where a significant relation between yields and drought was found. Due to high spatial variability of drought, relatively small scale of district was selected. For the influence of drought on yields assessment, the following five indexes were tested: 1) Palmer Z-index, 2) precipitation-temperature ratio (P-T index), 3) precipitation-evapotranspiration ratio (P-E index), 4) soil storage calculated using hydrological balance model BILAN, and 5) available soil water for plants calculated using another simple balance model. For analysis of drought spells and yield relationship, different aggregation periods of input parameters were used for calculations of these indexes. According to observed data analysis, yields of wheat and the tested drought indexes are significantly correlated (p ≤ 0.05) in districts Louny and Rakovník. The highest correlations were found for monthly sums of P-T and P-E indexes in May in periods 1970-1980 and 1996 -2006. For these indexes, two-week step data aggregation led to lower correlation than monthly aggregation step. Two-week aggregations show also high values of correlation. Simply P-E and P-T indexes exhibit higher correlations with yields than other tested indexes. More complicated Palmer Z-index, soil storage or available soil water for plant need more input parameters for calculations and these indexes contain higher uncertainty in calculations. Despite the above findings, all tested indexes (usually calculated for May aggregations) showed high correlations with wheat yields. The P-E and P-T indexes in monthly step seem to be appropriate for the prediction of the potentially reduced wheat yields in tested districts. Maximum year-on-year decrease in wheat

  19. Relationship between soil properties and forest health status in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Šrámek, V.; Tejnecky, V.; Nikodem, A.; Sebek, O.; Fadrhonsová, V.; Boruvka, L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected soil characteristics on tree vitality at representative forest monitoring plots. We have chosen 20 stands with prevailing Norway spruce and 20 plots with dominance of European beech across the Czech Republic. Following soil characteristics were determined: pH, content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), content of exchangeable (extracted by 0.1 M BaCl2) Ca, Mg and K, and major organic (formic, acetic and oxalic) and inorganic (e.g. sulphate and nitrate) anions in the aqueous extracts. Moreover, major Al forms in aqueous and 0.5 M KCl soil extracts were determined by means of HPLC/IC. Health of forest stands, expressed as crown defoliation, was assessed repeatedly. Overall, Al speciation in aqueous extracts was significantly affected by the DOC content and by the concentration of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The DOC content and composition is strongly dependent on tree species. We have observed higher proportion of organically bound Al in soil aqueous extracts under Norway spruce compared to European beech. This is probably caused by higher share of LMMOA from the total DOC content under Norway spruce. The health status of forest stands expressed as defoliation was negatively influenced by the contents of exchangeable Al3+ species and positively by the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils (Fig. 1). Potentially phytotoxic Al3+ was assessed as the prevailing Al exchangeable form. The beach stands is generally showed higher presence of Al3+, compared to the spruce stands. The Norway spruce stands exhibited different composition of DOC in soil, showing a higher share of LMMOA which might mitigate Al toxicity there. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (project no. QI92A216). Fig. 1 The relationship between the crown defoliation and the content of exchangeable Al forms (left) and contents of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K (right); based on results

  20. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Wardlow, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is generally not considered a drought-prone region, and the drought research and support is traditionally focused on the Mediterranean and southeastern part of the continent and drying trends there. However, Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, recently experienced a series of drought events with substantial impacts, especially on crop production. Because agriculture systems, and vegetation in general, have adapted to evenly distributed precipitation, the region is susceptible to even short-term droughts. The recent drought events may be the result of multi-decadal climate variability or a more general trend, with some studies showing a link to a more frequent occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to drought. This study introduces an innovation to the standard methodological approaches in evaluating drought climatology by analyzing soil moisture conditions over more than fifty years. This approach relies on state-of-the art observed weather data and tested soil moisture model, and focuses on the dynamic simulation of soil moisture content with high temporal (daily) and spatial (500 m) resolution in a diverse landscape. Statistically significant trends of decreasing soil moisture content were found, notably during May and June between 1961 and 2012. In contrast, trends toward higher soil moisture content were noted during the October-March time period. When the periods of 2001-2012 and 1961-1980 were compared, the probability of drought between April and June was found to increase by 50%. This indicates a loading of the "climate dice" toward drier conditions. The probability of extreme drought events has been also found to increase. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe under projected climate change and has been submitted to International Journal of Climatology. The study was funded by project "Establishment of International Scientific Team

  1. Modeling airborne benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Svecova, Vlasta; Sram, Radim J.; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex hazardous organic compounds that are introduced into the atmosphere as by-products of partial combustion processes. For common atmospheric conditions, the large molecular weight PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P), are found in the particulate phase and are believed to account for a considerable amount of the fine particulate matter toxic potential. Nonetheless, unlike meteorological variables and criteria pollutants, PAHs are very rarely monitored on a routine basis in most parts of the world. We present methodology for development and evaluation of a model for estimation of daily and monthly ambient B[a]P concentrations. The model utilizes a very large ambient B[a]P database from three sites in the Czech Republic. The difficulties faced when dealing with ambient PAH data are discussed. Model performance was evaluated by a complete internal-, external-, and temporal cross validations. The models reproduced very accurately monthly mean ambient B[a]P concentrations and provided acceptable daily mean B[a]P concentrations. Spatial extrapolations resulted in small deterioration of the models' performance. The temporal backward extrapolation revealed comparable errors to the spatial extrapolations in spite of the dramatic emissions reduction in the early years of the study period.

  2. Analysis of 100-Year-Old Beer Originated from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Olšovská, Jana; Matoulková, Dagmar; Dušek, Martin; Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Čejka, Pavel; Štěrba, Karel

    2017-04-26

    Three bottles of different beers were found in 2015 during a reconstruction of the brewery of the Raven Trading s.r.o. company in Záhlinice, Czech Republic. Thanks to good storage conditions, it was possible to analyze their original characteristics. All three bottles contained most probably lager type beer. One beer had sulfuric and fecal off-flavors; it was bright with the original extract of 10.3° Plato. The second beer, with an original extract of 7.6° Plato, was dark and very acidic, resembling Lambic. DNA analysis proved the presence of Dekkera bruxellensis, which corresponded to its chemical profile (total acidity, FAN, ethyl acetate, total esters). The third beer contained traces of carbon dioxide bubbles, was light brown and slightly bitter, with an original extract 10.4° Plato. Because it obviously underwent a natural aging process, sweetness, honey, and fruity off-flavors were detected and transformation products of iso-α-acids were found.

  3. Electron microscopy in the diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis in hospitalised children in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Arientova, Simona; Schramlova, Jana; Ambrozova, Helena; Maresova, Vilma; Holub, Michal

    2012-05-01

    Our study has been aimed at demonstrating the main role of viruses in the aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years old and at pointing out the diagnostic potential of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. A prospective study was conducted to analyse the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in children less than 5 years of age admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases between September 2006 and December 2008. All children were tested by faecal culture, latex agglutination and electron microscopy. A total of 832 children were included in the study. An aetiological agent was detected in 788 children (94.6 %). A bacterial aetiology was found in 22 (2.6 %) children and bacterial-viral co-infection was found in 146 (17.6 %) patients. The most frequent causative agents of gastroenteritis in children were viruses, which were detected in 620 (74.5 %) patients. The main causes of viral gastroenteritis were rotaviruses (detected in 410 children), followed by caliciviruses (42), coronaviruses (28), adenoviruses (19) and astroviruses (14). Dual viral infections were detected in 107 children, with rotavirus-calicivirus co-infection being the most common. Electron microscopy proved to be a more sensitive method in comparison with the latex agglutination test for the diagnosis of rotaviruses and adenoviruses. The major role of viruses in diarrhoeal diseases among children under 5 years of age in the Czech Republic has been confirmed. The diagnostic potential of electron microscopy, particularly in small outbreaks of gastroenteritis, was clearly shown.

  4. Identification of a Buried Late Cenozoic Maar-Diatreme Structure (North Moravia, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šešulka, Vojtěch; Sedláková, Iva; Bábek, OndŘej; PŘichystal, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    The maar-diatreme volcanic structure in the vicinity of the village of Lomnice near the town of Bruntál (North Moravia, Czech Republic) has been investigated using a set of geophysical methods including ground magnetometry, gravimetry and electrical resistivity tomography. The structure was detected by an aerial magnetic survey in the second half of the 20th century. Since its discovery only limited information about this buried structure has been available. The coherence of the magnetic anomaly of 190 nT and Bouguer anomaly of -4.7 mGal indicates a volcanic origin of the structure. The funnel-shaped maar-diatreme structure is filled with lacustrine clay and colluvium of Car-boniferous greywacke, which forms the country rock. The surface diameter of the structure is about 600 m, the depth is more than 400 m. The spatial association with other volcanic centers in the surroundings of the town of Bruntál infers the relative dating of the Lomnice maar. The phreatic eruption and maar-diatreme formation could be an indirect conse-quence of effusive activity of the nearby Velký Roudný volcano. The Lomnice structure is the first Plio-Pleistocene maar-diatreme ever described in North Moravia and Silesia.

  5. Fluctuation analysis of high frequency electric power load in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracík, Jiří; Lavička, Hynek

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the electric power load in the Czech Republic (CR) which exhibits a seasonality as well as other oscillations typical for European countries. Moreover, we detect the 1/f noise property of electrical power load with extra additional peaks that allows to separate it into a deterministic and stochastic part. We then focus on the analysis of the stochastic part using improved Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method (MFDFA) to investigate power load datasets with a minute resolution. Extracting the noise part of the signal by using Fourier transform allows us to apply this method to obtain the fluctuation function and to estimate the generalized Hurst exponent together with the correlated Hurst exponent, its improvement for the non-Gaussian datasets. The results exhibit a strong presence of persistent behavior or strong anti-persistent behavior for the differences and the dataset is characterized by a non-Gaussian skewed distribution. There are also indications for the presence of the probability distribution that has heavier tail than the Gaussian distribution.

  6. Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. widespread in natural soil and water ecosystems in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the taxonomic status of a phenetically unique group of 25 Acinetobacter strains which were isolated from multiple soil and water samples collected in natural ecosystems in the Czech Republic. Based on the comparative sequence analyses of the rpoB, gyrB, and 16S rRNA genes, the strains formed a coherent and well separated branch within the genus Acinetobacter. The genomic uniqueness of the group at the species level was supported by the low average nucleotide identity values (≤77.37%) between the whole genome sequences of strain ANC 3994(T) (NCBI accession no. APOH00000000) and the representatives of the known Acinetobacter species. Moreover, all 25 strains created a tight cluster clearly separated from all hitherto described species based on whole-cell protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and shared a unique combination of metabolic and physiological properties. The capacity to assimilate l-histidine and the inability to grow at 35°C differentiated them from their phenotypically closest neighbor, Acinetobacter johnsonii. We conclude that the 25 strains represent a novel Acinetobacter species, for which the name Acinetobacter bohemicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. bohemicus is ANC 3994(T) (=CIP 110496(T)=CCUG 63842(T)=CCM 8462(T)).

  7. DETECTION OF ZOONOTIC PATHOGENS IN WILD BIRDS IN THE CROSS-BORDER REGION AUSTRIA - CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Konicek, Cornelia; Vodrážka, Pavel; Barták, Pavel; Knotek, Zdenek; Hess, Claudia; Račka, Karol; Hess, Michael; Troxler, Salome

    2016-10-01

    To assess the importance of wild birds as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens in Austria and the Czech Republic, we sampled 1,325 wild birds representing 13 orders, 32 families, and 81 species. The majority belonged to orders Columbiformes (43%), Passeriformes (25%), and to birds of prey: Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes (15%). We collected cloacal swabs from 1,191 birds for bacterial culture and 1,214 triple swabs (conjunctiva, choana, cloaca) for DNA and RNA isolation. The cloacal swabs were processed by classical bacteriologic methods for isolation of Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Nucleic acids isolated from triple swabs were investigated by PCR for West Nile virus, avian influenza viruses, and Chlamydia spp. We also tested tissue samples from 110 fresh carcasses for Mycobacterium spp. by PCR and we cultured fresh droppings from 114 birds for Cryptococcus spp. The most-frequently detected zoonotic bacteria were thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (12.5%) and Chlamydia spp. (10.3%). From 79.2% of the sampled birds we isolated E. coli , while 8.7% and 0.2% of E. coli isolates possessed the virulence genes for intimin (eaeA) and Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2), respectively. Salmonella spp. were rarely found in the sampled birds (2.2%), similar to findings of MRSA (0.3%). None of the samples were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium spp., avian influenza viruses, or West Nile virus.

  8. From Regional to National Clouds: TV Coverage in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Sucháček, Jan; Sed’a, Petr; Friedrich, Václav; Wachowiak-Smolíková, Renata; Wachowiak, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Media, and particularly TV media, have a great impact on the general public. In recent years, spatial patterns of information and the relevance of intangible geographies have become increasingly important. Gatekeeping plays a critical role in the selection of information that is transformed into media. Therefore, gatekeeping, through national media, also co-forms the generation of mental maps. In this paper, correspondence analysis (a statistical method) combined with cloud lines (a new visual analytics technique) is used to analyze how individual major regional events in one of the post-communist countries, the Czech Republic, penetrate into the media on a national scale. Although national news should minimize distortions about regions, this assumption has not been verified by our research. Impressions presented by the media of selected regions that were markedly influenced by one or several events in those regions demonstrate that gatekeepers, especially news reporters, functioned as a filter by selecting only a few specific, and in many cases, unusual events for dissemination. PMID:27824947

  9. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    PubMed

    Kyselý, Jan; Kríz, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  10. Effects of the july 1997 floods in the Czech Republic on cardiac mortality.

    PubMed

    Obrová, Jana; Sovová, Eliška; Ivanová, Kateřina; Táborský, Miloš; Loyka, Svatopluk

    2014-12-01

    An excess of deaths from cardiac causes are reported after many natural disasters. Despite the fact that floods are the most common and most destructive natural disaster worldwide, little is known about their effect on human health. We analyzed the influence of the greatest floods in the Czech Republic on cardiac mortality in the affected area. This was a retrospective case-control study. We analyzed persons whose autopsies proved they had died of cardiac causes during the month of the flood, 2 months before the flood, 1 month after the flood, and during the same period in the 3 previous years. A total of 207 of 985 autopsy reports met the criteria for inclusion in the study. There were no significant differences in the proportions of men and women (P=0.819) or in age (P=0.577). During the month of the flood, an increase in cardiac mortality was observed; however, the increase was not statistically significant (P=0.088). According to our findings, the 1997 Central European flood did not significantly affect cardiac mortality.

  11. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  12. Assessment of potential soil degradation on agricultural land in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Šarapatka, Bořivoj; Bednář, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made worldwide to develop methods to identify the areas most threatened by soil degradation. Some soils in afflicted areas may be irreversibly degraded and thus have very little resilience (the ability to restore themselves). For the purpose of assessing the current state of soil degradation in the Czech Republic (CZ) we have developed an overall indicator of land vulnerability to the threat of soil degradation on the basis of individual factors that contribute to soil degradation and are monitored on a long-term basis in various research worksites in the CZ. Individual degradation factors were divided into two groups: chemical and physical degradation. On the basis of principal component analysis, individual degradation factors were assigned a specific weight of influence. With the use of a GIS, the input factors of degradation were combined to create maps of chemical and physical soil degradation, and consequently a map of overall degradation-threatened soils for the CZ, along with a map of areas differentiated according to the prevailing type of degradation. Results showed that, at present, the most important degradation factor in the CZ is water erosion, followed by loss of organic matter. Statistical analysis showed that approximately 51% of agricultural land is moderately threatened in the CZ.

  13. Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Nermuť, Jiří

    2014-02-03

    A new steinernematid nematode, herein described as Steinernema poinari sp. n., was recovered by baiting soil samples with the last instar wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella in three localities of southwest Bohemia, Czech Republic. Morphological and molecular data confirmed this nematode as a new species which belongs to the affine/intermedium group. S. poinari sp. n. was characterized by male, female and infective juvenile morphological observations. Male spicules are robust with a pointed tip, SW% = 109 (98-123) and GS% = 70 (58-87). The tail terminus of the first generation have a papillated mucron, whereas in the second generation a short filamentous mucron sometimes develops. Females of the first generation have a moderately protruding vulva, postanal swelling absent or slightly developed. Second generation females have a long filamentous mucron on the tail tip. Infective juvenile have a body length of 768 µm, lateral field formula 2, 5, 6, 5, 2, 1, ratio D% of 46 (40-55), E% of 84 (76-95) and H% of 50 (43-56). The new species was characterized by sequences of ITS and D2D3 regions of ribosomal DNA. S. poinari sp. n. can also be separated from S. affine and S. intermedium by cross-breeding tests.

  14. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.

  15. High temperature extremes in the Czech Republic 1961-2010 and their synoptic variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriánová, A.; Crhová, L.; Holtanová, E.; Kašpar, M.; Müller, M.; Pecho, J.

    2017-01-01

    Our research focuses on the analysis of extreme high maximum air temperature events (EXHTEs) in the Czech Republic in the period 1961-2010, their climatological characteristics, and on the identification of synoptic-scale circulation conditions conductive to them. EXHTEs are detected using the Weather Extremity Index (WEI) combining return periods of daily maximum air temperature, duration of events, and the extent of the affected area. We selected 37 EXHTEs as non-overlapping periods with the highest WEI. Some long EXHTEs were divided into several shorter synoptically homogeneous episodes. Using the two-level divisive clustering of 700 hPa air temperature and wind field anomalies, we obtained four main variants of synoptic-scale circulation conditions. The most frequent variant associated with extreme episodes is characterized by a westerly flow connected with a high pressure ridge extending northeastward from North Africa over Central Europe or with an anticyclone centered over the Central Mediterranean. The most extreme episodes occurred during the variant characterized by an easterly flow between a high pressure area to the northeast and a low pressure area to the southeast.

  16. The possibility of biomasses and coal co-firing in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Juchelkova, D.

    1998-07-01

    The present state of the environment in the Czech Republic is influenced by many factors and one of them is the quality of fuel used in energetic sources. The greatest share is created by coal, burned with a low capacity, big power station blocks without a significant effort to reduce the emission of pollutants. It is possible to use other provisions for improving the environment: (1) primary--changing the burning fuel, the minimization of pollutant formation resulting in a burning process, the reconstruction of a significant part of burning equipment, and others; (2) or secondary--trapping pollutants. Changing the fuel must be done, however, with minimization of outgoing pollutants. It should not burden surroundings with other undesirable influences and must provide the necessary output. One of the possibilities which is getting attention in the world today is the burning of biomasses. This solution itself has great investment cost (the necessity to build special burning equipment), but an attempt to burn suitable forms of biomass together with coal directly in the existing burning equipment has been discovered as a possible solution to this problem.

  17. Possibility of biomasses and coal co-firing in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Juchelkova, D.

    1998-04-01

    The present state of the environment in the Czech Republic is influenced by many factors and one of them is the quality of fuel used in energetic sources. The greatest share is created by coal, burned with a low capacity, and besides big power station blocks without a significant effort to reduce the emission of pollutants. It is possible to use other provisions for improving the environment - primary - changing the burning fuel, the minimization of pollutant formation resulting in a burning process, the reconstruction of a significant part of burning equipment, and others - or secondary - trapping pollutants, that is cleaning the burning. Changing the fuel must be done, however, with minimization of outgoing pollutants. It should not burden surroundings with other undesirable influences and must provide the necessary output. One of the possibilities which is getting attention in the world today is the burning of biomasses. This solution itself has great investment cost (the necessity to build special burning equipment), but an attempt to burn suitable forms of biomass together with coal directly in the existing burning equipment has been discovered as a possible solution to this problem. The Department of Energetics has made a lot of experience and would like to present the information to the colleagues.

  18. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14) and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town. PMID:20003407

  19. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    SciTech Connect

    Peleska, L.

    1995-12-01

    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  20. A radical change in traffic law: effects on fatalities in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Montag, J

    2014-12-01

    This study examines short- and long-run effects of a new-stricter-road traffic law on traffic accident-related fatalities in the Czech Republic. The law introduced tougher punishments through the introduction of a demerit point system and a manifold increase in fines, together with augmented authority of traffic police. Identification is based on difference-in-differences methodology, with neighbouring countries serving as a control group. There was a sharp, 33.3%, decrease in accident-related fatalities during the first three post-reform months. This translates into 127 saved lives (95% confidence interval: 51, 204). The decline was, however, temporary; the estimates of the effects going beyond the first year are around zero. Unique data on traffic police activity reveal that police resources devoted to traffic law enforcement gradually declined. Tougher penalties have significant, but often short-lived effects. Weaker enforcement in the aftermath of such reforms may explain the absence of long-run effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Textural and chemical evolution of a fractionated granitic system: the Podlesí stock, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Müller, Axel; Leichmann, Jaromír; Gabašová, Ananda

    2005-03-01

    The Podlesí granite stock (Czech Republic) is a fractionated, peraluminous, F-, Li- and P-rich, and Sn, W, Nb, Ta-bearing rare-metal granite system. Its magmatic evolution involved processes typical of intrusions related to porphyry type deposits (explosive breccia, comb layers), rare-metal granites (stockscheider), and rare metal pegmatites (extreme F-P-Li enrichment, Nb-Ta-Sn minerals, layering). Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the Podlesí granites evolved from fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H 2O, F, P, Li, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, Fe-Li mica and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. Changes in chemical composition between individual crystal zones and/or populations provide evidence of chemical evolution of the melt. Variations in rock textures mirror changes in the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization. Equilibrium crystallization was interrupted several times by opening of the system and the consequent adiabatic decrease of pressure and temperature resulted in episodes of nonequilibrium crystallization. The Podlesí granites demonstrate that adiabatic fluctuation of pressure ("swinging eutectic") and boundary-layer crystallization of undercooled melt can explain magmatic layering and unidirectional solidification textures (USTs) in highly fractionated granites.

  2. Energy Balance Closure at a Variety of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGloin, Ryan; Šigut, Ladislav; Sedlák, Pavel; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian

    2017-04-01

    A long-standing problem in micrometeorology is that at most eddy covariance sites around the world, the sum of the sensible and latent heat measurements is less than the available energy, resulting in the so-called energy balance closure problem. This study utilised the national network of eddy covariance towers in the Czech Republic to examine the degree of energy balance closure at sites covering a wide variety of vegetation types and terrain complexities. In addition, variation in closure under a range of meteorological conditions was also analysed. The energy balance closure fractions for the different ecosystems ranged from 0.68 (beech forest) to 0.81 (spruce forest). Best energy balance closure at each of the sites occurred in strongly unstable to moderately unstable atmospheric conditions. As in previous studies, energy balance closure improved with increasing friction velocity, although in this study the ratio of friction velocity and wind speed seemed to have a greater impact on energy balance closure, particularly at the sites with tall canopies. At the Štítná site, in the Carpathian Mountains, evidence suggested that the complex topography to the south of the eddy covariance tower was influencing the airflow and resulting in low friction velocity measurements and poor energy balance closure results. Finally, applying the sector-wise planar fit method and increasing the flux averaging period from 30 minutes to 1 hour resulted in minor increases in energy balance closure at the majority of sites.

  3. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  4. Behaviour of (137)Cs in forest humus detected across the territory of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-03-22

    The activity concentration of (137)Cs in samples of coniferous forest humus collected across the territory of the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2005 was analysed, and it was found significantly correlated with the surface deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident. The effective (12.8 y) and environmental (22.3 y) half-lives of radiocaesium in humus were calculated and compared with those in spruce bark. The impact of important forest stand factors, that is, precipitation, content of organic matter, age of trees and pH, on the behaviour of (137)Cs in humus was studied. It was observed that humus samples with a higher proportion of organic matter, higher pH(H2O) and pH(CaCl2) contained higher amounts of (137)Cs. Conversely, with the age of trees, the activity concentration of (137)Cs in humus is decreasing. Higher precipitation and humus acidity decrease the reduction rate of the (137)Cs in humus. These stand factors increase bioavailability of (137)Cs in humus. The transfer and retention of available (137)Cs in biomass of organisms living in humus for a long time can satisfactorily explain the longer residence time of (137)Cs in humus affected by the studied factors.

  5. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  6. The association between belief in God and fertility desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cranney, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Research on the association between religiosity and fertility-and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes-has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18-45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15-44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a new slug-parasitic nematode from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2016-10-31

    Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. is described and illustrated from the body of Malacolimax tenellus, from the locality of České Švýcary near the village of Dobrá Voda, the Czech Republic. Females are characterized by a body length of 2349 (1878-2626) µm and a cupola shaped tail with a long hyaline hair-like tail tip. Extremely prominent papilla-like phasmids present. Males 1829 (1414-2121) µm long. Peloderan bursa with nine pairs of rays (papillae), 1/1/1/2/1/3. One non-paired apparent papilla-like structure located near the ventral appendage anterior to the cloaca. Prominent papilla-like phasmids located close to the tail tip. Small subunit (18S), ITS, and D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of sequenced species in the genus Phasmarhabditis and other closely related species. Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. varied from other related nematodes both in morphological characterizations and phylogenetic analysis. The life cycle of the newly described species is not well known but it is probably a facultative, mollusc-parasitic nematode able to survive permanently in the saprobic phase on decaying organic matter.

  8. Characteristics of rainfall events in regional climate model simulations for the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Vojtěch; Hanel, Martin; Máca, Petr; Kyselý, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of rainfall events in an ensemble of 23 regional climate model (RCM) simulations are evaluated against observed data in the Czech Republic for the period 1981-2000. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time (MIT) and only heavy events (15 % of events with the largest event depths) during the warm season (May-September) are considered. Inasmuch as an RCM grid box represents a spatial average, the effects of areal averaging of rainfall data on characteristics of events are investigated using the observed data. Rainfall events from the RCM simulations are then compared to those from the at-site and area-average observations. Simulated number of heavy events and seasonal total precipitation due to heavy events are on average represented relatively well despite the higher spatial variation compared to observations. RCM-simulated event depths are comparable to the area-average observations, while event durations are overestimated and other characteristics related to rainfall intensity are significantly underestimated. The differences between RCM-simulated and at-site observed rainfall event characteristics are in general dominated by the biases of the climate models rather than the areal-averaging effect. Most of the rainfall event characteristics in the majority of the RCM simulations show a similar altitude-dependence pattern as in the observed data. The number of heavy events and seasonal total precipitation due to heavy events increase with altitude, and this dependence is captured better by the RCM simulations with higher spatial resolution.

  9. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Extreme temperature events have pronounced negative impacts on ecosystems and society, including human health effects. The study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (central Europe) during 1986-2006. Declining trends in the mortality impacts are found in summer as well as in transition seasons, in spite of rising temperature trends (warming by 1.4 deg. C in summer over the 21-year period). The finding remains unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability. The results suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that influence vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality.

  10. Alimentary transmission of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic (1997-2008).

    PubMed

    Kríz, B; Benes, C; Daniel, M

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) with confirmed food-borne transmission in patients who were unaware of tick attachment prior to the onset of illness. Data on laboratory confirmed cases of TBE reported in the Czech Republic (CR) in 1997-2008 were obtained from the EPIDAT system. Patient interview data were recorded in a standardised questionnaire form with multiple choices for locality (GIS) and route of transmission to be exported on a weekly basis in electronic form to a protected database of the Ministry of Health of CR. Statistical processing was conducted by ANOVA using Epi-Info CDC Atlanta and STATCALC software. TBE has been recognised in CR since 1948 when, for the first time ever in Europe, the TBE virus was isolated from patients and I. ricinus ticks in two Czech and Moravian areas simultaneously (and independently of one another). TBE cases in the Czech Republic have been reported since 1971. In 1997 - 2008 the incidence ranged between 422 cases (1998) to 1029 cases (2006). Food-borne transmission of TBE was first reported in Czechoslovakia in 1954. At that time, nothing was known of the possibilities of arbovirus transmission by the food-borne route; this was discovered following the TBE epidemic of 1951 in the east Slovak town of Roznava in which 660 persons were infected, and of these, 271 were hospitalised. The source of infection was contaminated goats' milk which had been mixed into dairy milk at the local dairy and distributed without pasteurization. The risk of TBE transmission by unpasteurized goats' milk is associated with the current trend of I. ricinus tick proliferation in foothills and mountainous areas. The shift of the line of their spread from 700 m above sea level to 1200 m means that to up to 8% of the area of the CR (6300 km2) have been newly colonized by ticks. In 1997 - 2008, 64 cases of TBE were recorded in patients who reported consumption of unpasteurized goats' and dairy milk or unpasteurized sheep's milk cheese

  11. Sedimentary record and anthropogenic pollution of a complex, multiple source fed dam reservoirs: An example from the Nové Mlýny reservoir, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Nováková, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    While numerous studies of dam reservoirs contamination are reported world-wide, we present a missing link in the study of reservoirs sourced from multiple river catchments. In such reservoirs, different point sources of contaminants and variable composition of their sedimentary matrices add to extremely complex geochemical patterns. We studied a unique, step-wise filled Nové Mlýny dam reservoir, Czech Republic, which consists of three interconnected sub-basins. Their source areas are located in units with contrasting geology and different levels and sources of contamination. The aim of this study is to provide an insight into the provenance of the sediment, including lithogenic elements and anthropogenic pollutants, to investigate the sediment dispersal across the reservoir, and to assess the heavy metal pollution in each basin. The study is based on multi-proxy stratigraphic analysis and geochemistry of sediment cores. There is a considerable gradient in the sediment grain size, brightness, MS and geochemistry, which reflects changing hydrodynamic energy conditions and primary pelagic production of CaCO3. The thickness of sediments generally decreases from proximal to distal parts, but underwater currents can accumulate higher amounts of sediments in distal parts near the thalweg line. Average sedimentation rates vary over a wide range from 0.58cm/yr to 2.33cm/yr. In addition, the petrophysical patterns, concentrations of lithogenic elements and their ratios made it possible to identify two main provenance areas, the Dyje River catchment (upper basin) and the Svratka and Jihlava River catchments (middle and lower basin). Enrichment factors (EF) were used for distinguishing the anthropogenic element contribution from the local background levels. We found moderate Zn and Cu pollution (EF ~2 to 5) in the upper basin and Zn, Cu and Pb (EF ~2 to 4.5) in the middle basin with the peak contamination in the late 1980s, indicating that the two basins have different

  12. Volcanic and geochemical evolution of the Carboniferous Teplice Rhyolite, Central-European Variscides (Germany and Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Raymundo; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Rapprich, Vladislav; Lapp, Manuel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Altenberg-Teplice Volcanic Complex (ATVC; 325 Ma) represents one of the earliest magmatic centers of the Late- to Post-tectonic period of the Variscan orogeny in Central Europe. The ca. 35×18 km ATVC is located in the Erzgebirge/Krušné hory (Germany/Czech Republic) and hosts two principal extrusive units: (1) an initial volcanosedimentary succession preserved in the Schönfeld-Altenberg Depression Complex (Walther et al., in press) and (2) a thick volcanic pile produced during the peak eruptive stage, known as the Teplice Rhyolite (TR). The TR represents mainly a caldera-fill sequence (Benek, 1991), whose volcanic and geochemical evolution has not been fully defined. Seven petrotypes have been mapped in the TR on the Czech side (Jiránek et al., 1987). To the north, on German territory, Lobin (1986) distinguished eight petrotypes. The TR is dominated by thick sheets of welded and non-welded crystal clast-rich (< 45 %) ignimbrites, which are intercalated with rhyolitic lava-dome complexes. The ATVC has been intruded by late high-volume granite porphyritic melts and several plutons associated, in parts, with Sn-, Li mineralization. Two important drillings expose over 600 m of TR volcanics. Samples from (1) the Mi-4 borehole (Mikulov, Czech Republic) have been geochemically evaluated and a vertical reverse chemical zoning (Zr, Rb) was identified and interpreted in terms of a continuous eruption (Breiter et al., 2001). In (2) the well 2112-87 near Schmiedeberg in Germany, ignimbrites are separated by two rhyolitic, lithophysae-bearing lava units, suggesting a multistage caldera evolution. In the South of the ATVC out- and subcrops reveal a caldera outflow facies. In Czech Republic, ignimbrites prevail with a single belt of late-stage rhyolitic lavas on the eastern margin. We present sixty new whole-rock and mineral chemical data (biotite) to define the geochemical evolution, the composition and the chemical character of the TR rocks. Currently, Nd-Sr isotopes

  13. Long-term changes in body weight, BMI, and adiposity rebound among children and adolescents in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vignerová, J; Humeníkova, L; Brabec, M; Riedlová, J; Bláha, P

    2007-12-01

    The Czech Republic has undergone rapid political, social, and economic transformation since the late 1980s. While obesity rates among children and adolescents in the Czech Republic have been previously relatively low, this has changed in recent years. Across the past 50 years, body weight, body mass index (BMI)-for-age, and adiposity rebound (AR) (the time when a child reaches the lowest BMI before their BMI gradually begins to increase until adulthood) occurs earlier. The most dramatic changes have been observed among school-aged children, where BMI values have increased at the 50th, 90th, and 97th percentiles. In contrast, adolescent girls appear to be thinner than in the past. The analyses of weight-for-height percentiles indicated that the 50th percentile of the body weight among boys and girls remained similar in nearly all age categories across the past 50 years. Although the growth pattern of children at the 50th percentile has not changed, the 10th and 90th percentiles have expanded. Our findings suggest that the secular trend of increased height, accelerated growth, and earlier maturation is responsible for Czech children experiencing adiposity rebound at earlier ages compared to the past.

  14. Constitutional limits to the financing of health care in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries.

    PubMed

    Prudil, Lukás

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the constitutional limits to the financing of health care and especially of public health insurance in the Czech Republic. It describes the current situation in the financing of health care on the basis of the Czech constitutional order as it has been interpreted by the Constitutional Court. Finally it presents an overview of the incorporation of the right to health into the constitutional documents of several European countries with the stress on the right to receive health care "free of charge". It is not typical within the European region to specify in constitutional acts to what extent it is giving the right to health care free-of-charge or more precisely to what extent and for what groups health care is paid for by persons other than by the citizens (patients). The Czech Republic is one of the exceptional cases in which the basic right to health care free-of-charge on the basis of public insurance is given directly by the Constitution.

  15. Familial hypercholesterolemia in the Czech Republic: more than 17 years of systematic screening within the MedPed project.

    PubMed

    Vrablík, M; Vaclová, M; Tichý, L; Soška, V; Bláha, V; Fajkusová, L; Češka, R; Šatný, M; Freiberger, T

    2017-04-05

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal dominant disorder. It is characterized by a decrease in LDL cholesterol catabolism and an early clinical manifestation of atherosclerotic vessel damage. The aim of the MedPed (Make early diagnosis to Prevent early deaths) project is an early diagnosis of FH patients in order to profit from early treatment and prevent cardiovascular events. Till November 30, 2016 The Czech National MedPed Database has registered 7,001 FH patients from 5,223 different families that is 17.4 % of expected patients in the Czech Republic considering 1:250 FH prevalence. The improvement in diagnostic accuracy, patient cooperation and above all familial cascade screening is enabled by FH mutation detection using the modern technology of next-generation sequencing. FH still remain undiagnosed even though the Czech Republic is one of the most successful countries with respect to FH detection. The opportunities of international collaboration and experience sharing within international programs (e.g. EAS FHSC, ScreenPro FH etc.) will improve the detection of FH patients in the future and enable even more accessible and accurate genetic diagnostics.

  16. Protective effect of vaccination against mumps complications, Czech Republic, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Orlíková, Hana; Malý, Marek; Lexová, Pavla; Šebestová, Helena; Limberková, Radomíra; Jurzykowská, Lucie; Kynčl, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Czech Republic, two-dose immunization against mumps achieves 98% coverage. The routine reporting detects mumps cases, clinical complications, and hospital admissions in unvaccinated but also in vaccinated individuals. Using surveillance data of patients with mumps we assessed the effectiveness of mumps vaccination on mumps clinical complications and hospitalization need. We also investigated the effect of the time since immunization. We analysed data on incident mumps cases reported to the Czech national surveillance system in 2007-2012. Using a logistic regression model with adjustment for age, sex, year of onset, and the administrative region, the association between vaccination and the most frequent mumps complications and hospitalization was evaluated. The adjusted odds ratios (ORa) for mumps complications were compared between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, reflecting the vaccine effectiveness (VEa) computed as VEa = (1-ORa) × 100. We estimated the risk of mumps complications by the time from vaccination. From total of 9663 mumps analysed cases 5600 (58%) occurred in males. The mean age at the disease onset was 17.3, median 16 years. Ninety percent of the study patients had no complications, while 1.6% developed meningitis, 0.2% encephalitis, and 0.6% pancreatitis. Mumps orchitis occurred in 659 (11.8%) male cases. In total, 1192 (12.3%) patients required hospitalization. Two doses of vaccine received by 81.8% cases significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization: ORa 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35). Two doses showed statistically significant VEa 64% (95% CI: 46, 79) for meningitis, 93% (95% CI: 66, 98) for encephalitis in all cases, and 72% (95% CI: 64, 78) for orchitis in males. Vaccine effectiveness for orchitis declined from 81 to 74% and 56% in the most affected age groups 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 years, respectively. Among 7850 two-dose recipients, the rate of complications rose from below 1 to 16% in categories up to 6 years and 24 and

  17. [Monitoring of diabetes compensation in patients treated with an insulin pump in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Honěk, Petr; Dušek, Ladislav; Pavlík, Tomáš; Žďarská, Denisa Janíčková; Kvapil, Milan

    2015-11-01

    Insulin pump treatment (IP) is one of the ways of intensive insulin therapy, designed preferentially for patients with type 1 diabetes. The price of the treatment is higher than that of the conventional basalbolus and insulin regimens using repeated insulin application with a dose selector. Quality assessment of IP therapy monitoring in patients with DM in a representative sample of the patient population with DM kept in the database of the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic (VZP) which provided health care coverage for 63% of Czech population in 2014. We identified all individuals in the VZP database who had a record of DM diagnosis (E10-E16 based on ICD 10) or who had any antidiabetic therapy prescribed (ATC group A10) in the period of 2009-2013. Over the whole period of 2009-2014 there were overall n=4,002 unique patients with DM identified in the VZP data, who were treated with IP within the assessment period. Incidence for the year 2014 (the newly treated with an insulin pump): all patients who had IP recorded in 2014 while in the preceding period of 2009-2013 they had no record of IP use. Prevalence for the year 2014 (all treated with an insulin pump): all the patients who for the period of 2010-2014 had at least once insulin pump use recorded and who did not die before 2014. Quality control parameters (HbA1c examination and consumption of glucose level test strips) for patients treated with IP were only assessed in detail for the year 2014, namely for all patients undergoing insulin pump treatment in 2014 throughout the year (i.e. from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014), i.e. in n=3,189 patients in all. In 2014 there were 247 incident patients and 3 794 prevalent patients. IP was newly introduced for almost 50% of the patients aged 20-39 years. In 2014 an average frequency of HbA1c examination equaled 3.38 per patient and 98.5% patients were examined for HbA1c at least once. An average consumption of glucose level testing strips per

  18. Changes in total concentrations and assessed background concentrations of heavy metals in moss in Lithuania and the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Sakalys, J; Kvietkus, K; Sucharová, J; Suchara, I; Valiulis, D

    2009-06-01

    Data on concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in moss collected on the lightly industrialized territory of Lithuania and on the highly industrialized territory of the Czech Republic in 1995, 2000 and 2005 is used to separate the background and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal concentrations in moss. The distribution of the concentration logarithms allowed us to determine a background mode, and to estimate the background concentration of heavy metals from this mode. The method was then applied for an estimation of the contribution of local sources to the total pollution level in both countries. The average concentrations and the background modes of heavy metals in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic were very similar, except in the case of vanadium, where the background concentration was higher in Lithuania than in the Czech Republic. For most elements, the background concentration in moss had a decreasing tendency in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005, though the concentration of Cu and Hg increased in Lithuania. The variability of chromium concentration in moss differed from the remaining investigated elements in the Czech Republic, and it was expressed as a bimodal lognormal distribution. This variability may be due to simultaneous contamination of moss by chromium from soil and from industrial sources of pollution.

  19. What was driving land-scape drying in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Fuchs, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    The drying trends in the Czech Republic especially during May and June are of great concern as they influence the key part of growing season in the region. The fact that April-June period of 2001-2012 showed 50% increase of drought probability compared to 1961-1980 is alarming. In the same time the probability of extreme drought was found to be also rising significantly. This study tries to understand what has driven reported changes in the soil moisture especially during the warm half of the year. Therefore trends of global radiation, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, reference and actual evapotranspiration, snow cover but also start of key phenology phases were assessed and their relationship with the changes in the soil moisture analyzed. In addition measured pan-evaporation data as well as results of studies were used to assess reliability of the reported trends. We have found that increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity (all significant at 0.05) lead the increase of the reference evapotranspiration in all months of growing season. That was the case especially in April, May and August when over 80% of the territory showed statistically significant trends in reference evapotranspiration values. This finding was shown to be consistent with the observed pan evaporation (1968-2012) that was characterized by increasing trends especially during April-June period. These changes in combination with the earlier end of snow cover and earlier start of growing season (in some regions by up to 20 days) led to increased actual evapotranspiration at the start of growing season that tends to deplete the soil moisture earlier, leaving landscape more exposed to impacts of rainfall variability. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe. While the evaporative demand is clearly increasing, it is not matched by the similar increase of

  20. Mumps in the Czech Republic in 2013: Clinical Characteristics, Mumps Virus Genotyping, and Epidemiological Links.

    PubMed

    Havlíčková, Martina; Limberková, Radomíra; Smíšková, Dita; Herrmannová, Kristýna; Jiřincová, Helena; Nováková, Ludmila; Lexová, Pavla; Kynčl, Jan; Arientová, Simona; Marešová, Vilma

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to map the incidence of mumps in the Czech Republic in terms of clinical symptoms, epidemiological links, and characteristics of circulating genotypes. Patients with suspected mumps examined in the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the Na Bulovce Hospital in 2013 were enrolled in the study. Buccal swab specimens were tested by means of nucleic acid detection (RT-qPCR) and when positive, they were cultured in tissue culture. Sequencing was carried out using the BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit and Genetic Analyzer 3500. The SeqScape software was used for the analysis of sequencing data and filtering out low quality reads. The phylogenetic analysis and genotyping were performed using the Mega 6 software. To generate the phylogenetic tree, all sequences were aligned by the MAFFT tool and the alignment obtained was edited using the BioEdit software. In all patients, selected biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and serum amylase) were measured. The EPIDAT system used for reporting infectious diseases, record keeping, and data analysis in the Czech Republic was the source of statistical data. Eighty-nine patients with suspected mumps were examined in the Na Bulovce Hospital and 65 of them were laboratory confirmed with mumps: 40 males (61.5%) and 25 females (38.5%). The mean age of the study cohort was 25.9 years (median age of 23 years, age range from 10 to 73 years) and 14 patients were under 18 years of age. Thirty-four (52.3%) patients were vaccinated in childhood, 28 (43.1%) were unvaccinated, and for three persons, vaccination data were not available. A severe course of the disease was reported in 15 (23.1%) patients. Fourteen of them needed hospitalization because of orchitis (9 males) and meningitis (5 patients). One patient with orchitis was treated on an outpatient basis. The need for hospitalization tended to be lower in the unvaccinated patients (14.7% vs. 35.7%, p=0.076). In 2013, 1,553 cases of

  1. Assessment of Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity: a Study of Built Environment Indicators in Brno, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Klimusová, Helena; Hruška, Dalibor; Prokopová, Alice; Burjanek, Aleš; Wulff, Krauff Rainer Schwanhaeuser

    2015-11-01

    Research on physical activity in relation to obesity gradually becomes more focused on environmental determinants, which can potentially influence people's health choices. The present article addresses the topic of physical activity from a wider sociological perspective. Our pilot study was designed with the objective of testing the applicability of a method included in the EC 6th Framework Programme EURO-PREVOB, in the Czech context. The method examines specific determinants of the built environment that can have an impact on physical activity at the population level. In addition, the study aims to analyze possible differences in built environment indicators and their relation to the physical activity of people living in neighbourhoods with areas of varying socioeconomic status. The field study was carried out in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 5 neighbourhood quintiles, i.e. areas divided according to the socioeconomic status of local residents. In each quintile, we evaluated the quality of the built environment according to the quality, aesthetics and safety of segregated cycle facilities, playgrounds/playing areas, public open spaces, marked road crossings and pavements as well as signs of incivilities and devastation. Between the five quintiles, significant differences were found in the quality of parks and playgrounds/playing areas, pavements, marking of pedestrian crossings, and in general aesthetics, i.e. signs of incivilities and devastation of the built environment. No differences were found in the quality and use of cycle facilities. The method we used for the evaluation of the built environment proved highly applicable in Czech populated areas. Monitoring of built environment indicators in the Czech Republic should provide a basis for health maps, showing potential associations between the prevalence of high-incidence, non-infectious diseases and various social determinants of physical activity. This information might help in achieving an

  2. [Prevalence of selected congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic: congenital anomalies of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Šípek, A; Gregor, V; Horáček, J; Šípek, A; Klaschka, J; Malý, M

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the prevalence of selected congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic in 1994-2009. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of the postnatal and overall (including prenatally diagnosed cases) prevalence of congenital anomalies from the database of the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of the Czech Republic. Data from the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies (NRCA) maintained by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic (IHIS CR) were used. The analysis was carried out for the entire Czech Republic, based on the data from 1994 to 2009. Additional data on prenatally diagnosed anomalies were obtained from medical genetics centres and laboratories in the Czech Republic. This study analyzed the postnatal and overall (including prenatally diagnosed cases) prevalence of congenital anomalies. More detailed analysis was carried out for the following diagnoses: anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocoele, congenital hydrocephalus, omphalocoele, gastroschisis, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal anomalies, and diaphragmatic hernia. Prevalence trends were analysed using Poisson regression. In 2009, a total of 118 348 live births were recorded in the Czech Republic, 60 368 boys and 57 980 girls. Of this total, 4 653, i.e. 2 745 boys and 1 908 girls, were diagnosed with congenital anomalies. In 2007-2009, the total of life births with congenital anomalies ranged between 4.6 and 4.8 thousand per year. The respective ranges in this three-year period were in the order of 2.7 and 2.8 thousand per year for boys and 1.9 thousand per year for girls. The prevalence of postnatally diagnosed anencephaly was minimal, as most cases were diagnosed prenatally, and the data did not vary significantly. The prevalence of postnatally diagnosed cases remained at the same level. The effectiveness of the prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida increased and thus the prevalence of postnatally diagnosed cases decreased. The prevalence of

  3. Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entcheva, Petya K.

    The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices

  4. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  5. Excess cardiovascular mortality associated with cold spells in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kysely, Jan; Pokorna, Lucie; Kyncl, Jan; Kriz, Bohumir

    2009-01-15

    The association between cardiovascular mortality and winter cold spells was evaluated in the population of the Czech Republic over 21-yr period 1986-2006. No comprehensive study on cold-related mortality in central Europe has been carried out despite the fact that cold air invasions are more frequent and severe in this region than in western and southern Europe. Cold spells were defined as periods of days on which air temperature does not exceed -3.5 degrees C. Days on which mortality was affected by epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections were identified and omitted from the analysis. Excess cardiovascular mortality was determined after the long-term changes and the seasonal cycle in mortality had been removed. Excess mortality during and after cold spells was examined in individual age groups and genders. Cold spells were associated with positive mean excess cardiovascular mortality in all age groups (25-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years) and in both men and women. The relative mortality effects were most pronounced and most direct in middle-aged men (25-59 years), which contrasts with majority of studies on cold-related mortality in other regions. The estimated excess mortality during the severe cold spells in January 1987 (+274 cardiovascular deaths) is comparable to that attributed to the most severe heat wave in this region in 1994. The results show that cold stress has a considerable impact on mortality in central Europe, representing a public health threat of an importance similar to heat waves. The elevated mortality risks in men aged 25-59 years may be related to occupational exposure of large numbers of men working outdoors in winter. Early warnings and preventive measures based on weather forecast and targeted on the susceptible parts of the population may help mitigate the effects of cold spells and save lives.

  6. Impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.

    2012-04-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between temperature extremes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to temperature extremes, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and

  7. Anthropogenic influence of small urban watercourses - Case study from the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svobodova, Eva; Jakubinsky, Jiri; Bacova, Radka; Kubicek, Petr; Herber, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Rivers and streams in the urban areas are losing natural environmental values. There is especially small watercourses issue, where there exists the lack of river management and interest of municipalities. The main used methods are based on the field research of river landscape, mapping and inventory of anthropogenic landforms and determination of Channel Capacity Coefficient (CCC). We establish the list of anthropogenic landforms, which we divide to the five categories - industrial, agrarian, urban, transport network, and water management structures. Values of the channel morphologic parameters - width of channel, width of riverbed, and the degree of countersink - are measured for Channel Capacity Coefficient calculation. Pattern of objects shrinking transverse profile and limiting the smooth flow are investigated beside the morphological features. Resulting from the application of these theoretical methods are several practical outputs. Firstly, we construct thematic grid cell monitoring maps (a) count of anthropogenic landforms in the floodplain; (b) weighted average of landform, whose weight was determined on the basis of their influence on the impact of floods. Secondly, we identify pattern distribution of the watercourses channel capacity in the selected study areas. Thirdly, we confirm existence of the urban stream syndrome which is characterized by consistently observed ecological degradation of brooks. The main symptoms of degradation are the altered channel morphology, occurrence of flashfloods, and the rate of ecological stability. Above mentioned characteristics were applied in two different catchments in the Czech Republic - the Leskava Brook and the Lacnovsky Brook. Both streams flow through the urban area in the diverse natural conditions and with various historical development. The Leskava Brook is situated in the southern part of Brno in the Southern Moravia, and the Lacnovsky Brook, lies in the northern part of Svitavy town on the border of Moravia

  8. Relationships between sudden weather changes in summer and mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2005.

    PubMed

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The study examines the relationship between sudden changes in weather conditions in summer, represented by (1) sudden air temperature changes, (2) sudden atmospheric pressure changes, and (3) passages of strong atmospheric fronts; and variations in daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic. The events are selected from data covering 1986-2005 and compared with the database of daily excess all-cause mortality for the whole population and persons aged 70 years and above. Relative deviations of mortality, i.e., ratios of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths, were averaged over the selected events for days D-2 (2 days before a change) up to D+7 (7 days after), and their statistical significance was tested by means of the Monte Carlo method. We find that the periods around weather changes are associated with pronounced patterns in mortality: a significant increase in mortality is found after large temperature increases and on days of large pressure drops; a decrease in mortality (partly due to a harvesting effect) occurs after large temperature drops, pressure increases, and passages of strong cold fronts. The relationship to variations in excess mortality is better expressed for sudden air temperature/pressure changes than for passages of atmospheric fronts. The mortality effects are usually more pronounced in the age group 70 years and above. The impacts associated with large negative changes of pressure are statistically independent of the effects of temperature; the corresponding dummy variable is found to be a significant predictor in the ARIMA model for relative deviations of mortality. This suggests that sudden weather changes should be tested also in time series models for predicting excess mortality as they may enhance their performance.

  9. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction.

  10. Reconstructing the Depositional Environment at the Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic) Loess Site from Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Rousseau, D.; Antoine, P.; Fuchs, M.; Hatté, C.; Moine, O.; Gauthier, C.; Lisa, L.; Svoboda, J.

    2011-12-01

    Loess and paleosol deposits, worldwide, have provided an important medium from which paleoclimatic conditions and paleoenvironments could be reconstructed. Within the field of environmental magnetism, the most fruitful data have been time series of various common magnetic parameters, such as, but not exclusively, bulk magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence, magnetic hysteresis derived parameters, and remanent magnetizations. Magnetic anisotropy data, capable of determined the orientation distribution of mineral particles within oriented bulk specimens, have proven to be a powerful tool even in non-lithified and poorly consolidated aeolian sediment. A 15 meter long loess and paleosol section at the Dolni Vestonice site in the Czech Republic (48°53'11.5''N 16°39'15.8''E) was investigated within the framework of a multi-disciplinary funded research project (ANR-08-BLAN-0227-CSD6). Here we present the interpretation of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data set. Oriented specimens were collected from the 1 meter depth mark to the base of the section at a 5 or 10 cm depth sampling interval. Overall, 2 to 4 specimens were obtained at each sampling depth for a total of 632 specimens. The mean bulk magnetic susceptibility along the deposit is everywhere below 56 x 10-8 m3/kg and the degree of magnetic anisotropy (Pj) does not exceed 1.05. Intra-sampling depth reproducibility between specimens is good except in sand rich loess of the upper rapidly accumulating intervals. The magnetic anisotropy data, combined with field observations, optically stimulated luminescence chronology and other analytical data, reveal a fairly complete history of loess accumulation since the last interglacial. Nonetheless, the depositional environment was likely marked by hiatus, by erosional surfaces, and by post-depositional deformations driven by the local geomorphology and the regional tectonic setting.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization and by-product treatment at Tisov power plant (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Valbert, G.; Schneider, G.

    1998-07-01

    The FGD plant Tisovain the Czech republic is a retrofit downstream of a 100 MW lignite fired power plant. It was designed and built by L. and C. STEINMUELLER GmbH. Despite a narrow time schedule, the project was finished on time in December 1997. The major objectives of the applied limestone/gypsum process are: Minimum investment and operating costs; production and environmentally neutral disposal of a stabilized product containing the by-products fly ash, slag, gypsum and effluent. The first objective is achieved by the following new process arrangement: The flue gas is taken over from the boiler and fed directly into a wet scrubber for absorptive removal of the acid gases SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF. The cleaned flue gas is vented into the atmosphere without reheating by means of a wet stack which is arranged on top of the scrubber. By the described arrangement, a heat exchanger for cooling/heating of the flue gas is not required. No ductwork for connecting scrubber and stack is needed. Furthermore, the pressure drop across the FGD plant is minimized and allows the use of the already existing flue gas fans. Based on Steinmueller's experience with various limestone qualities, the powdered limestone supplied to the plant is milled once more on site. Thereby the reactivity of the limestone is enhanced resulting in low power consumption for the required plant performance. The second objective is achieved as follows: A part of the scrubbing liquid is continuously bled off as the underflow of a hydrocyclone station in order to remove the gypsum produced in the scrubber. A further dewatering of the gypsum does not take place. Instead, the effluent is mixed with fly ash and slag. As an additive, lime slaked with slag slurry is added. The resulting mixture is disposed of and compacted in the nearby opencast mine workings. It hardens in cement-like setting reactions to an environmentally safe stabilized product.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of urban heat island intensity in Brno (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, P.; Šezníčková, L.; Krahula, L.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed air temperature measurements from a network of 14 stations distributed in urbanized area of Brno, Czech Republic (380 ths. inhabitants, complex terrain) are analyzed with the aim to describe spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric Urban Heat Island (UHI). Each station environment was characterized with a set of parameters such as altitude, Sky View Factor (SVF), amount of vegetation (NDVI) and density of buildings (DENS) in station's neighborhood. Temperature measurements made in 10 min. intervals from a set of 64 calm and sunny days (DJF-6, MAM-26, JJA-21, SON-11) made between March 2010-May 2011 were used to characterize each station with several air temperature characteristics. Difference between temperature measurement at individual station and average temperature measurements of rural stations was used as a simple measure of UHI intensity. We found that in all seasons UHI clearly develops during night hours and also around noon while in morning and evening hours the temperature differences between urban and rural stations are close to zero. Maximum UHI intensity (about 2.5°C) appears in summer midday, typical UHI intensities in night hours reach 1.0-1.5°C in all seasons. From correlation analysis it follows that independent variables (SVF, NDVI, DENS) significantly correlate with minimum temperature (Tmin) and UHI intensity (ΔT) and altogether they explain about 60% of ΔT. Spatial variability of UHI intensity is compared with Land Surface Temperature fields derived for Brno region from thermal satellite imagery. We demonstrate that the highest LST values typically occur in industrial and commercial areas, which contribute significantly to UHI intensity.

  13. Relationships between sudden weather changes in summer and mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The study examines the relationship between sudden changes in weather conditions in summer, represented by (1) sudden air temperature changes, (2) sudden atmospheric pressure changes, and (3) passages of strong atmospheric fronts; and variations in daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic. The events are selected from data covering 1986-2005 and compared with the database of daily excess all-cause mortality for the whole population and persons aged 70 years and above. Relative deviations of mortality, i.e., ratios of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths, were averaged over the selected events for days D-2 (2 days before a change) up to D+7 (7 days after), and their statistical significance was tested by means of the Monte Carlo method. We find that the periods around weather changes are associated with pronounced patterns in mortality: a significant increase in mortality is found after large temperature increases and on days of large pressure drops; a decrease in mortality (partly due to a harvesting effect) occurs after large temperature drops, pressure increases, and passages of strong cold fronts. The relationship to variations in excess mortality is better expressed for sudden air temperature/pressure changes than for passages of atmospheric fronts. The mortality effects are usually more pronounced in the age group 70 years and above. The impacts associated with large negative changes of pressure are statistically independent of the effects of temperature; the corresponding dummy variable is found to be a significant predictor in the ARIMA model for relative deviations of mortality. This suggests that sudden weather changes should be tested also in time series models for predicting excess mortality as they may enhance their performance.

  14. Bohunician technology and thermoluminescence dating of the type locality of Brno-Bohunice (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Tostevin, G; Skrdla, P

    2008-11-01

    Results of thermoluminescence (TL) dating of 11 heated flint artifacts from the 2002 excavation at Brno-Bohunice, Czech Republic, are presented. The samples are from the eponym locality for the Bohunician, an industrial type considered technologically transitional between Middle and Upper Paleolithic core reduction strategies. The Bohunician is the first early Upper Paleolithic technocomplex in the Middle Danube of Central Europe and, therefore, is implicated in several issues related to the origins of modern humans in Europe. The Bohunician provides an example of how one technological strategy combines crested blade initiation of a core with the surficial (almost Levalloisian) reduction of blanks as blades and points. As the Middle Danube lacks antecedents of the behavioral steps within this technology, several hypotheses of inter-regional cultural transmission, with and without hominin gene flow, could explain the appearance of the Bohunician. The elucidation of the temporal context of Bohunician assemblages is, therefore, a critical step in understanding the behavioral, and potentially biological, succession in this region. Radiocarbon age estimates from charcoal associated with Bohunician sites suggest a wide age range between 33 and 41 ka 14C BP, which is also observed for individual sites. TL dating of heated flint artifacts provides ages on the calendric time scale of an archeological event, the firing. The weighted mean of 48.2+/-1.9 ka BPTL for 11 heated flint samples from Brno-Bohunice provides the first non-radiocarbon data on archeological material from the Bohunician. The TL dating, in conjunction with the archeological and sedimentological analysis, allows the evaluation of the integrity of this new type-collection. The hypothetical possibility of the incorporation of Szeletian artifacts (i.e., leaf points) into the site formation processes can therefore be refuted.

  15. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  16. Mumps in the Eastern Bohemia Region of the Czech Republic - a Serological Survey 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Fajfr, Miroslav; Štěpánová, Vlasta; Fajfrová, Jana

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of mumps has decreased in many countries since the introduction of vaccination programmes, however, in the past decade a rapid increase in the disease occurrence has been reported worldwide. The reason for this situation is still not clear. We present the results of a serological survey carried out in the Eastern Bohemia Region of the Czech Republic during the years 2008-2012. In total, 2,536 samples of 2,034 patients were examined during the study period. The study cohort was divided into two groups, one consisted of individuals born before the introduction of mandatory vaccination and the other one comprised individuals born after mandatory vaccination started. For the serology analyses the ELISA kits RIDASCREEN Mumpsvirus IgM and IgG (R-Biopharm®, Germany) were used. Out of 2,536 samples (including paired sera), 23.9% (n=606) were positive and 12% (n=304) had equivocal results. Most of the positive samples were obtained from patients aged 17-20 years. Significantly more (p<0.05) positive patients were born after the start of the national vaccination programme (patient group 2) (22.8%) compared to those born before its start (patient group 1) (13.7%). Interestingly, the analysis of data showed that 75.3% of patients falling into group 1 had anti-mumps IgG antibodies, which means that they had contracted mumps, whilst 23.5% of patients of group 2 had undetectable IgG antibodies, even though they should have been vaccinated. The data from our study, with a low number of positive samples in the first years of the study and an increase in the last two years, could suggest the occurrence of outbreaks every 4-6 years.

  17. Evaluation of the assessment and documentation of chronic wounds in residential social care in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Saibertová, S; Pokorná, A

    2016-11-02

    Accurate evaluation of non-healing, chronic wounds followed by the selection of an appropriate therapeutic strategy is a must for the foundation of health-care management. Assessment of non-healing chronic wounds in clinical practice in the Czech Republic is not standardised in acute care settings or in residential social care facilities. The aim of the study was to analyse the methods being used to assess non-healing, chronic wounds in residential social services in the Czech Republic, where more patients with chronic wounds are present because of the increasing incidence of wounds in old age. The research was carried out at 66 residential social care institutions across all regions of the Czech Republic. A mixed model was used for the research (participatory observation including creation of field notes and content analysis of documents for documentation and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data). The same methodology was used in previous work which has been done in acute care settings in 2013. The results of this research have corroborated the inconsistencies in procedures used by general nurses for assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds. However, the situation was found to be more positive with regard to the evaluation of basic/fundamental parameters of a wound (e.g. size, depth and location of the wound) compared with the evaluation of more specific parameters (e.g. exudate or signs of infection). This included not only the number of observed variables, but also the action taken. Both were improved when a consultant for wound healing was present. An effective strategy for wound management depends on the method and scope of the assessment of non-healing, chronic wounds in place in clinical practice in observed facilities; improvement may be expected following the general introduction of 'non-healing, chronic wound assessment' algorithm.

  18. Pre-graduate and post-graduate education in personalized medicine in the Czech Republic: statistics, analysis and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Jiri; Polivka, Jiri; Karlikova, Marie; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of personalized medicine is the individualized approach to the patient's treatment. It could be achieved only by the integration of the complexity of novel findings in diverse "omics" disciplines, new methods of medical imaging, as well as implementation of reliable biomarkers into the medical care. The implementation of personalized medicine into clinical practice is dependent on the adaptation of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education to these principles. The situation in the education of personalized medicine in the Czech Republic is analyzed together with novel educational tools that are currently established in our country. The EPMA representatives in the Czech Republic in cooperation with the working group of professionals at the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague have implemented the survey of personalized medicine awareness among students of Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen-the "Personalized Medicine Questionnaire". The results showed lacking knowledge of personalized medicine principles and students' will of education in this domain. Therefore, several educational activities addressed particularly to medical students and young physicians were realized at our facility with very positive evaluation. These educational activities (conferences, workshops, seminars, e-learning and special courses in personalized medicine (PM)) will be a part of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education, will be extended to other medical faculties in our country. The "Summer School of Personalized Medicine in Plzen 2015" will be organized at the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen as the first event on this topic in the Czech Republic.

  19. The municipalities of the Northwest region of the Czech Republic adapt to climate change: overview of barriers and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Krkoška Lorencová, Eliška; Vačkář, David

    2017-04-01

    The municipalities of the Czech Republic have been facing negative impacts of changing climate in the past decades - especially floods (1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts and heat waves (2013, 2015), claiming lives, material damages and economic losses up to several % of GDP. Reflecting these events, climate change adaptation should represent major issue in strategical planning on all administrative levels, which is actually not fully met nowadays. Sectoral National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) was approved by the Government of the Czech Republic in autumn 2015 and the implementation action plan is currently being approved. Adaptation strategies on lower administrative level (adaptation strategies of individual municipalities) are, however, still quite rare. In this contribution, we analyse barriers and challenges for: (i) the development of climate change adaptation strategies on administrative level of individual municipalities in the Northwest region, Czech Republic; and (ii) implementation of adaptation measures into the decision-making processes. Based on participatory seminars with key stakeholders organised in pilot municipalities, it was shown that municipalities are (at least partly) able to cope with existing risks such as floods, but are not well-prepared for expected regionally "new" risks such as long lasting heat waves, insufficient water retention and flash floods. Linking the goals of adaptation strategy with urban planning seems to be challenging task but also potentially powerfull tool to implement specific adaptation measures. It emerged, that complicated ownership relations often cause obstacles for implementation of adaptation measures, highlighting the potential of stimulation and motivation tools from the side of the municipality. On the other hand, it was also shown that despite experiencing its negative impacts, climate change is often neglected or percepted as a marginal issue by some municipalities and developing adaptation strategy is

  20. Qualification of physics teachers at the lower secondary school level in Czech Republic and their attitudes towards physics tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříž, Jan; Kubínová, Štěpánka

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important problems of physics teaching at the lower secondary schools in the Czech Republic is the lack of good, or at least qualified, teachers. However, it is the physics teacher at the lower secondary school who fundamentally influences the attitude of pupils towards physics. We present the results of the survey conducted in 2015. The survey showed that more than one third of physics teachers at the lower secondary schools has not passed any kind of physics teachers training program. Moreover we have tested the attitudes of teachers towards the physics tasks.

  1. International Symposium on Advanced Laser Technologies Held in Prague, Czech Republic on November 8-13, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-13

    Czech Republic I I Selected Papers I I I 1)•94-.6,4 : I J _ 94 5 27 104 Session 1. Laser-stimulated processes in media and at interfaces. \\ccesior For U i...General comments By resonance photodesorption studies, a new effect, photodetachment of sodium atoms from a surface of own metal, was discovered by us...technologies. Comparing the recent works on creating the ohmic contacts to semiconductors 1-8 with earlier papers 9-11 shows that the most commonly used

  2. [Warning about risk of invasive infections in splenectomized patients. Experiences from University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011].

    PubMed

    Polák, P; Freibergerová, M; Husa, P; Slesinger, P; Svoboda, R; Sťásek, J; Frola, L; Macháček, C

    2012-09-01

    Syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized (overwhelming postsplenectomy infection - OPSI) is feared and often fatal infectious complication in patients after splenectomy. The risk of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized in these persons persists lifelong and doesn't diminish during the time. Etiologically, encapsulated bacterias like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae group b and Neisseria meningitidis are involved. As the mortality of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized is very high, it is indispensable to educate and vaccinate persons in risk. The authors present case reports of three splenectomized patients who were hospitalized for invasive pneumococcal infection in the University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011.

  3. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae.

  4. Urological procedures in Central Europe and the current reality based on the national registries of Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland (2012 status)

    PubMed Central

    Juszczak, Kajetan; Drewa, Tomasz; Hora, Milan; Nyirády, Peter; Sosnowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the laparoscopic approach in oncologic urology seems more attractable to the surgeons. It is considered to have the same oncologic quality as open surgery, but is less invasive in patients. It is used widely in all of Europe, but with various frequency. The aim of the study was to present a various amount of oncourological procedures from three neighbouring countries – Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. Prostatectomy, cystectomy, nephrectomy and tumorectomy (Nephron Sparing Procedures – NSS) were presented as a list of procedures prepared from the national registry. Material and methods The total amount of procedures was presented, as well as the LO (Lap to Open procedures) index, P/P (procedures/population) index, ratio of cystectomy/population, and cystectomy/TURBT. Results In the Czech Republic, the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in the majority when analysing the country's population. In Hungary and Czech Republic, there are more laparoscopic/robotic radical prostatectomies performed, than open ones. In Poland the largest number of cystectomies is performed when analysing the country's population, but it is difficult to explain the much higher ratio of 6.57 TUR/one cystectomy. In the Czech Republic this procedure is performed in almost one quarter of the patients (23.36%). Interestingly, in Hungary the cystectomy with pouch creation is performed in about 67.65% cases. The highest reimbursement for surgical procedure is present in the Czech Republic with approximately 20–40% more than when compared to Poland or Hungary. Conclusions The definitive leader in Central Europe (based on the national registry) is the Czech Republic, where the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in biggest amounts when analysing the country's population. Explanation of such circumstances, can be the higher

  5. Urological procedures in Central Europe and the current reality based on the national registries of Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland (2012 status).

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Juszczak, Kajetan; Drewa, Tomasz; Hora, Milan; Nyirády, Peter; Sosnowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the laparoscopic approach in oncologic urology seems more attractable to the surgeons. It is considered to have the same oncologic quality as open surgery, but is less invasive in patients. It is used widely in all of Europe, but with various frequency. The aim of the study was to present a various amount of oncourological procedures from three neighbouring countries - Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary. Prostatectomy, cystectomy, nephrectomy and tumorectomy (Nephron Sparing Procedures - NSS) were presented as a list of procedures prepared from the national registry. The total amount of procedures was presented, as well as the LO (Lap to Open procedures) index, P/P (procedures/population) index, ratio of cystectomy/population, and cystectomy/TURBT. In the Czech Republic, the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in the majority when analysing the country's population. In Hungary and Czech Republic, there are more laparoscopic/robotic radical prostatectomies performed, than open ones. In Poland the largest number of cystectomies is performed when analysing the country's population, but it is difficult to explain the much higher ratio of 6.57 TUR/one cystectomy. In the Czech Republic this procedure is performed in almost one quarter of the patients (23.36%). Interestingly, in Hungary the cystectomy with pouch creation is performed in about 67.65% cases. The highest reimbursement for surgical procedure is present in the Czech Republic with approximately 20-40% more than when compared to Poland or Hungary. The definitive leader in Central Europe (based on the national registry) is the Czech Republic, where the most complex procedures are performed (laparoscopic/robotic prostatectomy, NSS LAP, LAP nephrectomy) in biggest amounts when analysing the country's population. Explanation of such circumstances, can be the higher reimbursement rate for surgical procedure in this country.

  6. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology.

  7. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology. PMID:27081352

  8. Mercury in forest ecosystems near chlor-alkali plant in the Czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimeček, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Rohovec, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A mercury electrolysis chlor-alkali plant has been operating in Neratovice, the central Czech Republic since year 1948. We focused on the assessment of mercury contamination in the plant surroundings. To assess the contamination extent we sampled organic and mineral soils, bedrock, bark, needles and tree rings from several forest sites with variable distance from plant. The soils were predominately arenic cambisol and the vegetation cover composed of mixed to coniferous forests (majorly Pinus sylvestris). At all the sites, the highest concentrations occurred in the organic rich O horizons of the forest soils. The Hg concentrations increased from Oi horizon (up to 252 μg/kg) with fresh organic matter, through Oe horizons (up to 617 μg/kg) to the Oa horizons (up to 813 μg/kg) with relatively highly decomposed organic matter. The Hg concentrations in mineral soil were significantly lower in range from 3 to 44 μg/kg. Sandstone bedrock contained low Hg concentrations from 2.7 to 4.7 μg/kg. The difference between the high Hg in organic and low Hg in mineral horizons results from order of magnitude different content of soil organic matter. In the same time low Hg in mineral soil indicates low level of Hg migration down the soil profile. Apart from the simple comparison of Hg concentrations, insight into the patterns of soil Hg distribution can be gained by examining the stoichiometric ratios of Hg to C. Soil Hg/C should be greater in areas with greater atmospheric Hg deposition. O horizons of sites closer to plant up to 4.5 km exhibited elevated Hg/C ratios (2.0 - 2.2 μg/g) with respect to those at more distant sites (0.7 - 0.9 μg/g). Values of mineral soil Hg/C ratios varied irrespective to the distance from the plant. Organic soil Hg pool decreased from 13.6 mg/m2 in distance of 1.9 km from the plant to 2.6 mg/m2 in distance of 9 km. But the mineral soil Hg pool ranging from 7.6 to 12.3 mg/m2 exhibited no trend with distance. The polluted sites up to 2.5 km from

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Mute swans in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Machova, Jirina; Hornickova, Jitka; Tomci, Miroslav; Nagl, Ivan; Horyna, Bedrich; Holko, Ivan

    2007-02-25

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild birds in the Czech Republic extensive surveillance was carried out between January and April 2006. A total of 2101 samples representing 61 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A by using PCR, sequencing and cultivation on chicken embryos. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in 12 Mute swans (Cygnus olor). The viruses were determined as HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza) and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/mallard/Italy/835/06 and A/turkey/Turkey/1194/05. Following the first H5N1 case, about 300 wild birds representing 33 species were collected from the outbreak region and tested for the presence of AIV without any positive result. This is the first report of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 in the Czech Republic. The potential role of swan as an effective vector of avian influenza virus is also discussed.

  10. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Krutova, Marcela; Matejkova, Jana; Kuijper, Ed J; Drevinek, Pavel; Nyc, Otakar

    2016-07-21

    In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  11. Occurrence of ticks in the subcutaneous tissue of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes in Czech Republic and Romania.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, G; Juránková, J; Tăbăran, F A; Frgelecová, L; Forejtek, P; Matei, I A; Ionică, A M; Hodžić, A; Modrý, D; Mihalca, A D

    2017-02-01

    An extensive survey of parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was independently conducted in Romania and the Czech Republic. Carcasses were examined by necropsy, and small, dark nodules apparently containing ticks were noticed in the subcutaneous tissue of several foxes. Histopathological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Of the 91 foxes examined from the Czech Republic, 14 (15.4%) were harboring ticks in the subcutaneous tissue. In the majority of these cases, 1-3 nodules/fox were found, with a maximum of 31 nodules/fox. In Romania a single examined fox had subcutaneous ticks. All ticks collected from subcutaneous tissue were partially engorged adults. Based on morphological features, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus, I. crenulatus and Dermacentor reticulatus were identified. The histopathological examination revealed chronic granulomatous panniculitis with peripheral fibrosis and intralesional presence of the ticks. Only few data are available regarding ticks localized in the subcutaneous tissue of any host. All the ticks were dead or already decomposed and it is evident that subcutaneous location does not represent an evolutionary advantage, as the detachment and finishing the life cycle is impossible.

  12. Trends in Parent-adolescent Communication in the Czech Republic between 2002 and 2014: Results of the HBSC Study.

    PubMed

    Vokáčová, Jana; Vašíčková, Jana; Hodačová, Lenka; Půžová, Zuzana; Tabak, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Good parent-child communication is associated with adolescent well-being. The aim of the present study was to report time trends in parent-adolescent communication in biological and stepfamilies in the Czech Republic between 2002 and 2014 and to assess gender and age differences. The research sample consisted of 16,160 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.1% of boys) who participated in the 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 surveys within the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The trends in family communication were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, a significant increase in the ease of communication with biological parents was observed in 2014. On the other hand, the adolescents' perception of communication with stepparents did not change in this period. Compared with the girls, a higher rate of boys reported communication with their father or stepfather as being easy throughout the study period. The ease of talking to biological parents decreased with age. The growing positive trend demonstrated an improvement in communication in intact families at the beginning of the 21st century, while communication with stepparents remained unchanged from 2002 to 2014. The increase in rates of ease of communication with biological fathers was reported by both genders. However, the ease of talking to biological mothers grew mainly among boys.

  13. The Surname Space of the Czech Republic: Examining Population Structure by Network Analysis of Spatial Co-Occurrence of Surnames

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Josef; Cheshire, James A.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of countries, surnames represent a ubiquitous cultural attribute inherited from an individual's ancestors and predominantly only altered through marriage. This paper utilises an innovative method, taken from economics, to offer unprecedented insights into the “surname space” of the Czech Republic. We construct this space as a network based on the pairwise probabilities of co-occurrence of surnames and find that the network representation has clear parallels with various ethno-cultural boundaries in the country. Our inductive approach therefore formalizes a simple assumption that the more frequently the bearers of two surnames concentrate in the same locations the higher the probability that these two surnames can be related (considering ethno-cultural relatedness, common co-ancestry or genetic relatedness, or some other type of relatedness). Using the Czech Republic as a case study this paper offers a fresh perspective on surnames as a quantitative data source and provides a methodology that can be easily incorporated within wider cultural, ethnic, geographic and population genetics studies already utilizing surnames. PMID:23119060

  14. Volunteering and mutual aid in health and social care in the Czech Republic as an example of active citizenship.

    PubMed

    Krízová, Eva

    2012-06-01

    This article informs about recent research findings on voluntary and mutual aid in the Czech Republic with a special attention paid to formal volunteering in health and social care. The data suggest that public involvement is comparable to middle-frequency experienced in European countries. In this respect, volunteering is higher in the Czech Republic than in other former Eastern European countries and is an evidence of a successful and rapid restoration of the civic sector. New patterns of volunteering featured by planning, coordination, and contracting have spread out being strongly supported by national and EU policy measures. Managerial patterns of volunteering are dominating in health and social care institutions. Volunteering in health and social care is firmly motivated by emotional altruism; however, reciprocal (instrumental) and normative motivations are also present, though to a lesser extent compared to other sectors of volunteer activities. In the managerial pattern of volunteering altruism is balanced with personal gains and benefits for those who volunteer. Volunteering is deeply embedded in a civic, humanitarian paradigm instead of a religious faith and duty.

  15. Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

  16. Climatological Data Rescue from historic meteorological stations in the Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repka, M.

    2010-09-01

    quality control by comparison of data with surrounding stations. Data of mostly meteorological elements and stations are now controlled since 1961. For errors detection and data quality control in frontier regions is very useful data from Slovak meteorological stations. Acknowledgements An author would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic for project no KJB300420905.

  17. Seroepidemiology of whooping cough in the Czech Republic: estimates of incidence of infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, R; Smetana, J; Sosovickova, R; Fabianova, K; Zavadilova, J; Dite, P; Gal, P; Naplava, P; Lzicarova, D

    2017-09-01

    Despite widespread vaccination programmes, pertussis remains a significant health burden in many countries. Low awareness of the disease, the high rate of asymptomatic cases in adults and difficulties with diagnosis could explain the under-reporting of pertussis. The lack of data on actual incidence constitutes an obstacle for public health authorities for the implementation of a vaccination strategy against pertussis in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis infection in adults and to estimate the actual incidence of the disease compared with the reported incidence. Prospective, multicentre seroprevalence study. The study was conducted in 2000 adult subjects aged ≥18 years who had not received pertussis vaccination within the last 5 years. All enrolled subjects provided a blood sample for serum testing of IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin, performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, to indicate if they had an acute infection or if they had been infected with pertussis within the last 12 months or earlier. Results were validated in accordance with the guidelines of the European Sero-epidemiology Network 2 and were expressed in ESEN units/ml. A positive concentration of anti-pertussis toxin antibodies, indicating previous pertussis infection, was demonstrated in 39.9% (n = 799) of all study subjects, and 0.40% (n = 8) of subjects had a concentration suggestive of a recent infection (within the last 12 months). The highest antibody seroprevalence was observed in subjects aged 18-29 years (1.46%). No cases of acute infection were detected. During the study period, the reported incidence of pertussis in the adult population was 0.84/100,000 inhabitants. Based on the seroprevalence results from this study, it is estimated that the actual incidence of pertussis could be as much as 699/100,000 inhabitants. The actual incidence of pertussis in adults in the Czech Republic could therefore be

  18. Agricolaite, a new mineral of uranium from Jáchymov, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Roman; Ondruš, Petr; Veselovský, František; Císařová, Ivana; Hloušek, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The new mineral agricolaite, a potassium uranyl carbonate with ideal formula K4(UO2)(CO3)3, occurs in vugs of ankerite gangue in gneisses in the abandoned Giftkiesstollen adit at Jáchymov, Czech Republic. The name is after Georgius Agricola (1494-1555), German scholar and scientist. Agricolaite occurs as isolated equant irregular translucent grains to 0.3 mm with yellow color, pale yellow streak, and vitreous luster. It is brittle with uneven fracture and displays neither cleavage nor parting. Agricolaite is non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is ~4. It is associated with aragonite, brochantite, posnjakite, malachite, rutherfordine, and "pseudo-voglite". Experimental density is higher than 3.3 g.cm-3, Dcalc is 3.531 g. cm-3. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/ c, with a 10.2380(2), b 9.1930(2), c 12.2110(3) Å, β 95.108(2)°, V 1144.71(4) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are d( I)( hkl): 6.061(55)(002), 5.087(57)(200), 3.740(100)(202), 3.393(43)(113), 2.281(52)(402). Average composition based on ten electron microprobe analyses corresponds to (in wt.%) UO3 48.53, K2O 31.49, CO2(calc) 22.04 which gives the empirical formula K3.98(UO2)1.01(CO3)3.00. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R 1 = 0.0184 on the basis of the 1,308 unique reflections with F o > 4 σF o. The structure of agricolaite is identical to that of synthetic K4(UO2)(CO3)3 and consists of separate UO2(CO3)3 groups organized into layers parallel to (100) and two crystallographically non-equivalent sites occupied by K+ cations. Both the mineral and its name were approved by the IMA-CNMNC.

  19. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  20. InSAR Used for Subsidence Monitoring of Mining Area OKR, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazecky, Milan

    2010-03-01

    The abilities of InSAR processing techniques to detect and monitor subsidence of mining areas were already proved in several works, e.g. of Dr. Perski that used them in Poland. As an ESA project of VSB-TU Ostrava using data from ERS 1,2 and Envisat ASAR, the InSAR has been applied also for the Northern Moravian OKR region in Czech Republic, a region with a long black coal mining history. Mining activities in this area have caused damages and destructions of many buildings, tramlines etc. The problem is still actual, even that only 4 mines are active, since 2007. Via the InSAR processing, an evolution of subsidence during last 10 years is monitored using the Doris software. Due to highly decorrelated interferograms created from newer data (since 2001), the actual state is hardly interpretable though. The critical subsiding objects were detected by pointwise multitemporal InSAR techniques (MT- InSAR) - the permanent scatterers and small baselines methods using the StaMPS software. The results were compared with the in-situ levelling revealing that the estimated rate of subsidence was underestimated. Only the ERS-2 data from period 1999-2000 were successfully used in these advanced InSAR techniques to achieve some reasonable results. Because of gyroscopes failure of ERS-2, the data since January 2001 couldn't be processed successfully by StaMPS due to big differences in the Doppler centroid frequencies of each images - an abortive result of a small baselines method attempt can be presented. Because of used long- wall mining method, that evokes spatial movement of subsidence epicenters in time, a longer time period of dataset usable in MT-InSAR would decrease the processing merit (the character of subsidence in the area is not pointwise in longer time period). This project will continue with a processing of newer datasets to achieve a complete overview of terrain changes in the mining area during the last decade.

  1. Personal exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J

    2013-07-01

    Personal exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) bound to airborne particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were measured in the context of a large-scale molecular epidemiological study in order to identify the impacts of air pollution on human health. Sampling was carried out in three industrial cities in the Czech Republic: Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov. The city of Prague, exhibiting much lower industrial air pollution but a high level of traffic, served as a control. The first monitoring campaigns were held in winter and were repeated in the summer of 2009. The active personal monitors PV 1.7 for PM2.5-bound c-PAHs were used. Non-smoking city policemen from Prague, Karvina and Havirov, and office workers from Ostrava, participated in the study. All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary. The average personal winter exposure to c-PAHs (sum of the eight PAHs-benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) was highest in Karvina, 39.1, followed by Ostrava at 15.1 and Prague at 4.3 ng/m(3). The winter levels were significantly higher than the summer values (P<0.001): 4.3 in Karvina, 3.0 in Ostrava, 1.6 in Havirov and 1.0 ng/m(3) in Prague. The average personal benzo[a]pyrene winter/summer exposures were: 6.9/0.6 in Karvina, 2.5/0.4 in Ostrava, 0.8/0.1 in Prague and 0.2 ng/m(3) in summer in Havirov. In this study, we examined personal exposure to c-PAHs and tested it for associations with potential predictor variables collected from questionnaires, addressing life style factors and day-to-day activities. We found outdoor concentration, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, home heating fuel of coal, wood or gas, frequency of exhaust fan use, cooking and commuting by a car to be the main determinants of personal exposure.

  2. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions from cave sediments of the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroubek, Pavel

    This thesis presents a paleoclimatic/paleoenvironmental study conducted on clastic cave sediments of the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic. The study is based on environmental magnetic techniques, yet a wide range of other scientific methods was used to obtain a clearer picture of the Quaternary climate. My thesis also presents an overview of the significance of cave deposits for paleoclimatic reconstructions, explains basic environmental magnetic techniques and offers background information on the study area---a famous karst region in Central Europe with a rich history. In Kulna Cave magnetic susceptibility variations and in particular variations in pedogenic susceptibility yield a detailed record of the palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Last Glacial Stage. The Kulna long-term climatic trends agree with the deep-sea SPECMAP record, while the short-term oscillations correlate with rapid changes in the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Kulna Cave sediments reflect the intensity of pedogenesis controlled by short-term warmer events and precipitation over the mid-continent and provide a link between continental European climate and sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic during the Last Glacial Stage. Given the number of independent climate proxies determined from the entrance facies of the cave and their high resolution, Kulna is an extremely important site for studying Late Pleistocene climate. In the interior of Spiralka Cave, a five meter high section of fine grained sediments deposited during floods yields information on the climatic and environmental conditions of the last millenium. In the upper 1.5 meters of this profile, mineral magnetic and other non-magnetic data indicate that susceptibility variations are controlled by the concentration of magnetite and its magnetic grain size. Comparison of our susceptibility record to the instrumental record of winter temperature anomalies shows a remarkable correlation. This correlation is explained

  3. Consumption of osteoanabolic drugs and strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis in the Czech Republic in 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Fuksa, Leos; Vytrisalova, Magda; Hendrychova, Tereza; Hrubesova, Ivana; Vlcek, Jiri; Palicka, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Anti-osteoporosis drugs with osteoanabolic (teriparatide, intact parathormone) and dual (strontium ranelate) mechanism of action are currently available for the treatment of postmenopausal, glucocorticoid induced or male osteoporosis in the Czech Republic (CZ). These expensive drugs are subjects of special prescribing limitations (2nd line treatments). The objective was to analyze trends in consumption of osteoanabolic and dual drugs in the treatment of osteoporosis since their introduction onto the market in CZ (2005-2011). The prescription-based database of the General Health insurance Company of the Czech Republic that covers approximately 60% of the Czech population was used as the data source. An insured person with a recorded prescription for teriparatide (TRPD), intact parathormone (iPTH) or strontium ranelate (SR) in the period of interest was defined as a patient; 271 (224), 77 (75) and 5930 (5545) patients (women) treated with TRPD, iPTH and SR in 2011, respectively, were identified. The median age of patients on TRPD and SR ranged from 71 to 74 years in 2006-2011. The number of patients treated with TRPD between 2009 and 2011 has been stable, while in iPTH the number increased 2.8 times in the same time period. The number of patients treated with SR has been steadily rising since its introduction in 2005. SR was prescribed most often by physicians specialized in internal medicine (42%) and rheumatology (25%). Male patients accounted for 6% of the SR consumers in 2011. The consumption of dual and osteoanabolic drugs has been rapidly increasing. Consumption rates in men (both absolute and relative) have been increasing but still remain relatively low.

  4. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kocova, Helena; Dvorackova, Olga; Vondracek, Petr; Haberlova, Jana

    2014-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare hereditary neuromuscular disorder (with a prevalence of 1 per 30,000) that greatly debilitates patients and, in most cases, shortens their life expectancy. Although there is no causal therapy, improvements in symptomatic therapy have extended patients' life expectancy and increased their quality of life. Unfortunately, the advancements in care vary from country to country. To improve the care for children with spinal muscular atrophy in the Czech Republic, we created a survey to obtain the baseline information about their quality of life and compared the data with equivalent data from the United States. We used the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Neuromuscular Measurement Model, which is a health-related quality of life questionnaire specific to children with neuromuscular disorders. The survey was conducted on 35 children with genetically proven spinal muscular atrophy and their parents. Compared with the US data, the Czech data generally show a lower quality of life, mainly in the family resources part. The greatest score was achieved in the section about communication. Altogether, the parents' scores are lower than those of the children. In the Czech Republic, patients with spinal muscular atrophy and, especially their parents, have a significantly lower quality of life compared with US patients, mostly because of economic factors and a lack of social support. Our results reveal areas toward which improvement should be directed. The need for family support through social care as well as civic, patient, or organizational support is accentuated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate change impact on the occurrence of selected pests in the regional scale in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocmankova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Juroch, J.; Mozny, M.

    2009-04-01

    Climate conditions exert significant influence over the the population dynamic, life cycle duration, infestation pressure and the overall occurrence of majority of agricultural pests and diseases. Particularly in the case of those pest species whose development is directly linked with the climate conditions the shift of their climatic niche or their infestation capability is to be expected under the changing climate. Te presented study is focused on the most important potato pest i.e Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824) and most important pest of grain maize i.e. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübner 1796). Simulations of potential distribution of pests in the Czech Republic in the conditions of climate change were made with the usage of dynamical model CLIMEX and by the interpolation of output EI from 43 locations there are climate conditions of almost whole area of the Czech Republic considered as favorable for pest' survival. The models validation was based on the comparison of the modeled potential pests' distribution with the field observations in the current climate conditions. Under the expected climate conditions the pests will most likely be able to complete their development earlier and in higher population densities. Both mechanisms might cause a subsequent increase of the severity of the pest infestation. In addition to this the higher temperature and its earlier coming in the beginning of the vegetative season may support the mobility and faster local spread of some species. The estimates of the future climate is based on the assumption of slow increase of green house gases emissions and low climate sensitivity to their rising concentration (LOW B1) as well as the "opposite" scenario assuming rapid growth of emissions and the high sensitivity of the climate system (HIGH A2). Three GCM models that were driven by these emission scenarios included HadCM3, NCAR-PCM and ECHAM4. For Colorado potato beetle the realization of

  6. Tectonic controls on Pliocene evaporite facies, Enriquillo basin, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, M.E.; Mann, P.

    1989-03-01

    Well, seismic stratigraphic, and outcrop observations from the Enriquillo basin, Dominican Republic, are used to reconstruct Pliocene evaporite environments in a complex strike-slip basin. The 2000-km/sup 2/ floor of the Enriquillo basin is presently bounded by strike-slip reverse, and thrust faults which form part of a 200 to 250-km wide zone of left-lateral, strike-slip motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Convergent strike-slip displacement of bounding mountain blocks over the last 5 m.y. has depressed certain areas of the present valley floor to 80 m below sea level. In the deepest part of the basin, middle Miocene carbonate basement is overlain by up to 5 km of upper Miocene to Holocene clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks.

  7. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  8. Genetic diversity of the prion protein gene (PRNP) coding sequence in Czech sheep and evaluation of the national breeding programme for resistance to scrapie in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Stepanek, Ondrej; Horin, Petr

    2017-02-01

    Of 34 breeds kept in the Czech Republic 45,604 sheep were genotyped for codons 136, 154 and 171 in the prion protein gene (PRNP) during the years 2006-2014. In this cohort, haplotypes ARR, ARQ, ARH, AHQ, VRQ, AHR and ARK were detected. The haplotype AF141RQ associated with susceptibility to atypical scrapie was observed in nine out of 30 breeds analysed for this purpose. In addition, six rare nonsynonymous substitutions producing haplotypes AT137RQ, AN138RQ, AG151RQ, AH151RQ, ARL168Q and ARQE175 were identified in various breeds. Due to their low frequencies, these polymorphisms are of no potential importance for the breeding programme. With regard to their genetic particularity, Sumavka, Valachian and Cameroon breeds were screened for additional polymorphisms. Further haplotypes, AR143RQ and AS146RQ, were found in Sumavka and Cameroon, and in Valachian sheep, respectively. Frequencies of the ARR (resistance-associated), VRQ (susceptibility-associated) haplotypes, and of the most resistant ARR/ARR genotype calculated for sheep born in the years 2001-2003 and 2011-2013 documented effects of the 10 year-lasting national breeding programme. The total frequency of ARR doubled from 36.8 to 75.8 %, while the frequency of VRQ decreased from 4 to 0.7 %. The total frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype increased from 17.7 to 59 %. These data show that the national scrapie resistance breeding programme has had an important desirable effect on haplotype and genotype frequencies of PRNP in Czech sheep.

  9. Assessment of three classes of DNA adducts in human placentas from smoking and non-snoking women in the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (2000-2004) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...

  10. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  11. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  12. Development of allele-specific primer PCR for a swine TLR2 SNP and comparison of the frequency among several pig breeds of Japan and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Yoshihiro; Minagawa, Yu; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Shinkai, Hiroki; Uenishi, Hirohide; Splichal, Igor

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we have developed an allele-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) for genotyping a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of swine Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (C406G), which is related to the prevalence of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. We also compared the allele frequency among several pig breeds of Japan and the Czech Republic. Allele-specific primers were constructed by introducing 1-base mismatch sequence before the SNP site. The swine TLR2 C406G mutation was successfully determined by the ASP-PCR using genomic DNA samples in Japan as previously genotyped by a sequencing method. Using the PCR condition determined, genomic DNA samples from pig blood obtained from 110 pigs from 7 different breeds in the Czech Republic were genotyped by the ASP-PCR. The genotyping results from the ASP-PCR were completely matched with the results from the sequencing method. The allele frequency of the swine TLR2 C406G mutation was 27.5% in the Czech Republic and 3.6% in Japan. The C406G mutation was only found in the Landrace breed in Japan, and was almost exclusively found in the Landrace breed in the Czech Republic as well. These results indicated the usefulness of ASP-PCR for detecting a specific SNP for swine TLR2.

  13. Assessment of three classes of DNA adducts in human placentas from smoking and non-snoking women in the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (2000-2004) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...

  14. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  15. The Dramaturgy Approach to Education in Nature: Reflections of a Decade of International Vacation School Lipnice Courses, Czech Republic, 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an auto-ethnography or narrative of self related to the development of international experiential education programmes in nature developed by Vacation School Lipnice (VSL) in the Czech Republic. The paper provides the cultural background that influences the course design and provides examples, through participant observation,…

  16. The Dramaturgy Approach to Education in Nature: Reflections of a Decade of International Vacation School Lipnice Courses, Czech Republic, 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an auto-ethnography or narrative of self related to the development of international experiential education programmes in nature developed by Vacation School Lipnice (VSL) in the Czech Republic. The paper provides the cultural background that influences the course design and provides examples, through participant observation,…

  17. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  18. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  19. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  20. Analysis of Actual Soil Degradation by Erosion Using Satellite Imagery and Terrain Attributes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizala, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Soil water and wind erosion (possibly tillage erosion) is the most significant soil degradation factor in the Czech Republic. Moreover, this phenomenon also affects seriously quality of water sources., About 50 % of arable land are endangered by water erosion and about 10 % of arable land are endangered wind erosion in the Czech Republic. These processes have been accelerated by human activity. Specific condition of agriculture land in the Czech Republic including highland relief and particularly size of land parcel and intensification of agriculture does not enable to reduce flow of runoff water. Insufficient protection against accelerated erosion processes is related to lack of landscape and hydrographic elements and large area of agricultural plots. Currently, this issue is solved at plot scale by field investigation or at regional scale using numerical and empirical erosion models. Nevertheless, these models enable only to predict the potential of soil erosion. Large scale assessment of actual degradation level of soils is based on expert knowledge. However, there are still many uncertainties in this issue. Therefore characterization of actual degradation level of soil is required especially for assessment of long-term impact of soil erosion on soil fertility. Soil degradation by erosion can be effectively monitored or quantified by modern tools of remote sensing with variable level of detail accessible. Aims of our study is to analyse the applicability of remote sensing for monitoring of actual soil degradation by erosion. Satellite and aerial image data (multispectral and hyperspectral), terrain attributes and data from field investigation are the main source for this analyses. The first step was the delimitation of bare soils using supervised classification of the set of Landsat scenes from 2000 - 2014. The most suitable period of time for obtaining spectral image data with the lowest vegetation cover of soil was determined. The results were verified by

  1. [Course of congenital malformation incidences and their changes over time in children born in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Sípek, A; Gregor, V; Horáček, J; Sípek, A; Langhammer, P

    2012-10-01

    An analysis of incidences of selected birth defects in the Czech Republic in 2000 - 2008 period. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of birth defects incidences in births and total birth defects incidences (including prenatally diagnosed cases) from the Czech National Birth Defects Register database. Data from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics) in the Czech Republic in the 2000 - 2008 period were used along with data on prenatally diagnosed defects from particular departments of medical genetics. Sixteen selected defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, congenital hydrocephalus, coarctation of aorta, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Fallot tetralogy, omphalocele, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal malformations, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome) were analyzed in detail. There were 119 570 live births (61 326 boys and 58 244 girls) in 2008. In the same period, 4664 live births with a birth defect (under the age of one year) were reported, out of which 2754 boys and 1910 girls. Mean incidence was 390.06 (449.08 in boys and 327.93 in girls) per 10 000 live births. In 1994 - 2006, totally 1 238 398 children were born, out of which more than 42 000 with a birth defect. In the 2000 - 2006 period, absolute numbers of diagnosed live births with birth defect varied between 3600 - 3800 cases per year while in 2007 and 2008 years absolute numbers raised over 4600 cases per year. During 2000 - 2008 period following mean incidences (per 10 000 live births) of selected defects were ascertained (total incidences including prenatal diagnostics in brackets): anencephaly 0 - 0.3 (1.9 - 3.7), spina bifida 0.7 - 2.3 (3.2 - 5.2), encephalocele 0.1 - 0.4 (0.9 - 2.4), congenital hydrocephalus 1.6 - 3.5 (5.3 - 7.0), coarctation of aorta 3.9 - 5.2 (4.8 - 6.1), transposition of great vessels 2.9 - 4.5 (3.2 - 5.0), hypoplastic left

  2. [Prognosis of the level of perinatal care in the Czech Republic in near future II. From the World Health Organization point of view].

    PubMed

    Stembera, Z; Velebil, P

    2011-02-01

    Evaluation of performance according to Goals of the WHO Project Health for All 21 in the Czech Republic. Comparative study of the WHO recommendations and the situation in the Czech Republic. Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague-Podoli. Comparison of completion of 4 out of 21 Goals of the WHO Project Health for All 21 related to perinatal care in the Czech Republic. After experience with the WHO Project HFA 2000 for Europe (introduced in late 70s) consisting of 38 goals for particular fields of medicine to be achieved by the end of 2000 (adapted in 1992), the WHO Project HFA 21 with 21 Goals to be achieved by 2020 was introduced. While in relation to the Project HFA 2000 the Czech Republic analyzed the situation in 1993 without application of individual goals into the health care system, in 2003 the group of experts prepared "Recommendation for achievements of the Goals" of the WHO Project HFA 21. In 4 goals related to perinatal care, the recommendation postulated the ways and timeline and responsibilities in effort to accomplish these tasks. The evaluation of achievements by the year 2009 is attached. In the Goal 3, related to indicators of perinatal care, we have accomplish the decrease of perinatal mortality and the Czech Republic got among countries with the best results. On contrary, we have observed increase of low birth-weight rate and increase of frequency of cesarean delivery, and increase of drug abuse among pregnant women. The legislature in the field of long-term follow-up of handicapped children was not prepared. In the Goal 15 the Czech Republic accomplished the introduction of functional organizational system of care. In the Goal 17, the financing of high level of care was underestimated. In the Goal 20, the health care policy was not prepared to fulfill the requirements of this Goal. Comparison of recommendation of the 4 goals of the WHO Project Health for All 21 related to perinatal care in the Czech Republic and the national

  3. A budget impact model for biosimilar infliximab in Crohn's disease in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Baji, Petra; Lakatos, Péter L; Gulácsi, László

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A 3-year, prevalence-based budget impact analysis for biosimilar infliximab to treat CD was developed from third-party payers' perspective. The model included various scenarios depending on whether interchanging originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab was allowed or not. Total cost savings achieved in biosimilar scenario 1 (interchanging not allowed) and BSc2 (interchanging allowed in 80% of the patients) were estimated to €8.0 million and €16.9 million in the six countries. Budget savings may cover the biosimilar infliximab therapy for 722-1530 additional CD patients. Introduction of biosimilar infliximab to treat CD may offset the inequity in access to biological therapy for CD between Central and Eastern European countries.

  4. Rapid regional recovery from sulfate and nitrate pollution in streams of the western Czech Republic - Comparison to other recovering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majer, V.; Kram, P.; Shanley, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrochemical changes between 1991 and 2001 were assessed based on two synoptic stream surveys from the 820-km2 region of the Slavkov Forest and surrounding area, western Czech Republic. Marked declines of sulfate, nitrate, chloride, calcium and magnesium in surface waters were compared with other areas of Europe and North America recovering from acidification. Declines of sulfate concentration in the Slavkov Forest (-30 ??eq L-1 yr-1) were more dramatic than declines reported from other sites. However, these dramatic declines of strong acid anions did not generate a widespread increase of stream water pH in the Slavkov Forest. Only the most acidic streams experienced a slight increase of pH by 0.5 unit. An unexpected decline of stream water pH occurred in slightly alkaline streams. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Plans of the Thirty Year's War Battlefields in the Czech Republic in the Work Theatrum Europaeum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matousek, Vaclav; Blazkova, Tereza

    2010-05-01

    The publicistic work Theatrum Europaeum depicts among others the engravings of sixteen Thirty Yeaŕs War battlefields in the Czech Republic. In most of the cases, the plans made by military engineers were the basis for the engravings. The base of depicting of a battlefield is mostly a particural project documentation of field fortifications, systems of siege trenches, eventually plans of city walls. These ground plans are displayed in simplified but generally very truly depicted plans of landscape, in which the battle took place. The plans of the battlefield landscapes are usually built-up from higher number of fragmental observations. Identification of particular observational points is possible by visual observing right in the terrain, or by using digital 3D models of landscape.

  6. Bagged neural network model for prediction of the mean indoor radon concentration in the municipalities in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Timkova, Jana; Fojtikova, Ivana; Pacherova, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine radon-prone areas in the Czech Republic based on the measurements of indoor radon concentration and independent predictors (rock type and permeability of the bedrock, gamma dose rate, GPS coordinates and the average age of family houses). The relationship between the mean observed indoor radon concentrations in monitored areas (∼22% municipalities) and the independent predictors was modelled using a bagged neural network. Levels of mean indoor radon concentration in the unmonitored areas were predicted using the bagged neural network model fitted for the monitored areas. The propensity to increased indoor radon was determined by estimated probability of exceeding the action level of 300Bq/m(3).

  7. Approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Stibinger, Jakub

    2016-09-08

    The research was focused on approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna, situated near the location Osecna, region Liberec, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, by analysis of numerical experiment results. To approximate the clogging of the leachate collection system after fifteen years of landfill operation (1995-2009) were successfully tested modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga transient drainage theory. This procedure allows application of the reduction factors to express clogging of the leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. The results proved that the modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga method with reduction factors can serve as a good tool for clogging approximation in a leachate collection system in Osecna landfill.

  8. Removal of trace elements in three horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kröpfelová, Lenka; Vymazal, Jan; Svehla, Jaroslav; Stíchová, Jana

    2009-04-01

    Between March 2006 and June 2008 removal of 34 trace elements was measured on a monthly basis at three horizontal-flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic designed to treat municipal wastewater. In general, the results indicated a very wide range of removal efficiencies among studied elements. The highest degree of removal (average of 90%) was found for aluminum. High average removal was also recorded for zinc (78%). Elements removed in the range of 50-75% were uranium, antimony, copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, barium, iron and gallium. Removal of cadmium, tin, mercury, silver, selenium and nickel varied between 25 and 50%. Low retention (0-25%) was observed for vanadium, lithium, boron, cobalt and strontium. There were two elements (manganese and arsenic) for which average outflow concentrations were higher compared to inflow concentrations. Reduced manganese compounds are very soluble and therefore they are washed out under anaerobic conditions.

  9. Patient rights protection in the Czech Republic: challenges of a transition from Communism to a modern legal system.

    PubMed

    Dostal, O

    2007-03-01

    The post-Communist countries in Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, underwent a rapid transformation of their legal systems, within which the concept of patient rights passed through revolutionary changes. This process however often left significant gaps in patient rights protection. There are practical difficulties for patients in defending their rights before the courts, such as problems with obtaining evidence and independent expert opinions, long delays and high costs of court proceedings, strict burden of proof rules and low compensation levels. Modern patient rights often collide with the systems of health care provision that are still unprepared for patient autonomy and responsibility. The experience gained in the transition process might be applicable also to other countries that undergo changes from traditional to modern system of patient rights protection.

  10. [Antibiotic resistance in strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from poultry in the Czech Republic 1991-1992].

    PubMed

    Cízek, A; Kovarík, K

    1994-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has been monitored in 293 strains of S. typhimurium and 260 strains of S. enteritidis isolated from poultry in Czech Republic in the years 1991 and 1992. Ninety per cent of all salmonella isolations examined by disc diffusion method (Bauer et al., 1966) were sensitive to all 8 antimicrobials (chloramphenicol, neomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, colistin, ampicillin, kanamycin, sulfisoxazol) used for testing. The strains of S. typhimurium were more resistant than S. enteritidis strains, as seen from the percentage of resistant strains, 17.4% and 1.2% respectively. Thirty-two (62.7%) out of 51 resistant strains were multiresistant. The percentage of resistance in S. typhimurium strains was as follows: sulfisoxazol (12.3%), streptomycin (11.3%), tetracycline (4.4%) and chloramphenicol (1.7%).

  11. The birth prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders in the Czech Republic: comparison with data in different populations

    PubMed Central

    Poupětová, Helena; Ledvinová, Jana; Berná, Linda; Dvořáková, Lenka; Kožich, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in the Czech Republic. The data on cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2008 were collected and analyzed. The overall prevalence of LSDs in the Czech population (12.25 per 100,000) is comparable to that reported for the countries with well-established and advanced diagnostics of LSDs such as the Netherlands (14 per 100,000), Australia (12.9 per 100,000) and Italy (12.1 per 100,000). Relatively higher prevalence of LSDs was reported in the north of Portugal (25 per 100,000). Thirty-four different LSDs were diagnosed in a total of 478 individuals. Gaucher disease was the most frequent LSD with a birth prevalence of 1.13 per 100,000 births. The most frequent LSD groups were lipidoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, with combined prevalences of 5.0, 3.72, and 2.29 per 100,000 live births, respectively. Glycoproteinoses (0.57 per 100,000 live births), glycogenosis type II (0.37), and mucolipidoses (0.31) rarely occur in the Czech population, and a range of other LSDs have not been detected at all over the past three decades. Knowledge of the birth prevalence and carrier frequency of particular disorders is important in genetic counselling for calculation of the risk for the disorder in the other members of affected families. Earlier diagnosis of these disorders will permit timely intervention and may also result in lowering of the number of newborns with LSDs. PMID:20490927

  12. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological

  13. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-06-13

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules.

  14. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Trends in heat-related mortality in urban populations of the Czech Republic over 1994-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study resumes previous research that found significant effects of hot spells on increased mortality in highly urbanized regions of the Czech Republic, and declining trends in heat-related mortality in the Czech population as a whole. We analyze severe hot spells during 1994-2013 and temporal changes of their effects on total and cardiovascular mortality in several urban regions with a different overall socioeconomic level (city of Prague, city of Brno, Ostrava region, NW Bohemia). Mortality data were standardized to account for different population structure and its changes over time. The mortality baseline for each region was determined using a generalized additive model. Although declining trends in the mortality impacts of hot spells prevail in most regions in spite of rising temperature trends, the magnitude of the mortality decline was different with respect to the overall socioeconomic level and development of the regions. The results suggest that trends in heat-related mortality depend on the level of socioeconomic deprivation of population. It is essential to better understand the risks of climate change in different parts of population with respect to their adaptability.

  16. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the molecular and biological variability of zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Glasa, Miroslav; Svoboda, Jirí; Nováková, Slavomíra

    2007-10-01

    The diversity of ZYMV isolates was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of 11 isolates sampled from cucumber, squash and zucchini between 2001 and 2006 in various localities of Slovakia and Czech Republic. Analysis of the molecular variability targeting three separate genomic regions of the ZYMV genome [P1, P3 and (Cter)NIb-(Nter)CP] revealed a remarkable low level of nucleotide variability between isolates, despite their temporal and spatial distinction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-terminal part of the CP gene highlighted the close relatedness of Slovak, Czech and other central European isolates. Low level of genetic diversity within central European ZYMV isolates is in contrast to the diversity observed for isolates from other geographical regions, in particular Asia. No evidence of recombination in the ZYMV genome was detected. Sequence comparison between aggressive and moderate ZYMV isolates revealed one amino acid difference in the N-terminal part of the P3 protein, potentially involved in the tolerance breaking.

  18. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  19. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  20. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  1. Taxation records as a source of information for the study of historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-07-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data is often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the Rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. Certain uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data has great potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic as well, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  2. Ambient air quality for the territory of the Czech Republic in 1996-1999 expressed by three essential factors.

    PubMed

    Hůnová, Iva

    2003-03-01

    A new method for spatial interpretation and visualisation of measured air quality data developed and introduced in 1998 is used for ambient air quality assessment in the Czech Republic. The data from a countrywide air quality monitoring network is collated into the least possible number of factors describing the overall air quality in 1996-1999. The factors identified as 'ambient air pollution', 'ground-level ozone' and 'wet atmospheric deposition' represent three different aspects of ambient air quality and their impact on receptors' evaluation. The monitoring stations are classified for each factor using five categories clearly distinguishing the sites over the Czech Republic territory within the 'best-worst' scale range. The results are presented in maps with spot symbols produced in Arc/View system. The problem areas within the country are identified clearly for each factor. The air quality picture differs considerably for the respective factors within one calendar year. Categorisation of each factor for the entire period under review, however, remains strikingly similar, indicating that in spite of partial improvement and some decreases in air pollutant concentration, the problem areas have remained more or less the same for each factor. Comparison of all three factors shows that the southern part of the country is in a certain simplification very clean as to the 'ambient air pollution' and 'wet atmospheric deposition' factors, while it is impacted as to the 'ground-level ozone' factor. In contrast, the northern part of the country impacted as to the 'ambient air pollution' along with the 'wet atmospheric deposition' and 'ground-level ozone' factors at the higher elevations.

  3. Neural tube defects in the Czech Republic during 1961-1999: incidences, prenatal diagnosis and prevalences according to maternal age.

    PubMed

    Sípek, A; Horácek, J; Gregor, V; Rychtaríková, J; Dzurová, D; Masátová, D

    2002-09-01

    We set out to present the incidences of the neural tube defects (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) and to document maternal age distribution and the influence of the prenatal diagnostics on incidences in neonates. We also analysed maternal age as a risk factor for the defects studied. This was a retrospective epidemiological study of neural tube defects using data from the population-based register of congenital malformations in the Czech Republic over the 1961-99 period. The total number of neural tube defects detected both pre- and postnatally was 4696 in this period (anencephaly 1857, spina bifida 2420 and encephalocele 419 cases). In this period, a significant decrease (due to improved prenatal diagnostic efficiency) in the above-mentioned defects occurred in the Czech Republic. No statistically significant correlation between any of the particular defects and the maternal age was revealed. However, neural tube defects as a whole show some correlation, the probability of these defects occurring being higher than expected in 15- and 32-year-old mothers. By application of the two-sided 95% CI, statistically significant correlation was found in 15-, 35- and 39-year cohorts; in other age-groups above the age of 32 years this correlation was neither confirmed nor rejected. In this study, maternal age as a risk factor for the origin of neural tube defects has not been statistically confirmed. However, probability estimate makes this correlation possible. Statistical methods in use reveal the risk for these defects (regarding their relative incidences) only in maternal age groups of 15, 35 and 39 years.

  4. [Prevalence of selected congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic: renal and cardiac anomalies and congenital chromosomal aberrations].

    PubMed

    Šípek, Antonín; Gregor, Vladimír; Horáček, Jiří; Šípek, Antonín; Langhammer, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of the prevalence rates of selected diagnoses of congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic in 1994-2009. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of postnatal and total (including prenatally diagnosed cases) prevalence of congenital anomalies from the database of the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of the Czech Republic. Data from the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies (NRCA) maintained by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic (IHIS CR) were used. Data on congenital anomalies in general and selected types of congenital anomalies were analyzed for the entire Czech Republic from 1994-2009. Additional data on prenatally diagnosed anomalies were obtained from medical genetics centres in the Czech Republic thanks to voluntary cooperation. This study analyzed postnatal and overall prevalence of congenital anomalies, with the latter including results of positive prenatal diagnosis. More detailed analysis was carried out for the following diagnoses: cystic kidney disease, renal agenesis/hypoplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, large vessel transposition, left heart hypoplasia, aortic coarctation, Down syndrome, Edward syndrome, and Patau syndrome. Cystic kidney disease showed a significant increase in 1999 and 2000, mainly due to postnatally diagnosed cases. This can be explained, on the one hand, by the modification made to the reporting of congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic and, on the other hand, by an earlier and more complete detection of postnatal cases. Since 2000, there has been a significant increase in reported cystic kidney disease as a result of postnatal kidney screening. In 1994-1999, the prevalence rates of this diagnosis ranged from 1.7 to 3.1 per 10,000 live births. Similar trend is seen in the prevalence of renal agenesis/hypoplasia. In the monitored period, prenatally diagnosed cases showed a slight increase while postnatally diagnosed cases showed a considerable rise. In 1994-1999, the

  5. Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.168-1.198 in mosses; (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.167-1.215 in soils and (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.158-1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg(-1) to 13.8 mg kg(-1)). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources.

  6. [Pertussis trend in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013].

    PubMed

    Fabiánová, K; Šebestová, H; Beneš, Č; Zavadilová, J; Křížová, P; Kříž, B

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the epidemiological situation of pertussis in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013. The study cohort consisted of children under one year of age with laboratory confirmed pertussis reported to the communicable disease system from 1997 to 2013. A total of 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age over the study period. Selected demographic data, need for hospitalization, and vaccination history were evaluated in the study cohort. Children under one year of age have shown a steady upward trend in reported cases of pertussis since the 1990s. The reported incidence of pertussis in this age group was the lowest in 1998 (1.1/100,000 population) and the highest in 2013 (31.3/100,000). In 1997-2013, 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age, 128 females and 137 males, to the communicable disease system in the Czech Republic. Most of these children, nearly 77%, developed pertussis within the first four months of life. Of the 265 children, 79% were not vaccinated before the onset of the disease and 21% were immunized with at least one dose of pertussis vaccine before developing the disease. As many as 75% of the children with pertussis needed hospitalization. Most of them, nearly 81%, were hospitalized with pertussis in the first four months of life and 90% of them in the first six months of life. In 1997-2013, an upward trend was observed in pertussis cases in children under one year of age. Most children developed the disease within the first four months of life while not vaccinated against pertussis. This fact unambiguously supports the "cocoon" strategy, i.e. vaccination of the closest contacts of the child, and a booster dose at 25 years of age. At the same time, a question arises whether to provide vaccination to pregnant women.

  7. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  8. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve…

  9. The Czech Republic between Studentocracy, Academic Oligarchy and Managerialism: Are Students Powerful or Powerless?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Hundlova, Lucie; Provazkova, Karla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we will argue that students played an important role at several crucial junctures of modern Czech history, which secured them a central position after 1989 in the new democratic model of higher education governance. However, over the last two decades students have largely lost this position owing to several factors: the growing…

  10. Teachers' Ideas about Multicultural Education in a Changing Society: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana; Klaassen, Cees; Veugelers, Wiel

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on Czech teachers' ideas about multicultural education at a time when the teaching of multicultural education has become obligatory for primary and secondary schools. After describing the broader context within which this reform has taken place--specifically, the transformation of the educational system and the changing ethnic…

  11. The Czech Republic between Studentocracy, Academic Oligarchy and Managerialism: Are Students Powerful or Powerless?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Hundlova, Lucie; Provazkova, Karla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we will argue that students played an important role at several crucial junctures of modern Czech history, which secured them a central position after 1989 in the new democratic model of higher education governance. However, over the last two decades students have largely lost this position owing to several factors: the growing…

  12. Attitudes to Education and Educational Pathway Preferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czesana, Vera; Kofronova, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The importance of education and its prestige has grown as a result of the socio-economic changes after 1989. However, the Czech population still attributes less importance to education as a success factor for life compared to more developed countries. Still, young people strive for as high a level of education as possible, the primary incentive…

  13. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve…

  14. Comprehensive Virus Detection Using Next Generation Sequencing in Grapevine Vascular Tissues of Plants Obtained from the Wine Regions of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive next generation sequencing virus detection was used to detect the whole spectrum of viruses and viroids in selected grapevines from the Czech Republic. The novel NGS approach was based on sequencing libraries of small RNA isolated from grapevine vascular tissues. Eight previously partially-characterized grapevines of diverse varieties were selected and subjected to analysis: Chardonnay, Laurot, Guzal Kara, and rootstock Kober 125AA from the Moravia wine-producing region; plus Müller-Thurgau and Pinot Noir from the Bohemia wine-producing region, both in the Czech Republic. Using next generation sequencing of small RNA, the presence of 8 viruses and 2 viroids were detected in a set of eight grapevines; therefore, confirming the high effectiveness of the technique in plant virology and producing results supporting previous data on multiple infected grapevines in Czech vineyards. Among the pathogens detected, the Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 were recorded in the Czech Republic for the first time. PMID:27959951

  15. Comprehensive Virus Detection Using Next Generation Sequencing in Grapevine Vascular Tissues of Plants Obtained from the Wine Regions of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Eichmeier, Aleš; Komínková, Marcela; Komínek, Petr; Baránek, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive next generation sequencing virus detection was used to detect the whole spectrum of viruses and viroids in selected grapevines from the Czech Republic. The novel NGS approach was based on sequencing libraries of small RNA isolated from grapevine vascular tissues. Eight previously partially-characterized grapevines of diverse varieties were selected and subjected to analysis: Chardonnay, Laurot, Guzal Kara, and rootstock Kober 125AA from the Moravia wine-producing region; plus Müller-Thurgau and Pinot Noir from the Bohemia wine-producing region, both in the Czech Republic. Using next generation sequencing of small RNA, the presence of 8 viruses and 2 viroids were detected in a set of eight grapevines; therefore, confirming the high effectiveness of the technique in plant virology and producing results supporting previous data on multiple infected grapevines in Czech vineyards. Among the pathogens detected, the Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 were recorded in the Czech Republic for the first time.

  16. Elemental and Organic Carbon Measurements at the Kosetice Observatory, Czech Republic within EU Projects in 2009-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vana, M.; Holubova, A.; Cech, J.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol (TC) is a complex mixture of many organics (OC fraction) and elemental carbon (EC). EC is a product of anthropogenic activities, especially incomplete combustion of fossil fuels by transport, heating, power plants, wood and biomass burning and agriculture activities. EC could have larger health impact than other PM constituents (Cassee et al., 2013). Carbonaceous aerosols also play an important role in climate change (Boucher et al., 2013). Kosetice Observatory, operated by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute has been carrying out long-term air quality monitoring at the background scale the Czech Republic since 1988. Regular EC-OC measurement has been implementing within EU-projects EUSAAR and ACTRIS since 2009. Sampling frequency is every 6th day in fraction PM2,5 on 2 quartz-fibre filters. Since October 2011 the sampling on filters has been implementing behind the denuder catching the organic vapor. Amount of OC on back quartz fiber filter represents positive artifact by measurement without denuder and negative artifact by measurements with denuder. The analytical method is thermal-optical analysis. The samples are analyzed in CHMI Central Laboratories in Prague-Libuš using EC-OC Sunset Lab Dual Analyzer. Charring correction is made by laser transmission monitoring. Slightly decreasing tendency of EC-OC was found in the period under review (2009-2014). The mean annual concentration of total carbon (TC) in PM2,5 was 3,73 µg.m-3. The figure for elemental carbon (0,5 µg.m-3) represents the mean annual ratio of 13% on TC. EC-OC concentrations follow an annual course that reflects their emission levels, i.e. with maximums in winter and minimums in summer. The seasonal variation of EC/TC ratio ranges between 9,6 (summer) - 14,2% (winter). Mean TC ratio on PM2,5 total mass in the period under review was 29%, the highest ratios reached 50%. EC participated on PM2,5 total mass by 3,5% in average. 3D trajectories were used for sector analysis of

  17. Analysis of pharmacists' opinions, attitudes and experiences with generic drugs and generic substitution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Maly, Josef; Dosedel, Martin; Kubena, Ales; Vlcek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Generic substitution (GS) is an integral part of drug policy in many countries. Similarly to other countries its introduction in the Czech Republic gave rise to a vibrant discussion. The aim of the study was to map and analyze pharmacists' opinions of, attitudes towards and experiences with generic drugs and GS after the first year from its legislative embodiment in the Czech Republic. All 7,665 members of the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists were addressed to participate in a questionnaire survey between November 2008 and March 2009. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions concerning the issue of generic drugs and GS and was divided into five sections. All collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations were tested by selected parametric and non-parametric tests. A total of 615 completed questionnaire forms were returned (a questionnaire return rate of 8.0%). The demographic characteristics of the respondents were as follows: 470 (76.4%) females, mean age of 37.5 years (SD = 10.4) and 429 (69.6%) pharmacists with a practice specialization. Altogether 345 (56.1%) respondents became aware of the issue of brand name and generic drugs during their undergraduate studies. 378 (61.5%) respondents considered generic drugs as bioequivalent and 455 (74.0%) respondents as therapeutically equivalent to the respective brand name drugs. 99 (16.1%) pharmacists believed that generic products are of lower quality than branded drugs and 69 (11.2%) respondents expected generics to cause more adverse drug reactions. GS was perceived as a positive tool by 476 (77.4%) respondents. Only 71 (11.5%) respondents showed acquaintance with all the legal rules for GS. Legislation awareness and attitude towards GS was correlated with age (p < 0.001). The use of GS in the routine practice depends on the pharmacists' familiarity with the relevant legislation and attitude towards generic drugs and GS. Approaching patients on an individual basis and pharmacists' awareness

  18. [Possibility of uterus transplantation trial in Czech Republic - indications, research and clinical experience].

    PubMed

    Chmel, Roman; Nováčková, Marta; Pastor, Zlatko; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Froněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Uterus transplantation is a novel experimental method of female infertility treatment. It is an appropriate treatment modality for women with absolute uterine factor infertility - congenital uterine malformations, absent uterus, hysterectomized women and non-functional uterus.Successful animal studies confirming the safety and efficacy were performed before introduction of uterus transplantation into human medicine. The first clinical trial was performed in 2012-2013 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first child from the transplanted womb was delivered in 2014. Concerning the promising results of Swedish trial it is essential to perform trials in some other world centers.In 2015 Czech Ministry of Health permitted uterus transplantation trial in cooperation of two Prague hospitals - namely Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine and University Hospital Motol. The aim of the Czech trial is to reassert feasibility, efficacy and safety of uterus transplantation in two groups of women - 10 recipients from living and 10 from deceased brain donor. We believe that detailed and precise long-term theoretic and practical preparation and perfectly arranged trial are the main conditions of the successful uterine transplantation survey. The first Czech uterus transplantation was performed in April 30, 2016.Up to December 2016 four transplantations out of planned 20 (2 in living donor and 2 in deceased brain donor arm) were carried out by our team.

  19. Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Zahradníček, P.; Pišoft, P.; Štěpánek, P.; Bělínová, M.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2012-04-01

    The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenized (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles, as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones, are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than one year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7a (a = year) and 17.9-18.4a were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2a for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI) may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however

  20. Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradníček, Pavel; Pišoft, Petr; Štěpánek, Petr; Bělínová, Monika; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2012-10-01

    The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenised (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than 1 year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation, while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7 and 17.9-18.4 years were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2 years for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI), may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however

  1. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  2. Observed changes in SAT and GDD and the climatological suitability of the Poland-Germany-Czech Republic transboundary region for wine grapes cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Błaś, Marek; Migała, Krzysztof; Werner, Małgorzata; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we show how the climatological suitability of wine grapes cultivation of the transboundary region of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic has changed over the 1971-2010 period. Strong, positive and statistically significant trend in sum of active temperatures (SAT) and growing degree days (GDD) is observed. The trend is more pronounced in the lowland areas of the study region. The total acreage suitable for more demanding, in terms of SAT and GDD, varieties of wine grapes is increasing, while the opposite trend is observed for less demanding classes. The observed trends reduce the risk for wine grapes cultivation in terms of accumulative SAT and GDD indices. This shows that the transboundary area of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic shifts towards the climate more suitable for viticulture.

  3. Lead fluxes and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in rime and snow collected at remote mountain-top locations (Czech Republic, Central Europe): Patterns and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimova, Nikoleta; Novak, Martin; Chrastny, Vladislav; Curik, Jan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Blaha, Vladimir; Prechova, Eva; Pasava, Jan; Houskova, Marie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Mikova, Jitka; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost

    2016-10-01

    During three winter seasons (2009-2011), Pb concentrations were measured in precipitation at 10 high-elevation sites in the Czech Republic, close to the borders with Austria, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. Soluble and insoluble Pb forms were quantified in snow (vertical deposition), and rime (horizontal deposition). The objective was to compare Pb input fluxes into ecosystems via vertical and horizontal deposition, and to identify the residual Pb pollution sources in an era of rapidly decreasing industrial pollution. Lead soluble in diluted HNO3 made up 96% of total Pb deposition, with the remaining 4% Pb bound mainly in silicates. Three times higher concentrations of soluble Pb in rime than in snow, and 2.5 times higher concentrations of insoluble Pb in rime than in snow were associated with slightly different Pb isotope ratios. On average, the 206Pb/207Pb ratios in rime were higher than those in snow. Higher mean 206Pb/207Pb ratios of insoluble Pb (1.175) than in soluble Pb (1.165) may indicate an increasing role of geogenic Pb in recent atmospheric deposition. A distinct reversal to more radiogenic 206Pb/207Pb ratios in snow and rime in 2010, compared to literature data from rain-fed Sphagnum peatlands (1800-2000 A.D.), documented a recent decrease in anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere of Central Europe. Since the early 1980s, Pb concentrations in snow decreased 18 times in the rural south of the Czech Republic, but only twice in the industrial north of the Czech Republic. Isotope signatures indicated that Pb in today's atmospheric deposition is mainly derived from Mesozoic ores mined/processed in Poland and coal combustion in the Czech Republic and Poland.

  4. [The incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in the last decade].

    PubMed

    Šošovičková, R; Smetana, J; Beranová, E; Kučerová, K; Chlíbek, R

    Viral hepatitis A continues to occur in the Czech Republic due to the high susceptibility of the population and existing opportunities for the transmission of the disease. The aim was to describe and analyse the incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in 2005-2014, including the study of two outbreaks that required a different approach of field epidemiologists. In 2015, a retrospective analysis was carried out of the data on the incidence of viral hepatitis A in Hradec Králové Region in 2005-2014. The EPIDAT system where cases of infectious diseases and data from epidemiological investigations are reported was used as a data source for the purposes of the present analysis. In addition, two final reports on epidemic outbreaks of viral hepatitis A from 2014 were assessed. The incidence of viral hepatitis A at the regional level follows, to a certain extent, the pattern of the incidence of this disease at the national level. The highest number of cases was reported in 2010 due to a country-wide epidemic. The most affected age groups were children, adolescents, and young adults. The incidence of viral hepatitis A in individual years has a significant effect on the emergence of local outbreaks. The incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Czech Republic has a fluctuating trend, at both the national and regional levels. The highest incidence of viral hepatitis A was observed in the younger and middle-age categories. The high susceptibility of these population groups suggests the importance of vaccination against viral hepatitis A that confers specific personal protection.Key words: viral hepatitis A - incidence - outbreak - Czech Republic.

  5. Model research of the large output boilers in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kolat, P.; Noskievic, P.

    1994-12-31

    Complex combustion research in the furnace of a high output boiler is part of complex research known as the Czech ``Clean Coal Technology`` program. Here the authors, are also testing results from three-dimensional mathematical and isothermal models. The results are used for simple burner alteration without additional financial requirements. The complex approach to these problems could lead to an increase in the capture of pollutants such as NO{sub x} (including N{sub 2}O), SO{sub x}, HF, HCl, heavy metals and hydrocarbons.

  6. Comparison of child morbidity in regions of Ostrava, Czech Republic, with different degrees of pollution: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To confirm or refute the hypothesis that the morbidity of children (since birth to age 5) born and living in the heavily polluted (PM10, benzo[a]pyrene) eastern part of Ostrava, Czech Republic, was higher than the morbidity of children living in other parts of the city. Methods Ten pediatricians in 5 districts of Ostrava abstracted the medical records of 1878 children born in 2001–2004 to list all illnesses of each child in ICD-10 codes. The children were divided into four groups according to their residence at birth and thereafter. Most of the children in the eastern area were living in the city district Radvanice and Bartovice. Results We report on the incidence of acute illnesses in 1535 children of Czech ethnicity in the first 5 years of life. The most frequent acute illnesses (over 45% of all diagnoses) were upper respiratory infections (URI: J00-J02, J06). In the first year of life, the incidence of URI in 183 children in the eastern area – 372 illnesses/100 children/year – was more than twice as high as in the other 3 areas with a total number of 1352 children. From birth to the age of 5 years, the incidences of pneumonia, tonsillitis, viral infections (ICD-10 code B34) and intestinal infectious diseases were also several times higher in children living in the eastern part of Ostrava. The lowest morbidity was found in children living in the less polluted western part of the city. Conclusions The children born and living in the eastern part of the city of Ostrava had from birth through 5 years significantly higher incidence rates of acute illnesses than children in other parts of Ostrava. They also had a higher prevalence of wheezing, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. PMID:24004520

  7. Meteorological and hydrological extremes derived from taxation records: case study for south-western Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (MHEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, similarly as it was in the past. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology and hydrology to find such information. Some of them are related to records connected with taxation system. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crops have been damaged by MHEs. The corresponding documents contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence; often also impacts on crops or land may be derived. The nature of events leading to damage include particularly hailstorms, torrential rain, flash floods, floods (in regions along larger rivers), less frequently windstorms, late frosts and in some cases also information about droughts or extreme snow depths. However, the results obtained are influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records - their temporal and spatial incompleteness, limitation of the MHEs occurrence in the period of main agricultural work (May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about MHEs was of secondary importance). All these aspects related to the study of MHEs from taxation records are demonstrated for five estates (Bítov, Budkov, Jemnice with Staré Hobzí, Nové Syrovice and Uherčice) in the south-western part of Moravia for the 18th-19th centuries. The analysis shows importance of taxation records for the study of past MHEs as well as great potential for their use.

  8. [PALB2 as Another Candidate Gene for Genetic Testing in Patients with Hereditary Breast Cancer in Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Janatová, M; Borecká, M; Soukupová, J; Kleiblová, P; Stříbrná, J; Vočka, M; Zemánková, P; Panczak, A; Veselá, K; Souček, P; Foretová, L; Kleibl, Z

    2016-01-01

    The PALB2 (FANCN) gene was identified as a component of endogenous BRCA2 complex that encodes a DNA repair protein participating along with BRCA1 and BRCA 2 proteins in DNA double-strand break repair. Hereditary PALB2 mutations are associated with an increased risk of breast and pancreatic cancers in heterozygotes. Breast cancer risk for PALB2 mutation carriers has recently been estimated at 33-58% depending on family history of breast cancer; pancreatic cancer risk in carriers of PALB2 mutations has not been precisely quantified, yet. Results of a study identifying PALB2 mutations in high-risk, BRCA1/2-negative, breast and/or ovarian cancer patients in the Czech Republic indicate that the frequency of hereditary PALB2 mutations in our population is quite high. Interestingly, almost 20% of all recognized mutations comprised large genomic rearrangements. The highest proportion of PALB2 mutations (comparable with the number of mutations reported for BRCA2) was found in a subgroup of hereditary breast cancer patients (5.5%). Frequency of mutations in an independent group of Czech unselected pancreatic cancer patients was approximately 1.3%. Considering the frequency of pathogenic, hereditary PALB2 mutations in our population, their phenotypic similarity to BRCA2, and expected risk of breast cancer associated with PALB2 mutations, its screen-ing (including large genomic rearrangements) should be encouraged in patients from hereditary breast cancer families. The follow-up of pathogenic PALB2 mutation carriers should be similar to that in BRCA2 mutation carriers, enabling early diagnosis, prevention, and possible targeted therapy. Preventive surgical interventions for the carriers could be considered in case of strong family cancer history and evident segregation of a pathogenic mutation with a tumor phenotype. Additional analysis of various cancer patient populations and further meta-analyses will be necessary for accurate assessment of PALB2 gene penetrance and its

  9. Hominid visitation of the Moravian Karst during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition: New results from Pod Hradem Cave (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Nejman, L; Wood, R; Wright, D; Lisá, L; Nerudová, Z; Neruda, P; Přichystal, A; Svoboda, J

    2017-07-01

    In 1956-1958, excavations of Pod Hradem Cave in Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) revealed evidence for human activity during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition. This spanned 25,050-44,800 cal BP and contained artefacts attributed to the Aurignacian and Szeletian cultures, including those made from porcelanite (rarely used at Moravian Paleolithic sites). Coarse grained excavation techniques and major inversions in radiocarbon dates meant that site chronology could not be established adequately. This paper documents re-excavation of Pod Hradem in 2011-2012. A comprehensive AMS dating program using ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC pre-treatments provides new insights into human occupation at Pod Hradem Cave. Fine-grained excavation reveals sedimentary units spanning approximately 20,000 years of the Early Upper Paleolithic and late Middle Paleolithic periods, thus making it the first archaeological cave site in the Czech Republic with such a sedimentary and archaeological record. Recent excavation confirms infrequent human visitation, including during the Early Aurignacian by people who brought with them portable art objects that have no parallel in the Czech Republic. Raw material diversity of lithics suggests long-distance imports and ephemeral visits by highly mobile populations throughout the EUP period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Widespread clone of Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Drevinek, Pavel; Vosahlikova, Sarka; Cinek, Ondrej; Vavrova, Vera; Bartosova, Jana; Pohunek, Petr; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2005-07-01

    The morbidity and mortality rates in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are significantly affected by infections with Burkholderia cepacia complex. In a Czech CF Centre, the prevalence of the infection reached up to 30 %, with the majority of patients found to be infected with Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III of the Burkholderia cepacia complex). Since B. cenocepacia is associated with patient-to-patient transmission and epidemic outbreaks among CF patients, this study sought to examine the epidemiological relatedness between the Czech isolates belonging to the genomovar-homogeneous group. Eighty-three clinical isolates recovered from 67 CF patients were analysed using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and macrorestriction typing (SpeI and XbaI) followed by PFGE. A single predominant banding pattern shared by multiple isolates was detected, although SpeI-generated PFGE results yielded a higher rate of inter-pattern variability in comparison to the more uniform RAPD and XbaI-generated PFGE results for this clone. Both typing systems also showed that only three out of 67 patients harboured strains distinct from the major strain type. The dominant clone was characterized by PCR positivity for the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker, PCR negativity for the cable pilin subunit gene and close genetic relatedness to the epidemic strain of RAPD 01 type previously identified in Canada.

  11. [34,450 days of cardiac surgery in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pirk, J

    2005-01-01

    Professor Karel Maydl was born in Rokytnice nad Jizerou, where his father was employed at the local court. Czech cardio-surgery was born with the first successful treatment of the stab in the heart, which was done by professor Rychlík in 1910. The next few years the cardio-surgery was represented only by occasional treatment of heart injury. Only in 1934 Jirí Divis excided ganglion stelatum to cure angina pectoris and in 1936 he performed surgical treatment of constrictive pericarditis. Article reviews all Essentials moments in the development of cardio-surgery in Bohemia and Moravia. The second part of the paper gives at present the most frequently performed surgeries. It is concluded that the Czech cardio-surgery has according to the numbers and duality of the treatment the west-European level. At the end Professor Maydl, who died for heart failure, is quoted, why he himself had to be stroked by the disease, which is not possible to treat with the knife. In the 100 years since that it is possible to evaluate that in ICEM 283 medical doctors have been treated for the heart disease and results of their operations were Berger than in standard population. It reproves the bad record of doctors to be bad patients.

  12. Key Determinants Influencing the Health Literacy of Pregnant Women in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    WILHELMOVA, Radka; HRUBA, Drahoslava; VESELA, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Background Health literacy is a critical determinant of women’s and children’s health and therefore has immense consequences for the health of society as well. Evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies indicates that unhealthy lifestyles and risky behavioural habits of parents before conception and during pregnancy influence the etiology of various health defects. Decreasing primary risk factors, practicing physical wellness, monitoring physiological markers and preparing for labour, breastfeeding and newborn care should be the main parental responsibilities during the prenatal period. Methods Our study focused on specifying the main determinants of health literacy among 360 pregnant Czech women by using an anonymous questionnaire and selected anthropometric data of mothers. The criteria for study participation produced a sample representing 1.41% of Czech women in labour during a given 2012 reference period. Results Despite quite adequate knowledge of both risks and supporting factors for pregnancy and foetal development, the lifestyles of a majority of the women surveyed were far from optimum: only 30% reported good dietary and physical activity habits, 24% were active or passive smokers and one third of the women occasionally drank alcohol, more often among those who were university educated. Conclusion Our results have confirmed previously published data noting that health literacy and a healthier lifestyle of pregnant women are associated with a higher level of education (except for alcohol drinking) and with contact with a midwife (in some examined parameters) in prenatal courses. PMID:27646619

  13. Road and railway interruptions due to landsliding in the Czech Republic over the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrášik, Richard; Bíl, Michal; Kubeček, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Landslides along road and railways pose potential threat to traffic flow. We have gathered data about traffic disruptions due to landsliding on Czech road and railway networks for the last 20 years. The database, which also contains information about transportation infrastructure damage, is being updated daily. 321 traffic interruptions (between 1997 and 2016) due to landsliding are registered for roads and 73 for railways. We also obtained data on landslides around roads from the Register of Slope Deformations - spatial landslide database provided by the Czech Geological Survey. These two datasets were used to calculate landslide potential which reflects the likelihood of a disruption occurrence induced by a landslide. In the second step, we estimated the probability of a disruption due to landsliding for road and railway infrastructures. This estimation was based on the landslide potential, empirical data and an expert-based quantification of landslide susceptibility of related geological units. We applied Bayesian inference for roads with empirical data and regression modelling for the rest of the roads. We will discuss uncertainty in primary and inferred data and how it could affect the resulting hazard values. Spatial layers of landslide hazard along transportation lines are visualized on RUPOK (www.rupok.cz) web map application.

  14. Interpretation of ambient noise cross-correlation traveltimes: Finite-frequency tomography of Love group velocities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, L.; Gallovic, F.; Ruzek, B.; de la Puente, J.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, great emphasis has been laid on finite-frequency tomography. The inverted observables are considered to be dependent not only on model parameters along infinitely thin raypaths but to exhibit more complicated spatial dependency represented by so-called sensitivity kernels. Efficient tool for the calculation of the sensitivity kernels is adjoint method. It is based on two calculations: forward calculation of wavefield propagating from source to receivers in an initial model, and adjoint calculation where the residuals between observed data and synthetics backpropagate from the receivers to the source (so-called adjoin